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Salomé Karwah (c. 1988 – February 21, 2017) was a Liberian nurse who was named co- Person of the Year by Time magazine
Time magazine
in 2014 for her efforts to combat the West African Ebola virus epidemic
West African Ebola virus epidemic
in Liberia.[1][2] She appeared on the cover of Time in December 2014 with other health care workers and colleagues working to end the epidemic.[1] Karwah survived ebola herself before returning to work to help other patients afflicted with the disease.[1] The actions of Karwah, who worked with Médecins Sans Frontières
Médecins Sans Frontières
(Doctors Without Borders) (MSF) and other health care professionals, are believed to have saved lives of thousands.[1] However, two years later, Karwah died from complications of child birth, possibly due to the widespread, mistaken belief that ebola survivors can still transmit the virus, according to accounts by her husband.[1][2][3][4][5] Even before the ebola outbreak, Liberia
Liberia
had one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the world.[1]

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Ebola
Ebola
work 1.2 Passing from complications of child birth

2 References

Biography[edit] Karwah's father was a doctor.[3] She met her future husband, James Harris, at a mutual friend's in 2013 after both had recently ended previous relationships.[3] They began dating shortly afterwards.[3] Ebola
Ebola
work[edit]

Time magazine's 2014 "Person of the Year" with Karwah on the cover.

One year after Karwah and Harris began dating, the West African Ebola virus epidemic struck Liberia, as well as neighboring Guinea
Guinea
and Sierra Leone, in 2014.[3] Her family was among the first to become ill with ebola during the summer of 2014.[3] Her father was the first to die from ebola, which ultimately killed both her parents and seven other relatives.[1][3] Karwah, her sister, Josephine, her mother, and Harris were all soon stricken with ebola as well.[3] Salome, Harris and Josephine Karwah were all placed in a Doctors Without Borders medical unit in Monrovia
Monrovia
with other ebola patients to be treated.[3] Salome Karwah's priority was to care for her sister, Josephine Manly, who was pregnant at the time she contracted ebola.[3] Salome cared for Josephine, who nearly died, by changing her clothes and cleaning fluids that contained ebola. She withheld the news of their mother's death from Josephine, fearing that it would have a detrimental effect on her health.[3] By September 2014, both the Karwah sisters had recovered, determined free of the disease, and discharged from the hospital.[3] Salome Karwah was released from the ebola unit on August 28, 2014.[6] Karwah's boyfriend, James Harris, also recovered and was released from the medical unit a few days later.[3] The staff at Doctors Without Borders (MSF) had noticed that Karwah and Harris had both shown an ability to care for other ebola victims, regardless of the risk to their own health, while they had been patients.[3] Shortly after their discharge from the hospital, MSF hired them to serve as mental health counselors in their ebola units.[3][5] Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
returned to the unit, this time as a counselor and nurse, one month after her release.[6] As survivors, she and Harris had developed a natural immunity to that particular strain of ebola.[6] Karwah, who was interviewed on her work by NPR
NPR
in 2014, recalled that "It was not hard to come back [to the Ebola
Ebola
treatment center]. Of course I lost my two parents here...but if I can help someone survive, I will be very happy."[3][6] She remained at the unit until the end of the ebola epidemic.[3][6] In October 2014, Karwah wrote a guest piece in The Guardian
The Guardian
noting that helping others with ebola brought meaning to her life.[4][7] In the same essay, Karwah reiterated that "if someone has Ebola, it isn’t good to stigmatize them, because you don’t know who is next in line to contract the virus."[4][7] Time magazine
Time magazine
named Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
as its co-Person of the Year, alongside several other "ebola fighters".[4] She appeared on the worldwide cover of Time in December 2014 just months after being released from the hospital.[2][1][4] Harris and Karwah became engaged. They were married to January 2016 while Karwah was pregnant with their third child, who was born a few months later.[3] In the summer of 2016, Karwah became pregnant with their fourth child, which they agreed would be their last.[3] The couple, who were religious but already had three small children, thought of having an abortion, but chose to keep the baby.[3] Passing from complications of child birth[edit] Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
went through a difficult pregnancy. In February 2017, Karwah underwent a caesarean section though she was suffering from high blood pressure at the time.[1][3] Although she had high blood pressure, Karwah was discharged from Eternal Love Winning Africa Hospital (ELWA) on the outskirts of Monrovia
Monrovia
several days after undergoing the cesarean.[3] She and Harris returned to their home to care for their new infant son, Jeremiah Solomon Karwah, and their other children.[3] Karwah continued to feel unwell, exhibit spikes in blood pressure, and confided to family members that staff at ELWA hospital had neglected her complications.[3] Just hours after arriving home, Karwah collapsed and began foaming from her mouth.[3] Her husband rushed her back to ELWA hospital on the night of February 19, 2017.[3] However, the hospital's doctor who specialized in treating ebola survivors was not on duty at the time. Another doctor refused to treat Karwah, who remained in the car for "three hours" while suffering from convulsions and seizures.[3][5] Harris eventually went to the emergency room himself and brought out a wheelchair to bring his wife into the hospital.[3] According to Harris, the doctor and nurses on duty still refused to see or touch Karwah, telling him that he would have to take her to another hospital. Harris gave his account to NPR
NPR
in an interview, saying ""[The doctor] was checking Facebook...I had to rush into the emergency room myself to get a wheelchair, but I was struggling to take her from the car to put her in it. Other nurses came to help me, but the doctor told me that she would not touch her, and that if [Salome] stayed [at the hospital] she would die."[3] He managed to contact an epidemiologist named Dr. Mosoka Fallah, who arrived at ELWA three hours later and finally admitted Karwah to the hospital.[3] Despite his efforts, Salome Karwah, who had survived ebola, died from complications of child birth on February 21, 2017, at the age of 28, just four days after giving birth.[1][3][4][5] She was survived by her husband and their four children, including the youngest, Jeremiah Solomon Karwah.[3] Harris and Karwah's sister, Josephine, accused the ELWA staff of malpractice due to her status as a former ebola patient.[3][8] They accuse the medical staff of providing inadequate care because they were afraid to touch her.[3][8][4] Josephine Manly, Karwah's sister who also survived ebola, reiterated Harris's claims of poor treatment by hospital staff, saying "They said she was an Ebola
Ebola
survivor. They didn't want contact with her fluids. They all gave her distance. No one would give her an injection."[4] Manly believes that Karwah would have survived the child birth complications if she had received proper, timely emergency medical treatment.[4] The mistaken belief that ebola survivors can still transmit ebola remains widespread across the country, including among medical staff, which may have contributed to Karwah's death.[1] According to the Associated Press, the country's chief medical officer, Dr. Francis Kateh, echoed this falsehood when he told reporters that "the hospital knew she had Ebola
Ebola
and they operated on her, which put them at more risk."[1] Tributes came in from around the world, including her former employer, Médecins Sans Frontières, who wrote in a statement, "Salome's own experience of Ebola
Ebola
gave her incredible empathy for the patients that she worked so hard to care for...Our many staff who remember working with her speak of her strength and compassion, but also of her smile...She made a huge contribution to MSF's work at the height of the outbreak in Monrovia."[1] Ella Watson-Stryker, a MDF health promoter and colleague of Karwah, told Time magazine
Time magazine
of the shock of her death, "To survive Ebola
Ebola
and then die in the larger yet silent epidemic of health system failure … I have no words."[4] Karwah's life was remembered on BBC Radio 4's obituary programme Last Word by Time magazine’s Africa correspondent, Aryn Baker.[9] References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Paye-Layleh, Jonathan (2017-03-02). "Ebola health care worker dies after childbirth in Liberia". Associated Press. CBC News. Retrieved 2017-03-15.  ^ a b c Baker, Aryn (2017-02-27). "Liberian Ebola
Ebola
Fighter, a TIME Person of the Year, Dies in Childbirth". Time. Retrieved 2017-03-15.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Mukpo, Ashoka (2017-03-01). "A Husband Loses His 'Best Friend' — Salome Karwah, Ebola
Ebola
Hero". NPR. Retrieved 2017-03-15.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ryan, Lisa (2017-03-01). " Ebola
Ebola
Fighter Dies From Childbirth Complications After Hospital Staff Reportedly Refused to Help Her". New York Magazine. Retrieved 2017-03-15.  ^ a b c d McVeigh, Karen (2017-02-28). " Ebola
Ebola
survivor and frontline fighter dies after childbirth complications". The Guardian. Retrieved 2017-03-15.  ^ a b c d e Hersher, Rebecca (2014-10-25). "Producer's Notebook: Coming home from Monrovia
Monrovia
to confusion and fear". NPR. Retrieved 2017-03-15.  ^ a b Karwah, Salome (2014-10-11). "I survived Ebola
Ebola
for a reason – to help others recover". The Guardian. Retrieved 2017-03-15.  ^ a b " Ebola
Ebola
nurse Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
died after hospital neglect, husband says". BBC News. 2017-03-01. Retrieved 2017-03-15.  ^ Presenter: Matthew Bannister; Producer: Neil George; Interviewed Guest: Aryn Baker (26 March 2017). "Martin McGuinness, Chuck Berry, Sir Derek Walcott, Salome Karwah, Colin Dexter". Last Word. 17:07 minutes in. BBC. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 26 March 2017. 

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola
Ebola
Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

Family Filoviridae

Cuevavirus

Species

Lloviu cuevavirus (LLOV)

Ebolavirus

Species

Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV) Reston ebolavirus
Reston ebolavirus
(RESTV) Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) Taï Forest ebolavirus (TAFV) Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV)

Outbreaks

1976 Sudan outbreak 1976 Zaire outbreak 2013−2016 West African Ebola
Ebola
virus epidemic

Timeline Reported cases and deaths Responses United Nations Ebola
Ebola
Response Fund Operation United Assistance in Guinea in Liberia in Mali in Nigeria in Sierra Leone in Spain in the US in the UK Ouse to Ouse Tock Womey massacre

2014 DR Congo outbreak 2017 DR Congo outbreak

Drug candidates

BCX4430 Brincidofovir DZNep Favipiravir FGI-103 FGI-104 FGI-106 JK-05 Lamivudine TKM- Ebola
Ebola
(failed) Triazavirin ZMapp Vaccines

cAd3-ZEBOV rVSV-ZEBOV

Notable people

William Close Peter Piot Selected patients

Ameyo Adadevoh Kent Brantly Pauline Cafferkey Thomas Eric Duncan Salome Karwah Sheik Umar Khan Matthew Lukwiya Mayinga N'Seka Patrick Sawyer

Popular culture

The Hot Zone
The Hot Zone
(1995 book by Richard Preston) Outbreak (1995 film) Ebola
Ebola
Syndrome (1996 film) Executive Orders
Executive Orders
(1996 novel) 93 Days
93 Days
(2016 film)

Miscellaneous

Ebola
Ebola
virus disease

Treatment research

Ebola
Ebola
River

Marburgvirus

Species

Marburg
Marburg
marburgvirus

MARV RAVV

Outbreaks

2017 Uganda Marburg virus
Marburg virus
outbreak

Drug candidates

BCX4430 FGI-103 FGI-106

Popular culture

The Hot Zone
The Hot Zone
(1995 book)

Miscellaneous

Marburg virus
Marburg virus
disease Marburg

Commons

.