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Ouidah
Ouidah
/ˈwiːdə/ or Whydah /ˈhwɪdə, ˈhwɪdˌɔː/ (Yoruba: Xwéda; Ouidah, Juida, and Juda by the French;[2][3] Ajudá by the Portuguese;[4] and Fida by the Dutch), formally the Kingdom of Whydah, is a city on the coast of the Republic of Benin. The commune covers an area of 364 km2 (141 sq mi) and as of 2002 had a population of 76,555 people.[5]

Contents

1 History 2 Fort
Fort
of São João Baptista de Ajudá 3 Notable landmarks 4 World Heritage
World Heritage
Status 5 Notable people 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

History[edit] In local tradition Kpase is supposed to have founded the town.[6] This probably happened towards the end of the sixteenth century.[7] The town was originally known as Glēxwé, literally 'Farmhouse', and was part of the Kingdom of Whydah. Whydah troops pushed their way into the African interior, capturing millions of people through tribal wars, and selling them to the Europeans and Arabs.[8] By 1716, when the massive English slave ship Whydah Gally
Whydah Gally
arrived to purchase 500 slaves from King Haffon to sell in Jamaica, the Kingdom of Whydah
Kingdom of Whydah
had become the second largest slave port in the Triangular trade. The Kingdom was ruled by King Haffon, who received his coronation crown as a gift from Portugal, until, in 1727, the Kingdom of Whydah was captured by the forces of King Agaja
Agaja
of Dahomey. On 19 March 1727, the Boston News-Letter
Boston News-Letter
gave this report: "WHYDAH IN AFRICA: the beginning of this month, Agaja
Agaja
the king of Dahomey
Dahomey
came down unexpectedly with an army, and soon became master of this place, and the country adjacent Allada; the defoliation which ensued was so great, that it is impossible to be represented! The factory at Saber, once the king's town and Seat of Trade, was burnt to the ground, and in it a great quantity of merchandise. Forty Europeans were carried into captivity, to the King of Dahomey's camp at Ardrah, but after having been detained about 14 days, seven of them were released and are now returning hither; they gave a melancholy account of their treatment. This country, which was the pleasantest in all these parts, is now laid waste by fire and sword, and made a wilderness!" The land which constituted the Kingdom of Whydah
Kingdom of Whydah
became a mere city in the new Kingdom of Dahomey. The Portuguese, English, Dutch and French all constructed forts in the city to protect their interests in slaving. The Portuguese had reached the town which they called Ajudá in 1580 and the Portuguese Fort
Fort
of São João Baptista de Ajudá, now housing The Whydah [Ouidah] Museum, dates from 1721 and remained with Portugal
Portugal
until 31 July 1961. Fort
Fort
of São João Baptista de Ajudá[edit]

The fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá, late 19th century

The Fort
Fort
of São João Baptista de Ajudá
São João Baptista de Ajudá
(in English Fort
Fort
of St. John the Baptist of Ouidah) is a small fortress built by the Portuguese in Ouidah
Ouidah
on the coast of Dahomey
Dahomey
(originally Ajudá, from Hweda, on the Atlantic
Atlantic
coast of modern Benin), reached by the Portuguese in 1580, after which it grew around the slave trade, for which the Slave Coast was already renowned. In 1680 the Portuguese governor of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
was authorized to erect a fort. In 1721, after having been abandoned for some years, it was reconstructed and named São João Baptista de Ajudá.The Fort, built on land given to Portugal
Portugal
by King Haffon of Whydah, remained under Portuguese control from 1721 until 1961.

The Historical Museum of Ouidah

Pirate Bartholomew Roberts
Bartholomew Roberts
at Ouidah, with his ship and captured merchantmen in the background

The fort had an important impact in Benin, greatly contributing to both the Portuguese and African slave trade. Its importance is attested by the fact that the Portuguese language
Portuguese language
was the only foreign language that the Kings of Dahomey
Dahomey
authorised. Portuguese descendants were also important in the political structure of the kingdom and some established Portuguese-Brazilian families, such as the de Sousa / de Souza whose descendants still exist in Benin, Togo and Ghana, were powerful and abided by private law. In January 1722 the pirate Bartholomew Roberts
Bartholomew Roberts
("Black Bart") sailed into the harbour and captured all the eleven ships at anchor there. Following the abolition of the legal slave trade in 1807, the fort, which had before been one of the major slave ports, gradually lost its importance and although Portugal
Portugal
continued to claim it as one of its possessions, formal occupation and administration were abandoned on several occasions. It was only when French presence in the region started threatening Portugal's interests that the settlement was again permanently manned. This didn't prevent the French conquest of Dahomey (1891–1894). After this, São João Baptista de Ajudá
São João Baptista de Ajudá
– now reduced to the territory actually within the walls of the fort – lost what remained of its importance.

Football in Ouidah

The fort was reoccupied by Portugal
Portugal
in 1865. In this period it served as a base for a brief Portuguese attempt to create a protectorate in the Kingdom of Dahomey
Dahomey
of which the city of Hweda (Ajudá – Ouidah) was part (1885–1887). Until its annexation by Dahomey
Dahomey
in 1961, São João Baptista de Ajudá was probably the smallest recognized separate modern political unit, initially around 1 km2 (0.4 sq mi) and later reduced to only 2ha (5 acres), at which time, according to the census of 1921, it had 5 inhabitants and, at the moment of the ultimatum by the Dahomey
Dahomey
Government, it had only 2 inhabitants representing Portuguese sovereignty, who tried to burn it rather than surrendering it. When the fort was captured, they were hastily escorted to the Nigerian border and expelled from the country[9].

Only in 1975, after the Portuguese Estado Novo regime had been overthrown due to the Carnation Revolution
Carnation Revolution
at Lisbon, did the annexation of the fort by Dahomey
Dahomey
(now renamed Benin) gain official Portuguese recognition. This was followed by the fort's restoration, which was paid for by Portugal. The fort is a small square with towers at the four corners. It comprises a church and officers' quarters. The Fort
Fort
of São João Baptista de Ajudá
São João Baptista de Ajudá
now houses a museum. Bruce Chatwin’s book The Viceroy of Ouidah
The Viceroy of Ouidah
(1980) is a fictional retelling of the life of Francisco Félix de Sousa, the Sousa family founder in Benin, and of his powerful local descendants, dealing also with the slave trade with Brazil. The novel inspired Werner Herzog’s movie Cobra Verde
Cobra Verde
(1987). The population evolution of Ouidah
Ouidah
is as follows:

Year Population[10]

1979 25 459

1992 64 433

2002 77 832

2008 (estimate) 90 042

Notable landmarks[edit]

Door of No Return

Other attractions in Ouidah
Ouidah
include a restored mansion of Brazilian slavers the Maison du Brésil art gallery, a voodoo python temple, an early twentieth century basilica and the Sacred Forest of Kpasse, dotted with bronze statues. The Route des Esclaves, by which slaves were taken to the beach, has numerous statues and monuments, including the Door of No Return, a memorial arch. The Market Center of Ouidah, which was established by Scouts more than 20 years ago, trains young people in agricultural skills, thus helping to reverse the exodus towards the cities. Ouidah
Ouidah
is the spiritual capital of the Vodun religion, and hosts an annual international Vodun conference.[11] Other landmarks include:

Ouidah
Ouidah
Cathedral Basilique de l’Immaculée Conception Ouidah
Ouidah
Museum of History

World Heritage
World Heritage
Status[edit] This site was added to the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage
World Heritage
Tentative List on 31 October 1996 in the Cultural category.[12] Notable people[edit]

Oscar Olou (b.1987), footballer Angélique Kidjo
Angélique Kidjo
(b.1960),singer

See also[edit]

Heads of State of Benin Heads of Government of Benin Whydah Gally

References[edit]

^ "World Gazetteer". Archived from the original on 11 January 2013.  ^ Tome Vingt-Cinquieme, contenant La Suite de l'Histoire d'Afrique, p. 313, at Google Books ^ Kein, Sybil, Creole, p227. ^ http://www.red.unb.br/index.php/ textos/article/viewArticle/5714 ^ "Communes of Benin". Statoids. Archived from the original on 30 April 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2010.  ^ Robin Law, Ouidah: The Social History of a West African Slaving 'Port', 2004, p.21 ^ Robin Law, Ouidah: The Social History of a West African Slaving 'Port', 2004, p.24-25 ^ Ouidah
Ouidah
Museum, Benin
Benin
- "Depart pour D'Autres 'Ceux', Convoi De negres: homes, femmes et enfants, conduits enchaines par des metis Arabes" ^ United Press International
United Press International
(2 August 1961), " Dahomey
Dahomey
Takes Over Enclave And Expels Portuguese Official; Lisbon
Lisbon
Aide Burns Residence – African Nation Raises Flag Over Ajuda." (PDF), The New York Times, The New York Times
The New York Times
Company, p. 13, retrieved 2008-12-13 . ^ "Benin". World Gazetteer. Retrieved 19 December 2008.  ^ "The Voodoo Day: Benin
Benin
welcomes magicians from all over the world". 1 November 2004. Retrieved 29 August 2008.  ^ La ville d'Ouidah : quartiers anciens et Route de l'Esclave – UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage
World Heritage
Centre

WorldStatesmen- Benin
Benin
not quite worked in yet La ville d'Ouidah : quartiers anciens et Route de l'Esclave – UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage
World Heritage
Centre

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Whydah.

Door of No Return

Coordinates: 6°22′N 2°05′E / 6.367°N 2.083°E / 6.367; 2.083

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1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 137286921 GND: 4116838-0 BNF: cb1217

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