Sabbatai Zevi (Hebrew: שַׁבְּתַי צְבִי (other
spellings include Shabbetai Ẓevi, Shabbeṯāy Ṣeḇī, Shabsai
Tzvi, and Sabetay Sevi in Turkish) (August 1, 1626 – c. September
17, 1676) was a Sephardic ordained Rabbi, though of Romaniote
origin and a kabbalist, active throughout the Ottoman Empire,
who claimed to be the long-awaited Jewish Messiah. He was the founder
of the Sabbatean movement.
In February 1666, upon arriving in Constantinople, Sabbatai was
imprisoned on the order of the grand vizier Ahmed Köprülü; in
September of that same year, after being moved from different prisons
around the capital to
Adrianople (the imperial court's seat) for
judgement on accusations of fomenting sedition, Sabbatai was given by
Köprülü, in the name of the
Sultan Mehmed IV, the choice of either
facing death by some type of ordeal, or of converting to Islam.
Sabbatai seems to have chosen the latter by donning from then on a
Turkish turban. He was then also rewarded by the heads of the Ottoman
state with a generous pension for his compliance with their political
and religious plans. Some of his followers also converted to
Islam—about 300 families who were known as the Dönmeh
(converts). He was later banished twice by the Ottoman authorities
who were tired of his schemes and discovered him singing psalms with
the Jews. He later died in isolation.
1 Early life and education
2 Personal history
2.1 Influence of English millenarianism
2.2 Claims of messiahship
2.3 In Salonica, Cairo, and Jerusalem
2.4 Marriage to Sarah
2.5 Nathan of Gaza
2.6 Proclaimed messiah
2.7 Spread of his influence
2.8 In Constantinople
2.9 At Abydos (Migdal Oz)
2.10 Nehemiah ha-Kohen
2.11 Conversion to Islam
2.13 Last years
3 Modern followers
4 See also
8 Further reading
9 External links
Early life and education
Sabbatai Zevi was born in Smyrna,
Ottoman Empire (
present-day Turkey), on supposedly
Tisha B'Av (the 9th of Av), 1626,
the holy day of mourning. His name literally meant the planet Saturn,
and in Jewish tradition "The reign of Sabbatai" (The highest planet)
was often linked to the advent of the Messiah. Zevi's family were
Patras in present-day Greece; his father, Mordecai,
was a poultry dealer in the Morea. During the war between
Smyrna became the center of Levantine trade. Mordecai became
Smyrna agent of an English trading house and managed to achieve
some wealth in this role.
In accordance with the prevailing Jewish custom of the time,
Sabbatai's father had him study the Talmud. He attended a yeshiva
under the rabbi of Smyrna, Joseph Escapa. Studies in halakha (Jewish
law) did not appeal to him, but apparently Zevi did attain proficiency
in the Talmud. On the other hand, he was fascinated by mysticism and
the Kabbalah, as influenced by Rabbi Isaac Luria. He found the
practical kabbalah – with its asceticism, through which its devotees
claimed to be able to communicate with God and the angels, to predict
the future and to perform all sorts of miracles – especially
Influence of English millenarianism
During the first half of the 17th century, millenarian ideas of the
approach of the Messianic time were popular. They included ideas of
the redemption of the Jews and their return to the land of Israel,
with independent sovereignty. The apocalyptic year was identified by
Christian authors as 1666 and millenarianism was widespread in
England. This belief was so prevalent that Manasseh ben Israel, in his
Oliver Cromwell and the Rump Parliament, appealed to it as a
reason to readmit Jews into England, saying, "[T]he opinions of many
Christians and mine do concur herein, that we both believe that the
restoring time of our Nation into their native country is very near at
hand." Besides being involved in other commercial activities,
Sabbatai's father was the agent for an English trading house in Smyrna
and must have had some business contact with English people. Sabbatai
could have learned something about these Western millenarian
expectations at his father's house.
Claims of messiahship
Apart from this general Messianic theory, there was another
computation, based on an interpreted passage in the
Zohar (a famous
Jewish mystical text), and particularly popular among the Jews,
according to which the year 1648 was to be the year of Israel's
redemption by their long-awaited Jewish Messiah.
At age 22 in 1648, Sabbatai started declaring to his followers in
Smyrna that he was the true Messianic redeemer. In order to prove this
claim he started to pronounce the Tetragrammaton, an act which Judaism
emphatically prohibited to all but the Jewish high priest in the
Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem on the Day of Atonement. For scholars acquainted
with rabbinical, and kabbalistic literature, the act was highly
symbolic. He revealed his Messiahship early on to Isaac Silveyra and
Moses Pinheiro, the latter a brother-in-law of the Italian rabbi and
kabbalist Joseph Ergas.
However, at this point he was still relatively young to be thought of
as an accepted and established rabbinic authority; and his influence
in the local community was not widespread. Even though Sabbatai had
led the pious life of a mystic in
Smyrna for several years, the older
and more established rabbinic leadership was still suspicious of his
activities. The local college of rabbis, headed by his teacher, Joseph
Escapa, kept a watchful eye on him. When his Messianic pretensions
became too bold, they put him and his followers under cherem, a type
of excommunication in Judaism.
About the year 1651 (according to others, 1654), the rabbis banished
Sabbatai and his disciples from Smyrna. It is not certain where he
went from there. By 1658, he was in Constantinople, where he met a
Abraham Yachini (a disciple of Joseph di Trani), who
confirmed Sabbatai's messianic mission. Yachini is said to have forged
a manuscript in archaic characters which, he alleged, bore testimony
to Sabbatai's Messiahship. It was entitled "The Great Wisdom of
Solomon", and began:
"I, Abraham, was confined in a cave for forty years, and I wondered
greatly that the time of miracles did not arrive. Then was heard a
voice proclaiming, 'A son will be born in the
Hebrew year 5386 [the
year 1626 CE] to Mordecai Zevi; and he will be called Shabbethai. He
will humble the great dragon; ... he, the true Messiah, will sit upon
In Salonica, Cairo, and Jerusalem
New Mosque, built by Donmeh community of
Salonica during the Ottoman
With this document, Sabbatai chose Salonica, at that time a center of
kabbalists, for his base. He proclaimed himself the
"anointed one," gaining many adherents. He put on all sorts of
mystical events — e.g., the celebration of his marriage as the "One
Without End" (the Ein Sof) with the Torah, preparing a solemn festival
to which he invited his friends. The rabbis of Salonica, headed by
Rabbi Hiyya Abraham Di Boton, banished him from the city. The sources
differ widely as to the route he took after this expulsion, with
Alexandria, Athens, Constantinople, Jerusalem, and
Smyrna mentioned as
temporary centers. After wandering, he settled in Cairo, where he
resided for about two years (1660–1662).
Raphael Joseph Halabi ("of Aleppo") was a wealthy and influential Jew
who held the high position of mint-master and tax-farmer in Cairo
under the Ottoman government. He led an ascetic life, which included
fasting, bathing in cold water, and scourging his body at night. He
used his great wealth for charity, supporting poor Talmudists and
Kabbalists, fifty of whom reportedly dined at his table regularly.
Sabbatai befriended Raphael Joseph, who became a supporter and
promoter of his Messianic claims.
About 1663 Sabbatai moved on to Jerusalem. Here he resumed his former
ascetic practice of frequent fasting and other penances. Many saw this
as proof of his extraordinary piety. He was said to have a good voice,
and sang psalms all night long, or at times Spanish love-songs, to
which he gave mystical interpretations. He attracted crowds of
listeners. At other times he prayed and cried at the graves of pious
men and women. He distributed sweetmeats to children on the streets.
Gradually he gathered a circle of adherents.
The important community of
Jerusalem at the time was also in need of
money to keep up with the heavy taxes imposed on it by the Ottoman
government. The community was coming up short of funds to pay these
levies, and these arrears could have dire consequences. Sabbatai,
known as the favorite of the rich and powerful Raphael Joseph Halabi
in the Turkish government center in Cairo, was chosen as the community
envoy to appeal to Halabi for money and support. His success in
getting the funds to pay off the Turks raised his prestige. His
followers dated his public career from this journey to Cairo.
Marriage to Sarah
Another event helped spread Sabbatai's fame in the Jewish world of the
time in the course of his second stay in Cairo. During the Chmielnicki
massacres in Poland, a Jewish orphan girl named Sarah, about six years
old, was found by Christians and sent to a convent for care. After ten
years, she escaped (through a miracle she claimed), and made her way
to Amsterdam. Some years later she went to
Livorno where, according to
reports, she led a life of prostitution. She also conceived the notion
that she was to become the bride of the Messiah, who was soon to
When the report of Sarah's adventures reached Cairo, Sabbatai claimed
that such a consort had been promised to him in a dream because he, as
the Messiah, was bound to fall in love with an unchaste woman. He
reportedly sent messengers to
Livorno to bring Sarah to him, and they
were married at Halabi's house. Her beauty and eccentricity reportedly
helped him gain new followers. Through her a new romantic and
licentious element entered Sabbatai's career. Even the overturning of
her past scandalous life was seen by Sabbatai's followers as
additional confirmation of his messiahship, following the biblical
story of the prophet Hosea, who had also been commanded to take a
"wife of whoredom" as the first symbolic act of his calling.
Nathan of Gaza
Main article: Nathan of Gaza
With Halabi's financial and political backing, a charming wife, and
many additional followers, Sabbatai triumphantly returned to
Jerusalem. Passing through the city of Gaza, which at the time had an
important Jewish community, he met Nathan Benjamin Levi, known since
Nathan of Gaza
Nathan of Gaza (נתן עזתי Nathan 'Azzati). Nathan became very
active in Sabbatai's subsequent Messianic career, serving as
Sabbatai's right-hand man and declaring himself to be the risen
Elijah, who, it was predicted, would proclaim the arrival of the
Messiah. In 1665, Nathan announced that the Messianic age would begin
the following year with the conquest of the world without bloodshed.
Messiah would lead the
Ten Lost Tribes
Ten Lost Tribes back to the Holy Land,
"riding on a lion with a seven-headed dragon in its jaws".
The rabbis of
Jerusalem viewed Sabbatai's movement with great
suspicion, and threatened its followers with excommunication.
Jerusalem would not be the best place to enact his
plans, Sabbatai left for his native city, Smyrna. Nathan proclaimed
that henceforth Gaza, and not Jerusalem, would be the sacred city. On
his way from
Jerusalem to Smyrna, Sabbatai was greeted
enthusiastically in Aleppo. In Smyrna, which he reached in the autumn
of 1665, the greatest homage was paid to him. After some hesitation,
he publicly declared himself to be the expected
Messiah during the
Jewish New Year in 1665; his declaration was made in the synagogue,
with the blowing of horns, and shouts of "Long live our King, our
His followers began to refer to him with the title AMIRAH, a Hebrew
acronym for the phrase "Our Lord and King, his Majesty be exalted"
(Adoneinu Malkeinu Yarum Hodo).
Sabbatai Zevi enthroned" (image from the Amsterdam/Jewish publication
Tikkun, Amsterdam, 1666).
Assisted by his wife, Sabbatai became the leader of the community. He
used his power to crush the opposition. He deposed the existing rabbi
of Smyrna, Aaron Lapapa, and appointed
Chaim Benveniste in his place.
His popularity grew, as people of all faiths repeated his story. His
fame extended far and wide. Italy, Germany, and the
centers of his Messianic movement. The Jews of
Hamburg and Amsterdam
learned of the events in
Smyrna from trustworthy Christians. Henry
Oldenburg, a distinguished German savant who became the first
secretary of the Royal Society, wrote to
Baruch Spinoza (Spinozae
Epistolae No 33): "All the world here is talking of a rumour of the
return of the Israelites ... to their own country. ... Should the news
be confirmed, it may bring about a revolution in all things."
Sabbatai's followers included many prominent rabbis, such as Isaac
Aboab da Fonseca, Moses Raphael de Aguilar, Moses Galante, Moses
Zacuto, and the above-mentioned Hayyim Benveniste. Dionysius Musaphia,
an adherent of Spinoza, likewise became a follower. People spread
fantastic reports, which were widely believed. For example, it was
said, "In the north of
Scotland a ship had appeared with silken sails
and ropes, manned by sailors who spoke Hebrew. The flag bore the
inscription 'The Twelve Tribes of Israel'." The Jewish community
France prepared to emigrate to the new kingdom in the
spring of 1666.
The readiness of the Jews to believe the messianic claims of Sabbatai
Zevi may largely be explained by the desperate state of European Jewry
in the mid-17th century. The bloody pogroms of
Bohdan Khmelnytsky had
wiped out around 100,000 Jews in Eastern Europe, or more,
others put the numbers killed at between 40,000 and 100,000, about
one third of Europe's Jewish population at the time and destroyed many
centers of Jewish learning and communal life. There is no doubt that
for most of the Jews of
Europe there could not have been a more
propitious moment for the messiah to deliver salvation than the moment
Sabbetai Zevi made his appearance.
Spread of his influence
Main article: Sabbateans
Probably with his consent, Sabbatai's adherents planned to abolish
many of the ritualistic observances because, according to a minority
opinion in the Talmud, in the Messianic time there would no longer be
holy obligations. The fast of the
Tenth of Tevet became a day of
feasting and rejoicing. Samuel Primo, who became Sabbatai's
secretary when the latter went to Smyrna, directed in the name of the
Messiah the following circular to all of the Jews:
"The first-begotten Son of God, Shabbethai Tebi,
Messiah and Redeemer
of the people of Israel, to all the sons of Israel, Peace! Since ye
have been deemed worthy to behold the great day and the fulfilment of
God's word by the Prophets, your lament and sorrow must be changed
into joy, and your fasting into merriment; for ye shall weep no more.
Rejoice with song and melody, and change the day formerly spent in
sadness and sorrow into a day of jubilee, because I have appeared."
Primo's message was considered blasphemous, as Sabbatai wanted to
celebrate his birthday rather than the holy day. There was outrage and
dissension in the communities; many of the leaders who had regarded
the movement sympathetically were shocked at such radical innovations.
Solomon Algazi, a prominent Talmudist of Smyrna, and other members of
the rabbinate who opposed the abolition of the fast, narrowly escaped
death at the hands of Sabbatai's followers.
At the beginning of the year 1666, Sabbatai left Izmir for
Constantinople (İstanbul in present-day Turkey). He may have been
forced to flee by city officials. Nathan Ghazzati had prophesied that,
once in Constantinople, Sabbatai would place the sultan's crown on his
own head. The grand vizier, Ahmed Köprülü, ordered Sabbatai's
immediate arrest upon his arrival and had him imprisoned, maybe to
avoid any doubts among local and foreign observers of the imperial
court as to the power still wielded by the Turkish Sultanate and by
Sabbatai's imprisonment discouraged neither him nor his followers at
this stage. He was treated well in prison, perhaps because of bribes
paid. This seems to have strengthened belief within his immediate
circle of followers. Fabulous reports concerning the miraculous deeds
"the Messiah" was performing in the Turkish capital were spread by
Ghazzati, Abraham Yachini, and Primo among the Jews of
Smyrna and in
many other communities, and the messianic expectations in the Jewish
diasporas continued to rise.
At Abydos (Migdal Oz)
After two months' imprisonment in Constantinople, Sabbatai was moved
to the state prison at Abydos. Some of his friends were allowed to
accompany him. As a result, the Sabbataians called the fortress Migdal
Oz (Tower [of] Strength). As Sabbatai had arrived on the day preceding
Passover, he slew a paschal lamb for himself and his followers. He ate
it with its fat, a violation of Jewish Law. It is said that he
pronounced over it the benediction: "Blessed be God who hath restored
again that which was forbidden."
The immense sums sent to him by his rich followers, the charms of the
queenly Sarah, and the cooperation shown by the Turkish officials and
others enabled Sabbatai to display royal splendor in the prison castle
of Abydos. Accounts of his life there were exaggerated and spread
among Jews in Europe, Asia, and Africa. In some parts of Europe, Jews
began to unroof their houses and prepare for a new "exodus". In almost
every synagogue, Sabbatai's initials were posted, and prayers for him
were inserted in the following form: "Bless our Lord and King, the
holy and righteous Sabbatai Zevi, the
Messiah of the God of Jacob." In
Hamburg, the council introduced the custom of praying for Sabbatai not
only on Saturday (the Jewish Sabbath), but also on Monday and
Thursday. Unbelievers were compelled to remain in the synagogue and
join in the prayer with a loud Amen. Sabbatai's picture was printed
together with that of
King David in most of the prayer-books, along
with his kabbalistic formulas and penances.
These and similar innovations caused great commotion in some
Moravia excitement reached such a pitch that the
government had to intervene, while at Sale, Morocco, the emir ordered
a persecution of the Jews. During this period Sabbatai declared the
fasts of the
Seventeenth of Tammuz
Seventeenth of Tammuz and the
Ninth of Av
Ninth of Av (his birthday)
would henceforth be feast-days. He contemplated converting the Day of
Atonement to one of celebration.
Sabbatai Zevi as a prisoner in Abydos.
While Sabbatai was in the Abydos prison an incident occurred which
ultimately led to Sabbatai's downfall. Two prominent Polish Talmudists
from Lwów, Lesser Poland, who were among Sabbatai's visitors in
Abydos, informed him that in their native country a prophet, Nehemiah
ha-Kohen, had announced the coming of the Messiah. Sabbatai ordered
the prophet to appear before him. (See Jew. Encyc. ix. 212a, s.v.
Nehemiah ha-Kohen). Nehemiah obeyed, reaching Abydos after a journey
of three months at the beginning of September, 1666. The meeting
between the two ended in mutual dissatisfaction. Some Sabbataians are
said to have contemplated the secret murder of the rival.
Conversion to Islam
Nehemiah, however, escaped to Constantinople, where he pretended to
Islam to get an audience with the kaymakam. He told him of
Sabbatai's ambitions. The kaymakam informed the sultan, Mehmed IV.
Sabbatai was taken from Abydos to Adrianople, where the sultan's
vizier gave him three choices; subject himself to a trial of his
divinity in the form of a volley of arrows (in which should the
archers miss, his divinity would be proven); be impaled; or he could
convert to Islam. On the following day (September 16, 1666) Zevi
came before the sultan, cast off his Jewish garb and put a Turkish
turban on his head. Thus his conversion to
Islam was accomplished. The
sultan was much pleased, and rewarded Sabbatai by conferring on him
the title (Mahmed) Effendi, and appointing him as his doorkeeper with
a generous salary. Sarah and approximately 300 families among
Sabbatai's followers also converted to Islam. These new Muslims
thereafter were known as dönmeh (converts). The sultan's officials
ordered Sabbatai to take an additional wife to demonstrate his
conversion. Some days after his conversion he wrote to Smyrna: "God
has made me an Ishmaelite; He commanded, and it was done. The ninth
day of my regeneration."
Former followers of Sabbatai do penance for their support of him.
Sabbatai's conversion devastated his followers. Muslims and Christians
alike ridiculed his followers after the event. In spite of Sabbatai's
apostasy, many of his adherents still clung tenaciously to their
belief in him, claiming that his conversion was a part of the
Messianic scheme. Prophets such as Ghazzati and Primo, who were
interested in maintaining the movement, encouraged such belief. In
many communities, the
Seventeenth of Tammuz
Seventeenth of Tammuz and the
Ninth of Av
Ninth of Av were
still observed as feast-days in spite of bans and excommunications by
At times Sabbatai assumed the role of a pious Muslim and reviled
Judaism; at others he associated with Jews as one of their own faith.
In March, 1668, he announced that he had been filled with the "Holy
Spirit" at Passover, and had received a "revelation." He, or one of
his followers, published a mystical work claiming Sabbatai was the
Messiah in spite of his conversion, whose goal was to bring
thousands of Muslims to Judaism. He told the sultan, however, that he
was trying to convert Jews to Islam. The sultan permitted Sabbatai to
associate with other Jews and preach in their synagogues. He succeeded
in bringing over a number of Muslims to his kabbalistic views.
Whether through his efforts or their willingness to follow in his
latest steps, about 300 families of
Sephardic Jews converted to Islam,
becoming known as the
Dönmeh (also spelled Dönme), convert. Some
of the followers adhered to a combination of their former Jewish
practices as well as Islam.
Gradually the Turks tired of Sabbatai's schemes. They ended his
doorkeeper's salary and banished him to Constantinople. When he was
discovered singing psalms with Jews, the grand vizier ordered his
banishment to Dulcigno (today called Ulcinj), a small place in
present-day Montenegro. In August 1676, he wrote to the Jewish
Community in Berat, Albania, requesting religious books, but he
died shortly after in isolation, according to some accounts on
September 17, 1676, the High Holy Day of Yom Kippur. His tomb was
believed for a long time to have been in Berat, at a tekke built in
the yard of the "
Sultan Mosque" (Albanian: Xhamia e Mbretit), where a
tomb stood until 1967. Recently, scholars support the theory that he
was buried in Dulcigno. His biographer Gershom
Scholem mentions that his tomb was visited by Dönme pilgrims from
Salonika until the early 20th century.
"By the 1680s, the Dönme had congregated in Salonica, the
cosmopolitan and majority-Jewish city in Ottoman Greece. For the next
250 years, they would lead an independent communal life —
intermarrying, doing business together, maintaining their own shrines,
and handing down their secret traditions." By the 19th century, the
Dönmeh had become prominent in the tobacco and textile trades. They
established progressive schools and some members became politically
active. Some joined the Committee on Union and Progress (CUP), the
revolutionary party known as the Young Turks. With independence, in
Greece expelled the Muslims from its territory, including
the Dönmeh. Most migrated to Turkey, where by mid-century they were
becoming highly assimilated.
At the beginning of 1673, the sultan had Zevi exiled to Ulcinj
(Dulcigno, Turkish: Ulkum). His wife died there in 1674, after
which Zevi married the daughter of rabbi Joseph Filosoff of
Thessaloniki. He died on 17 September 1676. Upon his death,
his widow, brother and children by his first wife moved to
Sabbateans and Dönmeh
Although rather little is known about them, various groups called
Dönmeh (Turkish for "convert") continue to follow Sabbatai Zevi
today, mostly in Turkey. Estimates of the numbers vary. Many
sources claim that there are fewer than 100,000 and some of them claim
there are several hundred thousand in Turkey. They
have been described as presenting themselves as Muslim in public
whilst practising their own forms of messianic/mystical Jewish beliefs
The Dönme eventually split into three sects, each with quite
different beliefs, as Ottoman Jewish scholars Abraham Danon, and
Joseph Néhama had pointed out in French-language Jewish studies
journal articles over 100 years ago. In the 1930s a new
comprehensive study on the history of the sects was also published in
French by Abraham Galanté. More recently, Professor Cengiz
Şişman, has published a new study called The Burden of Silence.
According to a review of his views published in the Israeli newspaper
Jerusalem Post, the branch known as Karakaş follow Sufi-influenced
practices, while the Kapancıs have not been influenced by
all, and are now completely secular.
Ottoman Empire portal
Yakov Leib HaKohain
Jewish Messiah claimants
Jews in apostasy
List of messiah claimants
Schisms among the Jews
"Who is a Jew?"
^ Scholem, Sabbatai Sevi: The Mystical Messiah: 1626–1676, pp.
103–106 has a whole discussion of the historical probabilities that
he was really born on the 9th of Av, which according to Jewish
tradition is the date of the destruction of both Temples and is also
the date 'prescribed' in some traditions for the birth of the Messiah.
^ Scholem, op. cit., p. 111, mentions, among other evidence of
Sabbatai's early rabbinic training and smicha by Rabbi Joseph Eskapha
of his native town of Smyrna: "According to the testimony of Leib b.
Ozer, the notary of the notary of the Ashkenazi community of
Amesterdam ..., Sabbatai was eighteen years old when he was ordained a
hakham." Scholem also writes, in the previous sentence: "Thomas
Coenen, the Protestant minister serving the Dutch congregation in
Smyrna, tells us ... that he received the title hakham, the Sephardi
honorific for a rabbi, when still an adolescent."
^ Goldish, M. Jewish Questions: Responsa on Sephardic Life in the
Early Modern Period, esp. p. Introduction XXXI, 2008 (The author
describes him as a Romaniote Jew)
^ Scholem, op cit., pp. 678–681; Scholem, Gershom. "Shabbetai Zevi."
Encyclopaedia Judaica, pp. 348–350
^ a b c d Adam Kirsch, "The Other Secret Jews", review of Marc David
Baer, The Dönme: Jewish Converts, Muslim Revolutionaries, and Secular
Turks, The New Republic, 15 Feb 2010, accessed 20 Feb 2010
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae
af This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain:
Kaufmann Kohler & Henry Malter
(1901–1906). "SHABBETHAI ẒEBI B. MORDECAI". In Singer, Isidore; et
al. Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.
^ a b c Robert Elsie (2010), Historical Dictionary of Albania,
Scarecrow Press, p. 411, ISBN 9780810861886
^ The mixed multitude:
Jacob Frank and the Frankist movement, Pawel
Maciejko, University of Pennsylvania Press, Mar 8, 2011, Page 45.
^ "SHABBETHAI ẒEBI B. MORDECAI", by
Kaufmann Kohler and Henry
Jewish Encyclopedia (refers to Grätz, "Gesch." x., note 3,
pp. xxix. et seq.), accessed 9 Apr 2011
^ This theory was originally suggested by Graetz; Gershom Scholem
argued forcefully against it in his major work on Sabbatai quoted
throughout this entry.
^ Lukach, Harry Charles (1914). The City of Dancing Dervishes and
Other Sketches and Studies from the Near East. London: Macmillan and
Company. pp. 189–190.
^ Sources estimating 100,000 Jews killed:
"Bogdan Chmelnitzki leads Cossack uprising against Polish rule;
100,000 Jews are killed and hundreds of Jewish communities are
Judaism Timeline 1618–1770, CBS News. Accessed May 13,
"The peasants of Ukraine rose up in 1648 under a petty aristocrat
Bogdan Chmielnicki. ... It is estimated that 100,000 Jews were
massacred and 300 of their communities destroyed". Oscar Reiss. The
Jews in Colonial America, McFarland & Company, 2004,
ISBN 0-7864-1730-7, pp. 98–99.
"Moreover, Poles must have been keenly aware of the massacre of Jews
in 1768 and even more so as the result of the much more widespread
massacres (approximately 100,000 dead) of the earlier Chmielnicki
pogroms during the preceding century." Manus I. Midlarsky. The Killing
Trap: genocide in the twentieth century, Cambridge University Press,
2005,ISBN 0-521-81545-2, p. 352.
"... as many as 100,000 Jews were murdered throughout the Ukraine by
Bogdan Chmielnicki's Cossack soldiers on the rampage." Martin Gilbert.
Holocaust Journey: Traveling in Search of the Past, Columbia
University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-231-10965-2, p. 219.
"A series of massacres perpetrated by the Ukrainian Cossacks under the
leadership of Bogdan Chmielnicki saw the death of up to 100,000 Jews
and the destruction of perhaps 700 communities between 1648 and 1654
..." Samuel Totten. Teaching About Genocide: Issues, Approaches, and
Resources, Information Age Publishing, 2004, ISBN 1-59311-074-X,
"In response to
Poland having taken control of much of the Ukraine in
the early seventeenth century, Ukrainian peasants mobilized as groups
of cavalry, and these "cossacks" in the Chmielnicki uprising of 1648
killed an estimated 100,000 Jews." Cara Camcastle. The More Moderate
Side of Joseph De Maistre: Views on Political Liberty And Political
Economy, McGill-Queen's Press, 2005, ISBN 0-7735-2976-4, p. 26
"Is there not a difference in nature between Hitler's extermination of
three million Polish Jews between 1939 and 1945 because he wanted
every Jew dead and the mass murder 1648–49 of 100,000 Polish Jews by
General Bogdan Chmielnicki because he wanted to end Polish rule in the
Ukraine and was prepared to use Cossack terrorism to kill Jews in the
process?" Colin Martin Tatz. With Intent to Destroy: Reflections on
Genocide, Verso, 2003, ISBN 1-85984-550-9, p. 146.
"... massacring an estimated one hundred thousand Jews as the
Ukrainian Bogdan Chmielnicki had done nearly three centuries earlier."
Mosheh Weiss. A Brief History of the Jewish People, Rowman &
Littlefield, 2004, ISBN 0-7425-4402-8, p. 193.
^ Sources estimating more than 100,000 Jews killed:
"This situation changed for the worse in 1648–49, the years in which
the Chmelnicki massacres took place. These persecutions, which swept
over a large part of the Polish Commonwealth, wrought havoc with the
Jewry of that country. Many Jewish communities were practically
annihilated by the ruthless Cossack bands, and many more were
disintegrated by the flight of their members to escape the enemy...
The Jews of the Ukraine, Podolia and Eastern Galicia bore the brunt of
the massacres. It is estimated that about two hundred thousand Jews
were killed in these provinces during the fatal years of 1648–49."
Meyer Waxman. History of Jewish Literature Part 3, Kessinger
Publishing, 2003, ISBN 0-7661-4370-8, p. 20.
"...carried out in 1648 and 1649 by the Cossacks of the Ukraine, led
by Bogdan Chmielnicki. The anti-Semitic outburst took the lives of
from 150,000 to 200,000 Jews." Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed
Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures,
1500–1999, McFarland & Co Inc, 2002, p. 56.
"Between 100,000–500,000 Jews were murdered by the Cossacks during
the Chmielnicki massacres. Zev Garber, Bruce Zuckerman. Double Takes:
Thinking and Rethinking Issues of Modern
Judaism in Ancient Contexts,
University Press of America, 2004, ISBN 0-7618-2894-X, p. 77,
"After defeating the Polish army, the Cossacks joined with the Polish
peasantry, murdering over 100,000 Jews." Chmielnicki, Bohdan, The
Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001–05.
"In 1648–55 the Cossack under Bogdan Chmielnicki (1593–1657)
joined with the Tartars in the Ukraine to rid themselves of Polish
rule... Before the decade was over, more than 100,000 Jews had been
slaughtered." Robert Melvin Spector. World Without Civilization: Mass
Murder and the Holocaust, History, and Analysis, University Press of
America, 2005, ISBN 0-7618-2963-6, p. 77.
"By the time the Cossacks and the Poles signed a peace treaty in 1654,
700 Jewish communities had been destroyed and more than 100,000 Jews
killed". Sol Scharfstein. Jewish History and You, KTAV Publishing
House, 2004, ISBN 0-88125-806-7, p. 42.
^ Sources estimating 40,000–100,000 Jews killed:
"Finally, in the spring of 1648, under the leadership of Bogdan
Chmielnicki (1595–1657), the Cossacks revolted in the Ukraine
against Polish Rule. ... Although the exact number of Jews massacred
is unknown, with estimates ranging from 40,000 to 100,000 ..." Naomi
E. Pasachoff, Robert J. Littman. A Concise History Of The Jewish
People, Rowman & Littlefield, 2005, ISBN 0-7425-4366-8, p.
"Even when there was mass destruction, as in the Chmielnicki uprising
in 1648, the violence against Jews, where between 40000 and 100000
Jews were murdered ..." David Theo Goldberg, John Solomos. A Companion
to Racial and Ethnic Studies, Blackwell Publishing, 2002,
ISBN 0-631-20616-7, p. 68.
"A lower estimate puts the Jewish pogrom deaths in the Ukraine,
1648–56, at 56,000." Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed
Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures,
1500–1999, McFarland & Co Inc, 2002, p. 56.
^ Hitchens, Christopher (2011). God is Not Great: How Religion Poisons
Everything. London: Atlantic Books. p. 123.
^ a b c d Halperin 2007, p. 13.
^ Hitchens, Christopher (2011). God is Not Great: How Religion Poisons
Everything. London: Atlantic Books. p. 124.
^ "INTERVIEW: Cengiz Şişman on the Dönmes' 350-year 'burden of
silence' – BOOKS".
^ Abraham Danon, "Sur Sabbatai Cevi et sa secte," Revue des études
Juives 37 (1898): 103-110; Joseph Néhama, "Sabbataï Sevi et les
Sabbatéens de Salonique," Revue des Écoles de l'Alliance Israélite
3 (1902): 289-323
^ Abraham Galanté, Nouveaux documents sur Sabbetaï Sevi:
Organisation et us et coutumes de ses adeptes (Istanbul :
Fratelli Haim, 1935)
^ a b "Turkish Jewry's secret medieval messianics survive".
Halperin, David Joel (2007). Sabbatai Zevi: Testimonies to a Fallen
Messiah. Littman Library of Jewish Civilization.
Gershom Scholem, Sabbatai Sevi: The Mystical Messiah: 1626–1676,
Routledge Kegan Paul, London, 1973 ISBN 0-7100-7703-3, American
Edition, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1973
ISBN 0-691-09916-2 (hardcover edn.).
--, "Shabbetai Zevi," in Encyclopaedia Judaica, Second Edition,
Farmington Hills, Michigan, 2007, vol. 18, pp. 340–359.
John Freely, The Lost Messiah: In Search of the Mystical Rabbi
Sabbatai Sevi, The Overlook Press, Woodstock & New York, NY, 2001.
Mark Mazower, Salonica, City of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims, and Jews,
1430–1950. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005, pp. 69–71. Print.
Matt Goldish, The Sabbatean Prophets, Cambridge: Harvard University
Moshe Idel, Messianic Mystics, New Haven: Harvard University Press,
1998 (Chapter Six: Sabbateanism and Mysticism, pp. 183–211.
Marc David Baer, "The Dönme: Jewish Converts, Muslim Revolutionaries,
and Secular Turks", Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2010.
Cengiz Sisman, The Burden of Silence: Sabbatai Sevi and the Evolution
of the Ottoman-Turkish Donmes, New York: Oxford University Press,
Cengiz Sisman, Transcending Diaspora: Studies on Sabbateanism and
Donmes, Istanbul: Libra Publishing, 2016.
Graetz, Heinrich, History of the Jews, The Jewish Publication Society
of America, Philadelphia, 1895, vol. V, pp 51–85.
Koutzakiotis, Georges (2014). Attendre la fin du monde au XVIIe
siècle. Le messie juif et le grand drogman. Textes, Documents,
Études sur le Monde Byzantin, Néohellénique et Balkanique 15.
Paris: Éditions de l’Association Pierre Belon.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shabbatai Tzvi.
Dr. Henry Abramson's Video Lecture on Shabbetai Tsvi
Sabbatai Zevi, Jewish Encyclopedia
In search of followers of the false messiah, Haaretz
Shabbetai Zvi Jewish Virtual Library
"Sabbateanism: a mysterious heritage from the Ottoman Empire", Today's
Zaman, 2008[permanent dead link]
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