SMS Lützow[a] was the second
Derfflinger-class battlecruiser built by
Kaiserliche Marine (English: Imperial Navy) before World
War I. Ordered as a replacement for the old protected cruiser Kaiserin
Augusta, Lützow was launched on 29 November 1913, but not completed
until 1916. Lützow was a sister ship to Derfflinger from which she
differed slightly in that she was armed with an additional pair of
15 cm (5.9 inch) secondary guns and had an additional
watertight compartment in her hull. She was named in honor of the
Ludwig Adolf Wilhelm von Lützow who fought in the
Lützow was commissioned on 8 August 1915, but did not join the I
Scouting Group until 20 March due to engine damage during trials. This
was after most of the major actions conducted by the German
battlecruiser force had taken place. As a result, Lützow saw very
little action during the war. She took part in only one bombardment
Bombardment of Yarmouth and Lowestoft
Bombardment of Yarmouth and Lowestoft on 24–25 April
1916, after which she became Admiral Franz von Hipper's flagship. One
month later, the ship was heavily engaged during the Battle of
Jutland, on 31 May–1 June. During the battle, Lützow sank the
British battlecruiser HMS Invincible and is sometimes given
credit for sinking the armored cruiser HMS Defence. However,
she was heavily damaged by an estimated 24 heavy-caliber shell hits.
With her bow thoroughly flooded, the ship was unable to make the
return voyage to Germany; her crew was evacuated and she was sunk by
torpedoes fired by one of her escorts, the torpedo boat G38.
2.1 Bombardment of Yarmouth and Lowestoft
2.2 Battle of Jutland
2.2.1 Opening actions
2.2.2 Battlefleets engage
2.2.3 Lützow withdraws and sinks
3 See also
Plan of the Derfflinger-class battlecruiser, from Jane's Fighting
Main article: Derfflinger-class battlecruiser
Lützow was 210.4 m (690 ft 3 in) long overall and had
a beam of 29 m (95 ft 2 in) and a draft of 9.2 m
(30 ft 2 in) forward and 9.56 m (31 ft 4 in)
aft. She was designed to displace 26,600 t (26,200 long tons)
normally and she reached 26,741 t (26,319 long tons) at full
load. The ship was powered by four Parsons steam turbines that drove
four screw propellers. Steam was provided by eighteen naval boilers,
fourteen of which burned coal, the other four burning fuel oil.
Lützow's powerplant was rated at 63,000 metric horsepower
(62,138 shp; 46,336 kW), which generated a top speed of 26.4
knots (48.9 km/h; 30.4 mph). The ship had a crew that
consisted of 44 officers and 1,068 to 1,138 enlisted men.
While serving as the squadron flagship, her crew was augmented by an
additional 14 officers and 62 enlisted men in the
Lützow's armament consisted of a main battery of eight 30.5 cm SK
L/50 guns in four gun turrets,[b] mounted in superfiring pairs fore
and aft of the central superstructure. Her secondary armament
consisted of fourteen
15 cm SK L/45
15 cm SK L/45 guns and eight 8.8 cm SK L/45
quick-firing guns in anti-aircraft mounts. The armament suite was
rounded out with four 60 cm (24 in) torpedo tubes, all
placed in the hull, below the waterline. The ship's belt armor was
300 mm (11.8 in) thick, and the deck was 30 to 80 mm
(1.2 to 3.1 in) thick. The conning tower was protected with
300 mm (12 in) of armor plating. The main battery turrets
had 270 mm (11 in) thick faces and sides, and the secondary
casemates received 150 mm (5.9 in) of armor protection.
Lützow was ordered as
Ersatz Kaiserin Augusta, to replace the elderly
protected cruiser Kaiserin Augusta, which was by then 20 years
old.[c] Built by
Schichau-Werke in Danzig, her keel was laid down
in May 1912, and she was launched on 29 November 1913. Lützow was
commissioned on 8 August 1915 for trials, and was sent to
Kiel on 23
August. The torpedo boats G192, G194, and G196 provided a screen for
hostile submarines that might be operating in the area, the four
vessels arriving the next day. There she completed her final fitting
out, including her armament. On 13 September, she began her trials,
including torpedo firing tests on 15 September and gunnery tests on 6
October. While on trials on 25 October, Lützow's port low-pressure
turbine was badly damaged. Repairs were conducted in
late January 1916, after which the ship underwent further trials.
These were finished on 19 February; Lützow was assigned to the I
Scouting Group on 20 March, and arrived at her new unit four days
The ship's first and only commander was
Kapitän zur See Victor
Harder. On 24 April, Lützow and the battlecruisers Seydlitz and
Moltke made a brief sortie into the North Sea, cruising to the eastern
end of the Amrun Bank, since British destroyers had been reported to
have been in the area. A second sweep followed two days later, also to
the Amrun Bank. While on this operation, a British submarine attempted
to torpedo Lützow without success.
Konteradmiral (Rear Admiral)
Friedrich Boedicker, the deputy commander of the I Scouting Group,
temporarily raised his flag aboard the ship from 29 March to 11 April.
On 21–22 April, Lützow joined the rest of the
High Seas Fleet
High Seas Fleet for a
sortie into the
North Sea that failed to locate any British
Bombardment of Yarmouth and Lowestoft
The North Sea, where most German naval operations took place
Main article: Bombardment of Yarmouth and Lowestoft
Lützow' first major operation was the bombardment of Yarmouth and
Lowestoft on 24–25 April.
Konteradmiral Franz von Hipper, the
commander of the I Scouting Group, was away on sick leave, so the
German ships were under the command of Boedicker. Seydlitz, the
flagship, followed by Derfflinger, Lützow, Moltke, and Von der Tann
left the Jade Estuary at 10:55 on 24 April, and were supported by a
screening force of six light cruisers and two torpedo boat
flotillas. The heavy units of the
High Seas Fleet
High Seas Fleet sailed at 13:40,
with the objective to provide distant support for Boedicker's ships.
Admiralty was made aware of the German sortie through the
interception of German wireless signals, and deployed the Grand Fleet
at 15:50. By 14:00, Boedicker's ships had reached a position off
Norderney, at which point he turned his ships northward to avoid the
Dutch observers on the island of Terschelling. At 15:38, Seydlitz
struck a mine, which tore a 15-metre (49 ft) long hole in her
hull, just abaft of the starboard broadside torpedo tube, allowing
1,400 short tons (1,250 long tons) of water to enter the
ship. Seydlitz turned back with the screen of light cruisers at a
speed of 15 knots (28 km/h). The four remaining battlecruisers
turned south immediately in the direction of
Norderney to avoid
further mine damage. By 16:00, Seydlitz was clear of imminent danger,
so the ship stopped to allow Boedicker to disembark. The torpedo boat
V28 took Boedicker to Lützow.
At 04:50 on 25 April, the German battlecruisers were approaching
Lowestoft when the light cruisers Rostock and Elbing, which had been
covering the southern flank, spotted the light cruisers and destroyers
of Commodore Reginald Tyrwhitt's Harwich Force. Boedicker refused
to be distracted by the British ships, and instead trained his ships'
guns on Lowestoft. The German battlecruisers destroyed two 6 in
(15 cm) shore batteries and inflicted other damage to the town.
In the process, a single 6 in shell from one of the shore
batteries struck Moltke, but the ship sustained no significant
damage. At 05:20, the German raiders turned north, towards
Yarmouth, which they reached by 05:42. The visibility was so poor that
the German ships fired one salvo each, with the exception of
Derfflinger, which fired fourteen rounds from her main battery. The
German ships turned back south, and at 05:47 encountered for the
second time the Harwich Force, which had by then been engaged by the
six light cruisers of the German screening ships. Boedicker's ships
opened fire from a range of 12,000 m (13,000 yards).
Tyrwhitt immediately turned his ships around and fled south, but not
before the cruiser Conquest sustained severe damage. Due to reports of
British submarines and torpedo attacks, Boedicker broke off the chase
and turned back east towards the High Seas Fleet. At this point,
Admiral Reinhard Scheer, commander of the High Seas Fleet, turned back
towards Germany, having been warned of the Grand Fleet's sortie from
Battle of Jutland
Main article: Battle of Jutland
Lützow in her configuration at Jutland
At 02:00 CET,[d] on 31 May 1916, the
I Scouting Group
I Scouting Group departed the
Jade estuary; Lützow, Hipper's flagship, was the leading vessel,
followed by her sister Derfflinger, Seydlitz, Moltke, and Von der
Tann. The ships were accompanied by the II Scouting Group, under the
command of Rear Admiral Boedicker, composed of the four light cruisers
Frankfurt, Wiesbaden, Pillau, and Elbing. The reconnaissance force was
screened by 30 torpedo boats of the II, VI, and IX Flotillas, directed
by the cruiser Regensburg. An hour and a half later, the High Seas
Fleet—under the command of Admiral Scheer—left the Jade with 16
dreadnoughts.[e] It was accompanied by the IV Scouting Group, composed
of the light cruisers Stettin, München, Hamburg, Frauenlob, and
Stuttgart, and 31 torpedo boats of the I, III, V, and VII Flotillas,
led by the light cruiser Rostock. The six pre-dreadnoughts of the II
Battle Squadron had departed from the Elbe roads at 02:45, and
rendezvoused with the battle fleet at 5:00. The operation was to be a
repeat of previous German fleet actions: to draw out a portion of the
Grand Fleet and destroy it.
Lion's destroyed "Q" turret after the battle
Shortly before 16:00, Hipper's force encountered Vice Admiral David
Battlecruiser Squadron. At 16:00, Hipper ordered the
signal "Distribution of fire from left" be hoisted on Lützow. The
German ships were the first to open fire, at a range of approximately
15,000 yards (14,000 m). The two leading British
battlecruisers, Lion and Princess Royal, concentrated their fire on
Lützow, while Lützow engaged only Lion. The ship's gunners aimed
their initial salvo at a range of 16,800 yards (15,400 m), well
over their intended target. The ship fired semi-armor-piercing (SAP)
shells, unlike the other German battlecruisers, which had loaded
armor-piercing (AP) shells instead. The British rangefinders had
misread the range to their German targets, and so the first salvos
fired by the British ships fell a mile beyond their German
opponents; Lion's gunners fired their opening salvo at 18,500
yards (16,900 m). In the span of three minutes, Lützow had fired
four more salvos, alternating between the four forward and four aft
guns, and had struck with the last one at 16:51.
Lützow scored a second hit a minute later at 16:52. Eight minutes
later, Lion scored the first hit on Lützow; a salvo from the British
ship struck the battlecruiser on her forecastle, but no major damage
was done. These two hits would prove to be very important,
however, as Lützow took on more water due to damage sustained later
in the battle, since they allowed water to enter the ship above the
armored deck. Nearly simultaneously, Lützow dealt a tremendous
blow to Lion; one of her 30.5 cm shells penetrated the roof of
Lion's center "Q" turret and detonated the munitions that were stored
inside. Only by the resolute actions of the turret commander—Major
Francis Harvey, who ordered the magazine be flooded—did the ship
avoid a catastrophic magazine explosion.[f] Indeed, approximately
30 minutes after the turret was destroyed, the fire in the turret
spread to the working chamber that was directly above the magazine;
there it detonated propellant charges that had been stored there. The
resulting explosion would have likely destroyed the ship if the
ammunition magazine had not been flooded.
At 17:03, the rearmost British battlecruiser, Indefatigable, was
struck by several shells from her opponent, Von der Tann. The forward
ammunition magazines were penetrated and set on fire; the resulting
explosion tore the ship apart. Shortly thereafter, Lützow scored
several more hits on Lion, though without serious damage being
done. Lützow's gunnery officer, Günther Paschen, later regretted
the decision to fire SAP shells, believing that had Lützow fired AP
rounds, she would have destroyed Lion during this action. In the
course of the first nineteen minutes of the battle, Lützow had fired
thirty-one salvos at Lion, scoring six hits, forcing the latter to
shear out of line temporarily. From 17:10 to 17:16, Lützow resumed
firing at Lion, but in the haze, her gunners believed they were
engaging Princess Royal. During this period, Princess Royal opened
fire on Lützow and scored two hits, the first of which exploded
between the forward turrets and the second struck the belt. At
17:24, Lützow again opened fire at Lion and scored three more hits in
the span of thirty seconds.
In an attempt to regroup his ships, Admiral Beatty sought to turn his
ships away by 2 degrees while the Queen Elizabeth-class battleships of
the 5th Battle Squadron arrived on the scene and provided covering
fire. As the British battlecruisers began to turn away, Seydlitz and
Derfflinger were able to concentrate their fire on Queen Mary.
Witnesses reported at least five shells from two salvos hit the ship,
which caused an intense explosion that ripped the Queen Mary in
half. Shortly after the destruction of Queen Mary, both British
and German destroyers attempted to make torpedo attacks on the
opposing lines. The British destroyers Nestor and Nicator each fired
two torpedoes at Lützow, though all four missed. At 17:34,
Lützow launched a torpedo at the battlecruiser Tiger without
success. Lützow scored another hit on Lion at 17:57, followed by
three more hits, one of which started a fire in the aft secondary
The leading ships of the German battle fleet had by 18:00 come within
effective range of the British ships, and had begun trading shots with
the British battlecruisers and Queen Elizabeth-class battleships.
At 18:13, a 15 in (380 mm) shell from one of the Queen
Elizabeths struck Lützow; two more hits came at 18:25 and 18:30.
The ship was hit again at 18:45, probably by Princess Royal. The
ship continued to engage the British battlecruisers as they steamed
north toward the Grand Fleet, but had no success during this
period. Later, at 19:05, she scored one hit on Lion. During
the engagements between the combined German fleet and the British 1st
Battlecruiser and 5th Battle Squadrons, Lützow had both of her
wireless transmitters damaged; after that point, the only method of
communication between ships was via searchlight.
Shortly after 19:00, the German cruiser Wiesbaden had become disabled
by a shell from the battlecruiser Invincible; the German
battlecruisers made a 16-point turn to the northeast and made for the
crippled cruiser at high speed. The III Battle Squadron of the German
fleet, which contained the most powerful battleships of the German
navy, also altered course to assist Wiesbaden. Simultaneously, the
British III and IV Light Cruiser Squadrons began a torpedo attack on
the German line; while advancing to torpedo range, they smothered
Wiesbaden with fire from their main guns. During the turn to the
northeast, the British destroyers Onslow and Acasta approached to
launch torpedoes at Lützow, though without success. Onslow was hit
three times by Lützow's secondary battery and was forced to withdraw.
Shortly thereafter, a second destroyer, Acasta launched a torpedo at
Lützow that missed; in return, Lützow and Derfflinger fired a
barrage of 15 cm shells at Acasta, hitting her twice. At
19:15, the German battlecruisers spotted the British armored cruiser
Defence, which had joined the attack on Wiesbaden. Hipper initially
hesitated, believing the ship was the German cruiser Rostock, but at
Kapitän zur See (KzS) Harder, Lützow's commanding officer,
ordered his ships' guns to fire. The other German battlecruisers and
battleships joined in the melee; Lützow fired five broadsides in
rapid succession. In the span of less than five minutes, Defence was
struck by several heavy-caliber shells from the German ships. One
salvo penetrated the ship's ammunition magazines and, in a massive
explosion, destroyed the cruiser.[g]
While Lützow and the rest of the fleet were concentrating on Defence,
Lion scored two hits on Hipper's flagship, causing a serious fire.
By 19:24, the 3rd
Battlecruiser Squadron had formed up with Beatty's
remaining battlecruisers ahead of the German line. The leading British
ships spotted Lützow and Derfflinger, and began firing on them. In
the span of eight minutes, the battlecruiser Invincible scored eight
hits on Lützow; these hits were mainly concentrated in the ship's bow
and were the primary cause of the flooding that would eventually cause
her to sink. In return, both Lützow and Derfflinger concentrated
their fire on Invincible, and 19:33, Lützow's third salvo penetrated
Invincible's center turret and ignited the magazine; the ship
disappeared in a series of massive explosions. From this point
onward, Lützow came under no further fire from the British
battlecruisers, though she was flooding badly from two of the hits
from Invincible that had struck below the waterline.
By 19:30, the High Seas Fleet, which was by that point pursuing the
British battlecruisers, had not yet encountered the Grand Fleet.
Scheer had been considering retiring his forces before darkness
exposed his ships to torpedo boat attack. He had not yet made a
decision when his leading battleships encountered the main body of the
Grand Fleet. This development made it impossible for Scheer to
retreat, for doing so would have sacrificed the slower pre-dreadnought
battleships of the II Battle Squadron. If he chose to use his
dreadnoughts and battlecruisers to cover their retreat, he would have
subjected his strongest ships to overwhelming British fire.
Instead, Scheer ordered his ships to turn 16 points to starboard,[h]
which would bring the pre-dreadnoughts to the relative safety of the
disengaged side of the German battle line.
Lützow withdraws and sinks
The other battlecruisers followed the move, but Lützow had lost speed
and was unable to keep up. Instead, the ship tried to withdraw to the
southwest to escape the punishing British gunfire. By 20:00,
flooding in the forward part of the ship had reached the magazine for
the forward turret. The gun crew brought up as many shells and
propellant charges as could be stored in the working chamber below the
turret. Shortly before, at 19:50, Kommodore Andreas Michelsen,
aboard the cruiser Rostock, dispatched the torpedo boats of I
Half-Flotilla to assist Lützow. G39 came alongside and took Hipper
and his staff aboard, in order to transfer him to one of the other
battlecruisers. V45 and G37 began laying a smoke screen between the
battered ship and the British line, but at 20:15, before it was
finished, Lützow was struck in quick succession by four heavy-caliber
shells. One pierced the ship's forward superfiring turret and
temporarily disabled it. The shell detonated a propellant charge and
the right gun was destroyed. The second hit disabled the electric
training gear of the rearmost turret, which now had to be operated by
hand. While Hipper was aboard G39, command of the I Scouting Group
temporarily fell to KzS Johannes Hartog. Lützow fired her last
shot at 20:45, at which point the smoke screen had successfully hidden
her from the British line.
As the German fleet began to withdraw after nightfall, Lützow,
steaming at 15 knots, attempted to pass behind the German
line to seek the safety of the disengaged side. By 22:13, the last
German ship in the line lost sight of Lützow, which was unable to
keep up with the fleet. Scheer hoped that in the foggy darkness,
Lützow could evade detection and successfully return to a German
port. By 21:30, the ship was settling deeper into the sea. Water
began to wash onto the deck and into the forecastle above the main
armored deck; this would prove to be a significant problem. At
midnight, there was still hope that the severely wounded Lützow could
make it back to harbor. The ship was capable of 7 knots
(13 km/h; 8.1 mph) up until around 00:45 when she began
taking on more water. At times, the ship had to slow down to as
little as 3 knots (5.6 km/h; 3.5 mph) to reduce pressure on
the rear bulkhead in the torpedo flat. Critically, the forward main
pumps were no longer usable, as the control rods had jammed.
Memorial in Wilhelmshaven for the sailors killed aboard Lützow
By 01:00, there was too much water in the hull for the pumps to
handle. Water began to enter the forward generator compartments, which
forced the crew to work by candlelight. Lützow was so low in the
water by 01:30 that water began to flood the forward boiler room.
By that point, almost all of the compartments in the forward part of
the ship, up to the conning tower and below the main armored deck,
were thoroughly flooded. Water had also entered the ship through shell
holes in the forecastle above the armored deck; the majority of the
upper portion of the ship forward of the forward-most barbette was
flooded as well. The battlecruiser's crew attempted to patch the shell
holes three times, but as the flooding worsened and the draft
increased, water increasingly washed over the deck and inhibited
progress on the repair work. The crew attempted to reverse
direction and steam backwards, but this had to be abandoned when the
bow became so submerged that the propellers were pulled partially out
of the water; forward draft had increased to over
By 2:20, an estimated 8,000 tons of water was in the ship, and
she was in serious danger of capsizing, so KzS Harder gave the order
to abandon ship. The torpedo boats G37, G38, G40, and V45 came
alongside the stricken battlecruiser to evacuate the ship's crew,
though six men were trapped in the bow and could not be freed. By
02:45 Lützow was submerged up to her bridge. G38 fired two torpedoes
into the ship, and two minutes later she disappeared below the waves.
The ship was approximately 60 km (37 mi) north-west of Horns
Reef when she was scuttled. The position of the wreck is estimated
to be 56°15′N 5°53′E / 56.250°N 5.883°E / 56.250;
5.883. During the battle, Lützow had fired an estimated 380 main
battery shells and 400 rounds from her secondary guns, as well as two
torpedoes. In return, she was hit 24 times by British
heavy-caliber shells. The ship's crew suffered 115 men killed and
another 50 wounded, second only to Derfflinger, which lost 157 men
killed and 26 wounded.
In 2015, the survey ship HMS Echo conducted an exploration of the
area while laying a tide gauge. During the search, Echo's sonar
located Lützow on the sea floor, some eight miles from her last
recorded position. Echo took sonar images of the wreck, which her
commander stated would "ensure the ship's final resting place is
properly recognised as a war grave."
World War I portal
Book: Derfflinger class battlecruisers
German cruiser Lützow, for other warships named Lützow
^ "SMS" stands for "Seiner Majestät Schiff", or "His Majesty's Ship"
^ In Imperial German Navy gun nomenclature, "SK" (Schnelladekanone)
denotes that the gun is quick firing, while the L/40 denotes the
length of the gun. In this case, the L/40 gun is 40 caliber, meaning
that the gun is 40 times as long as it is in diameter. See: Grießmer,
^ German ships were ordered under provisional names; new additions to
the fleet were given a letter designation, while those ordered as
replacements for older vessels were named "
Ersatz (ship name)." Once
the ship was finished, the vessel would be commissioned with its
intended name. For example, SMS Derfflinger was ordered as a new
addition to the fleet, and so was given the provisional designation
"K." Lützow's other sister, Hindenburg, was ordered to replace the
old Hertha, and so was named
Ersatz Hertha before she was formally
commissioned. See: Gröner, p. 56.
^ The times mentioned in this section are in CET, which is congruent
with the German perspective. This is one hour ahead of GMT, the time
zone commonly used in British works.
^ SMS König Albert was in dock at the time. See: Tarrant,
^ Ammunition magazines on warships were equipped with seacocks that
allowed the magazine to be flooded in case of a fire. By flooding the
magazine, a catastrophic explosion would be averted.
^ John Campbell, in his book Jutland: An Analysis of the Fighting,
writes "Her sinking is usually credited to the Lützow, though it was
also claimed by the Markgraf and Kaiser, and less plausibly by the
Kronprinz. The SMS Grosser Kurfürst noted that both of her 12in
salvoes at the Defence hit at short range, but did not claim credit
for her destruction." See Campbell, p. 181.
^ A full circle has 32 points, each equal to 11.25 degrees; a 16-point
turn would be a reversal of direction.
^ Normal draft was 9.2 m forward. See: Gröner, p. 56.
^ a b Gardiner & Gray, p. 154.
^ a b Gröner, pp. 56–57.
^ Gröner, p. 56.
^ Staff 2014, p. 263.
^ Staff 2006, p. 40.
^ Hildebrand Röhr & Steinmetz, pp. 17–18.
^ a b c Tarrant, p. 52.
^ a b Tarrant, p. 53.
^ Staff 2006, p. 15.
^ a b Tarrant, p. 54.
^ Tarrant, p. 62.
^ Tarrant, p. 87.
^ Bennett, p. 183.
^ a b Halpern, p. 318.
^ Campbell, p. 39.
^ Tarrant, p. 90.
^ Campbell, pp. 39–40.
^ Campbell, p. 40.
^ Tarrant, p. 93.
^ Campbell, p. 79.
^ Tarrant, pp. 93–94.
^ Tarrant, p. 100.
^ Campbell, pp. 42–43.
^ Campbell, p. 48.
^ Campbell, p. 47.
^ Tarrant, pp. 100–101.
^ Tarrant, p. 104.
^ Campbell, p. 51.
^ Campbell, pp. 96–97.
^ Tarrant, p. 110.
^ Campbell, pp. 100, 104.
^ a b Campbell, p. 109.
^ Campbell, p. 102.
^ Tarrant, p. 118.
^ Tarrant, p. 137.
^ Tarrant, pp. 138–139.
^ Campbell, pp. 116–117.
^ Campbell, pp. 180–181.
^ Tarrant, p. 140.
^ Campbell, p. 160.
^ Tarrant, pp. 147–149.
^ Campbell, pp. 159–160.
^ Tarrant, p. 150.
^ Tarrant, p. 152.
^ Tarrant, pp. 152–153.
^ Tarrant, pp. 155–156.
^ a b Campbell, p. 272.
^ Tarrant, p. 157.
^ Campbell, p. 163.
^ Tarrant, p. 159.
^ Tarrant, p. 186.
^ Tarrant, p. 191.
^ Tarrant, p. 202.
^ a b c d Tarrant, p. 249.
^ Campbell, p. 283.
^ Campbell, p. 183.
^ Campbell, p. 306.
^ a b Campbell, p. 294.
^ Staff 2014, p. 278.
^ Tarrant, p. 292.
^ Tarrant, p. 296.
^ Tarrant, p. 298.
^ "One last Echo from Jutland". Royalnavy.mod.uk. 1 September 2015.
Retrieved 2 June 2016.
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Gardiner, Robert; Gray, Randal, eds. (1985). Conway's All the World's
Fighting Ships: 1906–1921. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press.
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Die Deutschen Kriegsschiffe (Volume 6) [The German Warships] (in
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Books. ISBN 978-1-84603-009-3. OCLC 64555761.
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Design, Construction and Operations. Seaforth Publishing.
Tarrant, V. E. (2001) . Jutland: The German Perspective. London:
Cassell Military Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-304-35848-9.
Preceded by: SMS Seydlitz
Followed by: Mackensen class
List of battlecruisers of Germany
Shipwrecks and maritime incidents in June 1916
1 Jun: HMS Ardent, SMS Elbing, HMS Fortune, SMS Frauenlob,
SMS Lützow, SMS Pommern, SMS Rostock, HMS Sparrowhawk,
HMS Turbulent, SMS V4, HMS Warrior, SMS Wiesbaden
3 Jun: Golconda
5 Jun: HMS Hampshire
8 Jun: Principe Umberto
18 Jun: HMS Eden
23 Jun: Fourche
30 Jun: SM U-10
1 Jun: HMS Broke
18 Jun: France
23 Jun: Brussels
1915 1916 1917
May 1916 July 1916
Coordinates: 56°15′N 5°53′E / 56.250°N 5.883°E /