Marie-Ségolène Royal, known as Ségolène Royal
(pronounced [se.ɡɔ.lɛn ʁwa.jal] ( listen); born 22
September 1953), is a French politician and prominent member of the
She was President of the
Poitou-Charentes Regional Council from 2004
to 2014. She was the Socialist candidate in the 2007 presidential
election, becoming the first woman in France to be nominated as a
presidential candidate by a major party. She lost to Nicolas Sarkozy
in the run-off.
In 2008, Royal narrowly lost to
Martine Aubry in the Socialist Party's
election for First Secretary at the Party's twenty-second national
congress. Candidate for the PS nomination for President in 2012, she
lost the Socialist Party presidential primary in 2011. She failed in
her attempt to win a seat in the National Assembly in the June 2012
François Hollande, the former President of France, is the father of
her four children. She was appointed by him to the vice-Chair
directorship of the
Banque Publique d'Investissement (BPI) in 2013.
She served as Minister for Ecology from 2014 to 2017, in the Valls,
then Cazeneuve cabinets.
1 Early life
2 Political career
2.2 Member of the French National Assembly
2.4 President of the region Poitou-Charentes
2.5 2007 presidential candidacy
2.6 2008 Socialist Party leadership election
2.7 2011 Socialist Party presidential primary
2.8 Defeat in the 2012 legislative election
2.9 2014 return to government
3.4 Family and social affairs
4 Foreign policy
4.1 International tours
4.1.1 Middle East
4.1.3 Canada: Support for the Quebec independence movement
4.1.4 On Afghanistan
5 Personal life
8 External links
Ségolène Royal was born on 22 September 1953 in the military base
of Ouakam, Dakar,
French West Africa
French West Africa (now Senegal), the daughter of
Hélène Dehaye and Jacques Royal, a former artillery officer and aide
to the mayor of
Her parents had eight children in nine years: Marie-Odette,
Marie-Nicole, Gérard, Marie-Ségolène, Antoine, Paul, Henri and
After secondary school, Marie-Ségolène attended a local university
where she graduated 2nd in her class with a degree in Economics. Her
eldest sister then suggested she prepare the entrance exam to the
Institut d'études politiques de Paris
Institut d'études politiques de Paris popularly called Sciences
Po, which she attended on scholarship. There she discovered politics
of class and feminism. ("Sciences Po" at the time was 85% upper-class
Parisian, mostly male.) In 1972, at the age of 19, Royal sued her
father because he refused to divorce her mother and pay alimony and
child support to finance the children's education. She won the case
after many years in court, shortly before Jacques Royal died of lung
cancer in 1981. Six of the eight children had refused to see him
again, Ségolène included.
Royal, like the majority of France's political elite, is a graduate of
the École nationale d'administration. She was in the same class as
her former partner of 30 years, François Hollande, as well as
Dominique de Villepin (prime minister under Jacques Chirac). Each
class year at the ENA receives a nickname to distinguish it: Royal
tried to get her peers to name their class after Louise Michel, a
revolutionary from the 1870s, but they chose the name "Voltaire"
instead. During her time at the ENA, Royal also dropped "Marie" from
her hyphenated first name because she thought it had been chosen by
her father for his daughters out of a degrading and archaic view of
the role of women.
After graduating in 1980, she elected to serve as a judge (conseiller)
of an administrative court before she was noticed by President
François Mitterrand's special adviser
Jacques Attali and recruited to
his staff in 1982. She held the junior rank of chargée de mission
from 1982 to 1988.
Member of the French National Assembly
She decided to become a candidate for the 1988 legislative election;
she registered in the rural, Western
Deux-Sèvres Département. Her
candidacy was an example of the French political tradition of
parachutage (parachuting), appointing promising "Parisian" political
staffers as candidates in provincial districts to test their mettle.
She was up against an entrenched UDF incumbent, and Mitterrand is said
to have told her: "You will not win, but you will next time."
Straddling strongly Catholic and Protestant areas, that district had
been held by conservatives since World War II. She did win against the
odds, and remarked: "Pour un parachutage, l'atterrissage est réussi."
("As far as parachuting goes, the landing was a success").
After this election, she served as representative in the National
Assembly for the
Deux-Sèvres' 2nd constituency (1988–1992,
1993–1997, 2002–2007).
Minister of Environment : 1992–1993.
Minister of School Education : 1997–2000.
Minister of Family and Children : 2000–2001.
Minister of Family, Children and Disabled persons : 2001–2002.
President of the region Poitou-Charentes
On 28 March 2004, she obtained 55% in the second round in the regional
election in Poitou-Charentes, notably defeating Prime Minister
Jean-Pierre Raffarin's protégée, Élisabeth Morin, in his home
region. She was elected president of the region the next week. She
kept her National Assembly seat until June 2007, when she chose not to
run in the legislative election, in agreement with one of her
presidential campaign's promises. She organised a run-off between two
contenders; the winner, Delphine Batho, went on to win the district
for her and Royal's party.
2007 presidential candidacy
Main article: French presidential election, 2007
See also: French Socialist Party presidential primary, 2006
Royal on the trail
Kader Arif, the European parliament's rapporteur for ACTA in Toulouse
on 13 April 2007 where he was promoting Ségolène Royal's candidacy
for the 2007 presidential election.
On 22 September 2005
Paris Match published an interview in which she
declared that she was considering running for the presidency in
2007. In 2006 the CPE (first employment contract) laws were
proposed with large protests as a result. Rather than going to the
organised protest, she voted a law in her "région" whereby no company
using that type of contract would receive the Région's subsidies. The
government backed down and stated that the law would be put on the
statute book, but that it would not be applied. After this event Royal
was tipped as the lead contender in what is dubbed the "Sarko-Ségo"
race against Nicolas Sarkozy. Until that time, she had not been
thought a likely candidate as she had stayed out of the Socialist
Party's power struggles.
On 7 April 2006, Royal launched an Internet-led electoral campaign at
Désirs d'avenir ("Desires for the future"), publishing the first of
ten chapters of her political manifesto.
By the beginning of September, her intentions had become quite clear.
She has said that only widespread sexism in the Socialist Party had
prevented it from rallying around her candidacy as it would have had
she been a man. She announced an official team to promote her campaign
on 30 August. At this point, polls showed her to be much more popular
than her closest competitor, former Prime Minister Lionel Jospin, and
other Socialist heavyweights Dominique Strauss-Kahn, Jack Lang,
another former Prime Minister
Laurent Fabius and François Hollande.
Her status as a presidential candidate became more likely on 28
September 2006, when Lionel Jospin, the Socialist former Prime
Minister and a fixture in French politics for nearly three decades,
announced that he would not run after all. Jack Lang followed suit.
On 16 November, Royal defeated
Laurent Fabius and Dominique
Strauss-Kahn in the French Socialist Party primary, becoming the
party's candidate for the 2007 presidential election. The Socialist
party's members voted 60.69% for her and gave a bit under 20% each to
the more traditional contenders. She also won in 101 of 104 of the
Socialist Party's fédérations, losing only Haute-Corse,
Seine-Maritime (the latter being the home region of Laurent Fabius).
One of her top advisors, Éric Besson, resigned soon afterwards over a
disagreement about the costs of this programme, which he believes
could reach €35 billion, while others in the campaign team
wanted to delay bringing out that figure.[The figure was equivalent to
that of Mr. Sarkozy's but higher than Mr. Bayrou's, who was becoming a
key figure in the race.] This led to an unusually bitter fall-out,
and Mr Besson writing a book titled Qui connaît Madame Royal ?
(Who knows Mrs Royal?), published on 20 March. In it, Besson accuses
Royal of being a populist, an authoritarian and a luddite and says
that he will not vote for her and hopes that she is not elected.
He then went on to join the Sarkozy campaign and was rewarded with a
junior position in the next government on 18 May 2007.
Following the first round of the presidential election, she faced
Nicolas Sarkozy in the second round of voting on 6 May in a two-way
runoff. In the final round of voting on Sunday, 6 May, Sarkozy won the
presidency with 53% of the vote. Royal conceded defeat and wished
Sarkozy the best, requesting he keep her supporters in mind.
Royal later revealed she had offered defeated centrist candidate,
François Bayrou, the premiership should she be elected.
2008 Socialist Party leadership election
Main article: Reims Congress
Royal entered the leadership election of the Socialist Party to
replace her former common law husband
François Hollande as head of
the party. She garnered the largest plurality of votes in the first
round of voting, but not enough to win outright; she was eventually
narrowly defeated in the second round by rival
Martine Aubry by the
margin of 42 votes. After a vote recount, Aubry was declared the
winner 25 November 2008, with the margin widening to 102 votes.
Royal has announced her intentions to contest the result. Royal has
blamed party leaders and her former partner for her loss in the 2007
2011 Socialist Party presidential primary
Main article: French Socialist Party presidential primary, 2011
Royal ran in the French Socialist Party presidential primary election
of 2011, the party's first ever open primary. She arrived 4th in the
first round on 9 October 2011 with a mere 6.95% of votes, considerably
below the figures suggested by opinion polls.
Defeat in the 2012 legislative election
In 2012, Royal ran for office representing Charente-Maritime's 1st
constituency. She lost the election to a dissident Socialist, Olivier
After her separation with Hollande, political relations between them
were tense, though they have both stated that they remained friends.
In the 2008 Socialist Party leadership election, Hollande backed
another candidate, and Royal has blamed him and the party
establishment for her 2007 Presidential defeat. Hollande lived
with magazine journalist
Valérie Trierweiler after separating from
Royal. He has recently split from Trierweiler following rumours of an
alleged affair with actress Julie Gayet.
2014 return to government
On 2 April 2014 Royal was appointed Minister of Ecology, Sustainable
Development and Energy in the second cabinet of Prime Minister Manuel
Valls, In January 2015 she was third in line in governmental
rank, after the Prime Minister and Foreign Minister.
Increasingly, commentators have seen Royal as President François
Hollande’s stand-in for some important state occasions. When Pope
Francis touched down on French soil for the first time in his papacy
with a visit to the
European Parliament in
Strasbourg in November
2014, Royal was the senior French official there to greet him. After
the deadly attacks against a satirical newspaper and a kosher
supermarket in January 2015, she traveled to
Israel to represent
France at the memorial services.
Royal has tended to campaign on family and other socially-oriented
issues, rather than on economic or foreign policy issues. For
instance, she has mounted campaigns against the exposure of children
to violent television shows, including cartoons (see her 1989 book,
listed below, Le Ras-le-bol des bébés zappeurs, roughly translated
as "The Channel-Surfing Kids Are Fed Up"), and more generally has
taken a stand on several issues regarding family values and the
protection of children.
Royal stated as part of her 100-point platform that if elected, she
would raise the lowest state pensions by five percent, increase the
monthly minimum wage to €1,500, raise benefits of handicapped
citizens, implement state-paid rental deposits for the poorest
citizens, and guarantee a job or job training to every student within
six months of graduation. She pledged to abolish a flexible work
contract for small companies. She pledged free contraception for all
young women and a €10,000 interest-free loan for all young
The capitalists and the socialists have to be frightened. There is no
alternative. They can't just dispose of people as they wish. They have
to be held accountable.
Royal opposes movements of jobs between EU countries and outsourcing
to developing countries. She pledged to abolish a flexible work
contract for small companies. She did not directly address whether
additional taxes would need to be raised to fund these programs,
stating that they can be paid for by cutting waste in government.
She was appointed to the vice-Chair directorship of the Banque
Publique d'Investissement, from which position she stated that the
"BPI's purpose is not to do business nor to make profits".
The Socialist Party website states that during her tenure as Minister
for the Environment, 1992–1993, Royal campaigned actively and
successfully for the "Law on the treatment and recycling of Waste" (La
loi sur le traitement et le recyclage des déchets), the "Law to
preserve the countryside" (La loi sur la reconquête des paysages), a
"Save our countrysides, savour their products" campaign to provide
proper labelling for the products of 100 local areas (opération "
Sauvons nos paysages, savourons leurs produits "), and the "Law
against noise pollution" (La loi de lutte contre le bruit). She
provided compensation for people adversely affected by airport
During her tenure as Minister-delegate for the Family, Children, and
the Handicapped, 2000–2002, Royal was active in the re-launch of
the Priority Education Zones program (ZEP / zone d'éducation
prioritaire), the creation of a government student lunch program, the
implementation of language instruction as a priority in primary
schools, the creation of a national home-tutoring program, Heures de
Soutien Scolaire, and the creation of programs for parental
involvement in schools, "la Semaine des parents à l'école", and
national campaigns for the elections of parent-representatives. She
also campaigned for the creation of local education and citizenship
education contracts, the "Initiatives citoyennes" program for teaching
children how to live together, the law on "Defense of children's
rights and campaign against violence in the schools" (Loi de juin 1998
relative à la prévention et à la répression des infractions
sexuelles ainsi qu'à la protection des mineurs), the "Campaign
against hazing rituals in higher education" (Loi de juin 1998 contre
le bizutage), the "Campaign against violence and racketeering" which
included implementation of the "SOS Violence" telephone number, and
the implementation of mandatory civics instruction in secondary
In January 2006, she criticised secondary school teachers (workers of
state public service) who give private lessons outside school hours,
saying that they should spend more time in school. When a bootleg
video of the speech surfaced on the Internet in November 2006, the
teachers' union SNES rebuffed her, requesting that she renounce her
Family and social affairs
Ségolène Royal speaking to a crowd in Nantes
Ségolène Royal authored a book called The Channel-Surfing
Kids Are Fed-Up, where she criticised Japanese animation (then
dominant in certain TV programs) as poor quality production
detrimental for children.
Royal favours, and has worked for, the "Parental rights and
obligations act" (Loi sur l'autorité parentale), the "Women's rights
reform and anonymous childbirth act" (l'accouchement sous X), the
creation of paternity leave, the creation of 40,000 new spaces in
French nursery schools, and Social housing reform. She has been
active in campaigns providing for "Parental time-off provisions and
financial support for child illness care",
support (parents d'enfants handicapés), "Benefit allocations for
students starting the new school year" (Allocation de rentrée
scolaire), and the "Prostitution of Minors Act" (Loi contre la
prostitution des mineurs) which provides penal measures for clients.
Royal has supported the "Law against child pornography", the creation
of the association "Childhood and the Media" (Enfance et média)
against violence in the media, the creation of the Plan Handiscole for
the education of handicapped children and adolescents and their
integration into life at school, programs for mass and individual
transportation, and the creation of the program "Tourism and the
Handicapped" (Tourisme et handicap). In 2009, she declared herself
to be "profoundly shocked" by statements of Pope
Benedict XVI which
claimed that the distribution of condoms will not stop the spread of
AIDS. Royal added that "the responsibility of any religious leader" is
to "defend the principle of life, and certainly not to urge human
beings towards their deaths."
When she accepted her nomination as the Socialist presidential
candidate, Royal said: "There is a strong correlation between the
status of a woman and the state of justice or injustice in a country."
According to an article in Ms. magazine, French women currently earn
80% of a male counterpart's salary.
Royal has been a long-standing critic of violence on television. She
has voiced opinions in the past linking youth crime to exposure to
pornography and television violence. She also described the M6
programme Loft Story, imitating the internationally popular Big
Brother TV series, as contrary to principles of human dignity and
risking transforming viewers into voyeurs instead of providing quality
A law passed in February 2002, introduced by Royal on behalf of the
Jospin government, allows some parental authority to be granted to
same-sex partners. The law amended Article 377 of the Civil Code in
allowing a parent to ask a judge to share his/her parental authority
with a partner. Article 377-1, added by the law, ensures that
"delegation may provide, for the needs of education of a child, that
the father and mother, or one of them, shall share all or part of the
exercise of parental authority with the third person delegatee".
In a June 2006 interview with
LGBT publication Têtu, Royal said
"opening up marriage to same-sex couples is needed in the name of
equality, visibility and respect" and said that if her party formed
the next government she would introduce a bill to legalise same-sex
marriage and adoption.
According to her 2007 campaign website, Royal has advocated a policy
of more humane prisons and supports creating better conditions inside
penal institutions. The website states that she supports a system of
rehabilitating offenders and reintegrating them into society.
Foreign affairs are one of the key responsibilities of the French
President. She initially appeared to have few
opinions on key subjects, such as the accession of
Turkey to the European Union, merely responding, "my opinion is that
of the French people." On another crucial issue
the subject of the Iranian nuclear program, Royal also appeared
insufficiently briefed. She initially took a very
hard line in a televised debate, contending that any nuclear power
programme in Iran must be prevented since it would inevitably lead to
weapons production. When she was criticised by French politicians for
not understanding the
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty – which gives
signatories the right to nuclear power for non-military purposes –
Royal softened her position and, through a spokesman, said that a
civil nuclear program should be allowed as long as UN inspectors were
permitted to conduct spot checks.
From December 2006 Royal began travelling abroad extensively to
enhance her international profile and credibility,
but her efforts were set back by a series of blunders, which her
political opponents at UMP were quick to jump on.
In early December 2006 controversy followed a brief tour of the Middle
Hezbollah politician Ali Ammar, she took exception to
his use of the euphemism "Zionist entity," but did not take issue with
his comparison of the
Palestinian territories to France under German
occupation during World War II. This attracted criticism in France and
Israel which Royal visited next. However, the French ambassador to
Lebanon, Bernard Emié, backed her explanation that she did not hear
"the offending remarks" – the discussion took place via an
interpreter supplied by the Lebanese parliament. In the same
visit, Royal thanked the minister for being so "frank" when he
described US foreign policy in the Middle East as "unlimited American
Royal visited China in January 2007; after speaking with a lawyer in
that country she noted to the press that he had pointed out to her
that the Chinese legal system was "faster" than the French one. She
was immediately reminded by her opponents at home that the Chinese
system orders 10,000 executions each year, and that defence lawyers
there must be authorised by the Communist Party. In reality, she was
defending commercial justice speed. She however brought up with
her hosts the fate of three Chinese journalists recently imprisoned,
and criticised the meekness of French entrepreneurs in tackling new
markets such as China. Royal was criticised by French and
international media by what was called 'mangling the French language'
in a soundbite delivered on the Great Wall of China. She used the
word bravitude instead of the word bravoure, which means bravery.
Canada: Support for the Quebec independence movement
In January 2007, during a meeting with Quebec opposition leader and
Parti Québécois head André Boisclair, she declared her support for
Quebec sovereignty movement
Quebec sovereignty movement in its aim to secede from Canada.
Royal said Quebec and France share common values, including
"sovereignty and Quebec's freedom." Soon after, Royal took a
phone call from comedian Gérald Dahan pretending to be Quebec Premier
Jean Charest, and was tricked into making a quip about Corsica's
independence: "Not all French people would be opposed." She then
added, "But don't repeat that or we'll have another scandal on our
On 5 April 2007, when commenting on the kidnapping of two Frenchmen by
Taliban in Afghanistan, Royal called for sanctions to be imposed
by the United Nations against regimes like the Taliban. This comment
was widely interpreted as indicating that Royal did not understand
Taliban no longer formed the Afghan government and that she
was clueless on international matters.
From the late 1970s, Royal was the partner of François Hollande,
former President of France, whom she met at ENA. The couple had four
children: Thomas (born 1984), Clémence (born 1985), Julien (born
1987) and Flora (born 1992). They were neither married (considering it
too "bourgeois") nor bound by a PACS (pacte civil de solidarité,
which provides for a civil union between two adults, regardless of
gender), contrary to the rumours. A news agency leaked news of
their separation in June 2007, on the evening of the legislative
election. According to the Guardian, she had asked Hollande "to
move out of the house" and pursue his new love interest "which has
been detailed in books and newspapers" – a reference to a
much-discussed chapter by journalists explaining how Hollande was
having a long-term affair with a journalist.
Royal's eldest son, Thomas Hollande, served as an adviser to her
during her presidential candidacy, working on a website designed to
appeal to young voters.
Her brother Antoine named their brother
Gérard Royal as the agent who
placed the bomb that sank the Greenpeace ship Rainbow
Warrior. But other sources claim that this statement is
exaggerated and that Gérard was part of the logistics team.
Royal's cousin Anne-Christine Royal followed the paternal side of the
family and has been a candidate of the far-right Front National party
at a local election in Bordeaux.
Royal was listed as one of the fifty best-dressed over 50 by The
Guardian in March 2013.
Royal is the author unless otherwise noted.
Le Printemps des grands-parents : la nouvelle alliance des âges
(Paris : Cogite-R. Laffont, 1987) ISBN 2-221-05314-1,
(Paris : France Loisirs, 1988) ISBN 2-7242-3948-2,
(Paris : Presses pocket, 1989) ISBN 2-266-02730-1.
Le Ras-le-bol des bébés zappeurs (Paris : R. Laffont, 1989)
ISBN 2-221-05826-7, cover "Télé-massacre, l'overdose?",
subjects): Télévision et enfants, Violence—A la télévision.
Pays, paysans, paysages (Paris : R. Laffont, 1993)
ISBN 2-221-07046-1, subject(s):
Environnement—Protection—France ; Politique de
l'environnement—France ; Développement rural—France.
France. Ministère de l'environnement (1991–1997) Ségolène Royal,
une année d'actions pour la planète : avril 1992 – mars 1993
(Paris : Ministère de l'environnement, ca 1993), subject(s):
Politique de l'environnement—France.
France. Assemblée nationale (1958–) Commission des affaires
étrangères Rapport d'information sur les suites de la Conférence de
Rio / présenté par M. Roland Nungesser et Mme Ségolène Royal
(Paris : Assemblée nationale, 1994) ISBN 2-11-087788-X,
subject(s): Développement durable ; Conférence des Nations
unies sur l'environnement et le développement.
La vérité d'une femme (Paris : Stock, 1996)
ISBN 2-234-04648-3, subject(s): Pratiques
Laguerre, Christian École, informatique et nouveaux comportements
Ségolène Royal (Paris ; Montréal (Québec) :
Éd. l'Harmattan, 1999) ISBN 2-7384-7453-5, subject(s):
Informatique—Aspect social ; Éducation et informatique ;
Ordinateurs et enfants.
Sassier, Monique Construire la médiation familiale : arguments
et propositions preface by
Ségolène Royal (Paris : Dunod, 2001)
Amar, Cécile and Hassoux, Didier Ségolène et François
([Paris] : Privé, impr. 2005) ISBN 2-35076-002-2,
subject(s): Royal, Ségolène (1953–) – Biographies ;
Hollande, François (1954–) – Biographies.
Bernard, Daniel Madame Royal ([Paris] : Jacob-Duvernet, impr.
2005) ISBN 2-84724-091-8, subject(s): Royal, Ségolène (1953–)
– Biographies ; France—Politique et gouvernement—1958–.
Désir d'avenir ([Paris] : Flammarion, [September 2006])
Malouines-Me La Madone et le Culbuto – Ou l'Inlassable Ambition de
Ségolène Royal et
François Hollande ([Paris] : Fayard, [5
April 2006]), series: LITT.GENE, ISBN 2-213-62354-6.
Ségolène Royal répond à Marie-Françoise Colombani.
(Hachette Littérature et Flammarion, 2007), ISBN 2012372465.
Ma plus belle histoire, C'EST VOUS. (Grasset, 2007),
Femme Debout. (Denoël, 2009), ISBN 2207260984.
Lettre à tous les résignés et indignés qui veulent des solutions.
(Plon, 2011), ISBN 2259210554.
Cette belle idée du courage. (Grasset, 2013), ISBN 2246804590.
^ "Ségolène Royal". World Bank Live. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
^ http://live.worldbank.org/node/9743. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
Missing or empty title= (help)
^ Karlin, Elise (11 November 2006). "La jeunesse cachée de Ségolène
Royal". L'Express. Archived from the original on 21 November 2006.
Retrieved 21 November 2006.
^ Chrisafis, Angelique (18 November 2006). "Ségo returns to her
'political laboratory' to savour victory". The Guardian. London.
Retrieved 19 November 2006.
^ Basravi, Zein (16 April 2007). "Ségolène Royal: First female
presidential candidate". CNN. Retrieved 18 December 2006.
^ Peiffer, Valérie. "Biographie : Ségolène Royal". Le Point
(in French). France. Retrieved 18 December 2006.
Ségolène Royal "Que le meilleur gagne"" (in French). Paris Match.
22 September 2006. Retrieved 18 November 2006. [dead link]
^ Sciolino, Elaine (29 September 2006). "Veteran French Socialist
Steps Aside as Candidate for President". The New York Times. Retrieved
23 May 2010.
^ "New blow for Royal as top adviser quits". Financial Times. 16
^ "Diatribe d'un déçu de "Madame Royal"". Le Monde (in French).
France. 16 March 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2007.
^ Sciolino, Elaine (7 May 2007). "Sarkozy Wins in France and Vows
Break With Past". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 May 2007.
^ a b c Bremner, Charles (4 December 2007). "Segolene Royal sticks
knife into lover in election revenge book". The Times. London.
Retrieved 23 May 2010.
^ "Royal demands French vote re-run". BBC News. 22 November 2008.
Retrieved 23 May 2010.
^ "French Socialists declare winner". BBC News. 25 November 2008.
Retrieved 23 May 2010.
^ Diffley, Angela (10 October 2011). "Hollande or Aubry will take on
Sarkozy in presidentials". Radio France Internationale. Retrieved 11
^ "Large victoire pour le PS, large défaite pour Royal", Libération,
17 June 2012
^ Peter Allen, "Hollande: It's all au revoir for First Lady," Daily
Mail, 25 January 2014. Accessed 25 January 2014
^ Royal, Montebourg, Hamon... l'équation risquée de Manuel Valls, Le
Monde, 2 avril 2014
^ "Les Victimes de la Prise d'Otages de Vincennes Enterrés en
Israël," Le Monde, January 13, 2015
^ Elaine Sciolino (July 28, 2015), Ségolène Royal: A Sort-of Vice
President, Not-Quite First Lady New York Times.
^ a b "
Ségolène Royal unveils far-left economic campaign platform".
International Herald Tribune. 11 February 2007. Retrieved 2 May
^ I'm not a Blair. I'm a real socialist says Royal Archived 18
November 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Ségolène's New Tack: a Hard Left". TIME. 12 February 2007.
Retrieved 2 May 2007.
^ latribune.fr: "BPI:
Ségolène Royal vole la vedette au directeur
général" 24 Apr 2013
^ a b "Qui est Ségolène Royal?". Régionales 2004 (in French).
Socialist Party. Archived from the original on 16 November 2006.
Retrieved 18 November 2006.
^ "L'annuaire de Soutien Scolaire" (in French). Jeunesplus. Retrieved
18 November 2006.
^ "Le SNES demande à
Ségolène Royal de "renoncer" à ses
propositions sur le temps de travail des enseignants" (in French).
Yahoo!. 13 November 2006. Archived from the original on 27 November
2006. Retrieved 3 January 2007.
^ Ségolène Royal, Le ras-le-bol des bébés zappeurs, Robert
Laffont, 1989, ISBN 2-221-05826-7
^ "Réforme de l'accouchement sous X et la création du Conseil
national pour l'accès aux origines personnelles" (in French).
Ministry of the Family and Children. 14 December 2000. Archived from
the original on 16 November 2006. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
^ a b "Bilan et perspective des actions en faveur des familles et de
l'enfance" (in French). Ministry of the Family and Children. 11
January 2001. Archived from the original on 16 November 2006.
Retrieved 18 November 2006.
^ "Le label national Tourisme et Handicap" (in French). Ministry of
Tourism. Archived from the original on 26 November 2006. Retrieved 18
^ "Sida : les propos de Benoît XVI suscitent l'indignation en
France, actualité Société : Le Point". Le Point (in French).
France. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
^ Wachter, Sarah J. "Battle Royal: A French woman campaigns to be Mme
la Présidente." Ms. magazine. Spring 2007. pp 24–26.
^ "Ségolène Royal, a woman who always took courageous decisions" (in
French). PS Sciences Po. Archived from the original on 28 February
2007. Retrieved 6 January 2007.
^ "Legifrance". 18.104.22.168. Archived from the original on 23 May
2011. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
^ "French Presidential Contender Calls For Gay Marriage". 365Gay.com
2006. 20 June 2006. Archived from the original on 17 July 2006.
Retrieved 18 November 2006.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 January 2009.
Retrieved 11 November 2008.
^ "Ségolène Royal: The 'gazelle' of French politics bolts ahead of
the pack". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 16 November
2006. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
^ Arnold, Martin (9 November 2006). "Royal criticised for hard line on
Iran's nuclear ambitions". Financial Times. Retrieved 18 November
^ Lichfield, John (4 December 2006). "Royal's first foreign tour
blighted by blunders". The Independent. UK. Archived from the original
on 18 December 2006. Retrieved 19 December 2006.
^ McNamara, Sally (23 February 2007). "
Ségolène Royal and the Future
of Franco–American Relations". Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 3 May
^ "L'éloge de la justice chinoise par Royal fait des vagues". Le
Figaro (in French). France. 11 January 2007. Retrieved 14 January
^ Ganley, Elaine (8 January 2007). "French Candidate Bashed for
'Bravitude'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 January 2007.
Canadian Press (22 January 2007). "Harper takes Segolene Royal to
task for her comments on Quebec sovereignty". Canada.com. Archived
from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 22 January
^ Michel Dolbec (22 January 2007). "Canadian politicians rap Segolene
Royal for comments on Quebec sovereignty". Canada.com. Archived from
the original on 9 December 2007. Retrieved 22 January 2007.
^ "Royal caught out by hoax caller". BBC News. 28 January 2007.
Retrieved 5 February 2007.
^ Lichfield, John (29 January 2007). "Royal's campaign wobbles on
gaffes and dirty tricks". The Independent. UK. Archived from the
original on 16 February 2007. Retrieved 5 February 2007.
^ "No defining campaign issue for Sarkozy, Royal and others".
International Herald Tribune. 10 April 2007. Retrieved 24 February
The Guardian "French Socialist party election overshadowed by love
triangle" Retrieved 15 September 2011
^ Les secrets de
Ségolène Royal François et elle : un couple
en équilibre Archived 6 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
Ségolène Royal et
François Hollande se sont séparés". Le
Figaro. France. 17 June 2007. Retrieved 17 June 2007.
^ Angelique Chrisafis (18 June 2007). "For Royal and Hollande, the
party's over". The Guardian. Paris. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
^ Petru Clej (1 May 2007). "A family campaign in France". BBC News.
Retrieved 6 September 2007.
^ "Presidential hopeful's brother linked to Rainbow Warrior bomb". The
New Zealand Herald. 30 September 2006. Retrieved 1 October 2006.
^ "NZ rules out new Rainbow Warrior probe". Australian Broadcasting
Corporation. 1 October 2006. Retrieved 1 October 2006.
^ "New Zealand Greenpeace Rainbow Warrior bomber apologises". bbc.com.
September 6, 2015. Retrieved September 6, 2015. One of the men on his
team was Gerard Royal, the brother of the current French environment
minister and former presidential candidate Segolene Royal.
^ Guerres secrètes à l'Élysée, by Paul Barril, ed Albin Michel,
^ "La cousine de Ségolène candidate FN". Le Nouvel Observateur.
France. 21 September 2006. Archived from the original on 18 June 2008.
Retrieved 14 March 2007.
^ Cartner-Morley, Jess; Mirren, Helen; Huffington, Arianna; Amos,
Valerie (28 March 2013). "The 50 best-dressed over 50s". The Guardian.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ségolène Royal.
Find more aboutSégolène Royalat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Ségolène Royal's official page at the
French National Assembly
French National Assembly (in
National Assembly of France
Deputy of the National Assembly
from Deux-Sèvres' 2nd constituency
Minister of the Environment and Way of Life
President of the Regional Council of Poitou-Charentes
Minister of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy
Candidates in the French presidential election, 2007
Nicolas Sarkozy (UMP)
Lost in runoff
Ségolène Royal (PS)
François Bayrou (UDF)
Jean-Marie Le Pen
Jean-Marie Le Pen (FN)
Olivier Besancenot (LCR)
Philippe de Villiers
Philippe de Villiers (MPF)
Marie-George Buffet (PCF)
Dominique Voynet (Greens)
Arlette Laguiller (LO)
Frédéric Nihous (CPNT)
Gérard Schivardi (PT)
French Socialist Party
Alain Savary (1969–1971)
François Mitterrand (1971–1981)
Lionel Jospin (1981–1988)
Pierre Mauroy (1988–1992)
Laurent Fabius (1992–1993)
Michel Rocard (1993–1994)
Henri Emmanuelli (1994–1995)
Lionel Jospin (1995–1997)
François Hollande (1997–2008)
Martine Aubry (2008–2012)
Harlem Désir (2012–2014)
Jean-Christophe Cambadélis (2014–2017)
Pierre Mauroy (1981–1984)
Laurent Fabius (1984–1986)
Michel Rocard (1988–1991)
Édith Cresson (1991–1992)
Pierre Bérégovoy (1992–1993)
Lionel Jospin (1997–2002)
Jean-Marc Ayrault (2012–2014)
Manuel Valls (2014–2016)
Bernard Cazeneuve (2016–2017)
François Mitterrand (1974)
François Mitterrand (1981)
François Mitterrand (1988)
Lionel Jospin (1995)
Lionel Jospin (2002)
Ségolène Royal (2007)
François Hollande (2012)
Benoît Hamon (2017)
French Section of the Workers' International
Federation of the Democratic and Socialist Left
Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance
Convention of Republican Institutions
Union of Clubs for the Renewal of the Left
Union of Socialist Groups and Clubs
Alfortville Congress (May 1969)
Issy-les-Moulineaux Congress (July 1969)
Epinay Congress (1971)
Grenoble Congress (1973)
Pau Congress (1975)
Nantes Congress (1977)
Metz Congress (1979)
Créteil Congress (January 1981)
Valence Congress (October 1981)
Bourg-en-Bresse Congress (1983)
Toulouse Congress (1985)
Lille Congress (1987)
Rennes Congress (1990)
Grande Arche Congress (1991)
Bordeaux Congress (1992)
Bourget Congress (1993)
Liévin Congress (1994)
Brest Congress (1997)
Grenoble Congress (2000)
Dijon Congress (2003)
Le Mans Congress
Le Mans Congress (2005)
Reims Congress (2008)
Second Toulouse Congress (2012)
Poitiers Congress (2015)
Aubervilliers Congress (2018)
New Socialist Party
Socialist Party Leader
Brest Congress (election)
Le Mans Congress
Socialist Party presidential primary
First Valls Cabinet
Second Valls Cabinet
Presidency of the General council of Corrèze
Corrèze's First Constituency
Mayor of Tulle
ISNI: 0000 0001 2121 5017
BNF: cb12095851m (data)
French politics porta