Russo-Turkish War (1787���92)
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The Russo-Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of twelve wars fought between the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
and the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
between the 16th and 20th centuries. It was one of the longest series of military conflicts in
European history The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of ...
. Except for the war of 1710–11 and the
Crimean War The Crimean War, , was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which Russian Empire, Russia lost to an alliance of Second French Empire, France, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, ...
, which is often treated as a separate event, the conflicts ended disastrously for the stagnating
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
; conversely they showcased the ascendancy of Russia as a European power after the modernisation efforts of
Peter the Great Peter the Great ( rus, Пётр Вели́кий, Pyotr Velíkiy, ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I ( rus, Пётр Первый, Pyotr Pyervyy, ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Pyotr Alekséyevich ( rus, Пётр Алексе́евич, p=ˈp ...

Peter the Great
in the early 18th century.


Conflict begins (1568–1768)


Before Peter the Great

First
Russo-Turkish War (1568–1570) The Russo-Turkish War (1568–1570) or Don-Volga-Astrakhan campaign of 1569 (referred to in Ottoman sources as the ''Astrakhan Expedition'') was a war between the Tsardom of Russia and the Ottoman Empire over the Astrakhan Khanate. It was the first ...
occurred after the
conquest of Kazan The Siege of Kazan in 1552 was the final battle of the Russo-Kazan Wars and led to the fall of the Khanate of Kazan. Conflict continued after the fall of Kazan, however, as rebel governments formed in Çalım and Mişätamaq, and a new khan was ...
and Astrakhan by the Russian tsar
Ivan the Terrible Ivan IV Vasilyevich (russian: Ива́н Васильевич; 25 August 1530 – ), commonly known in English language, English as Ivan the Terrible (from , Romanization of Russian, romanized: , Literal translation, lit. "Ivan the Formidable ...
. The Ottoman sultan
Selim II Selim II (Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Turkish ( ota, لِسانِ عُثمانى, , ; tr, Osmanlı Türkçesi) was the standardized register A register is an authoritative list of one kind of information. Register or registration may refer ...

Selim II
tried to squeeze the Russians out of the lower
Volga The Volga (; russian: Во́лга, a=Ru-Волга.ogg, p=ˈvoɫɡə) is the longest river in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention ra ...

Volga
by sending a military expedition to
Astrakhan Astrakhan ( rus, Астрахань, p=ˈastrəxənʲ), is the largest city and administrative centreAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of p ...

Astrakhan
in 1569. The Turkish expedition ended in disaster for the Ottoman army, which could not take Astrakhan and almost completely perished in the steppes, while the Ottoman fleet was wrecked in the
Sea of Azov The Sea of Azov ( la, Palus Maeotis ; gr, Μαιῶτις λίμνη or Propontis or now la, mare Asoviense; russian: Азовское море, Azovskoye more; uk, Азовське море, Озівське море, Azovske more, Ozivske ...

Sea of Azov
. The peace treaty between the two sides cemented Russia's conquests on the Volga, but allowed the Ottoman Empire to obtain a number of commercial benefits. Ottoman vassal the
Crimean Khanate The Crimean Khanate ( crh, , or ), own name — Great Horde and Desht-i Kipchak (), in old European historiography and geography — Little Tartary ( la, Tartaria Minor) was a Crimean Tatars, Crimean Tatar state existing from 1441 to 1783, the ...

Crimean Khanate
continued its expansion against the Russian Tsardom, but was defeated at the
Battle of Molodi The Battle of Molodi (Russian language, Russian: Би́тва при Мóлодях) was one of the key battles of Ivan IV of Russia, Ivan the Terrible's reign. It was fought near the village of Molodi, south of Moscow, in July–August 1572 be ...
in 1572. The next conflict between Russia and Turkey began 100 years later as part of the struggle for the territory of Ukraine. While Russia conquered the
Left-bank Ukraine Left-bank Ukraine ( uk, Лівобережна Україна, translit=Livoberezhna Ukrayina; russian: Левобережная Украина, translit=Levoberezhnaya Ukraina; pl, Lewobrzeżna Ukraina) is a historic name of the part of Ukrain ...
after the
Russo-Polish War (1654-1667) Armed conflicts War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurgents, and militias. It is generally characterized ...
, Ottoman Empire in the course of the
Polish–Ottoman War (1672–1676) Polish–Ottoman War (1672–1676) was a conflict between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and, after 1791, the Commonwealth ...
, spread its rule over all of the
Right-bank Ukraine Right-bank Ukraine ( uk , Правобережна Україна, ''Pravoberezhna Ukrayina''; russian: Правобережная Украина, ''Pravoberezhnaya Ukraina''; pl, Prawobrzeżna Ukraina, sk, Pravo breh Ukrajiny, hu, Jobb part ...
with the support of its
vassal A vassal or liege subject is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power (social and political), power over others, acting as a master, a chief ...
,
Petro Doroshenko Petro Doroshenko ( uk, Петро Дорофійович Дорошенко, russian: Пётр Дорофе́евич Дороше́нко, pl, Piotr Doroszenko; 1627–1698) was a Cossack The Cossacks * russian: казаки́ or * be ...

Petro Doroshenko
(1665–1672). The latter's pro-Ottoman policy caused discontent among many
Ukrainian Cossacks The Zaporozhian Cossacks, Zaporozhian Cossack Army, Zaporozhian Host (, or uk, Військо Запорізьке, translit=Viisko Zaporizke, translit-std=ungegn, label=none, russian: Войско Запорожское, Voysko Zaporozhskoye) ...
, who would elect
Ivan Samoilovich Ivan Samoylovych (, , ; died 1690) was the Hetman of Left-bank Ukraine from 1672 to 1687. The Ruin (Ukrainian history), His term in office was marked by further incorporation of the Cossack Hetmanate into the Tsardom of Russia and by attempts to w ...
as a sole Hetman of all Ukraine in 1674. In 1676, Russian troops captured
Chigirin Chyhyryn ( uk, Чигири́н, ) is a city and historic site located in Cherkasy Raion of Cherkasy Oblast of central Ukraine. From 1648 to 1669 the city was a Hetman residence. After a forced relocation of the Ruthenian Orthodox metropolitan se ...
and overthrew Doroshenko, who was exiled to Russia. In 1677, the Ottoman army tried to retake Chigirin, but was defeated. In 1678, the Ottoman army was finally able to take Chigirin after a bloody assault. But on this the Ottoman expansion to the northeast was stopped. In 1679–80, the Russians repelled the attacks of the
Crimean Tatars Crimean Tatars ( crh, , ) or Crimeans ( crh, , ), are a Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambig ...

Crimean Tatars
and signed the
Treaty of Bakhchisarai The Treaty of Bakhchisarai or Treaty of Radzin, (russian: Бахчисарайский мирный договор; tr, Bahçesaray Antlaşması) was signed in Bakhchisaray, which ended the Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681), on 3 January 1681 by Rus ...
on January 13, 1681, which would establish the Russo-Turkish border by the
Dnieper River } The Dnieper or Dnipro () is one of the major list of rivers of Europe, rivers of Europe, rising in the Valdai Hills near Smolensk, Russia, before flowing through Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea. It is the longest river of Ukraine and ...
.


Peter the Great and further

Russia joined the European Holy League (Austria, Poland, Venice) in 1686. During the war, the Russian army organized the
Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 The Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 (russian: Крымские походы, ) were two military campaign A military campaign is large-scale long-duration significant military strategy Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by mili ...
and the
Azov campaigns (1695–96) The Azov campaigns of 1695–96 (russian: Азо́вские похо́ды, ''Azovskiye Pokhody''), were two Russian military campaigns during the Russo-Turkish War of 1686–1700, led by Peter I of Russia, Peter the Great and aimed at capturing ...
. In the light of Russia's preparations for the war with
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
and other countries' signing the
Treaty of Karlowitz The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed on 26 January 1699 in Karlowitz, Military Frontier The Military Frontier (german: Militärgrenze, sh, Vojna krajina/Vojna granica, Војна крајина/Војна граница; hu, Katonai határőrvi ...

Treaty of Karlowitz
with
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
in 1699, the Russian government signed the Treaty of Constantinople with the Ottoman Empire in 1700. Following the results of peace, Russia managed to annex
Azov Azov ( rus, , with the stress on the Ultima (linguistics), second syllable), formerly known as Azoff or Azak, is a types of inhabited localities in Russia, town in Rostov Oblast, Russia, situated on the Don River (Russia), Don River just from ...

Azov
and get access to the Sea of Azov. After the Russians had defeated the Swedes and the pro-
Swedish Empire The Swedish Empire was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries ( sv, Stormaktstiden, "the Era of Great Power"). The beginning of the empire is usually take ...

Swedish Empire
Ukrainian Cossacks led by
Ivan Mazepa Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa (also spelled Mazeppa; uk, Іван Степанович Мазепа, pl, Jan Mazepa Kołodyński; ) served as the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host Hetman of the Zaporizhian Host ( uk, Гетьман Війська Зап ...

Ivan Mazepa
in the
Battle of Poltava The Battle of Poltava; russian: Полта́вская би́тва; uk, Полта́вська би́тва (8 July 1709) was the decisive victory of Peter the Great Peter the Great ( rus, Пётр Вели́кий, Pyotr Velíkiy, ˈ ...

Battle of Poltava
in 1709,
Charles XII of Sweden Charles XII, sometimes Carl XII ( sv, Karl XII) or Carolus Rex (17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.), was King of Sweden The monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the ...
managed to persuade the Ottoman Sultan
Ahmed III Ahmed III ( ota, احمد ثالث, ''Aḥmed-i sālis'') (30 December 16731 July 1736) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and a son of Sultan Mehmed IV (r. 1648–87). His mother was Gülnuş Sultan, originally named Evmenia Voria, who was an ethn ...
to declare war on Russia on November 20, 1710. The
Prut campaign The Russo-Ottoman War of 1710—1711, also known as the Pruth River Campaign, was a brief military conflict between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. The main battle took place during 18-22 July 1711 in the basin of the Prut, Pruth ri ...
of Peter the Great ended very unsuccessfully for Russia. The Russian army, led by the tsar, was surrounded by a superior Turkish-Tatar army and was forced to agree to unfavorable peace conditions, according to which it returned the previously captured Azov to the Ottoman Empire. By the late 17th century, the
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
ian
Safavid dynasty The Safavid dynasty (; fa, دودمان صفوی, Dudmâne Safavi, ) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Safavid Iran, Iran from 1501 to 1736. The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was establi ...
, which neighbored both empires and had been one of the greatest rivals for Turkey for centuries (16th–19th centuries), had been heavily declining. Taking advantage of the situation, Russia and the Ottoman Empire conquered swaths of its territory comprising contemporary
Dagestan village of Grar File:Сулакский каньон.jpg, Kara-Koysu River Canyon Dagestan (; russian: Дагеста́н), officially the Republic of Dagestan (russian: Респу́блика Дагеста́н), is a republics of Russia, rep ...

Dagestan
,
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
, and
Northern Iran Northern Iran consists of the Southern border of the Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea (also known as Mazandaran Sea, Hyrcanian Ocean, or Khazar Sea), tk, Hazar deňzi, az, Xəzər Dənizi, russian: Каспийское море, script=Latn, fa, ...
, which was taken by
Peter I Peter I may refer to: Religious hierarchs * Saint Peter (c. 1 AD – c. 64–88 AD), a.k.a. Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, apostle of Jesus * Pope Peter I of Alexandria (died 311), revered as a saint * Peter I of Armenia (died 1058), Catholicos ...

Peter I
in the
Russo-Persian War (1722–1723) The Russo-Persian War of 1722–1723, known in Russian historiography as the Persian campaign of Peter the Great Peter the Great ( rus, Пётр Вели́кий, Pyotr Velíkiy, ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I ( rus, Пётр П ...
; the Ottomans took the territory to the west, comprising modern day
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
, parts of Eastern Anatolia, as well as western Iran. The gains by both were confirmed in the
Treaty of Constantinople (1724) The Treaty of Constantinople (russian: Константинопольский договор,) Russo-Ottoman Treaty or Treaty of the Partition of Persia (''Iran Mukasemenamesi'') was a treaty concluded on 24 June 1724 between the Ottoman Empire ...
. For a few years, they bordered each other along a large territory in the Caucasus, which caused further frictions. Russia managed to secure a favourable international situation by signing treaties with Persia in Treaty of Resht, 1732 and Treaty of Ganja, 1735. These returned all Iranian territories gained since 1722 in the North Caucasus, North and South Caucasus and Northern Iran, and avoided war with the emerging leader of Persia, Nader Shah. The treaties had other diplomatically favourable aspects as they established a Russo-Iranian alliance against Turkey, as Persia was Ottoman–Persian War (1730–35), at war with the Ottoman Empire. In the meantime Russia was also supporting the accession to the Polish throne of Augustus III of Poland, Augustus III in the War of the Polish Succession (1733–35), over the French-nominated Stanisław Leszczyński. Austria had been Russia's ally since 1726. Russia entered into Russo-Turkish War (1735–39), another war with the Ottoman Empire in 1736, prompted by raids on Cossack Hetmanate, Ukraine by Crimean Tatars and the military campaign of the List of Crimean khans, Crimean khan in the Caucasus. In May 1736, the Russian army launched an invasion of the Crimean peninsula and burned the capital of the Crimean Khanate Bakhchisarai. On June 19, the Russian Don army under the command of General Peter Lacy captured Azov. In July 1737, the Burkhard Christoph von Münnich, Münnich army took by storm the Ottoman fortress of Ochakov. The Lacy army (now 40,000 strong) marched into the Crimea the same month, inflicting a number of defeats on the army of the Crimean khan and capturing Karasu-Bazar, Karasubazar. Lacy and his soldiers had to leave the Crimea, however, due to lack of supplies. Austria entered the war against Turkey in July 1737 but was defeated a number of times. In August, Russia, Austria and Turkey began negotiations in Nemirov, which would turn out to be fruitless. There were no significant military operations in 1738. The Russian army had to leave Ochakov and Kinburn spit, Kinburn due to a plague outbreak. In 1739, the Burkhard Christoph von Münnich, Münnich army crossed the Dnieper, defeated the Ottoman Empire at Battle of Stavuchany, Stavuchany, and occupied the fortress of Khotin and Iaşi. However, Austria was defeated by the Ottoman Empire once again and signed a separate peace treaty on August 21. This, coupled with the imminent threat of The War of the Hats, Swedish invasion, forced Russia to sign the Treaty of Niš (1739), Treaty of Belgrade with Turkey on September 18, ending the war.


Decline of the Ottoman Empire (1789–1914)


Catherine the Great

Following a border incident at Balta, Sultan Mustafa III Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), declared war on Russia on September 25, 1768. The Turks formed an alliance with the Polish opposition forces of the Bar Confederation, while Russia was supported by Great Britain, which offered naval advisers to the Russian navy. The Polish opposition was defeated by Aleksandr Vasilievich Suvorov, Alexander Suvorov, who was then transferred to the Ottoman theatre of operations, where in 1773 and 1774 he won several minor and major battles following the previous grand successes of the Russian Field-Marshal Pyotr Rumyantsev at Battle of Larga, Larga and Battle of Kagul, Kagul. Naval operations of the Russian Baltic Fleet in the Mediterranean yielded victories under the command of Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov, Aleksei Orlov. In 1771, Egypt and Syria rebelled against the Ottoman rule, while the Russian fleet totally destroyed the Ottoman Navy at the battle of Chesma. On July 21, 1774, the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
signed the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, which formally granted independence to the
Crimean Khanate The Crimean Khanate ( crh, , or ), own name — Great Horde and Desht-i Kipchak (), in old European historiography and geography — Little Tartary ( la, Tartaria Minor) was a Crimean Tatars, Crimean Tatar state existing from 1441 to 1783, the ...

Crimean Khanate
, but in reality it became dependent on Russia. Russia received 4.5 million rubles and two key seaports allowing the direct access to the Black Sea. It also marked the first time that a foreign power directly interfered in the affairs of the Ottoman Porte, as the treaty gave Russia protector status over Turkey's Orthodox Christian subjects. In 1783 Russia Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Empire, annexed the Crimean Khanate. In the same year, Russia established its protectorate over Eastern Georgia according to the Treaty of Georgievsk. In 1787, Empress Catherine II made a triumphant Crimean journey of Catherine the Great, trip across the Crimea, accompanied by representatives of foreign courts and her ally, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II. These events and the friction caused by mutual complaints of infringements of the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, which had closed the previous war, stirred up public opinion in Istanbul, and the British ambassador lent his support to the war party. In 1787 the Ottomans demanded that Russia vacate the Crimea. Russia declared war, but Ottoman preparations were inadequate and the moment was ill-chosen, now that Russia and Austria were in alliance, a fact that came to light only after events were already in motion. The Turks Ottoman–Habsburg wars, drove back the Austrians from Mehadia and overran the Banat (1789); but in Moldavia Field-Marshal Pyotr Rumyantsev was successful and captured Iaşi and Khotin. Ottoman generals were incompetent and the army mutinous; expeditions for the relief of Bender, Moldova, Bender and Akkerman failed, Belgrade was taken by the Austrians, The Russian army under the command of Alexander Suvorov defeated the Turks in the battle of Rymnik and Siege of Izmail, captured Izmail. The fall of Anapa completed the series of Ottoman disasters. The Russian Black Sea Fleet, created just a few years earlier, under the command of Admiral Ushakov, inflicted a series of defeats on the Turkish fleet and seized the initiative in the Black Sea. Sultan Selim III was anxious to restore his country's prestige by a victory before making peace, but the condition of his troops rendered this hope unavailing. Turkey signed an assistance pact with Prussia on 31 January 1790, but received no help during the war. Accordingly, the Treaty of Jassy was signed with Russia on 9 January 1792, by which the Crimea and Ochakov were left to Russia, the Dniester was made the frontier in Europe, and the Asiatic frontier remained unchanged.


Conflicts in 19th century

Gábor Ágoston attributes the decline of Ottoman power relative to Russia to the reactionary Janissaries: :Despite all these treatises and efforts at modernization, the Janissaries and their allies managed to derail Sultan Selim III's Western-style military. bureaucratic, and financial reforms, even killing the "infidel sultan" himself. It was not until the 1830s that fundamental reforms could be started under Mahmud II, who destroyed the Janissaries in 1826, a century and a quarter after Peter the Great's liquidation of the ''strel'tsy.'' In 1806, the Ottoman Empire incited by Napoleonic France started a Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812), new war. The long six-year war for Russia took place in parallel with the Russo-Persian War (1804–1813), Russo-Persian War, the Finnish War, Russo-Swedish War and the War of the Fourth Coalition. Despite this, in the decisive campaign of 1811, the Russian army of Mikhail Kutuzov, Kutuzov defeated the Ottoman army on the Danube, which made it possible to conclude a peace treaty beneficial for Russia, according to which Russia get Bessarabia. The Ottoman Empire had maintained military parity with Russia until the second half of the eighteenth century, but by the 1820s the Ottoman armies were unable to put down the Greek War of Independence in Morea, southern Greece. The great powers of Europe decided to intervene and assist Greece with its independence. After the Battle of Navarino and the Russo-Turkish War (1828–29), in which the Russian army first crossed the Balkan Mountains and took Adrianople, Turkey recognized the independence of Greece and the transition of the Caucasian Riviera, Black Sea coast of the Caucasus to Russia. Thus Greece became the first independent country created out of a section of the Ottoman Empire. Russian Empire aspirations for a section of the empire and bases on Russia's southern flank provoked British fears over naval domination of the Mediterranean and control of the land route to the Indian Subcontinent.David R. Stone, ''A Military History of Russia: From Ivan the Terrible to the War in Chechnya'' (Greenwood Publishing, 2006) When in 1853 Russia destroyed the entire Ottoman fleet at Battle of Sinop, Sinop, Britain and France concluded that armed intervention on the side of the Ottomans was the only way to halt a massive Russian expansion. Even though Ottomans and Russians were on opposing sides, the roots of the ensuing
Crimean War The Crimean War, , was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which Russian Empire, Russia lost to an alliance of Second French Empire, France, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, ...
lay in the rivalry between the British and the Russians. The war ended unfavorably for the Russians, with the Paris Treaty of Paris (1856), peace of 1856. The war brought a decline in Ottoman morale and a feeling of helplessness, illustrating that modern technology and superior weaponry were the most important part of a modern army, and a part that the Ottoman Empire was sorely lacking. While fighting alongside the British, French, and even the Sardinia-Piedmont, Piedmontese, the Ottomans could see how far they had fallen behind. Things began to change after the Crimean War. One of these changes arose as Europeans began to see commercial opportunity in the country and the money entering via trade dramatically increased. The government also received a great deal of extra money from a uniform tax system with little corruption. The Sultan managed to get a tighter grip on the provincial beys and increased the tribute they had to pay. However, Abdülaziz, the Sultan at the time, used much of this money on furnishing and creating great palaces to rival the great ones in England and France, which he had visited. The Empire was undergoing a revolution, and throughout Anatolia a new Rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman nationalism was appearing. It seemed as though it might be possible for the Empire to turn its decline around. The monetary and governmental collapse combined with a new threat from Russia began the final stages of the Empire's collapse. Russia had been forced by the Crimean War to give up its ambitions of conquering the Ottoman capital of Istanbul, Constantinople and taking control of the Bosphorus. Instead it decided to focus on gaining power in the Balkans. The population of much of the Balkans were Slavs, as were the Russians. They also mainly followed the Eastern Orthodox Church, as did the Russians. When new movements in Russia, such as that of the Slavophiles, started to enter the area, it became agitated and prone to revolution. When the government in Constantinople tried to initiate measures to prevent an economic collapse throughout the empire, it touched off a Herzegovina Uprising (1875–77), revolt in Herzegovina in 1875. The revolt in Herzegovina quickly spread to Bosnia Vilayet, Bosnia and then Bulgaria. Soon Serbian armies also entered the war against the Turks. These revolts were the first test of the new Ottoman armies. Even though they were not up to western European standards, the army fought effectively and brutally; during the war, the Ottomans carried out the Batak massacre in 1876. Januarius MacGahan, a journalist of the New York Herald and the London ''The Daily News (UK), Daily News'' wrote of the terrible happenings after his visitation to Batak with Eugene Schuyler. According to most sources, around 5,000 people were massacred in Batak alone. The total number of victims in the April uprising according to most estimates around 15,000, which is supported by Eugene Schuyler's report, published in ''The Daily News (UK), Daily News'', according to which at least 15,000 persons were killed during the April Uprising in addition to 36 villages in three districts being buried. According to Donald Quataert around 1,000 Muslims were killed by Christian Bulgarians and consequently 3,700 Christians were killed by Muslims.Quataert, Donald. ''The Ottoman Empire 1700–1922'', Cambridge University Press 2005, pp.69 Soon the Balkan rebellions were beginning to falter. In Europe, papers were filled with reports of Ottoman soldiers killing thousands of Slavs. Even in Great Britain William Ewart Gladstone published his account of Ottoman atrocities in his ''Bulgarian Horrors and the Question of the East''.Bulgarian Horrors and the Question of the East, 5 September 1876
/ref> Soon, a Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), new Russo-Turkish war had begun. Despite fighting better than they ever had before, the advanced Ottoman armies still were not equal to the Russian forces. This time there was no help from abroad; in truth, many European nations supported the Russian war, as long as it did not get too close to Istanbul. Ten and a half months later when the war had ended the age of Ottoman domination over the Balkans was over. In the Balkans, the Russian army, having crossed the Danube, captured the Battle of Shipka Pass, Shipka Pass. The Turkish army of Osman Pasha, after a stubborn struggle, Siege of Plevna, surrendered to Plevna. After that, the Russian army crossed the Balkan Mountains, defeated the remaining Turkish troops and reached the approaches to Constantinople. In the Caucasus, the Turkish army held back the Russian offensive, but after the defeat at Aladzha, retreated to Erzurum, after which the Russians took Kars. On the Black Sea, the Ottoman fleet had a colossal advantage, since the Russian fleet did not recover after the Crimean War. Despite this, the hostilities on the Black Sea in this war were not important. In response to the Russian proximity to the straits the British, against the wishes of the Sultan, intervened in the war. A large task force representing British naval supremacy entered the straits of Sea of Marmara, Marmara and anchored in view of both the royal palace and the Russian army. The British may have saved the Ottoman Empire once again, but it ended the rosy relations between the two powers that had endured since the Crimean War. Looking at the prospect of a British entry into the war the Russians decided to settle the dispute. The Treaty of San Stefano gave Romania and Montenegro their independence, Serbia and Russia each received extra territory, Austria was given control over Bosnia, and Bulgaria was given almost complete autonomy. The hope of the Sultan was that the other great powers would oppose such a one-sided resolution and a conference would be held to revise it. His desire became reality and in 1878 the Congress of Berlin was held where Germany promised to be an "honest broker" in the treaty's revision. In the new treaty Bulgarian territory was decreased and the war indemnities were cancelled. The conference also again hurt Anglo-Ottoman relations by giving the British the island of Cyprus. While annoyed at Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, the Sultan had nothing but praise for Otto von Bismarck who forced many of the major concessions upon Russia. These close Germano-Ottoman relations would persist until both empires' very end. The Russian extension in this century developed with the main theme of supporting independence of Ottomans' former provinces and then bringing all of the Slav peoples of the Balkans under Bulgaria or using Armenians in the east sets the stage. At the end of the century from Russian perspective; Romania, Serbia and Montenegro and autonomy of Bulgaria was achieved. That alarmed the Great Powers. After the Congress of Berlin the Russian expansion was controlled through stopping the expansion of Bulgaria. The Russian public felt that at the end of Congress of Berlin thousands of Russian soldiers had died for nothing.


The Balkans

There were two main movements for the west side. The first one was performed while Ottomans were dealing with the Greek uprising, see Greek War of Independence. The Greeks' independence war led to the Russian forces advancing into Bulgaria before the Turks sued for peace. The resulting Treaty of Adrianople (1829), Treaty of Adrianople (Edirne) on September 14, 1829, gave Russia most of the eastern shore of the Black Sea and the mouth of the Danube. The second independence movement happened during the uprisings. See History of Bosnia and Herzegovina#19th and 20th century, Bosnia and Herzegovina: 19th-20th centuries, Romanian War of Independence. An Herzegovina Uprising (1875–77), uprising against Ottoman rule began in Herzegovina in July 1875. The Bulgarians organised the April Uprising, which lasted from April to May 1876. Serbia achieved autonomy and Russia was allowed to occupy Moldavia and Wallachia (guaranteeing their prosperity, and full "liberty of trade" for them) until Turkey had paid a large indemnity. The uprisings raised a chance for Russia (Alexander Gorchakov, Prince Gorchakov) and Austria-Hungary (Gyula Andrássy, Count Andrássy), who made the secret Reichstadt Agreement on July 8, on partitioning the Balkan peninsula depending on the outcome. During the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), Russo-Turkish war of 1877–1878, in February 1878 the Russian army had almost reached Istanbul, the Ottoman capital but, scared the city might fall, the British sent a fleet of battleships to intimidate Russia from entering the Ottoman capital. Under pressure from the British fleet to negotiate on the outcome of the war, Russia agreed a settlement under the Treaty of San Stefano on March 3, by which the Ottoman Empire recognized the independence of its former provinces Romania, Serbia and Montenegro and autonomy of Bulgaria. The Congress of Berlin also allowed Austria to Bosnia and Herzegovina in Austria-Hungary, occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina and Great Britain to take over Cyprus.


The Caucasus

During the Greek uprising, the Russian empire reached the Ottoman borders in the Caucasus, which were located in the southwest of the region, as well as northeastern Anatolia. Under the terms of the Treaty of Adrianople (1829), Treaty of Adrianople, the Ottoman Empire recognized Russian sovereignty over western Georgia (country), Georgia, which was formerly under Ottoman suzerainty, and recognized Russian domination of present-day
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

Armenia
, which had been conquered a year earlier (1828) by the Russians from Qajar Iran through the Treaty of Turkmenchay. After the war of 1877-78, Russia also received Kars and Ardahan.


End of conflict (1914–23)

During the early months of World War I, Kars Oblast, Kars was a key military objective for the Ottoman army. Ismail Enver who pushed the Ottoman Empire into World War I, needed a victory against the Russians to defend his position. He collected an army on the eastern border. The army was badly defeated under Enver's command at the Battle of Sarikamish January 2, 1915 against Nikolai Yudenich. This defeat was more due to the winter weather and bad planning, given the fact that Russians were actually preparing to evacuate Kars. With the loss of the eastern army, Ottoman defenses crumbled with further small battles and the Russian army succeeded in advancing as far west as Erzincan. The Ottoman army suffered the next heavy defeat in the Erzurum Offensive, Battle of Erzurum in 1916, after which the Russian army captured the whole of Western Armenia. After the 1916 campaign, the front remained stable until the Russian Revolution. The collapse of the Russian army after the 1917 revolution left only thinly spread Armenian units to resist the inevitable Ottoman counter-attack. Before the end of World War I in 1918, the Ottoman army reformed with what was left from the middle-east branch and tried to build a line between whatever seemed to be left on their east border. The newly declared First Republic of Armenia captured Kars in April 1918, which was eventually handed back by the future Soviet administration. That same year in March, the Baku Commune was established in the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. The commune later became the Centrocaspian Dictatorship, in turn conquered by the Islamic Army of the Caucasus, then shortly by the Triple Entente and finally the Bolsheviks. Defeat on other fronts caused the Ottoman Empire to surrender and withdraw forces. Both the Armenian and Azerbaijani Republics ended up being part of the Soviet Union in 1920. The Soviet-Turkish border was established under the Treaty of Moscow (1921).


List of conflicts


See also

* Ottoman decline thesis * Ottoman wars in Europe * Battle of Sarikamish * Russo-Persian Wars *
Crimean Khanate The Crimean Khanate ( crh, , or ), own name — Great Horde and Desht-i Kipchak (), in old European historiography and geography — Little Tartary ( la, Tartaria Minor) was a Crimean Tatars, Crimean Tatar state existing from 1441 to 1783, the ...

Crimean Khanate
* Russo-Crimean Wars * Russian conquest of the Caucasus * Caucasian War * Foreign policy of the Russian Empire * List of Serbian–Turkish conflicts * Crimean–Nogai raids into East Slavic lands * Russia–Turkey relations


Notes


References


Sources

* * * *Lewitter, Lucjan Ryszard. "The Russo-Polish Treaty of 1686 and Its Antecedents." ''Polish Review'' (1964): 5-2
online
* *


Further reading

* Ágoston, Gábor "Military transformation in the Ottoman Empire and Russia, 1500–1800." ''Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History'' 12.2 (2011): 281-31
online
* Allen, William and Paul Muratoff. ''Caucasian Battlefields: A History Of The Wars On The Turco-Caucasian Border 1828-1921'' (2011) , * * Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupuy. ''The Encyclopedia of Military History from 3500 B.C. to the Present'' (1986 and other editions), passim and 1461–1464. * * Jelavich, Barbara. ''St. Petersburg and Moscow: Tsarist and Soviet Foreign Policy, 1814–1974'' (1974) * Kagan, Frederick, and Robin Higham, eds. ''The Military History of Tsarist Russia'' (2008) * Topal, Ali E. "The effects of German Military Commission and Balkan wars on the reorganization and modernization of the Ottoman Army" (Naval Postgraduate School 2013
online
{{DEFAULTSORT:Russo-Turkish Wars Russo-Turkish wars, * Geopolitical rivalry Wars involving the Russian Empire Wars involving Russia Military history of Ukraine History of Moldavia Bessarabia Governorate History of Wallachia Kingdom of Romania Modern history of Bulgaria Early Modern history of Georgia (country) Military operations involving the Crimean Khanate Invasions of Europe