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Słupsk
Słupsk
[swupsk] ( listen) (German: Stolp; also known by several alternative names) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship, in northern Poland, with a population of 98,757.[2] It occupies 43.15 square kilometres (16.66 sq mi).[3] Before 1 January 1999, Słupsk
Słupsk
was the capital of the separate Słupsk
Słupsk
Voivodeship. Located near the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
on the Słupia
Słupia
River, it is the administrative seat of Słupsk
Słupsk
County. According to the Central Statistical Office, Słupsk
Słupsk
is one of the most densely populated cities in the country.[4] The neighbouring administrative districts (gminas) are Kobylnica and Gmina
Gmina
Słupsk. Słupsk
Słupsk
had its origins as a Slavic Pomeranian settlement on in the early Middle Ages. In 1265 it was given city rights. By the 14th century, the town had become a centre of local administration and trade and a Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
associate. Between 1368 and 1478, it was the residence of the Dukes of Pomerania. In 1648, according to the peace treaty of Osnabrück, Stolp became part of Brandenburg-Prussia. In 1815 it was incorporated into the newly formed Prussian Province of Pomerania. Following World War II
World War II
the city was assigned to Poland
Poland
as part of the recovered territories.

Contents

1 Name 2 Geography

2.1 Boundaries 2.2 Topography and landmarks 2.3 Climate 2.4 Neighbourhoods 2.5 Parks

3 History

3.1 Middle Ages 3.2 Modern ages 3.3 Interwar period 3.4 Second World War 3.5 Post-war till 1989 3.6 After 1989

4 Demographics 5 Transport

5.1 Railways 5.2 Roads 5.3 Air

6 Monuments 7 Culture

7.1 Theatres 7.2 Cinemas

8 Economy 9 Notable citizens 10 Sports clubs 11 Energy and communications 12 US missile defense complex 13 International relations

13.1 Twin towns — Sister cities

14 See also 15 References 16 External links

Name[edit] Slavic names in Pomeranian — Stolpsk,[5] Stôłpsk, Słëpsk, Słëpskò, Stôłp[6] — and Polish — Słupsk
Słupsk
— may be etymologically related to the words słup ("pole") and stołp ("keep"). Two hypotheses regarding the origins of those names exist: one claims that it refers to a specific way of constructing buildings on boggy ground with additional pile support, which is still in use, while the other says that it is connected with a tower or other defensive structure built on the banks of the Słupia
Słupia
River.[5] Later during German rule the town was named Stolp, to which the suffix in Pommern was attached in order to avoid confusion with other places similarly named. The Germanised name comes from one of five Slavic Pomeranian names of this settlement.[5] The city was occasionally called Stolpe (referring to the Słupia
Słupia
River, whose German name is also Stolpe. Stolpe is also the Latin exonym for this place.[7]). Geography[edit] Boundaries[edit]

Słupsk
Słupsk
boundaries and neighbourhoods (click to enlarge).

Administratively, the city of Słupsk
Słupsk
has the status of both an urban gmina and a city county (powiat). The city boundaries are generally artificial, with only short natural boundaries around the villages of Kobylnica and Włynkówko
Włynkówko
on the Słupia
Słupia
River. The boundaries have remained unchanged since 1949, when Ryczewo became a part of the city. Słupsk
Słupsk
shares about three-quarters of its boundaries with the rural district called Gmina
Gmina
Słupsk, of which Słupsk
Słupsk
is the administrative seat (although it is not part of the district). The city's other neighbouring district is Gmina
Gmina
Kobylnica, to the south-west. The Słupsk
Słupsk
Special
Special
Economic Zone is not entirely contained within the city limits: a portion of it lies within Gmina
Gmina
Słupsk, while some smaller areas are at quite a distance from Słupsk
Słupsk
(Debrzno), or even in another voivodeship (Koszalin, Szczecinek, Wałcz). The city has a fairly irregular shape, with its central point at Plac Zwycięstwa ("Victory Square") at 54°27′51″N 17°01′42″E / 54.46417°N 17.02833°E / 54.46417; 17.02833. Topography and landmarks[edit]

Słupia River
Słupia River
in the city centre

Słupsk
Słupsk
lies in a pradolina of the Słupia
Słupia
River. The city centre is situated significantly lower than its western and easternmost portions. Divided into two almost equal parts by the river, Słupsk
Słupsk
is hilly when compared to other cities in the region. About 5 square kilometres (1.9 sq mi) of the city's area is covered by forests, while 17 square kilometres (6.6 sq mi) is used for agricultural purposes. Słupsk
Słupsk
is rich in natural water bodies. There are more than twenty ponds, mostly former meanders of the Słupia, within the city limits. There are also several streams, irrigation canals (generally unused and abandoned) and a leat. Except in the city centre, all these watercourses are unregulated. There is generally little human influence on landform features visible within the city limits. However, in the northwestern part of the city there is a huge hollow, a remnant of a former sand mine. Although there were once plans to build a waterpark in this area,[8] they were later abandoned and the site remains unused. Climate[edit] Słupsk
Słupsk
has a temperate marine climate, like the rest of the Polish coastal regions.[9] The city lies in a zone where the continental climate influences are very weak compared with other regions of Poland.[10] The warmest month is July, with an average temperature range of 11 to 21 °C (52 to 70 °F). The coolest month is February, averaging −5 to 0 °C (23 to 32 °F). The wettest month is August with average precipitation of 90 millimetres (3.5 in), while the driest is March, averaging only 20 millimetres (0.79 in). Snowfalls are always possible between December and April.

Climate data for Słupsk

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 0 (32) 0 (32) 3 (37) 10 (50) 16 (61) 20 (68) 21 (70) 20 (68) 18 (64) 12 (54) 6 (43) 2 (36) 11 (52)

Average low °C (°F) −4 (25) −5 (23) −2 (28) 1 (34) 5 (41) 9 (48) 11 (52) 11 (52) 8 (46) 5 (41) 1 (34) −1 (30) 3 (37)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 40 (1.57) 30 (1.18) 20 (0.79) 30 (1.18) 50 (1.97) 60 (2.36) 80 (3.15) 90 (3.54) 60 (2.36) 50 (1.97) 40 (1.57) 50 (1.97) 660 (25.98)

Source: Meteo.Pl[11]

Neighbourhoods[edit] The neighbourhoods (osiedla, singular osiedle) of Słupsk
Słupsk
do not have any administrative powers. Their names are used for traffic signposting purposes and are shown on maps. The neighbourhoods are as follows:

Nadrzecze ("Riverside") — situated in the southern part of the city, this district is a major industrial area. It is bounded by the railroad to the west, Deotymy and Jana Pawła II streets to the north, the Słupia
Słupia
river to the east and the city boundary to the south. Osiedle Akademickie ("Academic Neighbourhood") — a neighbourhood of detached and semi-detached houses around the Pomeranian Academy and its halls of residence. Osiedle Bałtyckie ("Baltic Neighbourhood") — the northernmost neighbourhood of Słupsk, a large part of which belongs to the Słupsk Special
Special
Economic Zone. Osiedle Niepodległości ("Independence Neighbourhood") (before 1989 called Osiedle Budowniczych Polski Ludowej or "Neighbourhood of the Builders of People's Poland", and still popularly referred to as BPL) and Osiedle Piastów ("Piast Neighbourhood") — these neighbourhoods make up the largest residential area of the city, inhabited by about 40,000 people. Osiedle Słowińskie (" Slovincian Neighbourhood") — the easternmost part of Słupsk, similar in character to Osiedle Akademickie. It adjoins the Northern Wood (Lasek Północny) and is close to the city's boundary with Redzikowo, the planned site of the US national missile defense interceptors. Ryczewo — brought within the city limits in 1949, this is the youngest neighbourhood of Słupsk. Before the Second World War
Second World War
it was a villa district. It has retained much of its village character. Stare Miasto ("Old Town"; also known as Śródmieście or Centrum — "the City Centre") — the central district of Słupsk
Słupsk
containing the historic centre of the city including the city hall and the Pomeranian Dukes' Castle. Westerplatte (known also as Osiedle Hubalczyków-Westerplatte) — a large and fast-developing area in the south-east of Słupsk, including the city's highest point. Currently both detached houses and blocks of flats are being built here. Zatorze (usually further subdivided into Osiedle Jana III Sobieskiego and Osiedle Stefana Batorego) — the second largest residential area, with 10,000 inhabitants. According to police statistics, it is the most dangerous area of the city.

Parks[edit] Słupsk
Słupsk
has many green areas within its boundaries. The most important are the Park of Culture and Leisure (Park Kultury i Wypoczynku), the Northern Wood (Lasek Północny) and the Southern Wood (Lasek Południowy). There are also many small parks, squares and boulevards. History[edit] Middle Ages[edit]

New Gate (14th century)

Słupsk
Słupsk
developed from a few medieval settlements located on the banks of the Słupia
Słupia
River, at the unique ford along the trade route connecting the territories of modern Pomeranian and West Pomeranian Voivodeships. This factor led to construction of a grad, a Slavic fortified settlement, on an islet in the middle of the river. Surrounded by swamps and mires, the fortress had perfect defence conditions. Archeological research has shown that the grad was situated on an artificial hill and had a natural moat formed by the branches of the Słupia, and was protected by a palisade. The city's official webpage notes that the area of Ziemia Słupska was part of the Polish realm during the reign of Mieszko I
Mieszko I
and in the eleventh century[12] According to the city's webpage, the first historic note about Słupsk comes from 1015 when ruler of Poland
Poland
Bolesław I Chrobry
Bolesław I Chrobry
took over the town, incorporating it into the Polish state. In the twelfth century, the town became one of the most important castellanies in Pomorze besides Gdańsk
Gdańsk
and Świecie.[13] Historian Roderich Schmidt says that the first mention was in two documents dating to 1227, signed by the Pomeranian dukes Wartislaw III and Barnim I and their mothers, confirming the establishment of Marienbusch Abbey in 1224 and donating estates, among them a village "in Stolp minore" or "in parvo Ztolp", respectively, to that abbey.[14] Another document dated to 1180, which mentions a "castellania Slupensis" and would thus be the oldest surviving record, has been identified as a late 13th-century or 14th-century fake.[14] The Griffin dukes lost the area to the Samborides
Samborides
during the following years, and the next surviving documents mentioning the area concern donations made by Samboride Swietopelk II, dating to 1236 (two documents) and 1240.[15] In the earlier of the two 1236 documents, a Johann "castellanus de Slupcz" is mentioned as a witness,[16] Schmidt considers this to be the earliest mention of the gard, since a castellany required the existence of a gard.[17] The first surviving record explicitly mentioning the gard is from 1269: it notes a "Christianus, castellanus in castro Stolpis, et Hermannus, capellanus in civitate ante castrum predictum", thus confirming the existence of a fortress ("castrum") with a suburbium ("civitas").[17] Schmidt further says that the office of a capellanus required a church, which he identifies as Saint Peter's.[17] This church is mentioned by name for the first time in a 1281 document of Samboride Mestwin II, which also mentions Saint Nicolai church and a Saint Mary's chapel in the fortress.[18] The oldest mention of Saint Nicolai church dates to 1276.[18] Modern Słupsk's website says that the town was probably given city rights in 1265.[19] Schmidt says that city rights were granted for the first time[18] in a document dated 9 September 1310: Brandenburgian margraves Waldemar and Johann V granted Lübeck law, which he confirmed and extended in a second document, dated 2 February 1313.[18] The margraves had acquired the area when Mestwin II
Mestwin II
accepted them as his superiors in 1269, confirmed in 1273,[20] and kept it after Mestwin II's death while leaving local rule in the hands of the Swenzones dynasty, whose members were castellans in Stolp.[21] The governors of Stolp had bought Stolpmünde and then built a port there, enabling a maritime economy to develop. In 1368 Pomerania-Stolp
Pomerania-Stolp
was split off from Pomerania-Wolgast. In 1410 Bogusław VIII gave a tribute to Polish king Władysław Jagiełło[22] It became part of the Duchy of Pomerania
Duchy of Pomerania
in 1478. Modern ages[edit]

Green zone in Starzynskiego Street

St. Mary's Church

The Reformation reached the town in 1521, when Christian Ketelhut preached in the town. Ketelhut had to leave Stolp in 1522 due to an intervention of Bogislaw X, Duke of Pomerania. Peter Suawe, a Protestant from Stolp, however kept on preaching. In 1524, Johannes Amandus from Königsberg
Königsberg
and others arrived and preached in a more radical way. As a consequence, the Holy Mary's Church was profaned, the monastery's church was burned, and the clergy were treated poorly.[23] The inhabitants of the town began converting to Lutheranism. In 1560 Polish pastor Paweł Buntowski preached in the town, and in 1586 Polish religious literature spread out.[24] The local ruling house, the House of Pomerania
House of Pomerania
(Griffins), died out in 1637. The territory of the Duchy of Pomerania
Duchy of Pomerania
was partitioned between Brandenburg-Prussia
Brandenburg-Prussia
and Sweden. After the Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
(1648) and the Treaty of Stettin (1653), Stolp came under Brandenburgian control. In 1660, Kashubian dialect was allowed to be taught but only in religious studies.[24] Polish language
Polish language
in general however was experiencing very unfavourable conditions due to depopulation of the area in numerous wars and germanization made great advances in this time period[25]

Słupsk
Słupsk
Town Hall

After the Thirty Years' War, Stolp lost much of its former importance—despite the fact that Stettin was then a part of Sweden, the province's capital was situated not in the second-largest city of the region, but in the one closest to the former ducal residence—Stargard. However, the local economy stabilized. The constant dynamic development of the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
and good economic conditions saw the city develop. After the major state border changes (modern Vorpommern and Stettin joined the Prussian state after a conflict with Sweden) Stolp was only an administrative centre of the Kreis within the Regierungsbezirk
Regierungsbezirk
of Köslin. However, its geographical location led to rapid development, and in the 19th century it was the second city of the province in terms of both population and industrialization. In 1769, Frederick II of Prussia
Frederick II of Prussia
established a military school in the city, according to Stanisław Salmonowicz its purpose was the germanization of local Polish nobility.[26] During the Napoleonic Wars, the city was taken by 1500 Polish soldiers under the leadership of general Michał Sokolnicki
Michał Sokolnicki
in 1807.[24] In 1815 it became one of the cities of the Province of Pomerania (1815–1945), in which it remained until 1945. In 1869 a railway from Danzig reached Stolp. During the 19th century, the city's boundaries were significantly extended towards the west and south. The new railway station was built about 1,000 metres from the old city. In 1901, the construction of a new city hall was completed, followed by a local administration building in 1903. In 1910 a tram line was opened. The football club Viktoria Stolp
Viktoria Stolp
was formed in 1901. In 1914, before the First World War, Stolp had 34,340 inhabitants. Interwar period[edit] Stolp was not directly affected by the fighting in the First World War. The trams did not run during the war, returning to the streets in 1919. Demographic growth remained high, although development slowed, because the city became peripheral, the Kreis being situated on post-war Germany's border with the Polish Corridor. Polish claims to Stolp and its neighbouring area were refused during the Treaty of Versailles negotiations. From 1926 the city became an active point of Nazi supporters, and NSDAP influence grew rapidly.[24] The party received 49.1% of the city's vote in the German federal election of March 1933.[27] During the Kristallnacht, the night of 9/10 November 1938, the local synagogue was burned down.[28] Second World War[edit] The beginning of the Second World War
Second World War
halted the development of the city. The Nazis created a labour camp there, which became Außenarbeitslager Stolp, a subcamp of the Stutthof concentration camp. During the war, Germans
Germans
brought forced labourers from occupied and conquered countries and committed numerous atrocities. People in the labour camp were maltreated physically and psychologically and forced to undertake exhausting work while being subject to starvation.[29] Between July 1944 and February 1945, 800 prisoners were murdered by Germans
Germans
in a branch of the Stutthof camp located in a railway yard in the city; today a monument honours the memory of those victims.[28] Other victims of German atrocities included 23 Polish children murdered between December 1944 and February 1945, and 24 people (23 men and one woman) murdered by the SS on 7 March 1945, just before the Red Army
Red Army
took over the city without any serious resistance on 8 March 1945.[28] In fear of Soviet repression, up to 1,000 inhabitants committed suicide.[28][30] Thousands remained in the city; the others had fled and the Nazi soldiers abandoned it. However, Russian soldiers were ordered to set fire to the centre of the city. The Red Army
Red Army
initially set up administrative headquarters in the city hall. Post-war till 1989[edit] After the war, according to the preliminary agreements of the conferences of Yalta and Potsdam, the German territories east of the Oder-Neisse line
Oder-Neisse line
— most of Pomerania, Silesia
Silesia
and East Prussia
East Prussia
— were transferred to Poland
Poland
and from the middle of 1945 through to 1946 the surviving Germans
Germans
were expelled. The town's name was now changed into "Słupsk" (the Polish version of its name) by the Commission for the Determination of Place Names on 23 April 1945. It was initially part of Okręg III, comprising the whole territory of the former Province of Pomerania
Pomerania
east of the Oder
Oder
River. Nearly the entire German population was expelled and deported soon after 1945. Their houses in Stolp were taken over by Poles
Poles
from central Poland
Poland
and from the former Polish eastern territories re-conquered by the Soviet Union. Also Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Lemkos
Lemkos
settled into the town during Operation Vistula. Słupsk
Słupsk
later became part of Szczecin
Szczecin
Voivodeship and then Koszalin Voivodeship, and in 1975 became the capital of the new province of Słupsk
Słupsk
Voivodeship. The city was a cultural centre. The Millennium Cinema was one of the first in Poland
Poland
to have a cinerama. The puppet theatre Tęcza used to collaborate with the similar institution called Arcadia in Oradea, Romania, but the partnership ceased after 1989. During the 1970 protests there were minor strikes and demonstrations. No-one was killed during the militia's interventions. After 1989[edit] Major street name changes were made in Słupsk
Słupsk
after the Autumn of Nations in 1989. Also a process of major renovations and refurbishments began, beginning in the principal neighbourhoods. According to the administrative reform of Poland
Poland
in 1999, Słupsk Voivodeship was dissolved and divided between two larger regions: Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
and West Pomeranian Voivodeship. Słupsk
Słupsk
itself became part of the former. The reform was criticized by locals, who wanted to create a separate Middle Pomeranian Voivodeship.[31] In 1998 a major riot took place after a basketball game. In 2014, Słupsk
Słupsk
elected Poland's first openly gay mayor, Robert Biedroń.[32] Demographics[edit] Before the end of World War II, the vast majority of the town's population was composed of Protestants.

Number of inhabitants in years

1740: 2,599[33] 1782: 3,744, incl. 40 Jews[33] 1794: 4,335, incl. 39 Jews[33] 1812: 5,083, incl. 55 Catholics and 63 Jews[33] 1816: 5,236, incl. 58 Catholics and 135 Jews[33] 1831: 6,581, incl. 36 Catholics and 239 Jews[33] 1843: 8,540, incl. 58 Catholics and 391 Jews[33] 1852: 10,714, incl. 50 Catholics and 599 Jews[33] 1861: 12,691, incl. 45 Catholics, 757 Jews, one Mennonite and 46 German Catholics.[33] 1905: 31,154 (incl. the military), among these 951 Catholics and 548 Jews[34] 1925: 41,605, incl. 1,200 Catholics and 469 Jews[35] 1933: 45,307[36] 1939: 48,060[36]

In 1994 number of inhabitants reached the highest level.

Transport[edit] Railways[edit] Main article: Słupsk
Słupsk
(PKP station)

PKP class EN57
PKP class EN57
and the platforms of Słupsk
Słupsk
railway station

Słupsk
Słupsk
is a railway junction, with four lines running north, west, east and south from the city.[37] Currently, one station, opened January 10, 1991 serves the whole city. This is a class B station according to PKP (Polish Railways) criteria.[38] The city has rail connections with most major cities in Poland: Białystok, Gdańsk, Gdynia, Katowice, Kraków, Lublin, Łódź, Olsztyn, Poznań, Szczecin, Warsaw
Warsaw
and Wrocław, and also serves as a junction for local trains from Kołobrzeg, Koszalin, Lębork, Miastko, Szczecinek
Szczecinek
and Ustka. Słupsk
Słupsk
is the westernmost terminus of the Fast Urban Railway serving the Gdańsk
Gdańsk
conurbation.[39] The first railway reached Słupsk
Słupsk
(then Stolp) from the east in 1869. The first rail station was built north of its current location. The line was later extended to Köslin (Koszalin), and further lines were built connecting the city with Neustettin (Szczecinek), Stolpmünde (Ustka), Zezenow (Cecenowo) (narrow gauge) and Budow (Budowo) (narrow gauge). The narrow gauge tracks were rebuilt as standard gauge by 1933, but were demolished during the Second World War. After the war, the first train connection to be restored was that with Lębork, reopened May 27, 1945. Between 1988 and 1989 almost all of the lines traversing the city were electrified. Roads[edit] Słupsk
Słupsk
used to be traversed east-west by European route E28, which is known as National route 6 in Poland
Poland
until a bypass running to the south of the town to carry the 6/E28 traffic was built. The bypass is a part of Expressway S6 which, when completed some time after 2015, will give Słupsk
Słupsk
a fast road connection to Szczecin
Szczecin
and Gdańsk. The city can also be accessed by the National route 21 from Miastko, Voivodeship route 210 from Ustka
Ustka
to Unichowo
Unichowo
and Voivodeship route 213 from Puck. Local roads of lesser importance connect Słupsk
Słupsk
with surrounding villages and towns. The city's network of streets is well developed, but many of them require general refurbishment. The city is currently investing significant sums of money in road development. Air[edit] Słupsk- Redzikowo
Redzikowo
Airport is now defunct, however, it once worked as a regular passenger airport of local significance. Several plans to eventually reopen it failed because of lack of funds. The facility was earmarked for use within the US missile defense complex as a missile launch site. Policy changes by the US government regarding the missile shield have made this development unlikely however. Monuments[edit]

District Authority Office in Słupsk

'Słupsk' Hotel

Słupsk Town Hall
Słupsk Town Hall
(Plac Zwycięstwa 3) A new Town Hall (Zwycięstwa Square 1) County Office (Szarych Szeregów 14) Pomeranian Dukes Castle (Dominikańska 5 - 9) Municipal Public Library (Grodzka Street 3) The Castle Mill (ul. Dominikańska 5 - 9) - the oldest still existing industrial building in Poland Post-Dominican church of St. Jack (ul. Dominikańska 5-9) Church of Virgin Mary (ul. Nowobramska) The Church of the Holiest Heart of Jesus (Armii Krajowej Street 22) The Church of the Holy Cross (Słowackiego Street 42) Monastery Church under the invocation of St. Otto (Henryka Pobożnego Street 7) New Gate (Plac Zwyciestwa Street 12) The Mill Gate (Dominikańska Street 5-9) Richter's granary (Dominikanska Street 5-9) On the hill next to dr Maxa Josepha Street there is a Former funeral home of Jewish Commune (synagogue) (dr Max Joseph Street) Old Brewery in Słupsk
Słupsk
(Kilińskiego Street 26-28) Defensive walls Department store called 'Słowiniec' with the oldest wooden lift in Europe (Zwycięstwa Square 11) Witches’ Tower
Witches’ Tower
(F. Nullo Street 13) Main Post Office (Łukasiewicza Street 3)

Culture[edit]

Park of Culture

Słupsk
Słupsk
is the regular venue for a number of festivals, most notably:

the "Solidarity" International Contract Bridge
Contract Bridge
Festival (Międzynarodowy Festiwal Brydża Sportowego "Solidarność") the Komeda Jazz Festival the "Performance" International Art Festival (Międzynarodowy Festiwal Sztuki "Performance") an International Piano Festival

For a long time here lived Anna Łajming
Anna Łajming
(1904–2003), Kashubian and Polish author. The museum in Słupsk
Słupsk
holds the world's biggest collection of Witkacy's works. Theatres[edit] Słupsk
Słupsk
currently has three theatres:

the Tęcza ("Rainbow") Theatre the Rondo ("Roundabout") Theatre the New Theatre, reopened after a 13-year absence

In the 1970s the Tęcza Theatre collaborated with the Arcadia Theatre from Oradea, Romania. This partnership ended after 1989 for political reasons. Cinemas[edit] At one time Słupsk
Słupsk
had five functioning cinemas, but only one, which belongs to the cinema chain Multikino
Multikino
remains open today, which is located in the Jantar Shopping Centre. There is also a small specialist cinema called "Rejs" on 3 Maja street. There was a cinema called 'Milenium', which has now been replaced by the Biedronka
Biedronka
chain of supermarkets.

The Millenium cinema, which is now a supermarket

Economy[edit] Słupsk
Słupsk
has a developing economy based on a number of large factories. The footwear industry has been particularly successful in the region, expanding its exports to many countries. The Scania commercial vehicles plant also plays a very significant role in Słupsk's economy, generating the highest revenue out of all companies currently based in Słupsk. Most of the buses currently manufactured there are exported to Western Europe. Notable citizens[edit]

Kamila Augustyn (born 1982), Polish badminton player Ulrich Beck
Ulrich Beck
(1944–2015), German sociologist Eduard von Bonin
Eduard von Bonin
(1793–1865), Prussian General, minister of war Bazon Brock
Bazon Brock
(born 1936), German professor of art Ernst-Georg Buchterkirch
Ernst-Georg Buchterkirch
(1914–1971), Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
officer Erwin Bumke
Erwin Bumke
(1874–1945), German jurist Oswald Bumke (1877–1950), German psychiatrist, neurologist Wilhelm Dames
Wilhelm Dames
(1843–1898), German paleontologist Otto Freundlich
Otto Freundlich
(1878–1934), German sculptor, artist George Grosz
George Grosz
(1893–1959), German artist, satirical caricaturist Tomasz Iwan, (born 1971) Polish football (soccer) player Hedwig Lachmann (1865–1918), German author Walter Lichel (1885–1969) German general Odo Marquard (1928–2015), German philosopher Georg von der Marwitz
Georg von der Marwitz
(1856–1929), German general Paul Mattick
Paul Mattick
(1904–1981), Marxist political writer Christian Meier (born 1929), German historian Flockina von Platen (1905–1984), German actress Milena Rosner
Milena Rosner
(born 1980), volleyball player Otto Liman von Sanders
Otto Liman von Sanders
(1855–1929), German general Hans Schrader (1869–1948), German classical archaeologist and art historian Heinrich von Stephan
Heinrich von Stephan
(1831–1897), German official, founder of the Universal Postal Union Dieter Stöckmann
Dieter Stöckmann
(born 1941), German general Berthold Suhle (1837–1904), German chess master Edgar Wisniewski
Edgar Wisniewski
(1930–2007), German architect

Sports clubs[edit]

Akademia Tenisa Oxford: tennis Czarni Słupsk: Men's Basketball, they are based in Hala Gryfia Gryf Słupsk: football Słupia
Słupia
Słupsk: handball Słupski Klub Sportowy Piast-B: badminton SKB Czarni Słupsk: boxing TPS Czarni Słupsk: women's volleyball Towarzystwo Pływackie Skalar Słupsk: swimming SKLA Słupsk: athletics STS Gryf 3 Słupsk : judo

Energy and communications[edit] Słupsk
Słupsk
has a lattice tower used for television broadcasting. Near Słupsk
Słupsk
is the static invertor station of the SwePol
SwePol
high-voltage submarine cable link. US missile defense complex[edit] Main article: US missile defense complex in Poland The European Interceptor Site (EIS) of the US was planned in nearby Redzikowo, forming a Ground-Based Midcourse Defense
Ground-Based Midcourse Defense
system in conjunction with a US narrow-beam midcourse tracking and discrimination radar system in the Czech Republic. It was supposed to consist of up to 10 silo-based interceptors, a two-stage version of the existing three-stage Ground Based Interceptor (GBI), with Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle
Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle
(EKV). The missile shield has received much local opposition in the area, including several protests. This included a protest in March 2008, when an estimated 300 protesters marched on the proposed site of the missile base.[40] The planned installation was later scrapped by President Obama on 17 September 2009.[41] On February 12, 2016 the US Army has awarded AMEC Foster Wheeler a $182.7 million contract with option to support the Aegis Ashore missile defense system in Poland. The contract comes as part of Phase III of the European Phased Adaptive Approach program, which aims to boost land based missile defense systems for NATO allies against ballistic missile threats. Project is located in Redzikowo, the site that was formerly scrapped.[42] International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland Twin towns — Sister cities[edit] Słupsk
Słupsk
is twinned with:

Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk
in Russia.[43] Bari
Bari
in Italy Bukhara
Bukhara
in Uzbekistan

Carlisle in England[44][45] Cartaxo
Cartaxo
in Portugal Flensburg
Flensburg
in Germany

Ustka
Ustka
in Poland Vantaa
Vantaa
in Finland Vordingborg in Denmark

See also[edit]

Słupsk
Słupsk
(PKP station) Town Hall of Słupsk Słupsk
Słupsk
Synagogue

References[edit]

Literature

(in German) Helge Bei der Wieden and Roderich Schmidt, eds.: Handbuch der historischen Stätten Deutschlands: Mecklenburg/Pommern, Kröner, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 978-3-520-31501-4, pp. 287–290. (in German) Haken, Christian Wilhelm: Drei Beiträge zur Erläuterung der Stadtgeschichte von Stolp (Three Contributions to Explaining the History of the Town of Stolp) (1775). Newly edited by F. W. Feige, Stolp, 1866 (online) (in German) Kratz, Gustav: Die Städte der Provinz Pommern, Abriss ihrer Geschichte, zumeist nach Urkunden (The Towns of the Province of Pomerania
Pomerania
- Sketch of their History, Mainly According to Historical Records). Berlin, 1865 (reprinted in 2010 by Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1-161-12969-3), pp. 413–439 (online) (in German) Pagel, Karl-Heinz: Stolp in Pommern - eine ostdeutsche Stadt. Lübeck, 1977 (with extensive bibliography, online) (in German) Reinhold, Werner: Chronik der Stadt Stolp (Chronicle of the Town of Stolp). Stolp, 1861 (online)

Notes

^ http://stat.gov.pl/obszary-tematyczne/ludnosc/ludnosc/ludnosc-stan-i-struktura-ludnosci-oraz-ruch-naturalny-w-przekroju-terytorialnym-w-2014-r-stanu-w-dniu-30-vi-2014-r,6,12.html Archived 2014-12-02 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Słupsk.pl: Dane statystyczne" (in Polish). Retrieved April 12, 2008.  ^ Collaborative work (1999). Gminy w Polsce (in Polish). Central Statistical Office.  ^ Collaborative work (2007). Powierzchnia i ludność w przekroju terytorialnym w 2007 (in Polish). Central Statistical Office.  ^ a b c "Słupsk.pl: Informacje ogólne" (in Polish). Retrieved April 12, 2008.  ^ "Nasze Kaszuby: Zestawienie kaszubskich i polskich nazw miejscowości na Kaszubach, z wariantami, z wyszczególnieniem powiatów" (in Polish and Kashubian). Retrieved April 12, 2008.  ^ "Lexicon Universale" (in Latin). Retrieved April 12, 2008. [dead link] ^ "Gp24.pl: Coraz bliżej aquaparku" (in Polish). Retrieved April 13, 2008.  ^ Kaczmarek, T., Kaczmarek, U., Sołowiej D., Wrzesiński, D. (2002). Ilustrowana Geografia Polski (in Polish). Świat Książki. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Collaborative work (2000). Altas geograficzny dla szkół średnich (in Polish). PPWK.  ^ "Weatherbase".  ^ [1] Histroria Słupska do roku 1945. Official webpage of the city. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-12-20. Retrieved 2009-08-07.  Historia. Official webpage of the city ^ a b Schmidt, Roderich (2009). Das historische Pommern. Personen, Orte, Ereignisse. Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Pommern (in German). 41 (2 ed.). Köln-Weimar: Böhlau. p. 140. ISBN 3-412-20436-6.  ^ Schmidt, Roderich (2009). Das historische Pommern. Personen, Orte, Ereignisse. Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Pommern (in German). 41 (2 ed.). Köln-Weimar: Böhlau. p. 142. ISBN 3-412-20436-6.  ^ Schmidt, Roderich (2009). Das historische Pommern. Personen, Orte, Ereignisse. Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Pommern (in German). 41 (2 ed.). Köln-Weimar: Böhlau. pp. 142, 147. ISBN 3-412-20436-6.  ^ a b c Schmidt, Roderich (2009). Das historische Pommern. Personen, Orte, Ereignisse. Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Pommern (in German). 41 (2 ed.). Köln-Weimar: Böhlau. p. 147. ISBN 3-412-20436-6.  ^ a b c d Schmidt, Roderich (2009). Das historische Pommern. Personen, Orte, Ereignisse. Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Pommern (in German). 41 (2 ed.). Köln-Weimar: Böhlau. p. 148. ISBN 3-412-20436-6.  ^ "Słupsk.pl: Historia Słupska do roku 1945" (in Polish). Retrieved April 12, 2008.  ^ Schmidt, Roderich (2009). Das historische Pommern. Personen, Orte, Ereignisse. Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Pommern (in German). 41 (2 ed.). Köln-Weimar: Böhlau. pp. 143–144. ISBN 3-412-20436-6.  ^ Schmidt, Roderich (2009). Das historische Pommern. Personen, Orte, Ereignisse. Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Pommern (in German). 41 (2 ed.). Köln-Weimar: Böhlau. pp. 144–145. ISBN 3-412-20436-6.  ^ [2] Historia Słupska do roku 1945 ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.211, ISBN 3-88680-272-8 ^ a b c d Historia Słupska do roku 1945 ^ Język polski, Tomy 19-20 Towarzystwo Miłośników Języka Polskiego, page 194, W Drukarni Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, 1999 ^ Polacy i Niemcy wobec siebie Stanisław Salmonowicz, Ośrodek Badań Naukowych im. W. Kętrzyńskiego 1993, page 43 ^ Deutsche Verwaltungsgeschichtevon der Reichseinigung 1871 bis zur Wiedervereinigung 1990 von Dr. Michael Rademacher M.A. ^ a b c d Słupsk
Słupsk
po wybuchu II wojny światowej ^ [3] Słupsk
Słupsk
po wybuchu II wojny światowej. Official city webpage ^ Lakotta, Beate (2005-03-05). "Tief vergraben, nicht dran rühren" (in German). SPON. Retrieved 2010-08-16.  ^ "Legislative proposal of July 24, 1998 regarding the introduction of the three-level administrative division of Poland" (in Polish). Retrieved April 22, 2008.  ^ Gera, Vanessa (1 December 2014). " Poland
Poland
elects first openly gay mayor in elections". The Big Story. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Kratz (1865), p. 430 ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. 6th edition, vol. 19, Leipzig and Vienna 1909, p. 60 (in German) ^ Gunthard Stübs und Pommersche Forschungsgemeinschaft: Die Stadt Stolp im ehemaligen Stadt Stolp in Pommern, 2011. (in German) ^ a b verwaltungsgeschichte.de (in German) ^ "Kolej.One.Pl: Słupsk" (in Polish). Retrieved April 22, 2008.  ^ "List of stations maintained by Dworce Kolejowe" (PDF) (in Polish). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 9, 2006. Retrieved April 22, 2008.  ^ "SKM network map" (in Polish). Archived from the original on April 20, 2008. Retrieved April 22, 2008.  ^ Protesters March on Proposed US Missile Base ^ President Obama announces scrapping the planned missile defense system in Poland
Poland
and the Czech republic New York Times
New York Times
Retrieved on 09-17-09 ^ [4] [5] Defense Industry Daily Retrieved on 02-18-16 ^ Информация о городах-побратимах (in Russian). www.arhcity.ru. 2007-10-26. Retrieved 2009-09-17.  ^ Carlisle City Council. "Town twinning". carlisle.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2008-12-02. Retrieved 2009-06-24.  ^ "Town Twinning at Carlisle City Council". carlisletwins.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2007-08-27. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Słupsk.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ulice Słupska.

Municipal website Museum of Central Pomerania History of Slupsk Solidarity International Bridge Festival March 29th, 2008: Demonstration Against U.S. Missile Defence Shield

v t e

Counties of Pomeranian Voivodeship

City counties

Gdańsk
Gdańsk
(capital) Gdynia Słupsk Sopot

Land counties

Bytów Chojnice Człuchów Gdańsk Kartuzy Kościerzyna Kwidzyn Lębork Malbork Nowy Dwór Gdański Puck Słupsk Starogard Sztum Tczew Wejherowo

v t e

Słupsk
Słupsk
County

Seat (not part of the county): Słupsk

Urban gmina

Ustka

Urban-rural gmina

Gmina
Gmina
Kępice

Rural gminas

Gmina
Gmina
Damnica Gmina
Gmina
Dębnica Kaszubska Gmina
Gmina
Główczyce Gmina
Gmina
Kobylnica Gmina
Gmina
Potęgowo Gmina
Gmina
Słupsk Gmina
Gmina
Smołdzino Gmina
Gmina
Ustka

v t e

Geography of Pomerania

Regions

Current

Western Pomerania West Pomeranian Voivodeship Pomerelia

Kashubia Pomorskie

Pomerania
Pomerania
euroregion

Former

Farther Pomerania Circipania Lauenburg and Bütow Land Lands of Schlawe and Stolp

Administration

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern West Pomeranian Voivodeship Pomeranian Voivodeship Złotów County

Towns

Lists

List of towns in Vorpommern List of towns in Farther Pomerania List of placenames in the Province of Pomerania

A–H I–P Q–Z

Largest

>100,000

Tricity

Gdańsk Gdynia Sopot

Szczecin Koszalin

>50,000

Słupsk Stargard Stralsund Greifswald

Islands

Greifswalder Oie Hiddensee Rügen Ummanz Usedom Vilm Wolin

Peninsulae

Fischland-Darß-Zingst Jasmund Hela Mönchgut Wittow

Rivers

Dziwna Grabowa Ina Łeba Oder Parsęta Peene Peenestrom Randow Recknitz Rega Ryck Słupia Świna Tollense Trebel Uecker Vistula Wieprza

Lakes

Lake Dąbie Lake Gardno Kummerower See Lake Łebsko Lake Miedwie

Bays, lagoons

Bay of Gdańsk Bay of Greifswald Bay of Pomerania Szczecin
Szczecin
Lagoon

National parks

Western Pomerania
Western Pomerania
Lagoon Area National Park Jasmund
Jasmund
National Park Lower Oder
Oder
Valley National Park Wolin
Wolin
National Park Słowiński National Park

v t e

History of Pomerania

10,000 BC – 600 AD 600–1100 1100–1300 1300–1500 1500–1806 1806–1933 1933–1945 1945–present

Administrative

Western Pomerania Farther Pomerania (before 1945)

Billung March Northern March Principality of Rügen Duchy of Pomerania

House of Pomerania List of Dukes Cammin Gützkow Schlawe-Stolp Lauenburg-Bütow Partitions Pomerania-Stolp

Swedish Pomerania Brandenburgian Pomerania
Pomerania
(Draheim) Province of Pomerania
Pomerania
1815–1945

Neumark Köslin Region Stettin Region Stralsund
Stralsund
Region Posen-West Prussia
Posen-West Prussia
Region List of placenames

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Zachodniopomorskie (after 1945)

Szczecin
Szczecin
Voivodeship Koszalin
Koszalin
Voivodeship Słupsk
Słupsk
Voivodeship West Pomeranian Voivodeship

Pomerelia
Pomerelia
(Kashubia)

Medieval duchies (Samborides) State of the Teutonic Order Royal Prussia
Royal Prussia
( Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
1466–1772) Free City of Danzig
Free City of Danzig
1807–1814 West Prussia Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
1919–1939 (Polish Corridor) Free City of Danzig
Free City of Danzig
1920–1939 Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia Pomeranian Voivodeship

Ecclesiastical

Roman Catholic

Historical

Conversion of Pomerania Diocese of Kolberg (Congress of Gniezno) Diocese of Cammin Diocese of Culm Diocese of Roskilde Diocese of Włocławek (Leslau) Prelature of Schneidemühl

Extant

Archdiocese of Berlin Archdiocese of Szczecin-Kamień Diocese of Koszalin-Kołobrzeg Diocese of Pelplin

Protestant

Protestant Reformation Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland Pentecostal Church in Poland Evangelical State Church in Prussia
Evangelical State Church in Prussia
(extinct) Pomeranian Evangelical Church
Pomeranian Evangelical Church
(extinct)

Demography

Archaeological cultures

Hamburg Maglemosian Ertebølle-Ellerbek Linear Pottery Funnelbeaker Havelland Corded Ware Comb Ceramic Nordic Bronze Age Lusatian Jastorf Pomeranian Oksywie Wielbark Gustow Dębczyn (Denzin)

Peoples

Gepids Goths Lemovii Rugii Vidivarii Vistula
Vistula
Veneti Slavic Pomeranians Prissani Rani Ukrani Veleti Lutici Velunzani German Pomeranians Kashubians Poles Slovincians

Major demographic events

Migration Period Ostsiedlung WWII flight and expulsion of Germans Post-WWII settlement of Poles
Poles
and Ukrainians

Languages and dialects

West Germanic

Low German

Low Prussian Central Pomeranian Mecklenburgisch-Vorpommersch East Pomeranian West Pomeranian

Standard German

West Slavic

Polabian Polish Pomeranian

Kashubian Slovincian

Treaties

1200–1500

Kremmen (1236) Landin (1250) Kępno (1282) Soldin (1309) Templin (1317) Stralsund
Stralsund
(1354) Stralsund
Stralsund
(1370) Thorn (1411) Soldin (1466) Thorn (1466) Prenzlau (1448 / 1472 / 1479) Pyritz (1493)

1500–1700

Grimnitz (1529) Stettin (1570) Franzburg (1627) Stettin (1630) Westphalia (1648) Stettin (1653) Labiau (1656) Wehlau and Bromberg (1657) Oliva (1660) Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1679) Lund (1679)

1700–present

Stockholm (1719 / 1720) Frederiksborg (1720) Kiel (1814) Vienna (1815) Versailles (1919) Potsdam (1945)

Coordinates: 54°27′N 17°02′E / 54.450°N 17.033°E / 54.450; 17.033

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 134294707 GN

.