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The total population of the islands at the January 2016 census was 6,008,[2] of which 5,412 lived in Saint-Pierre and 596 in Miquelon-Langlade.[59] At the time of the 1999 census 76% of the population was born on the archipelago, while 16.1% were born in metropolitan France, a sharp increase from the 10.2% in 1990. In the same census, less than 1% of the population reported being a foreign national.[15]

The a

The rise in unemployment has been countered by state financial aid for the retraining of businesses and individuals. The construction of the airport in 1999 helped sustain activity in the construction industry and public works.[32] Fish farming, crab fishing and agriculture are being developed[by whom?] to diversify the local economy.[4] The future of Saint Pierre and Miquelon rests on tourism, fisheries and aquaculture.[citation needed] Explorations are under way to exploit deposits of oil and gas.[32] Tourism benefits from the proximity to similarly touristic parts of Canada. Distribution, public service, care, distribution, minor wholesale, retail and crafts are notable in the business sector.[49]

The labour market is characterised by high seasonality, due to climatic hazards. Traditionally, the inhabitants suspended all outdoor activities (construction, agriculture, etc.) between December and April.[51] In 1999 the unemployment rate was 12.8%, and a third of the employed worked in the public sector. The employment situation was worsened by the complete cessation of deep-sea fishing, the traditional occupation of the islanders, as the unemployment rate in 1990 was lower at 9.5%.[15] The unemployment for 2010 shows a decrease from 2009, from 7.7% to 7.1%.[51] Exports are very low (5.1% of GDP) while imports are significant (49.1% of GDP).[52] About 70% of the islands' supplies are imported from Canada or from other parts of France via Nova Scotia.[34]

The euro functions as the official currency of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.[53] The Canadian dollar is also widely accepted and used, but change is usually given in euros.[54] The "Institut d'émission des départements d'outre-mer" (IEDOM), the French public institution responsible for issuing currency in the overseas territories that use the euro on behalf of the Bank of France, has had an agency in Saint Pierre since 1978.[55] The islands have issued their own stamps from 1885 to the present, except for a period between 1 April 1978 and 3 February 1986 when French stamps not specific to Saint Pierre and Miquelon were used.[56]

The total population of the islands at the January 2016 census was 6,008,[2] of which 5,412 lived in Saint-Pierre and 596 in Miquelon-Langlade.[59] At the time of the 1999 census 76% of the population was born on the archipelago, while 16.1% were born in metropolitan France, a sharp increase from the 10.2% in 1990. In the same census, less than 1% of the population reported being a foreign national.[15]

The archipelago has a high emigration rate, especially among young adults, who often leave for their studies without returning afterwards.[15] Even at the time of the great prosperity of the cod fishery, the population growth had always been constrained by the geographic remoteness, harsh climate and infertile soils.[15]

Ethnography

Ruins show that Indigenous American people visited the archipelago on fishing and hunting expeditions before it was colonized by Europeans.[46] The current population is the result of inflows of settlers from the French ports, mostly Normans, Basques, Bretons and Saintongeais, and also from the historic area of Acadia in Canada (Gaspé Peninsula, parts of New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton) as well as Francophones who settled on the Port au Port Peninsula on Newfoundland.[46]

Languages

The inhabitants speak French; their customs and traditions are similar to the ones found in metropolitan France.[34] The French spoken on the archipelago is closer to Metropolitan French than to Canadian French but maintains a number of unique features.[60] Basque, formerly spoken in private settings by people of Basque ancestry, had disappeared from the islands by the late 1950s.[61]

Religion

The population is overwhelmingly Christian,[62] with the majority being Roman Catholic.[34] The Roman Catholic Vicariate Apostolic of Iles Saint-Pierre and Miquelon used to manage the local church until it was merged into the French diocese of La Rochelle and Saintes in 2018.[63]

Culture

Every summer there is a Basque Festival, which has demonstrations of harrijasotzaile (stone heaving), aizkolari (lumberjack skills), and Basque pelota.[64] The local cuisine is mostly based on seafood such as lobster, snow crab, mussels, and especially cod.[65]

Ice hockey is very popular in Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, with local teams often competing in Newfoundland-based leagues. Several players from the islands have played on French and Canadian teams and even participated on [15] Even at the time of the great prosperity of the cod fishery, the population growth had always been constrained by the geographic remoteness, harsh climate and infertile soils.[15]

Ruins show that Indigenous American people visited the archipelago on fishing and hunting expeditions before it was colonized by Europeans.[46] The current population is the result of inflows of settlers from the French ports, mostly Normans, Basques, Bretons and Saintongeais, and also from the historic area of Acadia in Canada (Gaspé Peninsula, parts of New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton) as well as Francophones who settled on the Port au Port Peninsula on Newfoundland.[46]

Languages

The

The inhabitants speak French; their customs and traditions are similar to the ones found in metropolitan France.[34] The French spoken on the archipelago is closer to Metropolitan French than to Canadian French but maintains a number of unique features.[60] Basque, formerly spoken in private settings by people of Basque ancestry, had disappeared from the islands by the late 1950s.[61]

Religion

The population is overwhelmingly Christian,[62] with the majority being Roman Catholic.[34] The Roman Catholic Vicariate Apostolic of Iles Saint-Pierre and Miquelon used to manage the local church until it was merged into the French diocese of La Rochelle and Saintes in 2018.[63]

Culture

Every summer there is a Basque Festival, which has demonstrations of harrijasotzaile (stone heaving), aizkolari (lumberjack skills), and Basque pelota.[64] The local cuisine is mostly based on seafood such as lobster, snow crab, mussels, and especially cod.[65]

Ice hockey is very popular in Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, with local teams often competing in Newfoundland-based leagues. Several players from the islands have played on French and Canadian teams and even participated on Ice hockey is very popular in Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, with local teams often competing in Newfoundland-based leagues. Several players from the islands have played on French and Canadian teams and even participated on France men's national ice hockey team in the Olympics.[citation needed]

Street names are not commonly used on the islands. Directions and locations are commonly given using nicknames and the names of nearby residents.[66]

The only time the guillotine was used in North America was on Saint-Pierre in the late 19th century.[67][page needed] Joseph Néel was convicted of killing Mr Coupard on Île aux Chiens on 30 December 1888, and subsequently executed by guillotine on 24 August 1889. The device had to be shipped from Martinique and it did not arrive in working order. It was very difficult to get anyone to perform the execution; finally a recent immigrant was coaxed into doing the job. This event was the inspiration for the 2000 film The Widow of Saint-Pierre. The guillotine is now in a museum in Saint-Pierre.[67][page needed]

For many years there was no direct air link between Saint Pierre and mainland France. Although the 1999 opening of the Saint-Pierre Airport was intended to overcome this problem, a direct air link was not established until Air Saint-Pierre announced it would conduct direct seasonal flights from Paris in the summer of 2018.[68] Until then, all flights from and to Saint-Pierre passed through Canada.[32] Air Saint-Pierre's ATR 42 aircraft flies seasonally from the Canadian airports of Sydney and Stephenville, and year-round from Halifax, Montreal, and St John's.[69] A smaller airport on Miquelon provides inter-island flights.[citation needed]

Ferry services operated by SPM Ferries connect St Pierre with Miquelon and the Newfoundland town of Fortune. In the summer, additional services operate between St Pierre and Langlade and between Miquelon and Fortune.[70] The ferries are capable of carrying up to 18 vehicles.[71] However, continuing delays in building suitable port facilities in Fortune[72] mean only foot passengers are transported between Fortune and St Pierre and between Fortune and Miquelon.[citation needed]

CommunicationsSPM Ferries connect St Pierre with Miquelon and the Newfoundland town of Fortune. In the summer, additional services operate between St Pierre and Langlade and between Miquelon and Fortune.[70] The ferries are capable of carrying up to 18 vehicles.[71] However, continuing delays in building suitable port facilities in Fortune[72] mean only foot passengers are transported between Fortune and St Pierre and between Fortune and Miquelon.[citation needed]

Saint-Pierre and Miquelon have four radio stations; all stations operate on the FM band, with the last stations converted from the AM band in 2004. Three of the stations are on Saint-Pierre, two of which are owned by Outre-Mer 1ère, along with one 1ère station on Miquelon. At night, these stations broadcast France-Inter. The other station (Radio Atlantique) is an affiliate of Radio France Internationale. The nation is linked to North America and Europe by satellite communications for telephone and television service.[citation needed]

The department of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon is served by three television stations: Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon 1ère (call letters FQN) on Channel 8, with a repeater on Channel 31, and France Ô on Channel 6. While Saint-Pierre and Miquelon use the French SECAM-K1 standard for television broadcasts, the local telecommunications provider (SPM Telecom) carries many North American television stations and cable channels, converted from North America's NTSC standard. In addition, Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon 1ère is carried on Shaw Direct satellite and most digital cable services in Canada, converted to NTSC.[citation needed]

SPM Telecom is also the department's main internet service provider, with its internet service being named Cheznoo (a play on Chez-Nous, French for "Our Place"). SPM Telecom also offers cellular phone and mobile phone service (for phones that adhere to the GSM standard). SPM Telecom uses the GSM 900 MHz band,<

The department of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon is served by three television stations: Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon 1ère (call letters FQN) on Channel 8, with a repeater on Channel 31, and France Ô on Channel 6. While Saint-Pierre and Miquelon use the French SECAM-K1 standard for television broadcasts, the local telecommunications provider (SPM Telecom) carries many North American television stations and cable channels, converted from North America's NTSC standard. In addition, Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon 1ère is carried on Shaw Direct satellite and most digital cable services in Canada, converted to NTSC.[citation needed]

SPM Telecom is also the department's main internet service provider, with its internet service being named Cheznoo (a play on Chez-Nous, French for "Our Place"). SPM Telecom also offers cellular phone and mobile phone service (for phones that adhere to the GSM standard). SPM Telecom uses the GSM 900 MHz band,[73] which is different from the GSM 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands used in the rest of North America.[citation needed]

The islands are a well-known separate country-level entity among many radio amateurs, identifiable with ITU prefix "FP". Those visiting, mainly from the US, activate Saint-Pierre and Miquelon every year on amateur frequencies. Amateurs collect (records of) contacts with these stations for Islands on the Air and DX Century Club awards; the Atlantic coast gives great takeoff for shortwaves. A few miles away is Signal Hill, St. John's which first communicated across the Atlantic, namely with Marconi's Poldhu Wireless Station in England.

SPM Telecom publishes local news online at the Cheznoo web portal.[74] Other publications include the magazine "Mathurin".[75]

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