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The title of SS and police leader
SS and police leader
( SS- und Polizeiführer) was used to designate a senior Nazi official who commanded large units of the SS, Gestapo
Gestapo
and the German uniformed police (Ordnungspolizei), prior to and during World War II. Three levels of subordination were established for bearers of this title:

SS and Police
Police
Leader (SS- und Polizeiführer), SSPF Higher SS and Police
Police
Leader (Höherer SS- und Polizeiführer, HSSPF, HSS-PF, HSSuPF) Supreme SS and Police
Police
Leader (Höchster SS- und Polizeiführer, HöSSPF)

Contents

1 History 2 Crimes against humanity 3 List of SS and police leaders 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References

6.1 Citations 6.2 Bibliography

7 Further reading

History[edit] The first Higher SS and Police
Police
Leaders were appointed in 1937[1] from the existing SS-Oberabschnitt Führer (leaders of the main districts). The purpose of the Higher SS and Police
Police
Leader was to be a direct command authority for every SS and police unit in a given geographical region with such authority answering only to Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
Heinrich Himmler and Adolf Hitler. They were to act as the highest liaison under Himmler and "unifier" for command of the SS and police in a region.[1] Inside the Reich the man named as HSSPF was usually also SS-Oberabschnitt Führer for that region. In the occupied territories, there was no Oberabschnitt, so the HSSPF existed on their own. However, they had something the Reich HSSPFs did not - several SS- und Polizeiführer (SSPF) reporting to them.[2] There were two Höchster SS- und Polizeiführer (Supreme SS and Police
Police
Leader) posts. These were Italien (1943–1945) and Ukraine (1943–1944), both of which had various HSSPF and SSPF reporting to them.[3] The SS and police leaders directly commanded a headquarters staff with representatives from almost every branch of the SS and the uniformed police. This typically included the Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
(Orpo; regular police), Gestapo
Gestapo
(secret police), Totenkopfverbände
Totenkopfverbände
(SS-TV; Nazi concentration camps), SD (intelligence service), and certain units of the Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
(combat units). Most of these SS and Police
Police
Leaders normally held the rank of SS- Gruppenführer
Gruppenführer
or above and answered directly to Himmler in all matters pertaining to the SS within their area of responsibility. Their role was to be part of the SS control mechanism within the state policing the German population and overseeing the activities of the SS men within each respective district.[4] The men in these positions could bypass the main chain of command of the administrative offices in their district for the SS, SD, SiPo, SS-TV and Orpo under the "guise of an emergency situation" thereby gaining direct operational control of these groups.[5] The grand dream of Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
was to evolve the SS and police leader into an SS ruler of the Lebensraum, which the SS would rule and control after Germany had won World War II.[6] Himmler’s dream envisioned twenty-eight SS states (SS- und Polizeistützpunkte, literally SS- and police strongholds), spread throughout the East, each one of which would be ruled by an SS and police leader, militarily controlled by the Waffen-SS, and settled by SS warriors of the Allgemeine-SS.[6] In 1944 and 1945, many HSSPF were promoted to general's rank in the Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
by Himmler. This was apparently an attempt to provide potential protection under the Hague Convention rules of warfare.[7] Crimes against humanity[edit]

decrypted wireless telegram from "HSSPF Russland Mitte" (middle Russia) in 1942, reporting to Himmler the 'liquidation' of a village in Belarus
Belarus
(from NSA report[8])

Another decrypt, 1941, HSSPF Russland Sud (south Russia), reporting to Himmler the 'liquidation' of Jewish people (from NSA report[9])

The SS and Police
Police
Leaders served as commanding SS generals for any Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
(death squads) operating in their areas. This entailed ordering the deaths of tens of thousands of persons and, following the end of World War II, most SS and Police
Police
Leaders who had served in Poland and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
were charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity. A large number of the SS and police leaders who had been involved with such crimes committed suicide before capture. The SS and Police
Police
Leaders were the overseeing authority of the Jewish ghettos in Poland and, as such, directly coordinated deportations to Nazi extermination camps with the administrative help of the RSHA. They had direct command over Orpo police battalions and SD regiments that were assigned to guard the ghettos. List of SS and police leaders[edit] Main article: List of SS and police commands Note – Men were often transferred and promoted as the war went on. The HSSPF areas themselves might change, be absorbed, cease to exist, etc. This list is by no means exhaustive.[Note 1] HöSSPF

Karl Wolff
Karl Wolff
– "Italien" Hans-Adolf Prützmann
Hans-Adolf Prützmann
– "Ukraine"

HSSPF

August Meyszner
August Meyszner
– Serbia and Montenegro Hermann Behrends – Serbia and Montenegro Udo von Woyrsch
Udo von Woyrsch
– "Elbe" Carl Oberg
Carl Oberg
– France Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
– Donau Karl Hermann Frank
Karl Hermann Frank
– Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia Friedrich Jeckeln
Friedrich Jeckeln
– Northern Russia Richard Hildebrandt
Richard Hildebrandt
– Black Sea Erwin Rösener
Erwin Rösener
– Alpenland Odilo "Globus" Globocnik – Adriatic Coast Hanns Albin Rauter
Hanns Albin Rauter
– Netherlands Erich von dem Bach
Erich von dem Bach
– Central Russia Wilhelm Rediess
Wilhelm Rediess
– Norway Günther Pancke
Günther Pancke
– Denmark Jürgen Stroop, then Walter Schimana, then Hermann Franz – Greece Friedrich Wilhelm Krüger, then Wilhelm Koppe
Wilhelm Koppe
– General Government (Poland) Karl von Eberstein
Karl von Eberstein
– Munich area of Germany Franz Walter Stahlecker
Franz Walter Stahlecker
Reichskommissariat Ostland
Reichskommissariat Ostland
(Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus)

SSPF

Jürgen Stroop
Jürgen Stroop
– Warsaw Franz Kutschera
Franz Kutschera
Mogilev
Mogilev
& Warsaw Julian Scherner
Julian Scherner
– Kraków Odilo "Globus" Globocnik – Lublin

See also[edit]

Glossary of Nazi Germany List of Nazi Party leaders and officials List of SS personnel

Notes[edit]

^ Yerger lists about 37 separate HSSPF posts, most of which had several different commanders over the lifetime of the post. He also lists over 50 SSPF posts, many of which had several commanders.

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b Yerger, p. 22. ^ Yerger, pp. 22, 52. ^ Yerger, pp. 22–25. ^ Koehl 2004, pp. 144, 148, 169, 176–177. ^ McNab 2009, p. 165. ^ a b Ingrao, Charles W.; Szabo, Franz A. J. (2008). The Germans and the East. Purdue University Press, p. 288. [1] ^ "Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Volume 20 day 195". Avalon Project, Yale Law School. Retrieved 2009-01-03.  ^ Robert J. Hanyok, CENTER FOR CRYPTOLOGIC HISTORY NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY (2005). "Eavesdropping on Hell: Historical Guide to Western Communications Intelligence and the Holocaust, 1939-1945" (PDF) (Second ed.). National Security Agency, United States Government. Retrieved 2011-03-20.  UNITED STATES CRYPTOLOGIC HISTORY, Series IV, Volume 9 The message is on page 52 "Decrypt of Police
Police
message [National Archives and Records Administration] (NARA), RG 457, HCC, Box 1386)" ^ Hanyok, NSA, eavesdropping.pdf, Page 61, "German Police
Police
Decrypts, ZIP/G.P.D.353/14.9.41. Decrypt No.1 is from the Senior Commander of the SS and Police
Police
in Southern Russia to Heinrich Himmler, the Chiefs of the Order and Secret Police
Police
and the Himmler’s staff. (Source: [National Archives and Records Administration] (NARA), RG 457, Box 1386)"

Bibliography[edit]

Koehl, Robert (2004). The SS: A History 1919–45. Stroud: Tempus. ISBN 978-0-75242-559-7.  McNab, Chris (2009). The SS: 1923–1945. London: Amber Books. ISBN 978-1-906626-49-5.  Yerger, Mark C. (1997). Allgemeine-SS: The Commands, Units and Leaders of the General SS. Schiffer Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7643-0145-4. 

Further reading[edit]

Höhne, Heinz (2001) [1969]. The Order of the Death's Head: The Story of Hitler’s SS. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14139-012-3. 

v t e

Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS)

Branches

Allgemeine SS Totenkopfverbände
Totenkopfverbände
(SS-TV) Waffen-SS

Leadership

Reichsführer-SS SS and police leader SS personnel SS commands

Leaders

Julius Schreck Joseph Berchtold Erhard Heiden Heinrich Himmler Karl Hanke

Main departments

Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS SS Main Office Head Operational Office Reich Main Security Office
Reich Main Security Office
(RSHA) Economics and Administration Office Office of Race and Settlement (RuSHA) Main Office for Ethnic Germans (VOMI) Office of the Reich Commissioner for Germanic Resettlement (RKFDV) Courts Office Personnel Office Education Office

Ideological institutions

Ahnenerbe Das Schwarze Korps SS-Junkerschule Bad Tölz Lebensborn

Police
Police
and security services

Regular uniform police (Orpo) Schutzpolizei (Schupo) Criminal police (Kripo) Secret State police (Gestapo) State Security police (SiPo) SS Security Service (SD)

Führer protection

SS-Begleitkommando des Führers Reichssicherheitsdienst

Paramilitary units

Einsatzgruppen Schutzmannschaft Belarusian Auxiliary Police Latvian Police
Police
Battalions Ypatingasis būrys Lithuanian Security Police Lithuanian Auxiliary Police
Police
Battalions Rollkommando Hamann Arajs Kommando Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz Trawnikis Estonian Auxiliary Police Police
Police
Regiment Centre

Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
divisions

Verfügungstruppe (SS-VT) Leibstandarte (LSSAH) SS Division Das Reich SS Division Totenkopf SS Polizei Division SS Division Wiking

Foreign SS units

Germanic-SS Germaansche SS in Nederland Germaansche SS in Vlaanderen Germanske SS Norge Schalburg Corps Britisches Freikorps S.S. Sturmbrigade R.O.N.A. Finnish Volunteer Battalion of the Waffen-SS

SS-controlled enterprises

Ostindustrie Deutsche Wirtschaftsbetriebe Deutsche Ausrüstungswerke DEST Allach porcelain Apollinaris Mattoni Sudetenquell Anton Loibl

SS awards

SS Sword of Honour SS Honour Ring SS Honor Dagger

Ranks, uniforms and insignia

Uniforms and insignia of the SS Ranks and insignia of the Waffen-SS Ranks and insignia of the Orpo Corps colour

.