The Info List - Saint Kitts

Saint Kitts, also known more formally as Saint Christopher Island, is an island in the West Indies. The west side of the island borders the Caribbean
Sea, and the eastern coast faces the Atlantic Ocean. Saint Kitts and the neighbouring island of Nevis
constitute one country: the Federation of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis. Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
are separated by a shallow 3-kilometre (2 mi) channel known as "The Narrows". Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
became home to the first Caribbean
British and French colonies in the mid-1620s.[3][4] Along with the island nation of Nevis, Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
was a member of the British West Indies
West Indies
until gaining independence on September 19, 1983.[5] The island is one of the Leeward Islands
Leeward Islands
in the Lesser Antilles. It is situated about 2,100 km (1,300 mi) southeast of Miami, Florida. The land area of St. Kitts is about 168 km2 (65 sq mi), being approximately 29 km (18 mi) long and on average about 8 km (5.0 mi) across. Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
has a population of around 40,000, the majority of whom are mainly of African descent. The primary language is English, with a literacy rate of approximately 98%.[6] Residents call themselves Kittitians. Brimstone Hill
Brimstone Hill
Fortress National Park, a UNESCO
World Heritage Site, is the largest fortress ever built in the Eastern Caribbean. The island of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
is home to the Warner Park Cricket Stadium, which was used to host 2007 Cricket World Cup
2007 Cricket World Cup
matches. This made St. Kitts and Nevis
the smallest nation to ever host a World Cup event. Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
is also home to several institutions of higher education, including Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Windsor University School of Medicine, and the University of Medicine and Health Sciences.


1 Geography

1.1 Geology

2 History

2.1 Slavery

3 Government 4 Economy 5 Transportation 6 Notable residents 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Geography[edit] See also: Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
§ Climate The capital of the two-island nation, and also its largest port, is the town of Basseterre
on Saint Kitts. There is a modern facility for handling large cruise ships there. A ring road goes around the perimeter of the island with smaller roads branching off it; the interior of the island is too steep for habitation. Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
is 10 km (6.2 mi) away from Sint Eustatius
Sint Eustatius
to the north and 3 km (1.9 mi) from Nevis
to the south. St. Kitts has three distinct groups of volcanic peaks: the North West or Mount Misery Range; the Middle or Verchilds Range and the South East or Olivees Range. The highest peak is Mount Liamuiga, formerly Mount Misery, a dormant volcano 1,156 m high. Geology[edit] The youngest volcanic center is Mt. Liamuiga, 5 km in diameter and rising to an elevation of 1155 m. Its last eruption was 1620 years ago, corresponding with the Steel Dust series of pyroclastic deposits on the western flank. The Mansion Series of pyroclastic deposits and andesite with basalt layers occur on the northern flank, along with mudflows. This volcano has a crater 900 m wide and 244 m deep, plus two distinct parasitic domes consisting primarily of andesite, Brimstone Hill
Brimstone Hill
and Sandy Point Hill which is coalesced with Farm Flat. Brimstone Hill
Brimstone Hill
is noted for having limestone on its flanks, which was dragged upward with the formation of the dome 44,400 years ago. Mt. Liamuiga partially overlays the Middle Range to the southeast. This Middle Range is another stratovolcano 976 m in height with a small summit crater containing a lake. Next in line is the 900 m South East Range, 1 Myr
in age, consisting of four peaks. Ottley's dome and Monkey Hill dome are on the flanks, while the older volcanoes represented by Canada Hills, and Conaree Hills lie past the airport and Bassaterre on the southeast flank. The Salt Dome Peninsula contains the oldest volcanic deposits, 2.3-2.77 Myr
in age, consisting of at least nine Pelean domes rising up to 319 m in height, which includes Williams Hill and St. Anthony's Peaks.[7][8][9][10] History[edit]

French and English partitions of west St. Kitts. Note the location of Fort Charles and the sulfur mine further to the west.

French and English partitions of east St. Kitts. Note the location of Fort Basseterre.

Siege of Brimstone Hill, 1782, as described by an observer in a French engraving titled "Attaque de Brimstomhill".

Main article: History of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis During the last Ice Age, the sea level was up to 300 feet (91 m) lower and St. Kitts and Nevis
were one island along with Saba
and Sint Eustatius (also known as Statia).[11] St. Kitts was originally settled by pre-agricultural, pre-ceramic "Archaic people", who migrated south down the archipelago from Florida. In a few hundred years they disappeared, to be replaced by the ceramic-using and agriculturalist Saladoid people around 100 BC, who migrated to St. Kitts north up the archipelago from the banks of the Orinoco River
Orinoco River
in Venezuela. Around 800 AD, they were replaced by the Igneri people, members of the Arawak group. Around 1300, the Kalinago, or Carib people arrived on the islands. These war-like people quickly dispersed the Igneri, and forced them northwards to the Greater Antilles. They named Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
"Liamuiga" meaning "fertile island", and would likely have expanded further north if not for the arrival of Europeans. A Spanish expedition under Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
arrived and claimed the island for Spain
in 1493. The first English colony was established in 1623, followed by a French colony in 1625. The English and French briefly united to massacre the local Kalinago
(preempting a Kalinago
plan to massacre the Europeans),[12] and then partitioned the island, with the English colonists in the middle and the French on either end. In 1629, a Spanish force sent to clear the islands of foreign settlement seized St. Kitts. The English settlement was rebuilt following the 1630 peace between England
and Spain. The island alternated repeatedly between English (then British) and French control during the 17th and 18th centuries, as one power took the whole island, only to have it switch hands due to treaties or military action. Parts of the island were heavily fortified, as exemplified by the UNESCO World Heritage Site
UNESCO World Heritage Site
at Brimstone Hill
Brimstone Hill
and the now-crumbling Fort Charles. Since 1783, St. Kitts has been affiliated with the Kingdom of Great Britain, which became the United Kingdom. Slavery[edit] The island originally produced tobacco; but it changed to sugar cane in 1640, due to stiff competition from the colony of Virginia. The labour-intensive cultivation of sugar cane was the reason for the large-scale importation of African slaves. The importation began almost immediately upon the arrival of Europeans to the region. The purchasing of enslaved Africans was outlawed in the British Empire by an Act of Parliament in 1807. Slavery
was abolished by an Act of Parliament which became law on 1 August 1834. This emancipation was followed by four years of apprenticeship, put in place to protect the planters from losing their labour force. August the 1st is now celebrated as a public holiday and is called Emancipation Day. In 1883, St. Kitts, Nevis, and Anguilla
were all linked under one presidency, located on St. Kitts, to the dismay of the Nevisians and Anguillans. Anguilla
eventually separated out of this arrangement, in 1971, after an armed raid on St. Kitts.[13] Sugar
production continued to dominate the local economy until 2005, when, after 365 years of having a mono-culture, the government closed the sugar industry. This was due to huge losses and European Union plans to greatly cut sugar prices. Government[edit] Main article: Parishes of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis For purposes of governing, the island is divided into nine parishes:

Christ Church Nichola Town Saint Anne Sandy Point Saint George Basseterre Saint John Capisterre Saint Mary Cayon Saint Paul Capisterre Saint Peter Basseterre Saint Thomas Middle Island Trinity Palmetto Point

Economy[edit] St. Kitts & Nevis
uses the Eastern Caribbean
dollar, which maintains a fixed exchange rate of 2.7-to-one with the United States dollar.[14] The US dollar is almost as widely accepted as the Eastern Caribbean
dollar.[15] For hundreds of years, St. Kitts operated as a sugar monoculture, but due to decreasing profitability, the government closed the industry in 2005. Tourism
is a major and growing source of income to the island, although the number and density of resorts is less than on many other Caribbean
islands. Transportation, non-sugar agriculture, manufacturing and construction are the other growing sectors of the economy.[16] St. Kitts is dependent on tourism to drive its economy. Tourism
has been increasing since 1978. In 2009, there were 587,479 arrivals to Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
compared to 379,473 in 2007, which represents an increase of just under 40% growth in a two-year period. As tourism grows, the demand for vacation property increases in conjunction. St. Kitts & Nevis
also acquires foreign direct investment from their unique citizenship by investment program, outlined in their Citizenship Act of 1984.[17] Interested parties can acquire citizenship if they pass the government's strict background checks and make an investment into an approved real estate development. Purchasers who pass government due diligence and make a minimum investment of US$400,000, into qualifying government approved real estate, are entitled to apply for citizenship of the Federation of St. Kitts and Nevis. Many projects are approved under the citizenship by investment program, and the main qualifying projects of interest can be found within the Henley Estates market overview .[18] The country hosts an annual St. Kitts Music Festival. Transportation[edit] Robert L. Bradshaw International Airport
Robert L. Bradshaw International Airport
serves St. Kitts. British Airways (BA) flies in twice a week from London and daily connections from Charlotte, Miami and New York are available. The Basseterre
Ferry Terminal facilitates travel between St. Kitts and sister island Nevis. The narrow-gauge (30 inches[19]) St Kitts Scenic Railway circles the island and offers passenger service from its headquarters near the airport, although the service is geared more for tourists than as day-to-day transportation for residents. Built between 1912 and 1926 to haul sugar cane from farms to the sugar factory in Basseterre, since 2003 the railway has offered a 3.5 hour, 30-mile circle tour of the island on specially designed double-decker open-air coaches, with 12 miles of the trip being by bus.[20] Notable residents[edit] Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
is or was the residence of:

Joan Armatrading, a British singer-songwriter. George Astaphan, born in St. Kitts, was a physician who gave steroids to the sprinter Ben Johnson. Imruh Bakari, born in St. Kitts, film maker and writer. Hutchens C. Bishop, pre-civil rights era clergyman who led the 1917 Negro Silent Protest Parade in New York.[21] Robert Bradshaw, first Premier of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis. Burt Caesar, born in St. Kitts, actor, broadcaster and director. Pogus Caesar is a British artist, television producer and director. Kim Collins
Kim Collins
is a former world champion sprinter (2003). Felix Dexter
Felix Dexter
was an actor, comedian, and writer. Bertil Fox was born in St. Kitts, became a professional bodybuilder and was convicted of murder.[22][23][24][25] James Grainger, doctor and planter, who published the georgic poem The Sugar
Cane in 1764 and also wrote about diseases among the slaves. Keith Gumbs is an International football player who currently plays as a striker for the Liga Indonesia side Sriwijaya FC. Sir James Harford
James Harford
was Administrator of Saint Christopher from 1940 to 1946. Atiba Harris
Atiba Harris
is a Kittitian footballer who currently plays for FC Dallas in Major League Soccer.[26] Virgil Hodge
Virgil Hodge
is a female sprinter specialising in the 200 metres event. Konris Maynard is a Calypso musician and politician. Major-General Sir Robert Nickle was governor of Saint Christopher from 1830. Caryl Phillips, born in St. Kitts, novelist playwright and essayist. Tiandra Ponteen is a female sprinter specialising in the 200 metres and the 400 metres. Lord Hercules George Robert Robinson was governor of Saint Christopher from 1855 to 1859. Sir Cuthbert Sebastian, Governor-General of St Kitts- Nevis
from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2012, his retirement. Joseph Matthew Sebastian was a Caribbean
trade union leader and politician. Julius Soubise was a freed Afro- Caribbean
slave who became a well-known fop in the UK during the 1760s and 1770s. Neil Strauss
Neil Strauss
is an American author and journalist. Roger Ver
Roger Ver
is an early investor in bitcoin related startups. Desai Williams is a former sprinter who won a bronze medal in the 1984 Olympics. Linda Carty
Linda Carty
is a woman possessing both United States and British citizenship who is on death row in Texas. She was convicted and sentenced to death in February 2002 for the 2001 abduction and murder of 25-year-old Joana Rodriguez, in order to steal her newborn son.


View from Sir Timothy's Hill

Southeast Peninsula (Saint Kitts). The island on the left is Nevis.

St. Kitts at dawn as seen from a ship entering the port of Basseterre

Downtown Basseterre

Diver and fish, MV River Taw wreck

Brimstone Hill
Brimstone Hill

Ruins at Brimstone Hill

Battle of St. Kitts in January 1782

Flying towards the north end of the island, looking down part of the west or Caribbean

See also[edit]

Culture of St. Kitts and Nevis Map of Saint Kitts Nevis, St. Kitts' sister island List of people on stamps of Saint Kitts Chief Justices


^ "ST. KITTS AND NEVIS". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 19 April 2017.  ^ Ben Cahoon (2000). " Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis". WorldStatesmen. Retrieved 17 July 2010.  ^ "A Historical Geography of the British Colonies: The West Indies". Retrieved 2017-07-30.  ^ "St Kitts: the Gibraltar
of the West Indies". Telegraph.co.uk Newspaper (UK). Retrieved 30 July 2017.  ^ "Caribbean's St. Kitts gets independence, new name". Retrieved 2017-07-30.  ^ " Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis
CIA World Factbook". www.ciaworldfactbook.us. Retrieved 2017-02-25.  ^ "St. Kitts - Geology". University of West Indies
West Indies
Seismic Research Centre.  ^ "St. Kitts Geology". Caribbean
Volcanoes.  ^ " Volcanic
Hazard Assessment for St. Kitts". Volcanic
Hazard Assessment for St. Kitts, Lesser Antilles.  ^ Wetsermann, J.H.; Kiel, H. (1961). The Geology of Saba
and St. Eustatius. Utrecht: Kemink & Zn. pp. 158–161.  ^ Hubbard, Vincent (2002). A History of St. Kitts. Macmillan Caribbean. p. 1. ISBN 9780333747605.  ^ "Top 10 attractions in St Kitts". The Guardian. October 1, 2013. ^ "Introduction ::Anguilla".  ^ "USD/XCD Chart". XE.com. Retrieved 2013-11-26.  ^ St Kitts Tourism
Authority Eastern Caribbean
Dollar (XCD$). U.S. bills are accepted by most stores and businesses and change is given in E.C. currency. U.S. coins are not accepted. ^ [1][permanent dead link] ^ "Citizenship-by-Investment Introduction". Henley Estates. Retrieved 2014-11-02. [permanent dead link] ^ "Citizenship-by-Investment Download". Henley Estates. Retrieved 2014-11-02. [permanent dead link] ^ Schwartzman, M. T. "St. Kitts Railway: One Sweet Ride," Cruise Travel, December 2005, accessed 15 December 2012. ^ St. Kitts Scenic Railway, official site, accessed 15 December 2012. ^ Milward, Jessica. "Finding Charity's Folks". Google Books. Retrieved 31 July 2017.  ^ "A letter from Bertil: Bertil Fox is serving a life sentence for double murder on the island of St. Kitts. In this FLEX exclusive, he gives his version of what happened on that fateful day in 1997". Flex. 2005. [permanent dead link] ^ "The Muscle Murders". CNN. 18 May 1998.  ^ "BERTIL FOX: STARS OF BODYBUILDING MRO Fansite History of Mr. and Masters Olympia The Best Bodybuilders, Muscle Gallery, Bodybuilder, photos, links, pics, videos, biography, news, interview". Schwarzenegger.it. Retrieved 2013-11-26.  ^ [2] Archived 26 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [3]Archived 29 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Saint Kitts.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint Kitts.

Official Government of Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
& Nevis
website Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
& Nevis
News Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
& Nevis
Media Portal Mustrad.org.uk: "Christmas Sports in Saint Kitts"

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Saint Kitts
and Nevis

Saint Kitts

Christ Church Nichola Town Saint Anne Sandy Point Saint George Basseterre Saint John Capisterre Saint Mary Cayon Saint Paul Capisterre Saint Peter Basseterre Saint Thomas Middle Island Trinity Palmetto Point


Saint George Gingerland Saint James Windward Saint John Figtree Saint Paul Charlestown Saint Thomas Lowland

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Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire


1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

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1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies
West Indies

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.


17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

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1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.


17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

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8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty


18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwi