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Saint
Saint
George (Greek: Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Latin: Georgius; Coptic: Ⲡⲓⲇⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲅⲉⲟⲣⲅⲓⲟⲥ; between AD 256–285 to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek and Palestinian origin and officer in the Guard of Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian
Christian
faith. As a Christian
Christian
martyr, he later became one of the most venerated saints in Christianity, and was especially venerated by the Crusaders. George's parents were Christians of Greek background, his father Gerontius (Greek: Γερόντιος, Gerontios meaning "old man" in Greek) was a Roman army
Roman army
official from Cappadocia, and his mother Polychronia (Greek name, meaning she who lives many years) was a Christian
Christian
and a Greek native[4] from Lydda in the Roman province of Syria Palaestina. In hagiography, as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers
Fourteen Holy Helpers
and one of the most prominent military saints, he is immortalised in the myth of Saint
Saint
George and the Dragon. His memorial, Saint
Saint
George's Day, is traditionally celebrated on 23 April. (See under "Feast days" below for the use of the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
by the Eastern Orthodox Church.) Numerous countries, cities, professions and organisations claim Saint George as their patron.

Contents

1 Life 2 Legend

2.1 Controversy 2.2 Muslim legends

3 Saint
Saint
George and the dragon 4 Veneration as a martyr 5 Feast days 6 Patronages

6.1 England 6.2 Georgia 6.3 Malta
Malta
and Gozo 6.4 Portugal 6.5 Romania 6.6 Spain

6.6.1 Aragon 6.6.2 Catalonia

7 Veneration in the Levant 8 Veneration in the Muslim world 9 Arms and flag 10 Iconography and models 11 Gallery 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Life[edit]

St. George slays the dragon (De Grey Hours, c. 1400)

There is little information on the early life of Saint
Saint
George. Herbert Thurston in The Catholic Encyclopedia
The Catholic Encyclopedia
states that based upon an ancient cultus, narratives of the early pilgrims, and the early dedications of churches to Saint
Saint
George, going back to the fourth century, "there seems, therefore, no ground for doubting the historical existence of St. George", although no faith can be placed in either the details of his history or his alleged exploits.[5] According to Donald Attwater, "No historical particulars of his life have survived, ... The widespread veneration for St George as a soldier saint from early times had its centre in Palestine at Diospolis, now Lydda. St George was apparently martyred there, at the end of the third or the beginning of the fourth century; that is all that can be reasonably surmised about him."[6] Legend[edit]

St. George slays the dragon. Georgian Fresco

Accounts differ regarding whether George was born in Cappadocia
Cappadocia
or Syria Palaestina, but agree that he was raised at least partly in Lydda in Palestine.[7] His parents were Christian, of the nobility and of Greek heritage. His father Gerontius was a Roman army
Roman army
official from Cappadocia, and his mother Polychronia was from Lydda in the province of Syria Palaestina.[4] His father died when he was fourteen, and his mother returned with George to her homeland of Syria Palaestina.[8]

Saint
Saint
George Killing the Dragon, 1434/35, by Bernat Martorell

A few years later, George's mother died.[9] At seventeen, he traveled to the capital at Nicomedia
Nicomedia
and following the customary course of a young Roman noble, joined the Roman army.[10] By his late twenties, George was promoted to the rank of military tribune and stationed as an imperial guard of the Emperor at Nicomedia. One story has him traveling to Britain with the future emperor Constantine and visiting Glastonbury and Caerleon.[10] Years later, George was promoted to the rank of legatus.[11] On 24 February 303, Diocletian, influenced by Galerius, issued an edict that every Christian
Christian
soldier in the army should be degraded and every soldier required to offer sacrifice to the Roman gods. Seeing the edict, George freed his slaves, distributed his wealth to the poor, and prepared to meet his fate. He then confronted the emperor about the edict and declared himself to be a Christian. Diocletian attempted to convert George, offering gifts of land, money, and slaves if he would sacrifice to the gods, but the tribune refused.[12] Recognizing the futility of his efforts and insisting on upholding his edict, Diocletian
Diocletian
ordered that George be arrested. In an effort to undermine his resolve, the emperor sent a woman to the prison to spend the night with George, who having little time for earthly concerns managed to convert her instead.[10] George was executed by decapitation before Nicomedia's city wall, on 23 April 303. A witness of his suffering convinced Empress Alexandra of Rome
Alexandra of Rome
to become a Christian
Christian
as well, so she joined George in martyrdom. His body was returned to Lydda for burial, where Christians soon came to honour him as a martyr.[13][14] Controversy[edit] In The Golden Legend, by 13th-century Archbishop of Genoa
Genoa
Jacobus de Voragine, George's death is at the hands of Dacian, and about the year 287.[15] It has been established that Saint
Saint
George the Martyr and the Arian Bishop
Bishop
George of Alexandria
Alexandria
were not identical; furthermore that Bishop
Bishop
George was slain by Gentile Greeks for exacting onerous taxes, especially inheritance taxes. And that Saint
Saint
George in all likelihood was martyred before the year 290. [16] Although the Diocletianic Persecution of 303, associated with military saints because the persecution was aimed at Christians among the professional soldiers of the Roman army, is of undisputed historicity, the identity of Saint George as a historical individual had not been ascertained as of Edmund Spenser's day,[17][18] Herbert Thurston in the saint's entry in the early 20th century Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
takes the position that there are no grounds for doubting the historical existence of Saint George, but that, as usual with saints of this early period, the legend of the dragon cannot be treated as historical.[19]

Saint
Saint
George in the Acta Sanctorum, as collected in late 1600s and early 1700s. The Latin title De S Georgio Megalo-Martyre; Lyddae seu Diospoli in Palaestina" translates as "St. George Great-Martyr; [from] Lydda or Diospolis, in Palestine.

The earliest text preserving fragments of George's narrative is in a Greek hagiography identified by Hippolyte Delehaye of the scholarly Bollandists to be a palimpsest of the fifth century.[20] The compiler of this Acta Sancti Georgii, according to Hippolyte Delehaye, "confused the martyr with his namesake, the celebrated George of Cappadocia, the Arian intruder into the see of Alexandria
Alexandria
and enemy of St. Athanasius". An earlier work by Eusebius, Church history, written in the 4th century, contributed to the legend but did not name George or provide significant detail.[21] A critical edition of a Syriac Acta of Saint
Saint
George,[clarification needed] accompanied by an annotated English translation, was published by E.W. Brooks (1863–1955) in 1925. The work of the Bollandists Daniel Papebroch, Jean Bolland, and Godfrey Henschen in the 17th century was one of the first pieces of scholarly research to establish the saint's historicity via their publications in Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca.[22] Pope
Pope
Gelasius I stated that George was among those saints "whose names are justly reverenced among men, but whose actions are known only to God."[23] The traditional legends, for example that of the Golden Legend, have offered a historicised narration of George's encounter with a dragon. The modern legend that follows below is synthesised from early and late hagiographical sources, omitting the more fantastical episodes. Chief among the legendary sources about the saint is the Golden Legend, which remains the most familiar version in English owing to William Caxton's 15th-century translation.[24] Edward Gibbon[25][26] argued that George, or at least the legend from which the above is distilled, is based on George of Cappadocia,[27][28] a notorious Arian bishop who was Athanasius of Alexandria's most bitter rival, and that it was he who in time became Saint
Saint
George of England. J. B. Bury
J. B. Bury
(16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927), who edited the 1906 edition of The Decline and Fall, wrote "this theory of Gibbon's has nothing to be said for it." He adds that: "the connection of St. George with a dragon-slaying legend does not relegate him to the region of the myth".[19][29] Muslim legends[edit] George (Arabic: جرجس‎, Jiriyas or Girgus) is included in some Muslim texts as a prophetic figure. The Islamic sources state that he lived among a group of believers who were in direct contact with last apostles of Jesus. He is described as a rich merchant who opposed erection of Apollo's statue by Mosul's king Dadan. After confronting the king, George was tortured many times to no effect, was imprisoned and was aided by the angels. Eventually, he exposed that the idols were possessed by Satan, but was martyred when the city was destroyed by God in a rain of fire.[30] Muslim scholars had tried to find a historical connection of the saint due to his popularity.[31] According to Muslim legend, he was martyred under the rule of Diocletian
Diocletian
and was killed three times but resurrected every time. The legend is more developed in the Persian version of al-Tabari wherein he resurrects the dead, makes trees sprout and pillars bear flowers. After one of his deaths, the world is covered by darkness and is lifted only when he is resurrected. He is able to convert the queen but she is put to death. He then prays to god to allow him to die which is granted.[32] Al-Tha`labi states that he was from Palestine and lived in the times of some disciples of Jesus. He was killed many times by the king of Mosul, and resurrected each time. When he tried to starve him, he touched a piece of dry wood brought by a woman and turned it green, with varieties of fruits and vegetables growing from it. After his fourth death, the city was burnt along with him. Ibn al-Athir's account of one of his deaths is parallel to the crucifixion of Jesus, stating, "When he died, God sent stormy winds and thunder and lightning and dark clouds, so that darkness fell between heaven and earth, and people were in great wonderment..." The account adds that the darkness was lifted after his resurrection.[31] Saint
Saint
George and the dragon[edit]

Russian icon (mid 14th century), Novgorod.

Miniature from a 13th-century Passio Sancti Georgii (Verona)

Main article: Saint
Saint
George and the Dragon In the medieval romances, the lance with which Saint
Saint
George slew the dragon was called Ascalon after the Levantine city of Ashkelon, today in Israel. The name Ascalon was used by Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
for his personal aircraft during World War II, according to records at Bletchley Park.[citation needed] In Sweden, the princess rescued by Saint
Saint
George is held to represent the kingdom of Sweden, while the dragon represents an invading army.[citation needed] Several sculptures of Saint
Saint
George battling the dragon can be found in Stockholm, the earliest inside Storkyrkan
Storkyrkan
("The Great Church") in the Old Town. Iconography of the horseman with spear overcoming evil was widespread throughout the Christian
Christian
period.[33] In Pharaonic
Pharaonic
mythology, the god Set or Setekh murdered his brother Osiris. Horus
Horus
(Heru), the son of Osiris, avenged his father's death by killing Setekh. Modern-day researchers interpret a late antique Coptic stone fenestrella of mounted hawk-headed figure fighting a crocodile, as Horus
Horus
killing a metamorphosed Set, and have considered this scene ancestral to later iconography of George killing a dragon.[34] Veneration as a martyr[edit] See also: Saint
Saint
George in devotions, traditions and prayers

The martyrdom of Saint
Saint
George, by Paolo Veronese, 1564

A titular church built in Lydda during the reign of Constantine the Great (reigned 306–37) was consecrated to "a man of the highest distinction", according to the church history of Eusebius; the name of the titulus "patron" was not disclosed, but later he was asserted[by whom?] to have been George. By the time of the early Muslim conquests of the mostly Christian
Christian
and Zoroastrian Middle East, a basilica in Lydda dedicated to Saint
Saint
George existed.[35] The church was destroyed by Muslims in 1010, but was later rebuilt and dedicated to Saint
Saint
George by the Crusaders. In 1191 and during the conflict known as the Third Crusade
Third Crusade
(1189–92), the church was again destroyed by the forces of Saladin, Sultan of the Ayyubid dynasty
Ayyubid dynasty
(reigned 1171–93).[citation needed] A new church was erected in 1872 and is still standing. During the fourth century, the veneration of George spread from Syria Palaestina through Lebanon to the rest of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
– though the martyr is not mentioned in the Syriac Breviarium[14] – and the region east of the Black Sea. In Georgia, the feast day on 23 November is credited to Saint
Saint
Nino of Cappadocia, who in Georgian hagiography is a relative of Saint
Saint
George, credited with bringing Christianity
Christianity
to the Georgians
Georgians
in the fourth century.[citation needed] By the fifth century, the veneration of Saint
Saint
George had reached the Christian
Christian
Western Roman Empire, as well: in 494, George was canonized as a saint by Pope
Pope
Gelasius I, among those "whose names are justly reverenced among men, but whose acts are known only to [God]."[citation needed] In England, he was mentioned among the martyrs by the 8th-century monk Bede. The Georgslied
Georgslied
is an adaptation of his legend in Old High German, composed in the late 9th century. The earliest dedication to the saint in England
England
is a church at Fordington, Dorset
Fordington, Dorset
that is mentioned in the will of Alfred the Great.[36] Saint
Saint
George did not rise to the position of "patron saint" of England, however, until the 14th century, and he was still obscured by Edward the Confessor, the traditional patron saint of England, until in 1552 during the reign of Edward VI
Edward VI
all saints' banners other than George's were abolished in the English Reformation.[37][38] An apparition of George heartened the Franks
Franks
at the siege of Antioch, 1098, and made a similar appearance the following year at Jerusalem.[citation needed] The chivalric military Order of Sant Jordi d'Alfama was established by king Peter the Catholic
Catholic
from the Crown of Aragon
Aragon
in 1201, Republic of Genoa, Kingdom of Hungary (1326), and by Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor,[39] and in England
England
the 1222 Synod of Oxford declared Saint George's Day
Saint George's Day
a feast day in the kingdom of England.[citation needed] Edward III of England
Edward III of England
put his Order of the Garter under the banner of St. George, probably in 1348. The chronicler Jean Froissart
Jean Froissart
observed the English invoking Saint
Saint
George as a battle cry on several occasions during the Hundred Years' War. In his rise as a national saint, George was aided by the very fact that the saint had no legendary connection with England, and no specifically localized shrine, as that of Thomas Becket
Thomas Becket
at Canterbury: "Consequently, numerous shrines were established during the late fifteenth century," Muriel C. McClendon has written,[40] "and his did not become closely identified with a particular occupation or with the cure of a specific malady." The establishment of George as a popular and protective saint[41] in the West that had captured the medieval imagination was codified by the official elevation of his feast to a festum duplex[42] at a church council in 1416, on the date that had become associated with his martyrdom, 23 April. Wide latitude existed from community to community in celebration of the day across late medieval and early modern England,[43] and no uniform "national" celebration elsewhere, a token of the popular and vernacular nature of George's cultus and its local horizons, supported by a local guild or confraternity under George's protection, or the dedication of a local church. When the English Reformation severely curtailed the saints' days in the calendar, Saint George's Day was among the holidays that continued to be observed. Feast days[edit]

Saint
Saint
George was a knight from Cappadocia, who rescued a maiden princess from a dragon at Silene in Libya, leading to the Christianization of much of her father's kingdom. Depiction here by Dante Gabriel
Gabriel
Rossetti.

See also: Saint
Saint
George in devotions, traditions and prayers In the General Roman Calendar, the feast of Saint
Saint
George is on 23 April. In the Tridentine Calendar
Tridentine Calendar
of 1568, it was given the rank of "Semidouble". In Pope
Pope
Pius XII's 1955 calendar this rank was reduced to "Simple", and in Pope
Pope
John XXIII's 1960 calendar to a "Commemoration". Since Pope
Pope
Paul VI's 1969 revision, it appears as an optional "Memorial". In some countries, such as England, the rank is higher. In England, it is a Solemnity (Roman Catholic) or Feast (Church of England): if it falls between Palm Sunday and the Second Sunday of Easter
Easter
inclusive, it is transferred to the Monday after the Second Sunday of Easter.[44] Saint
Saint
George is very much honoured by the Eastern Orthodox Church, wherein he is referred to as a "Great Martyr", and in Oriental Orthodoxy overall. His major feast day is on 23 April (Julian calendar 23 April currently corresponds to Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
6 May). If, however, the feast occurs before Easter, it is celebrated on Easter Monday, instead. The Russian Orthodox Church also celebrates two additional feasts in honour of St. George. One is on 3 November, commemorating the consecration of a cathedral dedicated to him in Lydda during the reign Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(305–37). When the church was consecrated, the relics of the Saint
Saint
George were transferred there. The other feast is on 26 November for a church dedicated to him in Kiev, circa 1054. In Bulgaria, Saint
Saint
George's day (Bulgarian: Гергьовден) is celebrated on 6 May, when it is customary to slaughter and roast a lamb. Saint
Saint
George's day is also a public holiday. In Egypt, the Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
of Alexandria
Alexandria
refers to Saint George as the "Prince of Martyrs" and celebrates his martyrdom on the 23rd of Paremhat of the Coptic calendar
Coptic calendar
equivalent to 1 May. The Copts also celebrate the consecration of the first church dedicated to him on seventh of the month of Hatour of the Coptic calendar
Coptic calendar
usually equivalent to 17 November. In India, the Syro-Malabar Catholic
Catholic
Church, one of the oriental catholic churches (Eastern Catholic
Catholic
Churches)and Malankara orthodox church venerate Saint
Saint
George. The main pilgrim centers of the saint in India
India
are at Edathua[45] in Alappuzha
Alappuzha
district and Edappally
Edappally
[46] in Ernakulam
Ernakulam
district of the southern state of Kerala. The saint is commemorated each year from 27 April to 14 May at Edathua
Edathua
[47] On 27 April after the flag hoisting ceremony by the parish priest, the statue of the saint is taken from one of the altars and placed at the extension of the church to be venerated by the devotees till 14 May. The main feast day is 7 May, when the statue of the saint along with other saints is taken in procession around the church. Intercession to Saint
Saint
George of Edathua
Edathua
is believed to be efficacious in repelling snakes and in curing mental ailments.The sacred relics of St. George were brought to Antioch
Antioch
from Mardeen in A.D.900 and were taken to Kerala, India
India
from Antioch
Antioch
in 1912 by Mar Dionysius of Vattasseril and kept in the Orthodox seminary at Kundara, Kerala. H.H Mathews II Catholicos had given the relics to St. George churches at Puthupally, Kottayam District and Chandanappally, Pathanamthitta district. Patronages[edit] Main article: Patronages of Saint
Saint
George

English recruitment poster from World War I, featuring Saint
Saint
George and the Dragon.

A highly celebrated saint in both the Western and Eastern Christian churches, a large number of Patronages of Saint George
Patronages of Saint George
exist throughout the world.[48] England[edit] Saint
Saint
George is the patron saint of England. His cross forms the national flag of England, and features within the Union Flag
Union Flag
of the United Kingdom, and other national flags containing the Union Flag, such as those of Australia
Australia
and New Zealand. By the 14th century, the saint had been declared both the patron saint and the protector of the royal family.[49]

Saint
Saint
George's monument in Tbilisi, Georgia.

Georgia[edit] The country of Georgia, where devotions to the saint date back to the fourth century, is not technically named after the saint, but is a well-attested back-formation of the Greek name. However, a large number of towns and cities around the world are. Saint
Saint
George is one of the patron Saints of Georgia; the name Georgia (Sakartvelo in Georgian) is an anglicisation of Gurj, ultimately derived from the Persian word gurj/gurjān ("wolf"[50]).[51] Chronicles describing the land as Georgie or Georgia in French and English, date from the early Middle Ages, as written by the travellers John Mandeville
John Mandeville
and Jacques de Vitry "because of their special reverence for Saint
Saint
George",[52] but these accounts have been seen as folk etymology and are rejected by the scholarly community.[51] Exactly 365 Orthodox churches in Georgia are named after Saint
Saint
George according to the number of days in a year. According to myth, Saint George was cut into 365 pieces after he fell in battle and every single piece was spread throughout the entire country.[53][54][55] According to another myth, Saint
Saint
George appeared in person during the Battle of Didgori
Battle of Didgori
to support the Georgian victory over the Seljuq army and the Georgian uprising against Persian rule. Saint
Saint
George is considered by many Georgians
Georgians
to have special meaning as a symbol of national liberation.[56] Malta
Malta
and Gozo[edit] Saint
Saint
George is also one of the patron saints of the Mediterranean islands of Malta
Malta
and Gozo. [57][58] In a battle between the Maltese and the Moors, Saint
Saint
George was alleged to have been seen with Saint Paul and Saint
Saint
Agata, protecting the Maltese. Saint
Saint
George is the protector of the island of Gozo
Gozo
and the patron of Gozo's largest city, Victoria. The St. George's Basilica in Victoria is dedicated to him.[59] Portugal[edit] Devotions to Saint
Saint
George in Portugal
Portugal
date back to the 12th century. Nuno Álvares Pereira
Nuno Álvares Pereira
attributed the victory of the Portuguese in the battle of Aljubarrota in 1385 to Saint
Saint
George. During the reign of John I of Portugal
Portugal
(1357–1433), Saint
Saint
George became the patron saint of Portugal
Portugal
and the King ordered that the saint's image on the horse be carried in the Corpus Christi procession. The flag of Saint
Saint
George (white with red cross) was also carried by the Portuguese troops and hoisted in the fortresses, during the 15th century. " Portugal
Portugal
and Saint
Saint
George" became the battle cry of the Portuguese troops, being still today the battle cry of the Portuguese Army, with simply "Saint George" being the battle cry of the Portuguese Navy.[60]

Saint
Saint
George

Romania[edit] Saint
Saint
George is the patron saint of Romania[61][citation needed] and a number of churches, towns, and geographical areas are dedicated to him, including city of Sfântu Gheorghe
Sfântu Gheorghe
in Covasna County, and Sfântu Gheorghe branch of the river Danube. Spain[edit] In Spain, Saint
Saint
George is the patron of Aragon
Aragon
and Catalonia. These two autonomous communities were in the past two of the most important territories belonging to the Crown of Aragon. Aragon[edit] Saint
Saint
George (Aragonese: San Chorche) is the patron of Aragon, one of the autonomous communities of Spain. This festivity is celebrated on the 23th of April as “The Day of Aragon”. Legend
Legend
says that the Pedro I of Aragon
Aragon
started in 1096 the conquest of Huesca, which was under the rule of the Taifa
Taifa
in Zaragoza, following the desires of his father, Sancho I of Aragon. The fight was hard and difficult, Christian
Christian
militia trusted totally in God to win the battle. God sent Saint
Saint
George, who descended from Heaven riding on a horse, carrying with him a maroon cross to the battlefield. After seeing God’s signal, militiamen returned to the battle field with more energy than ever. The moors could not believe what was happening, they were defeated, abandoning the battlefield rapidly. After half a year of being trapped, Pedro I finally entered the city. To celebrate this victory, Saint
Saint
George’s cross was used as the insignia of Huesca
Huesca
and Aragon, honouring his name since he was their saviour. Nowadays, this cross is still present on Aragon’s shield. The popular story which is told to school children and other places, is that Saint
Saint
George defeated a dragon, and is celebrated by everybody throughout the community. Catalonia[edit] Saint
Saint
George (Sant Jordi in Catalan) is also the patron saint of Catalonia. His cross appears in many buildings and local flags, including the one of the Catalan capital, Barcelona. The Catalan tradition usually locates the events of his legend in the town of Montblanc, near Tarragona. The origins of the worship of Saint
Saint
George go back to the Crown of Aragon, and share the same legend as that of Aragon. By the 15th century Catalan men used to celebrate Saint George's Day
Saint George's Day
by giving roses to women. Nowadays Saint
Saint
George is not a public holiday anymore but is a very popular celebration. Women receive roses (and often books) and, since the 20th century, men receive books (and sometimes roses) and the celebration is also used to celebrate Catalan national identity, culture and literature and romantic love.[62] One of the highest civil distinctions awarded in Catalonia
Catalonia
is the Saint
Saint
George's Cross (Creu de Sant Jordi). The Sant Jordi Awards have been awarded in Barcelona
Barcelona
since 1957. Veneration in the Levant[edit]

Saint
Saint
George dragged through the streets (detail), by Bernat Martorell, 15th century

George is renowned throughout the Middle East, as both saint and prophet. His veneration by Jews, Christians and Muslims lies in his composite personality combining several Biblical, Quranic and other ancient mythical heroes.[63] William Dalrymple, reviewing the literature in 1999, tells us that J. E. Hanauer in his 1907 book Folklore of the Holy Land: Muslim, Christian
Christian
and Jewish "mentioned a shrine in the village of Beit Jala, beside Bethlehem, which at the time was frequented by Christians who regarded it as the birthplace of St. George and by Jews who regarded it as the burial place of the Prophet Elias. According to Hanauer, in his day the monastery was "a sort of madhouse. Deranged persons of all the three faiths are taken thither and chained in the court of the chapel, where they are kept for forty days on bread and water, the Eastern Orthodox priest at the head of the establishment now and then reading the Gospel over them, or administering a whipping as the case demands.'[64] In the 1920s, according to Taufiq Canaan's Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine, nothing seemed to have changed, and all three communities were still visiting the shrine and praying together."[65] Dalrymple himself visited the place in 1995. "I asked around in the Christian
Christian
Quarter in Jerusalem, and discovered that the place was very much alive. With all the greatest shrines in the Christian
Christian
world to choose from, it seemed that when the local Arab Christians had a problem – an illness, or something more complicated: a husband detained in an Israeli prison camp, for example – they preferred to seek the intercession of Saint
Saint
George in his grubby little shrine at Beit Jala rather than praying at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
or the Church of the Nativity
Church of the Nativity
in Bethlehem."[65] He asked the priest at the shrine "Do you get many Muslims coming here?" The priest replied, "We get hundreds! Almost as many as the Christian pilgrims. Often, when I come in here, I find Muslims all over the floor, in the aisles, up and down."[65][66][67] The Encyclopædia Britannica quotes G.A. Smith in his Historic Geography of the Holy Land p. 164 saying "The Mahommedans who usually identify St. George with the prophet Elijah, at Lydda confound his legend with one about Christ himself. Their name for Antichrist is Dajjal, and they have a tradition that Jesus will slay Antichrist by the gate of Lydda. The notion sprang from an ancient bas-relief of George and the Dragon
Dragon
on the Lydda church. But Dajjal may be derived, by a very common confusion between n and l, from Dagon, whose name two neighbouring villages bear to this day, while one of the gates of Lydda used to be called the Gate of Dagon."[68] Veneration in the Muslim world[edit] Saint
Saint
George is described as a prophetic figure in Islamic sources.[30] George is venerated by Jews, Christians and Muslims because of his composite personality combining several Biblical, Quranic and other ancient mythical heroes. In some of he is identified with Elijah
Elijah
or Mar Elis, George or Mar Jirjus and in others as al-Khidr. The last epithet meaning the "green prophet", is common to both Christian
Christian
and Muslim folk piety. Samuel
Samuel
Curtiss who visited an artificial cave dedicated to him where he is identified with Elijah, reports that childless Muslim women used to visit the shrine to pray for children. Per tradition, he was brought to his place of martyrdom in chains, thus priests of Church of St. George chain the sick especially the mentally ill to a chain for overnight or longer for healing. This is sought after by both Muslims and Christians.[63] According to Elizabeth Anne Finn's Home in the Holy land (1866):[69]

St George killed the dragon in this country; and the place is shown close to Beyroot. Many churches and convents are named after him. The church at Lydda is dedicated to St. George; so is a convent near Bethlehem, and another small one just opposite the Jaffa gate, and others beside. The Arabs believe that St. George can restore mad people to their senses, and to say a person has been sent to St. George's is equivalent to saying he has been sent to a madhouse. It is singular that the Moslem Arabs adopted this veneration for St George, and send their mad people to be cured by him, as well as the Christians, but they commonly call him El Khudder—The Green—according to their favourite manner of using epithets instead of names. Why he should be called green, however, I cannot tell—unless it is from the colour of his horse. Gray horses are called green in Arabic.

The mosque of Nabi Jurjis which was restored by Timur
Timur
in the 14th century, was located in Mosul
Mosul
and supposedly contained the tomb of George.[70] It was however destroyed in July 2014 by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, who also destroyed the Mosque of the Prophet Sheeth (Seth) and the Mosque of the Prophet Younis (Jonah). The militants claim such mosques have become places for apostasy instead of prayer.[71] George or Hazrat Jurjays was the patron saint of Mosul. Along with Theodosius, he was revered by both Christian
Christian
and Muslim communities of Jazira and Anatolia. The wall paintings of Kırk Dam Altı Kilise at Belisırma
Belisırma
dedicated to him are dated between 1282-1304. These painting depicts him as a mounted knight appearing between donors including a Georgian lady called Thamar and her husband, the Emir and Consul Basil, while the Seljuk Sultan Mesud II
Mesud II
and Byzantine
Byzantine
Emperor Androncius II are also named in the inscriptions.[72] Arms and flag[edit] Main article: Saint
Saint
George's Cross

Saint
Saint
George's cross

It became fashionable in the 15th century, with the full development of classical heraldry, to provide attributed arms to saints and other historical characters from the pre-heraldic ages. The widespread attribution to Saint
Saint
George of the red cross on a white field in western art - " Saint
Saint
George's Cross" probably first arose in Genoa, which had adopted this image for their flag and George as their patron saint in the 12th century. A vexillum beati Georgii is mentioned in the Genovese annals for the year 1198, referring to a red flag with a depiction of Saint
Saint
George and the dragon. An illumination of this flag is shown in the annals for the year 1227. The Genoese flag with the red cross was used alongside this "George's flag", from at least 1218, and was known as the insignia cruxata comunis Janue ("cross ensign of the commune of Genoa"). The flag showing the saint himself was the city's principal war flag, but the flag showing the plain cross was used alongside it in the 1240s.[73] In 1348 Edward III of England
Edward III of England
chose Saint
Saint
George as the patron saint of his Order of the Garter, and also took to using a red-on-white cross in the hoist of his Royal Standard. The term " Saint
Saint
George's cross" was at first associated with any plain Greek cross touching the edges of the field (not necessarily red on white).[74] Thomas Fuller
Thomas Fuller
in 1647
1647
spoke of "the plain or St George's cross" as "the mother of all the others" (that is, the other heraldic crosses).[75] Iconography and models[edit]

Byzantine
Byzantine
icon of Saint
Saint
George, Athens, Greece.

Saint
Saint
George is most commonly depicted in early icons, mosaics, and frescos wearing armour contemporary with the depiction, executed in gilding and silver colour, intended to identify him as a Roman soldier. Particularly after the Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople
and Saint George's association with the crusades, he is often portrayed mounted upon a white horse. Thus, a 2003 Vatican stamp (issued on the anniversary of the Saint's death) depicts an armoured Saint
Saint
George atop a white horse, killing the dragon.[76] Eastern Orthodox iconography also permits Saint
Saint
George to ride a black horse, as in a Russian icon in the British museum collection.[citation needed] This may also reflect a modern Russian interpretation as depicting not a killing, but as an internal struggle, against ourselves and the evil among us.[citation needed] In the south Lebanese village of Mieh Mieh, the Saint
Saint
George Church for Melkite Catholics commissioned for its 75th jubilee in 2012 (under the guidance of Mgr Sassine Gregoire), the only icons in the world portraying the whole life of Saint
Saint
George, as well as the scenes of his torture and martyrdom (drawn in eastern iconographic style).[citation needed] Saint
Saint
George may also be portrayed with Saint
Saint
Demetrius, another early soldier saint. When the two saintly warriors are together and mounted upon horses, they may resemble earthly manifestations of the archangels Michael and Gabriel. Eastern traditions distinguish the two as Saint
Saint
George rides a white horse and St. Demetrius a red horse[77] Saint
Saint
George can also be identified by his spearing a dragon, whereas Saint
Saint
Demetrius may be spearing a human figure, representing Maximian. During the early second millennium, Saint
Saint
George became a model of chivalry in works of literature, including medieval romances. In the 13th century, Jacobus de Voragine, Archbishop of Genoa, compiled the Legenda Sanctorum, (Readings of the Saints) also known as Legenda Aurea (the Golden Legend). Its 177 chapters (182 in some editions) include the story of Saint
Saint
George, among many others. After the invention of the printing press, the book became a bestseller, second only to the Bible among books published by early English printer William Caxton
William Caxton
(circa 1415-1492). Gallery[edit]

For equestrian depictions, see Saint
Saint
George and the Dragon#Iconography. For a structured gallery, see: Saint
Saint
George gallery.

Tetarteron
Tetarteron
of Manuel I Komnenos
Manuel I Komnenos
(12th century) showing a bust of Saint George

A 12th-century depiction of St George in a church at the Russian village of Staraya Ladoga

Scenes from the life of Saint
Saint
George, Kremikovtsi Monastery, Bulgaria

Saint
Saint
George as a martyr: St. George's Collegiate Church in Tübingen

A 15th-century battle flag of Stephen the Great
Stephen the Great
of Moldavia representing Saint
Saint
George

The regimental War Flag of the Hellenic Army.

Svatý Jiří, malby Hejnák .

Saint
Saint
George dismounted, Greece (19th century)

A plague, on which is represented St.George rescuing the emperor's daughter (15-th century)

See also[edit]

Statue of Saint
Saint
George, Prague Castle

Saint
Saint
George's Day "St. George and the Dragon", a 17th-century ballad comparing the myth of Saint
Saint
George to that of other heroes Dragon
Dragon
Hill, Uffington, English hill named due to a legend that Saint George slew the dragon there "Georgslied", 9th-century Old High German
Old High German
poem about the life of Saint George Ederlezi, song and Romani name for the Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian Feast of Saint
Saint
George. Knights of St George Uastyrdzhi, Ossetian name for Saint
Saint
George Tetri Giorgi, Georgian name
Georgian name
for Saint
Saint
George Moors
Moors
and Christians of Alcoy, an international historical festival dedicated to Saint
Saint
George in Alcoy (Alicante), Spain. The Magic Sword, a 1962 film loosely based on the legend of St George and the Dragon Patrick Woodroffe, author of several poems about St George collated in a book called Hallelujah Anyway St George's Church, churches dedicated to St George St George's School, schools dedicated to St George St George's College, colleges dedicated to St George St George's Castle, castles dedicated to St George St George's Hospital, hospitals dedicated to St George

References[edit]

^ Foakes-Jackson, FJ (2005), A History of the Christian
Christian
Church, Cosimo Press, p. 461, ISBN 1-59605-452-2 . ^ Ball, Ann (2003), Encyclopedia of Catholic
Catholic
Devotions and Practices, p. 568, ISBN 0-87973-910-X . ^ https://st-takla.org/Saints/Saint-George_.html ^ a b "St. George", Catholic
Catholic
Online ^ Thurston, Herbert (1909), "St. George", The Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia, New York: Robert Appleton Company, 6, pp. 453–455  ^ Attwater, Donald (1995) [1965]. Dictionary of Saints (Third ed.). London: Penguin Reference. p. 152. His best-known story, popularized in the later middle ages by the Golden Legend, tells that he was a knight from Cappadocia, who rescued a maiden princess from a dragon at Silene in Libya, leading to the Christianity
Christianity
of much of the kingdom.  ^ Clapton, Edward (1903). The Life of St. George. p. 9. George, the tutelary saint of England, as well as the special patron of chivalry, was born in the third century at Lydda in Palestine.  ^ Guiley, Rosemary (2001). The Encyclopedia of Saints. p. 129. ISBN 9781438130262. George was an historical figure. According to an account by Metaphrastes, he was born in Cappadocia
Cappadocia
(in modern Turkey) to a noble Christian
Christian
family; his mother was Palestinian. ; Maloney, Allison (2010-04-09). St George: Let's Hear it For England!. The Random House Group Limited. ISBN 9781409050971.  ^ Heylin, A (1862), The Journal of Sacred Literature and Biblical Record, 1, p. 244 . Darch, John H (2006), Saints on Earth, Church House Press, p. 56, ISBN 978-0-7151-4036-9 . Walter, Christopher (2003), The Warrior Saints in Byzantine
Byzantine
Art and Tradition, Ashgate Publishing, p. 112, ISBN 1-84014-694-X . ^ a b c "St. George", Coptic Orthodox Church
Coptic Orthodox Church
Network ^ Smith, William (1867), A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Little Brown & Co, p. 249 . ^ Gibbs, Margaret (1971), Saints beyond the White Cliffs, Ayer Press, p. 2, ISBN 0-8369-8058-1 . ^ Hackwood, Fred (2003), Christ Lore the Legends, Traditions, Myths, Kessinger Publishing, p. 255, ISBN 0-7661-3656-6 . ^ a b Butler, Alban (2008), Lives of the Saints, ISBN 1-4375-1281-X .:166 ^ " Golden Legend
Golden Legend
– Life of Saint
Saint
George", (translated by William Caxton) catholicsaints.info ^ Hogg, John (1863), "Supplemental Notes on St George the Martyr, and on George the Arian Bishop", Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature of the United Kingdom, Royal Society of Literature: 106-136  ^ Spenser, Edmund (1998), Fierce Wars and Faithful Loves, Cannon Press, p. 196, ISBN 978-1-885767-39-4 . ^ Mills, Charles (2012), The History of Chivalry, Longman, Rees, p. 9 . ^ a b  Thurston, Herbert (1913). "St. George". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  "There seems, therefore, no ground for doubting the historical existence of St. George, even though he is not commemorated in the Syrian, or in the primitive Hieronymian Martyrologium, but no faith can be placed in the attempts that have been made to fill up any of the details of his history. For example, it is now generally admitted that St. George cannot safely be identified by the nameless martyr spoken of by Eusebius
Eusebius
(Church History VIII.5), who tore down Diocletian's edict of persecution at Nicomedia. The version of the legend in which Diocletian
Diocletian
appears as persecutor is not primitive. Diocletian
Diocletian
is only a rationalized form of the name Dadianus. Moreover, the connection of the saint's name with Nicomedia
Nicomedia
is inconsistent with the early cultus at Diospolis. Still less is St. George to be considered, as suggested by Gibbon, Vetter, and others, a legendary double of the disreputable bishop, George of Cappadocia, the Arian opponent of St. Athanasius." ^ Acta Sanctorum, Volume 12, as republished in 1866 ^ Church History (Eusebius), book 8, chapter 5; Greek text here, and English text here. Eusebius's full text as follows:

Immediately on the publication of the decree against the churches in Nicomedia, a certain man, not obscure but very highly honored with distinguished temporal dignities, moved with zeal toward God, and incited with ardent faith, seized the edict as it was posted openly and publicly, and tore it to pieces as a profane and impious thing; and this was done while two of the sovereigns were in the same city,—the oldest of all, and the one who held the fourth place in the government after him. But this man, first in that place, after distinguishing himself in such a manner suffered those things which were likely to follow such daring, and kept his spirit cheerful and undisturbed till death.

^ Walter, Christopher (2003), The Warrior Saints in Byzantine
Byzantine
Art and Tradition, Ashgate Publishing, p. 110, ISBN 1-84014-694-X . Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca 271, 272. ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "George, Saint". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 737. In the canon of Pope
Pope
Gelasius (494) George is mentioned in a list of those 'whose names are justly reverenced among men, but whose acts are known only to God'  ^ De Voragine, Jacobus (1995), The Golden Legend, Princeton University Press, p. 238, ISBN 978-0-691-00153-1 . ^ Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 2:23:5 ^ Richardson, Robert D; Moser, Barry, eds. (1996), Emerson, p. 520, George of Cappadocia... [held] the contract to supply the army with bacon... embraced Arianism... [and was] promoted... to the episcopal throne of Alexandria... When Julian came, George was dragged to prison, the prison was burst open by a mob, and George was lynched... [he] became in good time Saint
Saint
George of England . ^ Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 2:23:5 ^ " Saint
Saint
George", Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia, it is not improbable that the apocryphal Acts have borrowed some incidents from the story of the Arian bishop . ^ Gibbon, Edward (1906). Bury, John Bagnell, ed. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. New York, NY: Fred de Fau and Co. Retrieved 30 December 2016.  ^ a b Scott B. Noegel, Brannon M. Wheeler. The A to Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 313.  ^ a b H. S. Haddad (1968). ""Georgic" Cults and Saints of the Levant". Numen. Brill: 37.  ^ Bernard Carra de Vaux. P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W. P. Heinrichs, eds. Encyclopaedia of Islam. I, Part 2 (Second ed.). Brill. p. 1047.  ^ Charles Clermont-Ganneau, " Horus
Horus
et Saint
Saint
Georges, d’après un bas-relief inédit du Louvre". Revue archéologique, 1876 ^ " Horus
Horus
on horseback Louvre Museum Paris". www.louvre.fr.  ^ Pringle, Denys (1998), The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, Cambridge University Press, p. 25, ISBN 0-521-39037-0 . ^ Samantha Riches, St. George: Hero, Martyr and Myth (Sutton, 2000), ISBN 0750924527, p. 19. ^ McClendon 1999:p.6 ^ Perrin, British Flags, 1922, p. 38. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
1913, s.v. "Orders of St. George" omits Genoa and Hungary: see David
David
Scott Fox, Saint
Saint
George: The Saint
Saint
with Three Faces (1983:59–63, 98–123), noted by McClellan 999:6 note 13. Additional Orders of St. George were founded in the eighteenth century ( Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia). ^ McClendon 1999:10. ^ Desiderius Erasmus, in The Praise of Folly
The Praise of Folly
(1509, printed 1511) remarked "The Christians have now their gigantic St. George, as well as the pagans had their Hercules." ^ Only the most essential work might be done on a festum duplex ^ Muriel C. McClendon, "A Moveable Feast: Saint
Saint
George's Day Celebrations and Religious Change in Early Modern England" The Journal of British Studies 38.1 (January 1999:1–27). ^ The Divine Office: Table of Liturgical Days, Section I (RC) and Calendar, Lectionary and Collects (Church House Publishing 1997) p12 (C of E) ^ B, Sathish (20 March 2008). "St.George forane church Edathua-689573". Edathuapalli. Sathish B. Retrieved 5 February 2017.  ^ St:George Church (22 April 2014). "St.George forane church Edappally". Edappally. St: George Church. Retrieved 5 February 2017.  ^ "Arrangements for Edathua
Edathua
church fete". The Hindu. ALAPPUZHA. 3 April 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2017.  ^ Seal, Graham (2001), Encyclopedia of folk heroes, p. 85, ISBN 1-57607-216-9 . ^ Hinds, Kathryn (2001), Medieval England, Marshall Cavendish, p. 44, ISBN 0-7614-0308-6 . ^ Hock, Hans Henrich; Zgusta, Ladislav (1997). Historical, Indo-European, and Lexicographical Studies. Walter de Gruyter. p. 211. ISBN 978-3110128840.  ^ a b Mikaberidze, Alexander (2015). Historical Dictionary of Georgia (2 ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 3. ISBN 978-1442241466.  ^ David
David
Marshall Lang, The Georgians, (New York: Frederick A Praeger, 1966), 17–18. The terms Georgia and Georgians
Georgians
appeared in Western Europe in numerous early medieval annals. The French chronicler Jacques de Vitry
Jacques de Vitry
and the English traveller John Mandeville
John Mandeville
wrote that Georgians
Georgians
are called 'Georgian' because they especially revere Saint George. ^ Gabidzashvili, Enriko (1991), Saint
Saint
George: In Ancient Georgian Literature, Tbilisi, Georgia: Armazi – 89 . ^ Foakes-Jackson, FJ (2005), A History of the Christian
Christian
Church, Cosimo, p. 556, ISBN 1-59605-452-2 . ^ Eastmond, Antony (1998), Royal Imagery in Medieval Georgia, Penn State Press, p. 119, ISBN 0-271-01628-0 . ^ The Saint
Saint
George's Victory order, among other civilian and military decorations, is one of the highest decorations in Georgia. ^ Vella, George Francis. "St George, the patron saint of Gozo". Times of Malta. Times of Malta. Retrieved 26 January 2017.  ^ "The patron saint and protector of Gozo". Times of Malta. Times of Malta. Retrieved 26 January 2017.  ^ de Bles, Arthur (2004), How to Distinguish the Saints in Art, p. 86, ISBN 1-4179-0870-X . ^ de Oliveira Marques, AH; André, Vítor; Wyatt, SS (1971), Daily Life in Portugal
Portugal
in the Late Middle Ages, University of Wisconsin Press, p. 216, ISBN 0-299-05584-1 . ^ Insider, Romania
Romania
(2015-04-23). " Saint
Saint
George Day: How many Romanians bear his name? - Romania
Romania
Insider". Romania
Romania
Insider. Retrieved 2018-02-07.  ^ gencat.cat: "Catalan Government explains Sant Jordi" ^ a b Religion and Culture in Medieval Islam by Richard G. Hovannisian, Georges Sabagh 2000 ISBN 0-521-62350-2, Cambridge University Press pages 109-110 ^ Hanauer, JE (1907). "Folk-lore of the Holy Land, Moslem, Christian and Jewish". Retrieved January 18, 2007.  ^ a b c William Dalrymple (March 15, 1999). From the Holy Mountain: a journey among the Christians of the Middle East. Owl Books.  ^ "Who is Saint
Saint
George?". St. George's Basilica. Retrieved January 17, 2007.  ^ H. S. Haddad. ""Georgic" Cults and Saints of the Levant". JSTOR 3269569.  ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "George, Saint". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 737.  ^ Elizabeth Anne Finn
Elizabeth Anne Finn
(1866). Home in the Holyland. London: James Nisbet and Co. pp. 46–7.  p. 46. ^ Middle East
Middle East
and Africa: International Dictionary of Historic Places. I.B. Tauris. p. 525.  ^ "Islamic militants destroy historic 14th century mosque in Mosul". The Telegraph.  ^ Teresa Fitzherbert. "Religious Diversity Under Ilkhanid Rule". In Linda Komaroff. Beyond the Legacy of Genghis Khan. Brill. p. 402.  ^ Aldo Ziggioto, "Genova", in Vexilla Italica 1, XX (1993); Aldo Ziggioto, "Le Bandiere degli Stati Italiani", in Armi Antiche 1994, cited after Pier Paolo Lugli, 18 July 2000 on Flags of the World. ^ William Woo Seymour, The Cross in Tradition, History and Art, 1898, p. 363 ^ Fuller, A Supplement tu the Historie of the Holy Warre ( Book
Book
V), 1647, chapter 4. ^ "Vatican stamps". Vaticanstate.va. Archived from the original on 2011-10-01. Retrieved 2011-04-23.  ^ The red pigment may appear black if it has bitumenized.

Further reading[edit]

Brook, E.W., 1925. Acts of Saint
Saint
George in series Analecta Gorgiana 8 (Gorgias Press). Burgoyne, Michael H. 1976. A Chronological Index to the Muslim Monuments of Jerusalem. In The Architecture of Islamic Jerusalem. Jerusalem: The British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem. Gabidzashvili, Enriko. 1991. Saint
Saint
George: In Ancient Georgian Literature. Armazi – 89: Tbilisi, Georgia. Good, Jonathan, 2009. The Cult of Saint
Saint
George in Medieval England (Woodbridge, Suffolk: The Boydell Press). Loomis, C. Grant, 1948. White Magic, An Introduction to the Folklore of Christian
Christian
Legend
Legend
(Cambridge: Medieval Society of America) Natsheh, Yusuf. 2000. "Architectural survey", in Ottoman Jerusalem: The Living City 1517–1917. Edited by Sylvia Auld and Robert Hillenbrand (London: Altajir World of Islam Trust) pp 893–899. Whatley, E. Gordon, editor, with Anne B. Thompson and Robert K. Upchurch, 2004. St. George and the Dragon
Dragon
in the South English Legendary (East Midland Revision, c. 1400) Originally published in Saints' Lives in Middle English Collections (Kalamazoo, Michigan: Medieval Institute Publications) (on-line introduction) George Menachery, Saint
Saint
Thomas Christian
Christian
Encyclopaedia of India. Vol.II Trichur – 73.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint
Saint
George.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of The New Student's Reference Work article about Saint
Saint
George.

St. George and the Dragon, free illustrated book based on 'The Seven Champions' by Richard Johnson (1596) Archnet Saint
Saint
George and the Dragon
Dragon
links and pictures (more than 125), from Dragons in Art and on the Web Story of Saint
Saint
George from The Golden Legends Saint
Saint
George and the Boy Scouts, including a woodcut of a Scout on horseback slaying a dragon A prayer for St George's Day St. George St. George and the Dragon: An Introduction Greatmartyr, Victory-bearer and Wonderworker George Orthodox icon and synaxarion for

April 23

Dedication of the Church of the Greatmartyr George in Lydia Icon
Icon
and synaxarion for November 3 Dedication of the Church of the Greatmartyr George at Kiev
Kiev
Icon
Icon
and synaxarion for November 26 Saint
Saint
George in the church in Plášťovce,(Palást) in Slovakia The St George Orthodox Military Association Famous Georgian Pilgrim Center in India
India
St. George Orthodox Church Puthuppally, Kerala, India Hail George Radio webcast explains how Saint
Saint
George came to be confused with some Afro-Brazilian deities Blog Article on the Feast of Saint
Saint
George The feast of Saint
Saint
George is April 23 - About that Dragon... St. George, Martyr at the Christian
Christian
Iconography web site. Of St. George, Martyr from Caxton's translation of the Golden Legend

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of Caesarea Gregory of Nyssa Gregory of Neocaesarea Hadra of Aswan Ignatius of Antioch Isidorus of Hermonpolis Jacob
Jacob
of Nisibis James of Cairo James of Jerusalem John of Nikiu John of Jerusalem Karas of California Macarius of Edkow Mikhaeil of Asyut Narcissus of Jerusalem Nicholas of Myra Paphnutius of Scetes Paphnutius of Thebes Peter Elrahawy of Gaza Pisentius of Qift Pisentius of Hermonthis Pisora of Masil Polycarp of Smyrna Porphyry of Gaza Ptolemy of Minuf Psote
Psote
of Ebsay Sarapamon of Monufia Sarapamon of Niku Serapion of Thmuis Severian of Gabala Yousab el-Abah of Girga Timothy of Ansena Zacharias of Sakha

Anchorites

Annasimon Babnuda Balamon Elisa Ezekiel Ghalion Hedra Hermina Karas Keriakos Latsoun Mary Misael Olaghi Onuphrius Paphnutius Paul Pijimi Shenouda Silas Stephanos Stratios Timothy Thomas Yousab Zosimas

Monks

Ababius Abdel Messih El-Makari Abib and Apollo Abraham
Abraham
of Farshut Abraham
Abraham
of Scetes Amun Anthony the Great Awgin Bashnouna Hilarion Isaac
Isaac
of Nineveh Isidore of Pelusium John Climacus John the Dwarf Macarius of Alexandria Macarius of Egypt Moses
Moses
the Black Mother Irini Hospitius Nilus of Sinai Pachomius the Great Pambo Parsoma Paul of Thebes Paul of Tammah Paul the Simple Patapios of Thebes Pishoy Poemen Samuel
Samuel
the Confessor Saint
Saint
Patapios of Thebes Tekle Haymanot Clement of Alexandria Sisoes the Great Theodorus of Tabennese Theodora of Alexandria

Other Saints

Ambrose Didymus the Blind Euphrosyne Freig Candidus Simon the Tanner Verena

Oriental Orthodoxy
Oriental Orthodoxy
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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 27862930 ISNI: 0000 0000 1364 2652 GND: 118538527 SELIBR: 345635 BIBSYS: 90653093

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