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Coordinates: 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90

Russian Federation Росси́йская Федерaция (Russian) Rossiyskaya Federatsiya

Flag

Coat of arms

Anthem:  "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii"  (transliteration) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation"

Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
Crimea
(disputed; light green)a

Capital and largest city Moscow 55°45′N 37°37′E / 55.750°N 37.617°E / 55.750; 37.617

Official languages Russian

Recognised national languages See Languages of Russia

Ethnic groups (2010[1])

81.0% Russian 3.7% Tatar 1.4% Ukrainian 1.1% Bashkir 1.0% Chuvash 0.8% Chechen 11.0% others / unspecified

Religion See Religion in Russia

Demonym Russian

Government Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic[2]

• President

Vladimir Putin

• Prime Minister

Dmitry Medvedev

• Chairman of the Federation
Federation
Council

Valentina Matviyenko

• Chairman of the State Duma

Vyacheslav Volodin

Legislature Federal Assembly

• Upper house

Federation
Federation
Council

• Lower house

State Duma

Formation

• Arrival of Rurik[3]

862

• Kievan Rus'

882

• Grand Duchy of Moscow

1283

• Tsardom

January 16, 1547

• Empire

October 22, 1721

• Republic

September 14, 1917

• Russian State

September 23, 1918

• Russian SFSR

November 7 (October 25, OS), 1917

• Soviet Union

December 30, 1922

• Sovereignty Declaration

June 12, 1990

• CIS Declaration

December 8, 1991b

• Russian SFSR renamed into the Russian Federation

December 25, 1991b

• Current constitution

December 12, 1993

Area

• Total

17,075,200[4] km2 (6,592,800 sq mi) (1st)

• Water (%)

13[5] (including swamps)

Population

• 2018 estimate

144,526,636 [6] (without Crimea)[7] (9th)

• Density

8.4/km2 (21.8/sq mi) (225th)

GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate

• Total

$4.152 trillion[8] (6th)

• Per capita

$28,918[8] (49th)

GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate

• Total

$1.522 trillion[8] (12th)

• Per capita

$10,630[8] (67th)

Gini (2015)  37.7[9] medium · 98

HDI (2015)  0.804[10] very high · 49th

Currency Russian ruble
Russian ruble
(₽) (RUB)

Time zone (UTC+2 to +12)

Date format dd.mm.yyyy

Drives on the right

Calling code +7

ISO 3166 code RU

Internet
Internet
TLD

.ru .su .рф

The Crimean Peninsula is recognized as territory of Ukraine
Ukraine
by a majority of UN member nations, but is de facto administered by Russia.[11] The Belavezha Accords
Belavezha Accords
was signed in Brest, Belarus
Belarus
on December 8, creating the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
in which the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR ratified the accords on December 12, denouncing the 1922 treaty. On December 25, Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation
Federation
and the following the day on December 26, the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
ratified the accords, effectively dissolving the Soviet Union.

Russia
Russia
(Russian: Росси́я, tr. Rossiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijə]), also officially known as the Russian Federation[12] (Russian: Росси́йская Федерaция, tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə]), is a sovereign country in Eurasia.[13] At 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi),[14] Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area,[15][16][17] and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people at the end of December 2017.[6] The European western part of the country is much more populated and urbanised than the eastern; about 77% of the population live in European Russia. Russia's capital Moscow
Moscow
is one of the largest cities in the world; other major urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia
Asia
and much of Eastern Europe, Russia
Russia
spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland
Poland
(both with Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia
Mongolia
and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan
Japan
by the Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk
and the U.S. state of Alaska
Alaska
across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs
East Slavs
emerged as a recognizable group in Europe
Europe
between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD.[18] Founded and ruled by a Varangian
Varangian
warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity
Orthodox Christianity
from the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire,[19] beginning the synthesis of Byzantine
Byzantine
and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture
Russian culture
for the next millennium.[19] Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol
Mongol
invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde
Golden Horde
in the 13th century.[20] The Grand Duchy of Moscow
Moscow
gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde, and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland
Poland
on the west to Alaska
Alaska
on the east.[21][22] Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state.[23] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II,[24][25] and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.[26][27][28] Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation
Federation
and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and sole successor state of the Soviet Union.[29] It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy
Russian economy
ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP
GDP
and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015.[30] Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world,[31] making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally.[32][33] The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.[34] Russia
Russia
is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council, as well as a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
(WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization
Collective Security Treaty Organization
(CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union
Eurasian Economic Union
(EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Kyrgyzstan.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Kievan Rus' 2.3 Grand Duchy of Moscow 2.4 Tsardom of Russia 2.5 Imperial Russia 2.6 February Revolution
February Revolution
and Russian Republic 2.7 Soviet Russia
Russia
and civil war 2.8 Soviet Union 2.9 Russian Federation

3 Politics

3.1 Governance 3.2 Foreign relations 3.3 Military 3.4 Political divisions

4 Geography

4.1 Topography 4.2 Climate 4.3 Biodiversity

5 Economy

5.1 Agriculture 5.2 Energy 5.3 Transport 5.4 Science and technology 5.5 Space exploration 5.6 Water supply and sanitation

6 Demographics

6.1 Largest cities 6.2 Ethnic groups 6.3 Language 6.4 Religion 6.5 Health 6.6 Education

7 Culture

7.1 Folk culture
Folk culture
and cuisine 7.2 Architecture 7.3 Visual arts 7.4 Music and dance 7.5 Literature and philosophy 7.6 Cinema, animation and media 7.7 Sports 7.8 National holidays and symbols 7.9 Tourism

8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Etymology Main articles: Rus' people
Rus' people
and Rus' (name) See also: Russian (other) The name Russia
Russia
is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля" (russkaja zemlja), which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
by modern historiography. The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors[35][36] who relocated from across the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
and founded a state centered on Novgorod
Novgorod
that later became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия (Rossija), comes from the Byzantine Greek
Byzantine Greek
designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία (Rosía pronounced [roˈsia]) in Modern Greek.[37] The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia
Russia
is "Russians" in English[38] and rossiyane (Russian: россияне) in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly translated into English as "Russians". One is "русские" (russkiye), which most often means "ethnic Russians". Another is "россияне" (rossiyane), which means "citizens of Russia, regardless of ethnicity". Translations into other languages often do not distinguish these two groups. History Main article: History of Russia Early history Further information: Scythia, Early Slavs, East Slavs, Huns, Turkic expansion, and Prehistory of Siberia See also: Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
and Proto-Uralic Nomadic pastoralism
Nomadic pastoralism
developed in the Pontic-Caspian steppe
Pontic-Caspian steppe
beginning in the Chalcolithic.[39] In classical antiquity, the Pontic Steppe
Steppe
was known as Scythia. Beginning in the 8th century BC, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
traders brought their civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais
Tanais
and Phanagoria. Ancient Greek explorers, most notably Pytheas, even went as far as modern day Kaliningrad, on the Baltic Sea. Romans settled on the western part of the Caspian Sea, where their empire stretched towards the east.[dubious – discuss][40] In the 3rd to 4th centuries AD a semi-legendary Gothic kingdom of Oium
Oium
existed in Southern Russia
Russia
until it was overrun by Huns. Between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD, the Bosporan Kingdom, a Hellenistic polity which succeeded the Greek colonies,[41] was also overwhelmed by nomadic invasions led by warlike tribes, such as the Huns
Huns
and Eurasian Avars.[42] A Turkic people, the Khazars, ruled the lower Volga
Volga
basin steppes between the Caspian and Black Seas until the 10th century.[43] The ancestors of modern Russians
Russians
are the Slavic tribes, whose original home is thought by some scholars to have been the wooded areas of the Pinsk Marshes.[44] The East Slavs
East Slavs
gradually settled Western Russia
Russia
in two waves: one moving from Kiev
Kiev
toward present-day Suzdal
Suzdal
and Murom and another from Polotsk
Polotsk
toward Novgorod
Novgorod
and Rostov. From the 7th century onwards, the East Slavs
East Slavs
constituted the bulk of the population in Western Russia[45] and assimilated the native Finno-Ugric peoples, including the Merya, the Muromians, and the Meshchera. Kievan Rus' Main articles: Rus' Khaganate, Kievan Rus', and List of early East Slavic states

Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
in the 11th century

The establishment of the first East Slavic states in the 9th century coincided with the arrival of Varangians, the traders, warriors and settlers from the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
region. Primarily they were Vikings
Vikings
of Scandinavian origin, who ventured along the waterways extending from the eastern Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas.[46] According to the Primary Chronicle, a Varangian
Varangian
from Rus' people, named Rurik, was elected ruler of Novgorod
Novgorod
in 862. In 882 his successor Oleg ventured south and conquered Kiev,[47] which had been previously paying tribute to the Khazars, founding Kievan Rus'. Oleg, Rurik's son Igor and Igor's son Sviatoslav subsequently subdued all local East Slavic tribes to Kievan rule, destroyed the Khazar khaganate
Khazar khaganate
and launched several military expeditions to Byzantium
Byzantium
and Persia. In the 10th to 11th centuries Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
became one of the largest and most prosperous states in Europe.[48] The reigns of Vladimir the Great (980–1015) and his son Yaroslav the Wise
Yaroslav the Wise
(1019–1054) constitute the Golden Age
Golden Age
of Kiev, which saw the acceptance of Orthodox Christianity
Orthodox Christianity
from Byzantium
Byzantium
and the creation of the first East Slavic written legal code, the Russkaya Pravda. In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Kipchaks
Kipchaks
and the Pechenegs, caused a massive migration of Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north, particularly to the area known as Zalesye.[49]

The Baptism of Kievans, by Klavdy Lebedev

The age of feudalism and decentralization was marked by constant in-fighting between members of the Rurik
Rurik
Dynasty that ruled Kievan Rus' collectively. Kiev's dominance waned, to the benefit of Vladimir- Suzdal
Suzdal
in the north-east, Novgorod
Novgorod
Republic in the north-west and Galicia-Volhynia
Galicia-Volhynia
in the south-west. Ultimately Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
disintegrated, with the final blow being the Mongol
Mongol
invasion of 1237–40[50] that resulted in the destruction of Kiev[51] and the death of about half the population of Rus'.[52] The invading Mongol
Mongol
elite, together with their conquered Turkic subjects (Cumans, Kipchaks, Bulgars), became known as Tatars, forming the state of the Golden Horde, which pillaged the Russian principalities; the Mongols ruled the Cuman-Kipchak confederation and Volga
Volga
Bulgaria (modern-day southern and central expanses of Russia) for over two centuries.[53] Galicia-Volhynia
Galicia-Volhynia
was eventually assimilated by the Kingdom of Poland, while the Mongol-dominated Vladimir- Suzdal
Suzdal
and Novgorod
Novgorod
Republic, two regions on the periphery of Kiev, established the basis for the modern Russian nation.[19] The Novgorod
Novgorod
together with Pskov
Pskov
retained some degree of autonomy during the time of the Mongol yoke
Mongol yoke
and were largely spared the atrocities that affected the rest of the country. Led by Prince Alexander Nevsky, Novgorodians repelled the invading Swedes in the Battle of the Neva
Battle of the Neva
in 1240, as well as the Germanic crusaders in the Battle of the Ice
Battle of the Ice
in 1242, breaking their attempts to colonize the Northern Rus'. Grand Duchy of Moscow Main article: Grand Duchy of Moscow

Sergius of Radonezh
Sergius of Radonezh
blessing Dmitry Donskoy
Dmitry Donskoy
in Trinity Sergius Lavra, before the Battle of Kulikovo, depicted in a painting by Ernst Lissner

The most powerful state to eventually arise after the destruction of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
was the Grand Duchy of Moscow
Moscow
("Muscovy" in the Western chronicles), initially a part of Vladimir-Suzdal. While still under the domain of the Mongol- Tatars
Tatars
and with their connivance, Moscow began to assert its influence in the Central Rus' in the early 14th century, gradually becoming the leading force in the process of the Rus' lands' reunification and expansion of Russia.[citation needed] Moscow's last rival, the Novgorod
Novgorod
Republic, prospered as the chief fur trade center and the easternmost port of the Hanseatic League. Times remained difficult, with frequent Mongol-Tatar raids. Agriculture
Agriculture
suffered from the beginning of the Little Ice Age. As in the rest of Europe, plague was a frequent occurrence between 1350 and 1490.[54] However, because of the lower population density and better hygiene—widespread practicing of banya, a wet steam bath—the death rate from plague was not as severe as in Western Europe,[55] and population numbers recovered by 1500.[54] Led by Prince Dmitry Donskoy
Dmitry Donskoy
of Moscow
Moscow
and helped by the Russian Orthodox Church, the united army of Russian principalities inflicted a milestone defeat on the Mongol- Tatars
Tatars
in the Battle of Kulikovo
Battle of Kulikovo
in 1380. Moscow
Moscow
gradually absorbed the surrounding principalities, including formerly strong rivals such as Tver and Novgorod. Ivan III ("the Great") finally threw off the control of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
and consolidated the whole of Central and Northern Rus' under Moscow's dominion. He was also the first to take the title "Grand Duke of all the Russias".[56] After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Moscow
Moscow
claimed succession to the legacy of the Eastern Roman Empire. Ivan III married Sophia Palaiologina, the niece of the last Byzantine emperor
Byzantine emperor
Constantine XI, and made the Byzantine double-headed eagle his own, and eventually Russia's, coat-of-arms. Tsardom of Russia Main article: Tsardom of Russia

Tsar Ivan the Terrible, illustration in Tsarsky Titulyarnik, 17th century

In development of the Third Rome
Third Rome
ideas, the Grand Duke Ivan IV (the "Terrible")[57] was officially crowned first Tsar ("Caesar") of Russia
Russia
in 1547. The Tsar promulgated a new code of laws (Sudebnik of 1550), established the first Russian feudal representative body (Zemsky Sobor) and introduced local self-management into the rural regions.[58][59] During his long reign, Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the Terrible
nearly doubled the already large Russian territory by annexing the three Tatar khanates (parts of the disintegrated Golden Horde): Kazan
Kazan
and Astrakhan
Astrakhan
along the Volga River, and the Siberian Khanate
Siberian Khanate
in southwestern Siberia. Thus, by the end of the 16th century Russia
Russia
was transformed into a multiethnic, multidenominational and transcontinental state. However, the Tsardom was weakened by the long and unsuccessful Livonian War
Livonian War
against the coalition of Poland, Lithuania, and Sweden for access to the Baltic coast and sea trade.[60] At the same time, the Tatars
Tatars
of the Crimean Khanate, the only remaining successor to the Golden Horde, continued to raid Southern Russia.[61] In an effort to restore the Volga
Volga
khanates, Crimeans and their Ottoman allies invaded central Russia
Russia
and were even able to burn down parts of Moscow
Moscow
in 1571.[62] But in the next year the large invading army was thoroughly defeated by Russians
Russians
in the Battle of Molodi, forever eliminating the threat of an Ottoman–Crimean expansion into Russia. The slave raids of Crimeans, however, did not cease until the late 17th century though the construction of new fortification lines across Southern Russia, such as the Great Abatis Line, constantly narrowed the area accessible to incursions.[63]

Kuzma Minin
Kuzma Minin
appeals to the people of Nizhny Novgorod
Nizhny Novgorod
to raise a volunteer army against the Polish invaders

The death of Ivan's sons marked the end of the ancient Rurik
Rurik
Dynasty in 1598, and in combination with the famine of 1601–03[64] led to civil war, the rule of pretenders, and foreign intervention during the Time of Troubles
Time of Troubles
in the early 17th century.[65] The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
occupied parts of Russia, including Moscow. In 1612, the Poles were forced to retreat by the Russian volunteer corps, led by two national heroes, merchant Kuzma Minin
Kuzma Minin
and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky. The Romanov Dynasty
Romanov Dynasty
acceded to the throne in 1613 by the decision of Zemsky Sobor, and the country started its gradual recovery from the crisis. Russia
Russia
continued its territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of Cossacks. Cossacks
Cossacks
were warriors organized into military communities, resembling pirates and pioneers of the New World. In 1648, the peasants of Ukraine
Ukraine
joined the Zaporozhian Cossacks
Cossacks
in rebellion against Poland- Lithuania
Lithuania
during the Khmelnytsky Uprising in reaction to the social and religious oppression they had been suffering under Polish rule. In 1654, the Ukrainian leader, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, offered to place Ukraine
Ukraine
under the protection of the Russian Tsar, Aleksey I. Aleksey's acceptance of this offer led to another Russo-Polish War. Finally, Ukraine
Ukraine
was split along the Dnieper River, leaving the western part, right-bank Ukraine, under Polish rule and the eastern part (Left-bank Ukraine
Ukraine
and Kiev) under Russian rule. Later, in 1670–71, the Don Cossacks
Cossacks
led by Stenka Razin initiated a major uprising in the Volga
Volga
Region, but the Tsar's troops were successful in defeating the rebels. In the east, the rapid Russian exploration and colonisation of the huge territories of Siberia
Siberia
was led mostly by Cossacks
Cossacks
hunting for valuable furs and ivory. Russian explorers
Russian explorers
pushed eastward primarily along the Siberian River Routes, and by the mid-17th century there were Russian settlements in Eastern Siberia, on the Chukchi Peninsula, along the Amur River, and on the Pacific coast. In 1648, the Bering Strait between Asia
Asia
and North America was passed for the first time by Fedot Popov
Fedot Popov
and Semyon Dezhnyov. Imperial Russia Main article: Russian Empire

Peter the Great, Tsar of All Russia
Tsar of All Russia
in 1682–1721 and the first Emperor of All Russia
Emperor of All Russia
in 1721–1725. Portrait by Paul Delaroche
Paul Delaroche
in the Kunsthalle Hamburg.

Under Peter the Great, Russia
Russia
was proclaimed an Empire in 1721 and became recognized as a world power. Ruling from 1682 to 1725, Peter defeated Sweden
Sweden
in the Great Northern War, forcing it to cede West Karelia
Karelia
and Ingria
Ingria
(two regions lost by Russia
Russia
in the Time of Troubles),[66] as well as Estland and Livland, securing Russia's access to the sea and sea trade.[67] On the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
Peter founded a new capital called Saint Petersburg, later known as Russia's "Window to Europe". Peter the Great's reforms
Peter the Great's reforms
brought considerable Western European cultural influences to Russia. The reign of Peter I's daughter Elizabeth in 1741–62 saw Russia's participation in the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
(1756–63). During this conflict Russia
Russia
annexed East Prussia
East Prussia
for a while and even took Berlin. However, upon Elisabeth's death, all these conquests were returned to the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
by pro-Prussian Peter III of Russia. Catherine II ("the Great"), who ruled in 1762–96, presided over the Age of Russian Enlightenment. She extended Russian political control over the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and incorporated most of its territories into Russia
Russia
during the Partitions of Poland, pushing the Russian frontier westward into Central Europe. In the south, after successful Russo-Turkish Wars
Russo-Turkish Wars
against Ottoman Turkey, Catherine advanced Russia's boundary to the Black Sea, defeating the Crimean Khanate. As a result of victories over Qajar Iran
Iran
through the Russo-Persian Wars, by the first half of the 19th century Russia
Russia
also made significant territorial gains in Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
and the North Caucasus, forcing the former to irrevocably cede what is nowadays Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Armenia
Armenia
to Russia.[68][69] This continued with Alexander I's (1801–25) wresting of Finland
Finland
from the weakened kingdom of Sweden
Sweden
in 1809 and of Bessarabia
Bessarabia
from the Ottomans in 1812. At the same time, Russians
Russians
colonized Alaska
Alaska
and even founded settlements in California, such as Fort Ross.

Village Fair, by Boris Kustodiev

In 1803–1806, the first Russian circumnavigation was made, later followed by other notable Russian sea exploration voyages. In 1820, a Russian expedition discovered the continent of Antarctica. In alliances with various European countries, Russia
Russia
fought against Napoleon's France. The French invasion of Russia
French invasion of Russia
at the height of Napoleon's power in 1812 reached Moscow, but eventually failed miserably as the obstinate resistance in combination with the bitterly cold Russian winter
Russian winter
led to a disastrous defeat of invaders, in which more than 95% of the pan-European Grande Armée
Grande Armée
perished.[70] Led by Mikhail Kutuzov
Mikhail Kutuzov
and Barclay de Tolly, the Russian army ousted Napoleon from the country and drove through Europe
Europe
in the war of the Sixth Coalition, finally entering Paris. Alexander I headed Russia's delegation at the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
that defined the map of post-Napoleonic Europe. The officers of the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
brought ideas of liberalism back to Russia
Russia
with them and attempted to curtail the tsar's powers during the abortive Decembrist revolt
Decembrist revolt
of 1825. At the end of the conservative reign of Nicolas I (1825–55), a zenith period of Russia's power and influence in Europe
Europe
was disrupted by defeat in the Crimean War. Between 1847 and 1851, about one million people died of Asiatic cholera.[71] Nicholas's successor Alexander II (1855–81) enacted significant changes in the country, including the emancipation reform of 1861. These Great Reforms spurred industrialization and modernized the Russian army, which had successfully liberated Bulgaria
Bulgaria
from Ottoman rule in the 1877–78 Russo-Turkish War.

Emperor Nicholas II of Russia
Nicholas II of Russia
and his family were murdered by the Bolsheviks in 1918

The late 19th century saw the rise of various socialist movements in Russia. Alexander II was killed in 1881 by revolutionary terrorists, and the reign of his son Alexander III (1881–94) was less liberal but more peaceful. The last Russian Emperor, Nicholas II (1894–1917), was unable to prevent the events of the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
of 1905, triggered by the unsuccessful Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
and the demonstration incident known as Bloody Sunday. The uprising was put down, but the government was forced to concede major reforms (Russian Constitution of 1906), including granting the freedoms of speech and assembly, the legalization of political parties, and the creation of an elected legislative body, the State Duma
State Duma
of the Russian Empire. The Stolypin agrarian reform led to a massive peasant migration and settlement into Siberia. More than four million settlers arrived in that region between 1906 and 1914.[72] February Revolution
February Revolution
and Russian Republic Main articles: February Revolution, Russian Provisional Government, and Russian Republic See also: Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917
Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917
and Russian Democratic Federative Republic In 1914, Russia
Russia
entered World War I in response to Austria-Hungary's declaration of war on Russia's ally Serbia, and fought across multiple fronts while isolated from its Triple Entente allies. In 1916, the Brusilov Offensive
Brusilov Offensive
of the Russian Army almost completely destroyed the military of Austria-Hungary. However, the already-existing public distrust of the regime was deepened by the rising costs of war, high casualties, and rumors of corruption and treason. All this formed the climate for the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
of 1917, carried out in two major acts. The February Revolution
February Revolution
forced Nicholas II
Nicholas II
to abdicate; he and his family were imprisoned and later executed in Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
during the Russian Civil War. The monarchy was replaced by a shaky coalition of political parties that declared itself the Provisional Government. On September 1 (14), 1917, upon a decree of the Provisional Government, the Russian Republic
Russian Republic
was proclaimed.[73] On January 6 (19), 1918, the Russian Constituent Assembly
Russian Constituent Assembly
declared Russia
Russia
a democratic federal republic (thus ratifying the Provisional Government's decision). The next day the Constituent Assembly was dissolved by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.

White army Civil War-era propaganda poster

Soviet Russia
Russia
and civil war Main articles: October Revolution, Russian Civil War, and White movement See also: Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
and Russian Constitution of 1918 An alternative socialist establishment existed alongside, the Petrograd Soviet, wielding power through the democratically elected councils of workers and peasants, called Soviets. The rule of the new authorities only aggravated the crisis in the country, instead of resolving it. Eventually, the October Revolution, led by Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Provisional Government and gave full governing power to the Soviets, leading to the creation of the world's first socialist state. Following the October Revolution, a civil war broke out between the anti- Communist
Communist
White movement
White movement
and the new Soviet regime with its Red Army. Bolshevist Russia
Russia
lost its Ukrainian, Polish, Baltic, and Finnish territories by signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that concluded hostilities with the Central Powers
Central Powers
of World War I. The Allied powers launched an unsuccessful military intervention in support of anti- Communist
Communist
forces. In the meantime both the Bolsheviks and White movement
White movement
carried out campaigns of deportations and executions against each other, known respectively as the Red Terror and White Terror. By the end of the civil war, Russia's economy and infrastructure were heavily damaged. Millions became White émigrés,[74] and the Povolzhye famine
Povolzhye famine
of 1921 claimed up to 5 million victims.[75] Soviet Union Main articles: Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and History of the Soviet Union See also: Treaty on the Creation of the USSR

The Russian SFSR at the moment of formation of the USSR in 1922

The Russian SFSR as a part of the USSR in 1940, after 1924–1936 intra-Soviet territorial changes and the separation of the Karelo-Finnish SSR
Karelo-Finnish SSR
in 1940

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
(called Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic at the time), together with the Ukrainian, Byelorussian, and Transcaucasian Soviet Socialist Republics, formed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(USSR), or Soviet Union, on December 30, 1922. Out of the 15 republics that would make up the USSR, the largest in size and over half of the total USSR population was the Russian SFSR, which came to dominate the union for its entire 69-year history. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika was designated to govern the Soviet Union. However, Joseph Stalin, an elected General Secretary of the Communist
Communist
Party, managed to suppress all opposition groups within the party and consolidate power in his hands. Leon Trotsky, the main proponent of world revolution, was exiled from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1929, and Stalin's idea of Socialism in One Country
Socialism in One Country
became the primary line. The continued internal struggle in the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
party culminated in the Great Purge, a period of mass repressions in 1937–38, during which hundreds of thousands of people were executed, including original party members and military leaders accused of coup d'état plots.[76] Under Stalin's leadership, the government launched a planned economy, industrialisation of the largely rural country, and collectivization of its agriculture. During this period of rapid economic and social change, millions of people were sent to penal labor camps,[77] including many political convicts for their opposition to Stalin's rule; millions were deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union.[77] The transitional disorganisation of the country's agriculture, combined with the harsh state policies and a drought, led to the Soviet famine of 1932–1933.[78] The Soviet Union, though with a heavy price, was transformed from a largely agrarian economy to a major industrial powerhouse in a short span of time. Under the doctrine of state atheism in the Soviet Union, there was a "government-sponsored program of forced conversion to atheism" conducted by Communists.[79][80][81] The communist regime targeted religions based on State interests, and while most organized religions were never outlawed, religious property was confiscated, believers were harassed, and religion was ridiculed while atheism was propagated in schools.[citation needed] In 1925 the government founded the League of Militant Atheists
Atheists
to intensify the persecution.[82] Accordingly, although personal expressions of religious faith were not explicitly banned, a strong sense of social stigma was imposed on them by the official structures and mass media and it was generally considered unacceptable for members of certain professions (teachers, state bureaucrats, soldiers) to be openly religious. As for the Russian Orthodox Church, Soviet authorities sought to control it and, in times of national crisis, to exploit it for the regime's own purposes; but their ultimate goal was to eliminate it. During the first five years of Soviet power, the Bolsheviks executed 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and over 1,200 Russian Orthodox priests. Many others were imprisoned or exiled. Believers were harassed and persecuted. Most seminaries were closed, and the publication of most religious material was prohibited. By 1941 only 500 churches remained open out of about 54,000 in existence prior to World War I. The Appeasement
Appeasement
policy of Great Britain and France
France
towards Adolf Hitler's annexation of Austria
Austria
and Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
did not stem an increase in the power of Nazi Germany. Around the same time, the Third Reich allied with the Empire of Japan, a rival of the USSR in the Far East and an open enemy of the USSR in the Soviet–Japanese Border Wars in 1938–39.

The siege of Leningrad during World War II
World War II
was the deadliest siege of a city in history

In August 1939, the Soviet government decided to improve relations with Germany
Germany
by concluding the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, pledging non-aggression between the two countries and dividing Eastern Europe into their respective spheres of influence. While Hitler conquered Poland
Poland
and France
France
and other countries acted on a single front at the start of World War II, the USSR was able to build up its military and occupy the Western Ukraine, Hertza region
Hertza region
and Northern Bukovina
Bukovina
as a result of the Soviet invasion of Poland, Winter War, occupation of the Baltic states and Soviet occupation of Bessarabia
Bessarabia
and Northern Bukovina. On June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
broke the non-aggression treaty and invaded the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
with the largest and most powerful invasion force in human history,[83] opening the largest theater of World War II. Although the German army had considerable early success, their attack was halted in the Battle of Moscow. Subsequently, the Germans were dealt major defeats first at the Battle of Stalingrad
Battle of Stalingrad
in the winter of 1942–43,[84] and then in the Battle of Kursk
Battle of Kursk
in the summer of 1943. Another German failure was the Siege of Leningrad, in which the city was fully blockaded on land between 1941 and 1944 by German and Finnish forces, and suffered starvation and more than a million deaths, but never surrendered.[85] Under Stalin's administration and the leadership of such commanders as Georgy Zhukov and Konstantin Rokossovsky, Soviet forces took Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
in 1944–45 and captured Berlin in May 1945. In August 1945 the Soviet Army ousted the Japanese from China's Manchukuo
Manchukuo
and North Korea, contributing to the allied victory over Japan.

Sputnik 1 was the world's first artificial satellite

The 1941–45 period of World War II is known in Russia
Russia
as the "Great Patriotic War". The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
together with the United States, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and China
China
were considered as the Big Four of Allied powers in World War II
World War II
[86] and later became the Four Policemen which was the foundation of the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council.[87] During this war, which included many of the most lethal battle operations in human history, Soviet military and civilian deaths were 10.6 million and 15.9 million respectively,[88] accounting for about a third of all World War II casualties. The full demographic loss to the Soviet peoples was even greater.[89] The Soviet economy
Soviet economy
and infrastructure suffered massive devastation which caused the Soviet famine of 1946–47[90] but the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
emerged as an acknowledged military superpower on the continent.

The RSFSR in 1956–1991, mostly after territorial acquisitions according to WWII treaties, the accession of Tuva
Tuva
in 1944, the transfer of the Crimean Oblast in 1954 and the incorporation of the Karelo-Finnish SSR
Karelo-Finnish SSR
in 1956. In 1991, the borders of the Russian SFSR became the Russian Federation's international borders with sovereign states

After the war, Eastern and Central Europe
Europe
including East Germany
East Germany
and part of Austria
Austria
was occupied by Red Army
Red Army
according to the Potsdam Conference. Dependent socialist governments were installed in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
satellite states. Becoming the world's second nuclear weapons power, the USSR established the Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
alliance and entered into a struggle for global dominance, known as the Cold War, with the United States
United States
and NATO. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
supported revolutionary movements across the world, including the newly formed People's Republic of China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and, later on, the Republic of Cuba. Significant amounts of Soviet resources were allocated in aid to the other socialist states.[91] After Stalin's death and a short period of collective rule, the new leader Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
denounced the cult of personality of Stalin and launched the policy of de-Stalinization. The penal labor system was reformed and many prisoners were released and rehabilitated (many of them posthumously).[92] The general easement of repressive policies became known later as the Khrushchev Thaw. At the same time, tensions with the United States
United States
heightened when the two rivals clashed over the deployment of the United States
United States
Jupiter missiles in Turkey
Turkey
and Soviet missiles in Cuba. In 1957, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, thus starting the Space Age. Russia's cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin
Yuri Gagarin
became the first human to orbit the Earth, aboard the Vostok 1 manned spacecraft on April 12, 1961. Following the ousting of Khrushchev in 1964, another period of collective rule ensued, until Leonid Brezhnev
Leonid Brezhnev
became the leader. The era of the 1970s and the early 1980s was designated later as the Era of Stagnation, a period when economic growth slowed and social policies became static. The 1965 Kosygin reform
Kosygin reform
aimed for partial decentralization of the Soviet economy
Soviet economy
and shifted the emphasis from heavy industry and weapons to light industry and consumer goods but was stifled by the conservative Communist
Communist
leadership.

Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
and U.S. President Ronald Reagan in Red Square
Red Square
during the Moscow
Moscow
Summit, May 31, 1988

In 1979, after a Communist-led revolution in Afghanistan, Soviet forces entered that country. The occupation drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results. Ultimately, the Soviet Army
Soviet Army
was withdrawn from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1989 due to international opposition, persistent anti-Soviet guerilla warfare, and a lack of support by Soviet citizens.

Russian President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
stands on a tank during the August Coup of 1991, two months after the first presidential elections. The white-blue-red pre-revolutionary flag (in the bottom right corner) became the symbol of the antitotalitarian resistance and democratic transformation.[93]

From 1985 onwards, the last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, who sought to enact liberal reforms in the Soviet system, introduced the policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation and to democratise the government. This, however, led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements. Prior to 1991, the Soviet economy
Soviet economy
was the second largest in the world,[94] but during its last years it was afflicted by shortages of goods in grocery stores, huge budget deficits, and explosive growth in the money supply leading to inflation.[95] By 1991, economic and political turmoil began to boil over, as the Baltic republics chose to secede from the Soviet Union. On March 17, a referendum was held, in which the vast majority of participating citizens voted in favour of changing the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
into a renewed federation. In August 1991, a coup d'état attempt by members of Gorbachev's government, directed against Gorbachev and aimed at preserving the Soviet Union, instead led to the end of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. On December 25, 1991, the USSR was dissolved into 15 post-Soviet states. Russian Federation Main articles: History of Russia
History of Russia
(1992–present), Russia
Russia
and the United Nations, and 1993 Constitution of Russia See also: Commonwealth of Independent States, War of Laws, and 1993 Russian constitutional crisis

Moscow
Moscow
International Business Center

In June 1991, Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
became the first directly elected President in Russian history when he was elected President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, which became the independent Russian Federation
Federation
in December of that year. During and after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, wide-ranging reforms including privatization and market and trade liberalization were undertaken,[96] including radical changes along the lines of "shock therapy" as recommended by the United States
United States
and the International Monetary Fund.[97] All this resulted in a major economic crisis, characterized by a 50% decline in both GDP
GDP
and industrial output between 1990 and 1995.[96][98] The privatization largely shifted control of enterprises from state agencies to individuals with inside connections in the government. Many of the newly rich moved billions in cash and assets outside of the country in an enormous capital flight.[99] The depression of the economy led to the collapse of social services; the birth rate plummeted while the death rate skyrocketed.[100] Millions plunged into poverty, from a level of 1.5% in the late Soviet era to 39–49% by mid-1993.[101] The 1990s saw extreme corruption and lawlessness, the rise of criminal gangs and violent crime.[102] The 1990s were plagued by armed conflicts in the North Caucasus, both local ethnic skirmishes and separatist Islamist
Islamist
insurrections. From the time Chechen separatists declared independence in the early 1990s, an intermittent guerrilla war has been fought between the rebel groups and the Russian military. Terrorist attacks against civilians carried out by separatists, most notably the Moscow
Moscow
theater hostage crisis and Beslan school siege, caused hundreds of deaths and drew worldwide attention. Russia
Russia
took up the responsibility for settling the USSR's external debts, even though its population made up just half of the population of the USSR at the time of its dissolution.[103] High budget deficits caused the 1998 Russian financial crisis[104] and resulted in a further GDP
GDP
decline.[96]

From left: Patriarch Alexy II, Vladimir Putin, Boris Yeltsin

On December 31, 1999, President Yeltsin unexpectedly resigned, handing the post to the recently appointed Prime Minister, Vladimir Putin, who then won the 2000 presidential election. Putin suppressed the Chechen insurgency although sporadic violence still occurs throughout the Northern Caucasus. High oil prices and the initially weak currency followed by increasing domestic demand, consumption, and investments has helped the economy grow for nine straight years, improving the standard of living and increasing Russia's influence on the world stage.[105] However, since the World economic crisis of 2008 and a subsequent drop in oil prices, Russia's economy has stagnated and poverty has again started to rise.[106] While many reforms made during the Putin presidency have been generally criticized by Western nations as undemocratic,[107] Putin's leadership over the return of order, stability, and progress has won him widespread admiration in Russia.[108] On March 2, 2008, Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
was elected President of Russia while Putin became Prime Minister. Putin returned to the presidency following the 2012 presidential elections, and Medvedev was appointed Prime Minister. In 2014, after President Viktor Yanukovych
Viktor Yanukovych
of Ukraine
Ukraine
fled as a result of a revolution, Putin requested and received authorization from the Russian Parliament to deploy Russian troops to Ukraine.[109][110][111][112][113] Following a Crimean referendum in which separation was favored by a large majority of voters,[114][115][116][117][118][119] the Russian leadership announced the accession of Crimea
Crimea
into the Russian Federation, though this and the referendum that preceded it were not accepted internationally. On March 27 the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly voted in favor of a non-binding resolution opposing the Russian annexation of Crimea
Crimea
by a vote of 100 member states in favour, 11 against and 58 abstentions.[120] In September 2015, Russia
Russia
started military intervention in the Syrian Civil War, consisting of air strikes against militant groups of the Islamic State, al-Nusra Front (al-Qaeda in the Levant), and the Army of Conquest. Politics Main article: Politics of Russia Governance

President Vladimir Putin

Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev

According to the Constitution of Russia, the country is a federation and semi-presidential republic, wherein the President is the head of state[121] and the Prime Minister is the head of government. The Russian Federation
Federation
is fundamentally structured as a multi-party representative democracy, with the federal government composed of three branches:

Legislative: The bicameral Federal Assembly of Russia, made up of the 450-member State Duma
State Duma
and the 166-member Federation
Federation
Council, adopts federal law, declares war, approves treaties, has the power of the purse and the power of impeachment of the President. Executive: The President is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, can veto legislative bills before they become law, and appoints the Government of Russia
Government of Russia
(Cabinet) and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies. Judiciary: The Constitutional Court, Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the Federation
Federation
Council on the recommendation of the President, interpret laws and can overturn laws they deem unconstitutional.

The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term, but not for a third consecutive term).[122] Ministries of the government are composed of the Premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister (whereas the appointment of the latter requires the consent of the State Duma). Leading political parties in Russia
Russia
include United Russia, the Communist
Communist
Party, the Liberal Democratic Party, and A Just Russia. In 2013, Russia
Russia
was ranked as 122nd of 167 countries in the Democracy Index, compiled by The Economist
The Economist
Intelligence Unit,[123] while the World Justice Project, as of 2014, ranked Russia
Russia
80th of 99 countries surveyed in terms of rule of law.[124] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Russia

As a transcontinental country, Russia
Russia
is a member of both the Council of Europe
Europe
(COE) and the Asia
Asia
Cooperation Dialogue.

The Russian Federation
Federation
became the 39th member state of the Council of Europe
Europe
on February 28, 1996

Member states, observers and partners of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)

The Russian Federation
Federation
is recognized in international law as a successor state of the former Soviet Union.[29] Russia
Russia
continues to implement the international commitments of the USSR, and has assumed the USSR's permanent seat in the UN Security Council, membership in other international organisations, the rights and obligations under international treaties, and property and debts. Russia
Russia
has a multifaceted foreign policy. As of 2009[update], it maintains diplomatic relations with 191 countries and has 144 embassies. The foreign policy is determined by the President and implemented by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia.[125] As the successor to a former superpower, Russia's geopolitical status has often been debated, particularly in relation to unipolar and multipolar views on the global political system. While Russia
Russia
is commonly accepted to be a great power, in recent years it has been characterized by a number of world leaders,[126][127] scholars,[128] commentators and politicians[129] as a currently reinstating or potential superpower.[130][page needed][131][better source needed][132] As one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council, Russia plays a major role in maintaining international peace and security. The country participates in the Quartet on the Middle East
Quartet on the Middle East
and the Six-party talks
Six-party talks
with North Korea. Russia
Russia
is a member of the G8 industrialized nations, the Council of Europe, OSCE, and APEC. Russia usually takes a leading role in regional organisations such as the CIS, EurAsEC, CSTO, and the SCO.[133] Russia
Russia
became the 39th member state of the Council of Europe
Europe
in 1996.[134] In 1998, Russia
Russia
ratified the European Convention on Human Rights. The legal basis for EU relations with Russia
Russia
is the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, which came into force in 1997. The Agreement recalls the parties' shared respect for democracy and human rights, political and economic freedom and commitment to international peace and security.[135] In May 2003, the EU and Russia
Russia
agreed to reinforce their cooperation on the basis of common values and shared interests.[136] Former President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
had advocated a strategic partnership with close integration in various dimensions including establishment of EU-Russia Common Spaces.[137] Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia has developed a friendlier relationship with the United States
United States
and NATO. The NATO-Russia Council
NATO-Russia Council
was established in 2002 to allow the United States, Russia
Russia
and the 27 allies in NATO
NATO
to work together as equal partners to pursue opportunities for joint collaboration.[138]

Leaders of the BRICS
BRICS
nations in 2016: (l-r) Michel Temer
Michel Temer
of Brazil, Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
of India, Xi Jinping
Xi Jinping
of China, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
of Russia and Jacob Zuma
Jacob Zuma
of South Africa

Russia
Russia
maintains strong and positive relations with other BRIC countries. India
India
is the largest customer of Russian military equipment and the two countries share extensive defense and strategic relations.[139] In recent years, the country has strengthened bilateral ties especially with the People's Republic of China
China
by signing the Treaty of Friendship as well as building the Trans-Siberian oil pipeline
Trans-Siberian oil pipeline
and gas pipeline from Siberia
Siberia
to China.[140][141] An important aspect of Russia's relations with the West is the criticism of Russia's political system and human rights management (including LGBT rights, media freedom, and reports about killed journalists) by Western governments, the mass media and the leading democracy and human rights watchdogs. In particular, such organisations as Amnesty International
Amnesty International
and Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
consider Russia
Russia
to have not enough democratic attributes and to allow few political rights and civil liberties to its citizens.[142][143] Freedom House, an international organisation funded by the United States, ranks Russia
Russia
as "not free", citing "carefully engineered elections" and "absence" of debate.[144] Russian authorities dismiss these claims and especially criticise Freedom House. The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has called the 2006 Freedom in the World report "prefabricated", stating that the human rights issues have been turned into a political weapon in particular by the United States. The ministry also claims that such organisations as Freedom House
Freedom House
and Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
use the same scheme of voluntary extrapolation of "isolated facts that of course can be found in any country" into "dominant tendencies".[145] Military Main article: Russian Armed Forces

Military-patriotic recreation park of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation

2015 Moscow
Moscow
Victory Day Parade: Russians
Russians
at «Immortal regiment», carrying portraits of their ancestors who fought in World War II.

The Russian military is divided into the Ground Forces, Navy, and Air Force. There are also three independent arms of service: Strategic Missile Troops, Aerospace Defence Forces, and the Airborne Troops. In 2006, the military had 1.037 million personnel on active duty.[146] It is mandatory for all male citizens aged 18–27 to be drafted for a year of service in Armed Forces.[105] Russia
Russia
has the largest stockpile of nuclear weapons in the world. It has the second largest fleet of ballistic missile submarines and is the only country apart from the United States
United States
with a modern strategic bomber force.[34][147] Russia's tank force is the largest in the world, its surface navy and air force are among the largest ones. The country has a large and fully indigenous arms industry, producing most of its own military equipment with only a few types of weapons imported. Russia
Russia
is one of the world's top supplier of arms, a spot it has held since 2001, accounting for around 30% of worldwide weapons sales[148] and exporting weapons to about 80 countries.[149] The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, SIPRI, found that Russia
Russia
was the second biggest exporter of arms in 2010–14, increasing their exports by 37 per cent from the period 2005–2009. In 2010–14, Russia
Russia
delivered weapons to 56 states and to rebel forces in eastern Ukraine.[150] The Russian government's published 2014 military budget is about 2.49 trillion rubles (approximately US$69.3 billion), the third largest in the world behind the US and China. The official budget is set to rise to 3.03 trillion rubles (approximately US$83.7 billion) in 2015, and 3.36 trillion rubles (approximately US$93.9 billion) in 2016.[151] However, unofficial estimates put the budget significantly higher, for example the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
(SIPRI) 2013 Military Expenditure Database estimated Russia's military expenditure in 2012 at US$90.749 billion.[152] This estimate is an increase of more than US$18 billion on SIPRI's estimate of the Russian military budget for 2011 (US$71.9 billion).[153] As of 2014[update], Russia's military budget is higher than any other European nation. Political divisions Main article: Subdivisions of Russia

Russian President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
and Akhmad Kadyrov, former rebel and head of the Chechen Republic, 2000

Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
and President of Tatarstan
Tatarstan
Mintimer Shaimiyev in Kazan, the capital of Tatarstan, 2011

Federal subjects

According to the Constitution, the country comprises eighty-five federal subjects,[154] including the disputed Republic of Crimea
Crimea
and federal city of Sevastopol.[155] In 1993, when the Constitution was adopted, there were eighty-nine federal subjects listed, but later some of them were merged. These subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation
Federation
Council.[156] However, they differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy.

46 oblasts (provinces): most common type of federal subjects, with locally elected governor and legislature.[157] 22 republics: nominally autonomous; each is tasked with drafting its own constitution, direct-elected[157] head of republic[158] or a similar post, and parliament. Republics are allowed to establish their own official language alongside Russian but are represented by the federal government in international affairs. Republics are meant to be home to specific ethnic minorities. 9 krais (territories): essentially the same as oblasts. The "territory" designation is historic, originally given to frontier regions and later also to the administrative divisions that comprised autonomous okrugs or autonomous oblasts. 4 autonomous okrugs (autonomous districts): originally autonomous entities within oblasts and krais created for ethnic minorities, their status was elevated to that of federal subjects in the 1990s. With the exception of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, all autonomous okrugs are still administratively subordinated to a krai or an oblast of which they are a part. 1 autonomous oblast (the Jewish Autonomous Oblast): historically, autonomous oblasts were administrative units subordinated to krais. In 1990, all of them except for the Jewish AO were elevated in status to that of a republic. 3 federal cities (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol): major cities that function as separate regions.

Further information: Political status of Crimea
Crimea
and Sevastopol
Sevastopol
and Annexation of Crimea
Crimea
by the Russian Federation

Federal districts

Federal subjects are grouped into eight federal districts, each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia.[159] Unlike the federal subjects, the federal districts are not a subnational level of government, but are a level of administration of the federal government. Federal districts' envoys serve as liaisons between the federal subjects and the federal government and are primarily responsible for overseeing the compliance of the federal subjects with the federal laws. Geography Main article: Geography of Russia See also: List of Russian explorers

Moscow

St. Petersburg

Novgorod

Novosibirsk

Yekaterinburg

Nizhny Novgorod

Kazan

Chelyabinsk

Omsk

Samara

Rostov

Ufa

Krasnoyarsk

Perm

Voronezh

Volgograd

Arkhangelsk

Pyatigorsk

Sochi

Irkutsk

Yakutsk

Khabarovsk

Vladivostok

Magadan

Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk

Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky

Kaliningrad

Köppen climate types of Russia

Russia
Russia
is the largest country in the world; its total area is 17,075,200 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi).[160][161] It lies between latitudes 41° and 82° N, and longitudes 19° E and 169° W. Russia's territorial expansion was achieved largely in the late 16th century under the Cossack
Cossack
Yermak Timofeyevich
Yermak Timofeyevich
during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, at a time when competing city-states in the western regions of Russia
Russia
had banded together to form one country. Yermak mustered an army and pushed eastward where he conquered nearly all the lands once belonging to the Mongols, defeating their ruler, Khan Kuchum.[162] Russia
Russia
has a wide natural resource base, including major deposits of timber, petroleum, natural gas, coal, ores and other mineral resources. Topography The two most widely separated points in Russia
Russia
are about 8,000 km (4,971 mi) apart along a geodesic line. These points are: a 60 km (37 mi) long Vistula Spit
Vistula Spit
the boundary with Poland separating the Gdańsk Bay
Gdańsk Bay
from the Vistula Lagoon
Vistula Lagoon
and the most southeastern point of the Kuril Islands. The points which are farthest separated in longitude are 6,600 km (4,101 mi) apart along a geodesic line. These points are: in the west, the same spit on the boundary with Poland, and in the east, the Big Diomede Island. The Russian Federation
Federation
spans 11 time zones.

Mount Elbrus, the highest point of the Caucasus, Russia
Russia
and Europe

Most of Russia
Russia
consists of vast stretches of plains that are predominantly steppe to the south and heavily forested to the north, with tundra along the northern coast. Russia
Russia
possesses 10% of the world's arable land.[163] Mountain ranges are found along the southern borders, such as the Caucasus
Caucasus
(containing Mount Elbrus, which at 5,642 m (18,510 ft) is the highest point in both Russia
Russia
and Europe) and the Altai (containing Mount Belukha, which at the 4,506 m (14,783 ft) is the highest point of Siberia
Siberia
outside of the Russian Far East); and in the eastern parts, such as the Verkhoyansk Range
Verkhoyansk Range
or the volcanoes of Kamchatka Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula
(containing Klyuchevskaya Sopka, which at the 4,750 m (15,584 ft) is the highest active volcano in Eurasia
Eurasia
as well as the highest point of Asian Russia). The Ural Mountains, rich in mineral resources, form a north-south range that divides Europe
Europe
and Asia. Russia
Russia
has an extensive coastline of over 37,000 km (22,991 mi) along the Arctic and Pacific Oceans, as well as along the Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Black Sea
Black Sea
and Caspian Sea.[105] The Barents Sea, White Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea, Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and the Sea of Japan
Japan
are linked to Russia
Russia
via the Arctic and Pacific. Russia's major islands and archipelagos include Novaya Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the Severnaya Zemlya, the New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island, the Kuril Islands, and Sakhalin. The Diomede Islands
Diomede Islands
(one controlled by Russia, the other by the United States) are just 3 km (1.9 mi) apart, and Kunashir Island
Kunashir Island
is about 20 km (12.4 mi) from Hokkaido, Japan.

Volga
Volga
River in Samara Oblast

Russia
Russia
has thousands of rivers and inland bodies of water, providing it with one of the world's largest surface water resources. Its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's liquid fresh water.[164] The largest and most prominent of Russia's bodies of fresh water is Lake Baikal, the world's deepest, purest, oldest and most capacious fresh water lake.[165] Baikal alone contains over one-fifth of the world's fresh surface water.[164] Other major lakes include Ladoga and Onega, two of the largest lakes in Europe. Russia
Russia
is second only to Brazil
Brazil
in volume of the total renewable water resources. Of the country's 100,000 rivers,[166] the Volga
Volga
is the most famous, not only because it is the longest river in Europe, but also because of its major role in Russian history.[105] The Siberian rivers Ob, Yenisey, Lena and Amur are among the longest rivers in the world. Climate Main article: Climate of Russia

Taiga
Taiga
forest, Yugyd Va National Park
Yugyd Va National Park
in the Komi Republic

Sochi, Black Sea
Black Sea
coast

The enormous size of Russia
Russia
and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the humid continental climate, which is prevalent in all parts of the country except for the tundra and the extreme southeast. Mountains in the south obstruct the flow of warm air masses from the Indian Ocean, while the plain of the west and north makes the country open to Arctic and Atlantic influences.[167] Most of Northern European Russia
European Russia
and Siberia
Siberia
has a subarctic climate, with extremely severe winters in the inner regions of Northeast Siberia
Siberia
(mostly the Sakha Republic, where the Northern Pole of Cold
Pole of Cold
is located with the record low temperature of −71.2 °C or −96.2 °F), and more moderate winters elsewhere. Both the strip of land along the shore of the Arctic Ocean and the Russian Arctic islands have a polar climate. The coastal part of Krasnodar Krai
Krasnodar Krai
on the Black Sea, most notably in Sochi, possesses a humid subtropical climate with mild and wet winters. In many regions of East Siberia
Siberia
and the Far East, winter is dry compared to summer; other parts of the country experience more even precipitation across seasons. Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow. The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
coast, as well as some areas of southernmost Siberia, possesses a semi-arid climate.

Climate data for Russia
Russia
(records)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 22.2 (72) 23.8 (74.8) 30.3 (86.5) 34.0 (93.2) 37.7 (99.9) 43.2 (109.8) 45.4 (113.7) 43.5 (110.3) 41.5 (106.7) 33.7 (92.7) 29.1 (84.4) 25.0 (77) 45.4 (113.7)

Record low °C (°F) −71.2 (−96.2) −67.8 (−90) −60.6 (−77.1) −57.2 (−71) −34.2 (−29.6) −9.7 (14.5) −9.3 (15.3) −17.1 (1.2) −25.3 (−13.5) −48.7 (−55.7) −58.5 (−73.3) −64.5 (−84.1) −71.2 (−96.2)

Source: Pogoda.ru.net[168]January record low:"February, April, May, October, December record low:[169]

Throughout much of the territory there are only two distinct seasons—winter and summer—as spring and autumn are usually brief periods of change between extremely low and extremely high temperatures.[167] The coldest month is January (February on the coastline); the warmest is usually July. Great ranges of temperature are typical. In winter, temperatures get colder both from south to north and from west to east. Summers can be quite hot, even in Siberia.[170] The continental interiors are the driest areas. Biodiversity Main articles: List of ecoregions in Russia, List of mammals of Russia, List of birds of Russia, List of freshwater fish of Russia, and Wildlife of Russia

The brown bear is a popular symbol of Russia, particularly in the West.

From north to south the East European Plain, also known as Russian Plain, is clad sequentially in Arctic tundra, coniferous forest (taiga), mixed and broad-leaf forests, grassland (steppe), and semi-desert (fringing the Caspian Sea), as the changes in vegetation reflect the changes in climate. Siberia
Siberia
supports a similar sequence but is largely taiga. Russia
Russia
has the world's largest forest reserves,[171] known as "the lungs of Europe",[172] second only to the Amazon Rainforest
Amazon Rainforest
in the amount of carbon dioxide it absorbs. There are 266 mammal species and 780 bird species in Russia. A total of 415 animal species have been included in the Red Data Book
Book
of the Russian Federation
Federation
as of 1997 and are now protected.[173] There are 28 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Russia,[174] 40 UNESCO biosphere reserves,[175] 41 national parks and 101 nature reserves. Economy Main articles: Economy of Russia
Economy of Russia
and Timeline of largest projects in the Russian economy

Moscow
Moscow
International Business Center

Russia
Russia
has an upper-middle income mixed economy[176] with enormous natural resources, particularly oil and natural gas. It has the 12th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP
GDP
and the 6th largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Since the turn of the 21st century, higher domestic consumption and greater political stability have bolstered economic growth in Russia. The country ended 2008 with its ninth straight year of growth, but growth has slowed with the decline in the price of oil and gas. Real GDP
GDP
per capita, PPP (current international) was 19,840 in 2010.[177] Growth was primarily driven by non-traded services and goods for the domestic market, as opposed to oil or mineral extraction and exports.[105] The average nominal salary in Russia
Russia
was $967 per month in early 2013, up from $80 in 2000.[178][179] In May 2016 the average nominal monthly wages fell below $450 per month,[180] and tax on the income of individuals is payable at the rate of 13% on most incomes.[181] Approximately 19.2 million of Russians
Russians
lived below the national poverty line in 2016,[182] significantly up from 16.1 million in 2015.[101] Unemployment in Russia
Russia
was 5.4% in 2014, down from about 12.4% in 1999.[183] Officially, about 20–25% of the Russian population is categorized as middle class; however some economists and sociologists think this figure is inflated and the real fraction is about 7%.[184] After the United States, the European Union
European Union
and other countries imposed economic sanctions after the annexation of Crimea
Crimea
and a collapse in oil prices, the proportion of middle-class could decrease drastically.[185][186]

Russia's GDP
GDP
by purchasing power parity (PPP) since 1989 (in international dollars adjusted for both purchasing power and inflation at 2013 prices).

Oil, natural gas, metals, and timber account for more than 80% of Russian exports abroad.[105] Since 2003, the exports of natural resources started decreasing in economic importance as the internal market strengthened considerably. As of 2012[update] the oil-and-gas sector accounted for 16% of GDP, 52% of federal budget revenues and over 80% of total exports.[187][188][189] Oil export earnings allowed Russia
Russia
to increase its foreign reserves from $12 billion in 1999 to $597.3 billion on August 1, 2008. As of April 2017, foreign reserves in Russia
Russia
fell to 332 USD Billion.[190] The macroeconomic policy under Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin
Alexei Kudrin
was prudent and sound, with excess income being stored in the Stabilization Fund of Russia.[191] In 2006, Russia
Russia
repaid most of its formerly massive debts,[192] leaving it with one of the lowest foreign debts among major economies.[193] The Stabilization Fund helped Russia
Russia
to come out of the global financial crisis in a much better state than many experts had expected.[191] A simpler, more streamlined tax code adopted in 2001 reduced the tax burden on people and dramatically increased state revenue.[194] Russia has a flat tax rate of 13%. This ranks it as the country with the second most attractive personal tax system for single managers in the world after the United Arab Emirates.[195] According to Bloomberg, Russia
Russia
is considered well ahead of most other resource-rich countries in its economic development, with a long tradition of education, science, and industry.[196] The country has a higher proportion of higher education graduates than any other country in Eurasia.[197]

On May 21, 2014, Russia
Russia
and China
China
signed a $400 billion gas deal. Starting 2019 Russia
Russia
plans to provide natural gas to China
China
for the next 30 years.

The economic development of the country has been uneven geographically with the Moscow
Moscow
region contributing a very large share of the country's GDP.[198] Inequality of household income and wealth has also been noted, with Credit Suisse finding Russian wealth distribution so much more extreme than other countries studied it "deserves to be placed in a separate category."[199][200] Another problem is modernisation of infrastructure, ageing and inadequate after years of being neglected in the 1990s; the government has said $1 trillion will be invested in development of infrastructure by 2020.[201] In December 2011, Russia
Russia
finally[clarification needed] joined the World Trade Organisation, allowing it a greater access to overseas markets. Some analysts estimate that WTO membership could bring the Russian economy a bounce of up to 3% annually.[202] Russia
Russia
ranks as the second-most corrupt country in Europe
Europe
(after Ukraine), according to the Corruption Perceptions Index. The Norwegian-Russian Chamber of Commerce also states that "[c]orruption is one of the biggest problems both Russian and international companies have to deal with."[203] Corruption in Russia
Corruption in Russia
is perceived as a significant problem[204] impacting all aspects of life, including public administration,[205][206] law enforcement,[207] healthcare[208] and education.[209] The phenomenon of corruption is strongly established in the historical model of public governance in Russia
Russia
and attributed to general weakness of rule of law in Russia.[205] According to 2016 results of Corruption Perception Index of Transparency International, Russia
Russia
ranked 131th place out of 176 countries with score 29.[210] There are many different estimates of the actual cost of corruption.[211] According to official government statistics from Rosstat, the "shadow economy" occupied only 15% of Russia's GDP
GDP
in 2011, and this included unreported salaries (to avoid taxes and social payments) and other types of tax evasion.[212] According to Rosstat's estimates, corruption in 2011 amounted to only 3.5 to 7% of GDP. In comparison, some independent experts maintain that corruption consumes as much of 25% of Russia's GDP.[213] A World Bank
World Bank
report puts this figure at 48%.[214] There is also an interesting shift in the main focus of bribery: whereas previously officials took bribes to shut their eyes to legal infractions, they now take them simply to perform their duties.[215] Many experts admit that in recent years corruption in Russia
Russia
has become a business. In the 1990s, businessmen had to pay different criminal groups to provide a "krysha" (literally, a "roof", i.e., protection). Nowadays, this "protective" function is performed by officials. Corrupt hierarchies characterize different sectors of the economy,[211] including education.[211] In the end, the Russian population pays for this corruption.[211] For example, some experts believe that the rapid increases in tariffs for housing, water, gas and electricity, which significantly outpace the rate of inflation, are a direct result of high volumes of corruption at the highest levels.[216] In the recent years the reaction to corruption has changed: starting from Putin's second term, very few corruption cases have been the subject of outrage. Putin's system is remarkable for its ubiquitous and open merging of the civil service and business, as well as its use of relatives, friends, and acquaintances to benefit from budgetary expenditures and take over state property. Corporate, property, and land raiding is commonplace.[211] On March 26, 2017, protests against alleged corruption in the federal Russian government took place simultaneously in many cities across the country.[217] They were triggered by the lack of proper response from the Russian authorities to the published investigative film He Is Not Dimon To You, which has garnered more than 20 million views on YouTube. A new wave of mass protests has been announced for June 12, 2017.[218]

Over two million VAZ-2105s were produced from 1980 to 2010.

A Lada
Lada
Vesta. Lada
Lada
is the brand of AvtoVAZ, the largest Russian car manufacturer.

The Russian central bank announced plans in 2013 to free float the Russian ruble
Russian ruble
in 2015. According to a stress test conducted by the central bank Russian financial system would be able to handle a currency decline of 25%–30% without major central bank interference. However, the Russian economy
Russian economy
began stagnating in late 2013 and in combination with the War in Donbass
War in Donbass
is in danger of entering stagflation, slow growth and high inflation. The recent decline in the Russian ruble
Russian ruble
has increased the costs for Russian companies to make interest payments on debt issued in U.S. dollar or other foreign currencies that have strengthened against the ruble; thus it costs Russian companies more of their ruble-denominated revenue to repay their debt holders in dollars or other foreign currencies.[219] As of March 2016, the ruble was devalued more than 50 percent since July 2014.[220] Moreover, after bringing inflation down to 3.6% in 2012, the lowest rate since gaining independence from the Soviet Union, inflation in Russia
Russia
jumped to nearly 7.5% in 2014, causing the central bank to increase its lending rate to 8% from 5.5% in 2013.[221][222][223] In an October 2014 article in Bloomberg Business Week, it was reported that Russia
Russia
had significantly started shifting its economy towards China
China
in response to increasing financial tensions following its annexation of Crimea
Crimea
and subsequent Western economic sanctions.[224] Agriculture Main articles: Agriculture
Agriculture
in Russia
Russia
and Fishing industry in Russia

Rye
Rye
Fields, by Ivan Shishkin. Russia
Russia
is the world's top producer of barley, buckwheat and oats, and one of the largest producers and exporters of rye, sunflower seed and wheat.

Russia's total area of cultivated land is estimated at 1,237,294 square kilometres (477,722 sq mi), the fourth largest in the world.[225] From 1999 to 2009, Russia's agriculture grew steadily,[226] and the country turned from a grain importer to the third largest grain exporter after the EU and the United States.[227] The production of meat has grown from 6,813,000 tonnes in 1999 to 9,331,000 tonnes in 2008, and continues to grow.[228] This restoration of agriculture was supported by a credit policy of the government, helping both individual farmers and large privatized corporate farms that once were Soviet kolkhozes and which still own the significant share of agricultural land.[229] While large farms concentrate mainly on grain production and husbandry products, small private household plots produce most of the country's potatoes, vegetables and fruits.[230] Since Russia
Russia
borders three oceans (the Atlantic, Arctic, and Pacific), Russian fishing fleets are a major world fish supplier. Russia captured 3,191,068 tons of fish in 2005.[231] Both exports and imports of fish and sea products grew significantly in recent years, reaching $2,415 and $2,036 million, respectively, in 2008.[232] Sprawling from the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
to the Pacific Ocean, Russia
Russia
has more than a fifth of the world's forests, which makes it the largest forest country in the world.[171][233] However, according to a 2012 study by the Food and Agriculture
Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations
United Nations
and the Government of the Russian Federation,[234] the considerable potential of Russian forests is underutilized and Russia's share of the global trade in forest products is less than four percent.[235] Energy Main articles: Energy in Russia
Energy in Russia
and Nuclear power
Nuclear power
in Russia

Russia
Russia
is a key oil and gas supplier to much of Europe.

In recent years, Russia
Russia
has frequently been described in the media as an energy superpower.[236][237] The country has the world's largest natural gas reserves,[238] the 8th largest oil reserves,[239] and the second largest coal reserves.[240] Russia
Russia
is the world's leading natural gas exporter[241] and second largest natural gas producer,[33] while also the largest oil exporter and the largest oil producer.[32] Russia
Russia
is the 3rd largest electricity producer in the world[242] and the 5th largest renewable energy producer, the latter because of the well-developed hydroelectricity production in the country.[243] Large cascades of hydropower plants are built in European Russia
European Russia
along big rivers like the Volga. The Asian part of Russia
Russia
also features a number of major hydropower stations; however, the gigantic hydroelectric potential of Siberia
Siberia
and the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
largely remains unexploited. Russia
Russia
was the first country to develop civilian nuclear power and to construct the world's first nuclear power plant. Currently the country is the 4th largest nuclear energy producer,[244] with all nuclear power in Russia
Russia
being managed by Rosatom
Rosatom
State Corporation. The sector is rapidly developing, with an aim of increasing the total share of nuclear energy from current 16.9% to 23% by 2020. The Russian government plans to allocate 127 billion rubles ($5.42 billion) to a federal program dedicated to the next generation of nuclear energy technology. About 1 trillion rubles ($42.7 billion) is to be allocated from the federal budget to nuclear power and industry development before 2015.[245] In May 2014 on a two-day trip to Shanghai, President Putin signed a deal on behalf of Gazprom for the Russian energy giant to supply China with 38 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year. Construction of a pipeline to facilitate the deal was agreed whereby Russia
Russia
would contribute $55bn to the cost, and China
China
$22bn, in what Putin described as "the world's biggest construction project for the next four years." The natural gas would begin to flow sometime between 2018 and 2020 and would continue for 30 years at an ultimate cost to China
China
of $400bn.[246] Transport Main articles: Transport in Russia, History of rail transport in Russia, and Rail transport in Russia

The marker for kilometre 9288 at the end of the Trans-Siberian Railway in Vladivostok

Railway transport in Russia
Russia
is mostly under the control of the state-run Russian Railways
Russian Railways
monopoly. The company accounts for over 3.6% of Russia's GDP
GDP
and handles 39% of the total freight traffic (including pipelines) and more than 42% of passenger traffic.[247] The total length of common-used railway tracks exceeds 85,500 km (53,127 mi),[247] second only to the United States. Over 44,000 km (27,340 mi) of tracks are electrified,[248] which is the largest number in the world, and additionally there are more than 30,000 km (18,641 mi) of industrial non-common carrier lines. Railways in Russia, unlike in the most of the world, use broad gauge of 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in), with the exception of 957 km (595 mi) on Sakhalin
Sakhalin
island using narrow gauge of 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in). The most renowned railway in Russia
Russia
is Trans-Siberian (Transsib), spanning a record 7 time zones and serving the longest single continuous services in the world, Moscow- Vladivostok
Vladivostok
(9,259 km (5,753 mi)), Moscow– Pyongyang
Pyongyang
(10,267 km (6,380 mi))[249] and Kiev– Vladivostok
Vladivostok
(11,085 km (6,888 mi)).[250] As of 2006[update] Russia
Russia
had 933,000 km of roads, of which 755,000 were paved.[251] Some of these make up the Russian federal motorway system. With a large land area the road density is the lowest of all the G8 and BRIC
BRIC
countries.[252] Much of Russia's inland waterways, which total 102,000 km (63,380 mi), are made up of natural rivers or lakes. In the European part of the country the network of channels connects the basins of major rivers. Russia's capital, Moscow, is sometimes called "the port of the five seas", because of its waterway connections to the Baltic, White, Caspian, Azov and Black Seas.

Yamal, one of Russia's nuclear-powered icebreakers[253]

Major sea ports of Russia
Russia
include Rostov-on-Don
Rostov-on-Don
on the Azov Sea, Novorossiysk
Novorossiysk
on the Black Sea, Astrakhan
Astrakhan
and Makhachkala
Makhachkala
on the Caspian, Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
and St Petersburg on the Baltic, Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk
on the White Sea, Murmansk
Murmansk
on the Barents Sea, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and Vladivostok
Vladivostok
on the Pacific Ocean. In 2008 the country owned 1,448 merchant marine ships. The world's only fleet of nuclear-powered icebreakers advances the economic exploitation of the Arctic continental shelf of Russia
Russia
and the development of sea trade through the Northern Sea Route
Northern Sea Route
between Europe
Europe
and East Asia. By total length of pipelines Russia
Russia
is second only to the United States. Currently many new pipeline projects are being realized, including Nord Stream
Nord Stream
and South Stream
South Stream
natural gas pipelines to Europe, and the Eastern Siberia
Siberia
– Pacific Ocean oil pipeline (ESPO) to the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
and China. Russia
Russia
has 1,216 airports,[254] the busiest being Sheremetyevo, Domodedovo, and Vnukovo
Vnukovo
in Moscow, and Pulkovo in St. Petersburg. Typically, major Russian cities have well-developed systems of public transport, with the most common varieties of exploited vehicles being bus, trolleybus and tram. Seven Russian cities, namely Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Samara, Yekaterinburg, and Kazan, have underground metros, while Volgograd
Volgograd
features a metrotram. The total length of metros in Russia
Russia
is 465.4 kilometres (289.2 mi). Moscow
Moscow
Metro and Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Metro are the oldest in Russia, opened in 1935 and 1955 respectively. These two are among the fastest and busiest metro systems in the world, and some of them are famous for rich decorations and unique designs of their stations, which is a common tradition in Russian metros and railways. Science and technology

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Main articles: Timeline of Russian inventions
Russian inventions
and technology records, Science and technology in Russia, List of Russian scientists, and List of Russian inventors

Mikhail Lomonosov, polymath scientist, inventor, poet and artist

Ivan Pavlov
Ivan Pavlov
(1849–1936), physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate in 1904

Science and technology in Russia
Science and technology in Russia
blossomed since the Age of Enlightenment, when Peter the Great
Peter the Great
founded the Russian Academy of Sciences and Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
State University, and polymath Mikhail Lomonosov established the Moscow
Moscow
State University, paving the way for a strong native tradition in learning and innovation. In the 19th and 20th centuries the country produced a large number of notable scientists and inventors. The Russian physics school
Russian physics school
began with Lomonosov who proposed the law of conservation of matter preceding the energy conservation law. Russian discoveries and inventions in physics include the electric arc, electrodynamical Lenz's law, space groups of crystals, photoelectric cell, superfluidity, Cherenkov radiation, electron paramagnetic resonance, heterotransistors and 3D holography. Lasers and masers were co-invented by Nikolai Basov
Nikolai Basov
and Alexander Prokhorov, while the idea of tokamak for controlled nuclear fusion was introduced by Igor Tamm, Andrei Sakharov
Andrei Sakharov
and Lev Artsimovich, leading eventually the modern international ITER
ITER
project, where Russia
Russia
is a party. Since the time of Nikolay Lobachevsky
Nikolay Lobachevsky
(the " Copernicus
Copernicus
of Geometry" who pioneered the non-Euclidean geometry) and a prominent tutor Pafnuty Chebyshev, the Russian mathematical school
Russian mathematical school
became one of the most influential in the world.[255] Chebyshev's students included Aleksandr Lyapunov, who founded the modern stability theory, and Andrey Markov
Andrey Markov
who invented the Markov chains. In the 20th century Soviet mathematicians, such as Andrey Kolmogorov, Israel
Israel
Gelfand, and Sergey Sobolev, made major contributions to various areas of mathematics. Nine Soviet/Russian mathematicians were awarded with the Fields Medal, a most prestigious award in mathematics. Recently Grigori Perelman
Grigori Perelman
was offered the first ever Clay Millennium Prize Problems Award for his final proof of the Poincaré conjecture
Poincaré conjecture
in 2002.[256] Russian chemist
Russian chemist
Dmitry Mendeleev
Dmitry Mendeleev
invented the Periodic table, the main framework of modern chemistry. Aleksandr Butlerov
Aleksandr Butlerov
was one of the creators of the theory of chemical structure, playing a central role in organic chemistry. Russian biologists
Russian biologists
include Dmitry Ivanovsky
Dmitry Ivanovsky
who discovered viruses, Ivan Pavlov
Ivan Pavlov
who was the first to experiment with the classical conditioning, and Ilya Mechnikov
Ilya Mechnikov
who was a pioneer researcher of the immune system and probiotics. Many Russian scientists and inventors were émigrés, like Igor Sikorsky, who built the first airliners and modern-type helicopters; Vladimir Zworykin, often called the father of TV; chemist Ilya Prigogine, noted for his work on dissipative structures and complex systems; Nobel Prize-winning economists Simon Kuznets
Simon Kuznets
and Wassily Leontief; physicist Georgiy Gamov
Georgiy Gamov
(an author of the Big Bang
Big Bang
theory) and social scientist Pitirim Sorokin. Many foreigners worked in Russia for a long time, like Leonard Euler
Leonard Euler
and Alfred Nobel. Russian inventions
Russian inventions
include arc welding by Nikolay Benardos, further developed by Nikolay Slavyanov, Konstantin Khrenov
Konstantin Khrenov
and other Russian engineers. Gleb Kotelnikov
Gleb Kotelnikov
invented the knapsack parachute, while Evgeniy Chertovsky introduced the pressure suit. Alexander Lodygin
Alexander Lodygin
and Pavel Yablochkov
Pavel Yablochkov
were pioneers of electric lighting, and Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky introduced the first three-phase electric power systems, widely used today. Sergei Lebedev invented the first commercially viable and mass-produced type of synthetic rubber. The first ternary computer, Setun, was developed by Nikolay Brusentsov.

The Sukhoi Su-57
Sukhoi Su-57
is a fifth-generation jet fighter being developed for the Russian Air Force.

Soviet and Russian space station Mir

Soyuz TMA-2
Soyuz TMA-2
is launched from Baikonur, Kazakhstan, carrying one of the first resident crews to the International Space Station

In the 20th century a number of prominent Soviet aerospace engineers, inspired by the fundamental works of Nikolai Zhukovsky, Sergei Chaplygin and others, designed many hundreds of models of military and civilian aircraft and founded a number of KBs (Construction Bureaus) that now constitute the bulk of Russian United Aircraft Corporation. Famous Russian aircraft include the civilian Tu-series, Su and MiG fighter aircraft, Ka and Mi-series helicopters; many Russian aircraft models are on the list of most produced aircraft in history. Famous Russian battle tanks include T34, the most heavily produced tank design of World War II,[257] and further tanks of T-series, including the most produced tank in history, T54/55.[258] The AK47
AK47
and AK74 by Mikhail Kalashnikov
Mikhail Kalashnikov
constitute the most widely used type of assault rifle throughout the world—so much so that more AK-type rifles have been manufactured than all other assault rifles combined.[259] With all these achievements, however, since the late Soviet era Russia was lagging behind the West in a number of technologies, mostly those related to energy conservation and consumer goods production. The crisis of the 1990s led to the drastic reduction of the state support for science and a brain drain migration from Russia. In the 2000s, on the wave of a new economic boom, the situation in the Russian science and technology has improved, and the government launched a campaign aimed into modernisation and innovation. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
formulated top priorities for the country's technological development:

Efficient energy use Information technology, including both common products and the products combined with space technology Nuclear energy Pharmaceuticals[260]

Currently Russia
Russia
has completed the GLONASS
GLONASS
satellite navigation system. The country is developing its own fifth-generation jet fighter and constructing the first serial mobile nuclear plant in the world. Space exploration Russian achievements in the field of space technology and space exploration are traced back to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, the father of theoretical astronautics.[261] His works had inspired leading Soviet rocket engineers, such as Sergey Korolyov, Valentin Glushko, and many others who contributed to the success of the Soviet space program
Soviet space program
in the early stages of the Space Race
Space Race
and beyond. In 1957 the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched; in 1961 the first human trip into space was successfully made by Yury Gagarin. Many other Soviet and Russian space exploration records ensued, including the first spacewalk performed by Alexey Leonov, Luna 9 was the first spacecraft to land on the Moon, Venera 7 was the first to land on another planet (Venus), Mars 3 then the first to land on Mars, the first space exploration rover Lunokhod 1, and the first space station Salyut 1 and Mir. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, some government-funded space exploration programs, including the Buran space shuttle program, were cancelled or delayed, while participation of the Russian space industry in commercial activities and international cooperation intensified. Nowadays Russia
Russia
is the largest satellite launcher.[262] After the United States
United States
Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
program ended in 2011, Soyuz rockets became the only provider of transport for astronauts at the International Space Station. Water supply and sanitation Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Russia In Russia, approximately 70 per cent of drinking water comes from surface water and 30 per cent from groundwater. In 2004, water supply systems had a total capacity of 90 million cubic metres a day. The average residential water use was 248 litres per capita per day.[263] One fourth of the world's fresh surface and groundwater is located in Russia. The water utilities sector is one of the largest industries in Russia
Russia
serving the entire Russian population. Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Russia
Demographics of Russia
and Rossiyane

Federal subjects by population density. The population is most dense in the European part of the country, with milder climate, centering on Moscow, St Petersburg and other cities.

Percentage of ethnic Russians
Russians
by region in 2010   >80%   70—79%   50—69%   20—49%   <20%

Natural population growth rate in Russia, 2015.

Ethnic Russians
Russians
comprise 81% of the country's population.[1] The Russian Federation
Federation
is also home to several sizeable minorities. In all, 160 different other ethnic groups and indigenous peoples live within its borders.[264] Though Russia's population is comparatively large, its density is low because of the country's enormous size. Population is densest in European Russia, near the Ural Mountains, and in southwest Siberia. 73% of the population lives in urban areas while 27% in rural ones.[265] The results of the 2010 Census show a total population of 142,856,536.[266] Russia's population peaked at 148,689,000 in 1991, just before the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It began to experience a rapid decline starting in the mid-1990s.[267] The decline has slowed to near stagnation in recent years because of reduced death rates, increased birth rates and increased immigration.[268] In 2009, Russia
Russia
recorded annual population growth for the first time in fifteen years, with total growth of 10,500.[268] 279,906 migrants arrived to the Russian Federation
Federation
the same year, of which 93% came from CIS countries.[268] The number of Russian emigrants steadily declined from 359,000 in 2000 to 32,000 in 2009.[268] There are also an estimated 10 million illegal immigrants from the ex-Soviet states in Russia.[269] Russia
Russia
is home to approximately 116 million ethnic Russians[264] and about 20 million ethnic Russians
Russians
live outside Russia
Russia
in the former republics of the Soviet Union,[270] mostly in Ukraine
Ukraine
and Kazakhstan.[271] The 2010 census recorded 81% of the population as ethnically Russian, and 19% as other ethnicities:[1] 3.7% Tatars; 1.4% Ukrainians; 1.1% Bashkirs; 1% Chuvashes; 11.8% others and unspecified. According to the Census, 84.93% of the Russian population belongs to European ethnic groups (Slavic, Germanic, Finnic other than Ugric, Greek, and others). This is a decline from the 2002, when they constituted for more than 86% of the population.[1] Russia's birth rate is higher than that of most European countries (13.3 births per 1000 people in 2014[268] compared to the European Union average of 10.1 per 1000),[272] but its death rate is also substantially higher (in 2014, Russia's death rate was 13.1 per 1000 people[268] compared to the EU average of 9.7 per 1000).[272] The Russian Ministry of Health and Social Affairs predicted that by 2011 the death rate would equal the birth rate because of increase in fertility and decline in mortality.[273] The government is implementing a number of programs designed to increase the birth rate and attract more migrants. Monthly government child-assistance payments were doubled to US$55, and a one-time payment of US$9,200 was offered to women who had a second child since 2007.[274] In 2006, in a bid to compensate for the country's demographic decline, the Russian government started simplifying immigration laws and launched a state program "for providing assistance to voluntary immigration of ethnic Russians
Russians
from former Soviet republics".[275] In 2009 Russia
Russia
experienced its highest birth rate since the dissolution of the Soviet Union.[268][276] In 2012, the birth rate increased again. Russia
Russia
recorded 1,896,263 births, the highest number since 1990, and even exceeding annual births during the period 1967–1969, with a TFR of about 1.7, the highest since 1991. (Source: Vital statistics table below) In August 2012, as the country saw its first demographic growth since the 1990s, President Putin declared that Russia's population could reach 146 million by 2025, mainly as a result of immigration.[277] Largest cities Main article: List of cities and towns in Russia
Russia
by population

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Russia Rosstat (2016[278][279]/2017)

Rank Name Federal subject Pop. Rank Name Federal subject Pop.

Moscow

Saint Petersburg 1 Moscow Moscow [280]12,381,000 11 Rostov-na-Donu Rostov
Rostov
Oblast 1,120,000

Novosibirsk

Yekaterinburg

2 Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg [280]5,282,000 12 Krasnoyarsk Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
Krai [281]1,084,000

3 Novosibirsk Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
Oblast [282]1,603,000 13 Perm Perm
Perm
Krai 1,042,000

4 Yekaterinburg Sverdlovsk Oblast [283]1,456,000 14 Voronezh Voronezh
Voronezh
Oblast 1,032,000

5 Nizhny Novgorod Nizhny Novgorod
Nizhny Novgorod
Oblast 1,267,000 15 Volgograd Volgograd
Volgograd
Oblast 1,016,000

6 Kazan Tatarstan [284]1,232,000 16 Krasnodar Krasnodar
Krasnodar
Krai [285]881,000

7 Chelyabinsk Chelyabinsk
Chelyabinsk
Oblast [286]1,199,000 17 Saratov Saratov
Saratov
Oblast 843,000

8 Omsk Omsk
Omsk
Oblast [287]1,178,000 18 Tolyatti Samara Oblast [288]711,000

9 Samara Samara Oblast [288]1,170,000 19 Izhevsk Udmurtia [289]646,000

10 Ufa Bashkortostan [290]1,126,000 20 Ulyanovsk Ulyanovsk
Ulyanovsk
Oblast 622,000

Ethnic groups Main article: Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
in Russia Russia
Russia
is a multi-national state with over 170 ethnic groups designated as nationalities; the populations of these groups vary enormously, from millions (e.g., Russians
Russians
and Tatars) to under 10,000 (e.g., Samis and Inuit).[291]

Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
in Russia

Russian Cossack
Cossack
family in Siberia

Yakuts
Yakuts
in Sakha Republic

Armenians in Volgograd

Komi peoples

Kalmyks
Kalmyks
in Elista

Northern Caucasus
Caucasus
folk costumes: (l-r) Ossetians, Circassians, Kabardians, and Chechens.

Language

Area where Russian language
Russian language
is spoken as an official or a minority language

Main articles: Russian language, Languages of Russia, and List of endangered languages in Russia Russia's 160 ethnic groups speak some 100 languages.[13] According to the 2002 Census, 142.6 million people speak Russian, followed by Tatar with 5.3 million and Ukrainian with 1.8 million speakers.[292] Russian is the only official state language, but the Constitution gives the individual republics the right to establish their own state languages in addition to Russian.[293] Despite its wide distribution, the Russian language
Russian language
is homogeneous throughout the country. Russian is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, as well as the most widely spoken Slavic language.[294] It belongs to the Indo-European language
Indo-European language
family and is one of the living members of the East Slavic languages, the others being Belarusian and Ukrainian (and possibly Rusyn). Written examples of Old East Slavic
Old East Slavic
(Old Russian) are attested from the 10th century onwards.[295] Russian is the second-most used language on the Internet
Internet
after English,[296] one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station[297] and is one of the six official languages of the UN.[298] 35 languages are officially recognized in Russia
Russia
in various regions by local governments.

Distribution of Uralic, Altaic, and Yukaghir languages

Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric and Samoyedic peoples

Ethnolinguistic groups in the Caucasus
Caucasus
region

Language Language family Federal subject(s) Source

Abaza Northwest Caucasian  Karachay-Cherkessia [299]

Adyghe Northwest Caucasian  Adygea [300]

Altai Turkic  Altai Republic [301][302]

Bashkir Turkic  Bashkortostan ;[303] see also regional law

Buryat Mongolic  Buryatia [304]

Chechen Northeast Caucasian  Chechnya [305]

Cherkess Northwest Caucasian  Karachay-Cherkessia [299]

Chuvash Turkic  Chuvashia [306]

Crimean Tatar Turkic  Republic of Crimea [307]

Erzya Uralic  Mordovia [308]

Ingush Northeast Caucasian  Ingushetia [309]

Kabardian Northwest Caucasian  Kabardino-Balkaria [310]

Kalmyk Mongolic  Kalmykia [311]

Karachay-Balkar Turkic  Kabardino-Balkaria  Karachay-Cherkessia [299][310]

Khakas Turkic  Khakassia [312]

Komi Uralic  Komi Republic [313]

Hill Mari Uralic  Mari El [314]

Meadow Mari Uralic  Mari El [314]

Moksha Uralic  Mordovia [308]

Nogai Turkic  Karachay-Cherkessia [299]

Ossetic Indo-European  North Ossetia–Alania [315]

Tatar Turkic  Tatarstan [316]

Tuvan Turkic  Tuva [317]

Udmurt Uralic  Udmurtia [318]

Ukrainian Indo-European  Republic of Crimea [307]

Yakut Turkic  Sakha Republic [319]

Religion Main articles: Religion in Russia
Religion in Russia
and Consecration of Russia

Religion in Russia
Religion in Russia
as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[320][321]

Russian Orthodoxy

41.1%

Other Orthodox

1.8%

Other Christians

4.5%

Islam

6.6%

Buddhism

0.5%

Rodnovery
Rodnovery
and other native faiths

1.2%

Spiritual but not religious

25.2%

Atheism
Atheism
and irreligion

13%

Other and undeclared

6.1%

Ivan Eggink's painting represents Vladimir listening to the Orthodox priests, while the papal envoy stands aside in discontent

The Baptism of Vladimir, a fresco by Viktor Vasnetsov

Russians
Russians
have practised Orthodox Christianity
Orthodox Christianity
since the 10th century. According to the historical traditions of the Orthodox Church, Christianity
Christianity
was first brought to the territory of modern Belarus, Russia
Russia
and Ukraine
Ukraine
by Saint Andrew, the first Apostle of Jesus Christ.[322] Following the Primary Chronicle, the definitive Christianization
Christianization
of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
dates from the year 988 (the year is disputed[323]), when Vladimir the Great
Vladimir the Great
was baptized in Chersonesus and proceeded to baptize his family and people in Kiev. The latter events are traditionally referred to as the "baptism of Rus'" (Russian: Крещение Руси, Ukrainian: Хрещення Русі) in Russian and Ukrainian literature. Much of the Russian population, like other Slavic peoples, preserved for centuries a double belief (dvoeverie) in both indigenous religion and Orthodox Christianity. At the time of the 1917 Revolution, the Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
was deeply integrated into the autocratic state, enjoying official status. This was a significant factor that contributed to the Bolshevik attitude to religion and the steps they took to control it. Bolsheviks consisted of many people with non-Russian, Communist
Communist
Russians
Russians
and influential Jewish backgrounds such as Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Grigory Zinoviev, Lev Kamenev, Grigori Sokolnikov
Grigori Sokolnikov
who were indifferent towards Christianity
Christianity
and based on the writings of Jewish philosopher Karl Marx
Karl Marx
with Marxism–Leninism
Marxism–Leninism
as an ideology went on to form the Communist
Communist
party.[324] Thus the USSR became one of the first communist states to proclaim, as an ideological objective, the elimination of religion[325] and its replacement with universal atheism.[326][327] The communist government ridiculed religions and their believers, and propagated atheism in schools.[328] The confiscation of religious assets was often based on accusations of illegal accumulation of wealth. State atheism
State atheism
in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was known in Russian as gosateizm,[325] and was based on the ideology of Marxism–Leninism. Marxist–Leninist Atheism
Atheism
has consistently advocated the control, suppression, and elimination of religion. Within about a year of the revolution, the state expropriated all church property, including the churches themselves, and in the period from 1922 to 1926, 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and more than 1,200 priests were killed. Many more were persecuted.[329] After the collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
there has been a renewal of religions in Russia, and among Slavs
Slavs
various movements have emerged besides Christianity, including Rodnovery (Slavic Native Faith), Ringing Cedars' Anastasianism, Hinduism,[330] Siberian shamanism[331] and other religions. Currently, there is no official census of religion in Russia, and estimates are based on surveys only. In 2012 the research organization Sreda published Arena Atlas, a detailed enumeration of religious populations and nationalities in Russia, based on a large-sample country-wide survey. They found that 46.8% of Russians
Russians
declared themselves Christians (including 41% Russian Orthodox, 1.5% simply Orthodox or members of non-Russian Orthodox churches, 4.1% unaffiliated Christians, and less than 1% for both Catholic and Protestant), while 25% were spiritual but not religious, 13% were atheists, 6.5% were Muslims, 1.2% were followers of "traditional religions honoring gods and ancestors" (including Rodnovery, Tengrism and other ethnic religions), and 0.5% were Tibetan Buddhists. However, later that year, the Levada Center estimated that 76% of Russians
Russians
were Christians,[332] and in June 2013, the Public Opinion Foundation[333] estimated that 65% of the population was Christian. These findings are in line with Pew Research Center's 2011 estimate that 73.6% of Russians
Russians
were Christians,[334] with Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VCIOM)'s 2010 survey (~77% Christian),[335] and with Ipsos MORI's 2011 survey (69%).[336] The most recent Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
finding was that in 2015 71% of the population of Russia
Russia
declared itself Eastern Orthodox, 15% religiously unaffiliated—a category which includes atheists, agnostics and those who describe their religion as “nothing in particular”, 10% Muslim, and 2% other Christians, while 1% belonged to other faiths.[337] The religiously unaffiliated divided between 4% as atheists, 1% as agnostics and 10% as nothing in particular.[338] The study cited that during the communist era the government repression of religion was widespread, and due to the Soviet anti-religious legislation; in 1991 37% of the population of Russia was Eastern Orthodox. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
the affiliation to the Eastern Orthodox church have risen substantially and in 2015 about 71% of the population of Russia
Russia
declared itself to be Eastern Orthodox, and the share of who identitied as religiously unaffiliated declined from a 61% in 1991 to 18% in 2008.[339]

Procession of Tsar Alexander II into Dormition Cathedral in Moscow during his coronation in 1856

Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, and ethnic religions are recognised as Russia's traditional religions, marking the country's "historical heritage".[340] Traced back to the Christianization
Christianization
of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
in the 10th century, Russian Orthodoxy is the dominant religion in the country; smaller Christian denominations such as Catholics, Armenian Gregorians and various Protestant churches also exist. The Russian Orthodox Church was the country's state religion prior to the Revolution and remains the largest religious body in the country. An estimated 95% of the registered Orthodox parishes belong to the Russian Orthodox Church while there are a number of smaller Orthodox churches.[341] However, the vast majority of Orthodox believers do not attend church on a regular basis. Easter is the most popular religious holiday in Russia, celebrated by a large segment of the Russian population, including large numbers of those who are non-religious. More than three-quarters of the Russian population celebrate Easter by making traditional Easter cakes, coloured eggs and paskha.[342]

Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius, spiritual centre of the Russian Orthodox Church

Islam
Islam
is the second largest religion in Russia
Russia
after Russian Orthodoxy.[343] It is the traditional or predominant religion amongst some Caucasian ethnicities (notably the Chechens, the Ingush and the Circassians), and amongst some Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
(notably the Tatars
Tatars
and the Bashkirs). Buddhism
Buddhism
is traditional in three regions of the Russian Federation: Buryatia, Tuva, and Kalmykia. According to various reports, the proportion of not religious people in Russia
Russia
is between 16% and 48% of the population.[344] According to recent studies, the proportion of atheists has significantly decreased over the decades after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.[345][346] In cultural and social affairs Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
has collaborated closely with the Russian Orthodox Church. Patriarch Kirill of Moscow, head of the Church, endorsed his election in 2012. Steven Myers reports, "The church, once heavily repressed, had emerged from the Soviet collapse as one of the most respected institutions... Now Kiril led the faithful directly into an alliance with the state."[347] Mark Woods provides specific examples of how the Church under Patriarch Kirill of Moscow
Moscow
has backed the expansion of Russian power into Crimea
Crimea
and eastern Ukraine.[348] More broadly the New York Times reports in September 2016 how that Church's policy prescriptions support the Kremlin's appeal to social conservatives:

A fervent foe of homosexuality and any attempt to put individual rights above those of family, community or nation, the Russian Orthodox Church helps project Russia
Russia
as the natural ally of all those who pine for a more secure, illiberal world free from the tradition-crushing rush of globalization, multiculturalism and women's and gay rights.[349]

On April 26, 2017, for the first time, The U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom classified Russia
Russia
as one of the world's worst violators of religious liberty, recommending in its 2017 annual report that the U.S. government deem Russia
Russia
a "country of particular concern" under the International Religious Freedom Act and negotiate for religious liberty. The report states, "—it is the sole state to have not only continually intensified its repression of religious freedom since USCIRF commenced monitoring it, but also to have expanded its repressive policies....ranging from administrative harassment to arbitrary imprisonment to extrajudicial killing, are implemented in a fashion that is systematic, ongoing, and egregious."[350] On April 4, 2017 UN Special Rapporteur
UN Special Rapporteur
on Freedom of Opinion and Expression David Kaye, UN Special Rapporteur
UN Special Rapporteur
on Freedoms of Peaceful Assembly and Association Maina Kiai, and UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion and Belief Ahmed Shaheed
Ahmed Shaheed
condemned Russia's treatment of Jehovah's Witnesses.[351] Many other countries and international organizations have spoken out on Russia's religious abuses.[352][353]

Saint Basil's Cathedral, Moscow.

Moscow
Moscow
Cathedral Mosque.

Rodnover
Rodnover
worshippers at the wooden temple of the Slavic Kremlin, Podolsky District, Moscow
Moscow
Oblast.

A dom archi (дом арчы) or archi djete (арчы дьиэтэ), a Tengrist
Tengrist
church in Yakutsk, Yakutia.

Atsaysky datsan ( Buddhist
Buddhist
monastery) in Buryatia.

Image of the 14th Dalai Lama
14th Dalai Lama
at the Ustuu-Huree Buddhist
Buddhist
monastery in Tuva.

Stupa
Stupa
of Shad Tchup Ling, a Slavic Buddhist
Buddhist
monastery in Kachkanar, Sverdlovsk Oblast.

Followers of Anastasianism
Anastasianism
(Ringing Cedars) celebrating Ivan Kupala
Ivan Kupala
in Belgorod Oblast.

Tuvan shamaness Ai-Churek ( Moon
Moon
Heart) performing a fire rite in Kyzyl, Tuva.

Russian Hindus celebrating Ratha Yatra
Ratha Yatra
in Moscow
Moscow
Oblast.

Syncretic
Syncretic
Temple of All Religions
Temple of All Religions
in Kazan, Tatarstan.

Health Main article: Healthcare in Russia

A mobile clinic used to provide health care at remote railway stations

The Russian Constitution guarantees free, universal health care for all its citizens.[354] In practice, however, free health care is partially restricted because of mandatory registration.[355] While Russia
Russia
has more physicians, hospitals, and health care workers than almost any other country in the world on a per capita basis,[356] since the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
the health of the Russian population has declined considerably as a result of social, economic, and lifestyle changes;[357] the trend has been reversed only in the recent years, with average life expectancy having increased 5.2 years for males and 3.1 years for females between 2006 and 2014.[358] Due to the ongoing Russian financial crisis since 2014, major cuts in health spending have resulted in a decline in the quality of service of the state healthcare system. About 40% of basic medical facilities have fewer staff than they are supposed to have, with others being closed down. Waiting times for treatment have increased, and patients have been forced to pay for more services that were previously free.[359][360] As of 2014[update], the average life expectancy in Russia
Russia
was 65.29 years for males and 76.49 years for females.[358] The biggest factor contributing to the relatively low life expectancy for males is a high mortality rate among working-age males. Deaths mostly occur from preventable causes, including alcohol poisoning, smoking, traffic accidents and violent crime.[268] As a result, Russia
Russia
has one of the world's most female-biased sex ratios, with 0.859 males to every female.[105] Education Main article: Education in Russia

Moscow
Moscow
State University

Russia
Russia
has the most college-level or higher graduates in terms of percentage of population in the world, at 54%.[361] Russia
Russia
has a free education system, which is guaranteed for all citizens by the Constitution,[362] however entry to subsidized higher education is highly competitive.[363] As a result of great emphasis on science and technology in education, Russian medical, mathematical, scientific, and aerospace research is generally of a high order.[364] Since 1990, the 11-year school education has been introduced. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free. University level education is free, with exceptions. A substantial share of students is enrolled for full pay (many state institutions started to open commercial positions in the last years).[365] The oldest and largest Russian universities are Moscow
Moscow
State University and Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
State University. In the 2000s, in order to create higher education and research institutions of comparable scale in Russian regions, the government launched a program of establishing "federal universities", mostly by merging existing large regional universities and research institutes and providing them with a special funding. These new institutions include the Southern Federal University, Siberian Federal University, Kazan
Kazan
Volga
Volga
Federal University, North-Eastern Federal University, and Far Eastern Federal University.

According to the 2018 QS World University Rankings, the highest-ranking Russian educational institution is Moscow
Moscow
State University, rated 95th in the world. Culture Main article: Russian culture Folk culture
Folk culture
and cuisine See also: Russian traditions, Russian jokes, Russian fairy tales, and Russian cuisine

The Merchant's Wife by Boris Kustodiev, showcasing the Russian tea culture

There are over 160 different ethnic groups and indigenous peoples in Russia.[264] The country's vast cultural diversity spans ethnic Russians
Russians
with their Slavic Orthodox traditions, Tatars
Tatars
and Bashkirs with their Turkic Muslim culture, Buddhist
Buddhist
nomadic Buryats
Buryats
and Kalmyks, Shamanistic
Shamanistic
peoples of the Extreme North
Extreme North
and Siberia, highlanders of the Northern Caucasus, and Finno-Ugric peoples
Finno-Ugric peoples
of the Russian North West
Russian North West
and Volga
Volga
Region. Handicraft, like Dymkovo toy, khokhloma, gzhel and palekh miniature represent an important aspect of Russian folk culture. Ethnic Russian clothes include kaftan, kosovorotka and ushanka for men, sarafan and kokoshnik for women, with lapti and valenki as common shoes. The clothes of Cossacks
Cossacks
from Southern Russia
Russia
include burka and papaha, which they share with the peoples of the Northern Caucasus. Russian cuisine
Russian cuisine
widely uses fish, poultry, mushrooms, berries, and honey. Crops of rye, wheat, barley, and millet provide the ingredients for various breads, pancakes and cereals, as well as for kvass, beer and vodka drinks. Black bread
Black bread
is rather popular in Russia, compared to the rest of the world. Flavourful soups and stews include shchi, borsch, ukha, solyanka and okroshka. Smetana (a heavy sour cream) is often added to soups and salads. Pirozhki, blini and syrniki are native types of pancakes. Chicken Kiev, pelmeni and shashlyk are popular meat dishes, the last two being of Tatar and Caucasus
Caucasus
origin respectively. Other meat dishes include stuffed cabbage rolls (golubtsy) usually filled with meat.[366] Salads include Olivier salad, vinegret and dressed herring. Russia's large number of ethnic groups have distinctive traditions regarding folk music. Typical ethnic Russian musical instruments are gusli, balalaika, zhaleika, and garmoshka. Folk music had a significant influence on Russian classical composers, and in modern times it is a source of inspiration for a number of popular folk bands, like Melnitsa. Russian folk songs, as well as patriotic Soviet songs, constitute the bulk of the repertoire of the world-renowned Red Army choir and other popular ensembles. Russians
Russians
have many traditions, including the washing in banya, a hot steam bath somewhat similar to sauna.[55] Old Russian folklore
Russian folklore
takes its roots in the pagan Slavic religion. Many Russian fairy tales
Russian fairy tales
and epic bylinas were adapted for animation films, or for feature movies by the prominent directors like Aleksandr Ptushko (Ilya Muromets, Sadko) and Aleksandr Rou (Morozko, Vasilisa the Beautiful). Russian poets, including Pyotr Yershov and Leonid Filatov, made a number of well-known poetical interpretations of the classical fairy tales, and in some cases, like that of Alexander Pushkin, also created fully original fairy tale poems of great popularity. Architecture Main articles: Russian architecture
Russian architecture
and List of Russian architects

Stroganov Church in Nizhny Novgorod, a well known piece of Russian architecture

Brick khrushchovka in Tomsk

Since the Christianization
Christianization
of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
for several ages Russian architecture was influenced predominantly by the Byzantine architecture. Apart from fortifications (kremlins), the main stone buildings of ancient Rus' were Orthodox churches with their many domes, often gilded or brightly painted. Aristotle Fioravanti
Aristotle Fioravanti
and other Italian architects brought Renaissance trends into Russia
Russia
since the late 15th century, while the 16th century saw the development of unique tent-like churches culminating in Saint Basil's Cathedral.[367] By that time the onion dome design was also fully developed.[368] In the 17th century, the "fiery style" of ornamentation flourished in Moscow
Moscow
and Yaroslavl, gradually paving the way for the Naryshkin baroque
Naryshkin baroque
of the 1690s. After the reforms of Peter the Great the change of architectural styles in Russia
Russia
generally followed that in the Western Europe. The 18th-century taste for rococo architecture led to the ornate works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli
Bartolomeo Rastrelli
and his followers. The reigns of Catherine the Great and her grandson Alexander I saw the flourishing of Neoclassical architecture, most notably in the capital city of Saint Petersburg. The second half of the 19th century was dominated by the Neo- Byzantine
Byzantine
and Russian Revival
Russian Revival
styles. Prevalent styles of the 20th century were the Art Nouveau, Constructivism, and the Stalin Empire style. With the change in values imposed by communist ideology, the tradition of preservation was broken. Independent preservation societies, even those that defended only secular landmarks such as Moscow-based OIRU were disbanded by the end of the 1920s. A new anti-religious campaign, launched in 1929, coincided with collectivization of peasants; destruction of churches in the cities peaked around 1932. A number of churches were demolished, including the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow. In Moscow
Moscow
alone losses of 1917–2006 are estimated at over 640 notable buildings (including 150 to 200 listed buildings, out of a total inventory of 3,500) – some disappeared completely, others were replaced with concrete replicas. In 1955, a new Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev, condemned the "excesses" of the former academic architecture,[369] and the late Soviet era was dominated by plain functionalism in architecture. This helped somewhat to resolve the housing problem, but created a large quantity of buildings of low architectural quality, much in contrast with the previous bright styles. In 1959 Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
launched his anti-religious campaign. By 1964 over 10 thousand churches out of 20 thousand were shut down (mostly in rural areas) and many were demolished. Of 58 monasteries and convents operating in 1959, only sixteen remained by 1964; of Moscow's fifty churches operating in 1959, thirty were closed and six demolished. Visual arts Main article: Russian artists

A piece of Russian icon art known as Rublev's Trinity

Karl Bryullov
Karl Bryullov
(1799–1852), a key figure in transition from the Russian neoclassicism to romanticism.

Early Russian painting is represented in icons and vibrant frescos, the two genres inherited from Byzantium. As Moscow
Moscow
rose to power, Theophanes the Greek, Dionisius
Dionisius
and Andrei Rublev
Rublev
became vital names associated with a distinctly Russian art. The Russian Academy of Arts
Russian Academy of Arts
was created in 1757[370] and gave Russian artists an international role and status. Ivan Argunov, Dmitry Levitzky, Vladimir Borovikovsky
Vladimir Borovikovsky
and other 18th century academicians mostly focused on portrait painting. In the early 19th century, when neoclassicism and romantism flourished, mythological and Biblical themes inspired many prominent paintings, notably by Karl Briullov
Karl Briullov
and Alexander Ivanov. In the mid-19th century the Peredvizhniki
Peredvizhniki
(Wanderers) group of artists broke with the Academy and initiated a school of art liberated from academic restrictions.[371] These were mostly realist painters who captured Russian identity in landscapes of wide rivers, forests, and birch clearings, as well as vigorous genre scenes and robust portraits of their contemporaries. Some artists focused on depicting dramatic moments in Russian history, while others turned to social criticism, showing the conditions of the poor and caricaturing authority; critical realism flourished under the reign of Alexander II. Leading realists include Ivan Shishkin, Arkhip Kuindzhi, Ivan Kramskoi, Vasily Polenov, Isaac Levitan, Vasily Surikov, Viktor Vasnetsov, Ilya Repin, and Boris Kustodiev. The turn of the 20th century saw the rise of symbolist painting, represented by Mikhail Vrubel, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, and Nicholas Roerich. The Russian avant-garde
Russian avant-garde
was a large, influential wave of modernist art that flourished in Russia
Russia
from approximately 1890 to 1930. The term covers many separate, but inextricably related art movements that occurred at the time, namely neo-primitivism, suprematism, constructivism, rayonism, and Russian Futurism. Notable artists from this era include El Lissitzky, Kazimir Malevich, Wassily Kandinsky, and Marc Chagall. Since the 1930s the revolutionary ideas of the avant-garde clashed with the newly emerged conservative direction of socialist realism. Soviet art produced works that were furiously patriotic and anti-fascist during and after the Great Patriotic War. Multiple war memorials, marked by a great restrained solemnity, were built throughout the country. Soviet artists often combined innovation with socialist realism, notably the sculptors Vera Mukhina, Yevgeny Vuchetich and Ernst Neizvestny. Music and dance Main articles: Music of Russia, Russian ballet, Russian opera, Russian rock, Russian pop, and Russian composers

The Snowdance scene from The Nutcracker
The Nutcracker
ballet, composed by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Music in 19th century Russia
Russia
was defined by the tension between classical composer Mikhail Glinka
Mikhail Glinka
along with other members of The Mighty Handful, who embraced Russian national identity and added religious and folk elements to their compositions, and the Russian Musical Society led by composers Anton and Nikolay Rubinsteins, which was musically conservative. The later tradition of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era, was continued into the 20th century by Sergei Rachmaninoff.[372] World-renowned composers of the 20th century include Alexander Scriabin, Igor Stravinsky, Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich
Dmitri Shostakovich
and Alfred Schnittke. Russian conservatories have turned out generations of famous soloists. Among the best known are violinists Jascha Heifetz, David Oistrakh, Leonid Kogan, Gidon Kremer, and Maxim Vengerov; cellists Mstislav Rostropovich, Natalia Gutman; pianists Vladimir Horowitz, Sviatoslav Richter, Emil Gilels, Vladimir Sofronitsky
Vladimir Sofronitsky
and Evgeny Kissin; and vocalists Fyodor Shalyapin, Mark Reizen, Elena Obraztsova, Tamara Sinyavskaya, Nina Dorliak, Galina Vishnevskaya, Anna Netrebko
Anna Netrebko
and Dmitry Hvorostovsky.[373] During the early 20th century, Russian ballet
Russian ballet
dancers Anna Pavlova
Anna Pavlova
and Vaslav Nijinsky
Vaslav Nijinsky
rose to fame, and impresario Sergei Diaghilev
Sergei Diaghilev
and his Ballets Russes' travels abroad profoundly influenced the development of dance worldwide.[374] Soviet ballet preserved the perfected 19th century traditions,[375] and the Soviet Union's choreography schools produced many internationally famous stars, including Galina Ulanova, Maya Plisetskaya, Rudolf Nureyev, and Mikhail Baryshnikov. The Bolshoi Ballet in Moscow
Moscow
and the Mariinsky Ballet
Mariinsky Ballet
in St Petersburg remain famous throughout the world.[376] Modern Russian rock
Russian rock
music takes its roots both in the Western rock and roll and heavy metal, and in traditions of the Russian bards
Russian bards
of the Soviet era, such as Vladimir Vysotsky
Vladimir Vysotsky
and Bulat Okudzhava.[377] Popular Russian rock
Russian rock
groups include Mashina Vremeni, DDT, Aquarium, Alisa, Kino, Kipelov, Nautilus Pompilius, Aria, Grazhdanskaya Oborona, Splean
Splean
and Korol i Shut. Russian pop
Russian pop
music developed from what was known in the Soviet times as estrada into full-fledged industry, with some performers gaining wide international recognition, such as t.A.T.u., Nu Virgos
Nu Virgos
and Vitas. Literature and philosophy Main articles: Russian literature, Russian philosophy, Russian poets, Russian playwrights, Russian novelists, and Russian science fiction and fantasy

Leo Tolstoy, novelist and philosopher

In the 18th century, during the era of Russian Enlightenment, the development of Russian literature
Russian literature
was boosted by the works of Mikhail Lomonosov and Denis Fonvizin. By the early 19th century a modern national tradition had emerged, producing some of the greatest writers in Russian history. This period, known also as the Golden Age
Golden Age
of Russian Poetry, began with Alexander Pushkin, who is considered the founder of the modern Russian literary language and often described as the "Russian Shakespeare".[378] It continued with the poetry of Mikhail Lermontov
Mikhail Lermontov
and Nikolay Nekrasov, dramas of Alexander Ostrovsky and Anton Chekhov, and the prose of Nikolai Gogol
Nikolai Gogol
and Ivan Turgenev. Leo Tolstoy
Leo Tolstoy
and Fyodor Dostoyevsky
Fyodor Dostoyevsky
have been described by literary critics as the greatest novelists of all time.[379][380] By the 1880s, the age of the great novelists was over, and short fiction and poetry became the dominant genres. The next several decades became known as the Silver Age of Russian Poetry, when the previously dominant literary realism was replaced by symbolism. Leading authors of this era include such poets as Valery Bryusov, Vyacheslav Ivanov, Alexander Blok, Nikolay Gumilev
Nikolay Gumilev
and Anna Akhmatova, and novelists Leonid Andreyev, Ivan Bunin, and Maxim Gorky. Russian philosophy
Russian philosophy
blossomed in the 19th century, when it was defined initially by the opposition of Westernizers, who advocated Western political and economical models, and Slavophiles, who insisted on developing Russia
Russia
as a unique civilization. The latter group includes Nikolai Danilevsky
Nikolai Danilevsky
and Konstantin Leontiev, the founders of eurasianism. In its further development Russian philosophy
Russian philosophy
was always marked by a deep connection to literature and interest in creativity, society, politics and nationalism; Russian cosmism
Russian cosmism
and religious philosophy were other major areas. Notable philosophers of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries include Vladimir Solovyev, Sergei Bulgakov, and Vladimir Vernadsky.

Alexander Pushkin

Following the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
of 1917 many prominent writers and philosophers left the country, including Bunin, Vladimir Nabokov
Vladimir Nabokov
and Nikolay Berdyayev, while a new generation of talented authors joined together in an effort to create a distinctive working-class culture appropriate for the new Soviet state. In the 1930s censorship over literature was tightened in line with the policy of socialist realism. In the late 1950s restrictions on literature were eased, and by the 1970s and 1980s, writers were increasingly ignoring official guidelines. Leading authors of the Soviet era include novelists Yevgeny Zamyatin
Yevgeny Zamyatin
(emigrated), Ilf and Petrov, Mikhail Bulgakov (censored) and Mikhail Sholokhov, and poets Vladimir Mayakovsky, Yevgeny Yevtushenko, and Andrey Voznesensky. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was also a major producer of science fiction, written by authors like Arkady and Boris Strugatsky, Kir Bulychov, Alexander Belayev and Ivan Yefremov.[381] Traditions of Russian science fiction and fantasy are continued today by numerous writers. Cinema, animation and media Main articles: Cinema of Russia, Russian animation, Television in Russia, and Media of Russia

Former Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
in the Washington studio of Russia Today TV
Russia Today TV
with Margarita Simonyan

Russian and later Soviet cinema
Soviet cinema
was a hotbed of invention in the period immediately following 1917, resulting in world-renowned films such as The Battleship Potemkin
The Battleship Potemkin
by Sergei Eisenstein.[382] Eisenstein was a student of filmmaker and theorist Lev Kuleshov, who developed the Soviet montage theory of film editing at the world's first film school, the All-Union Institute of Cinematography. Dziga Vertov, whose kino-glaz ("film-eye") theory—that the camera, like the human eye, is best used to explore real life—had a huge impact on the development of documentary film making and cinema realism. The subsequent state policy of socialist realism somewhat limited creativity; however, many Soviet films in this style were artistically successful, including Chapaev, The Cranes Are Flying, and Ballad of a Soldier.[382] The 1960s and 1970s saw a greater variety of artistic styles in Soviet cinema. Eldar Ryazanov's and Leonid Gaidai's comedies of that time were immensely popular, with many of the catch phrases still in use today. In 1961–68 Sergey Bondarchuk
Sergey Bondarchuk
directed an Oscar-winning film adaptation of Leo Tolstoy's epic War and Peace, which was the most expensive film made in the Soviet Union.[383] In 1969, Vladimir Motyl's White Sun of the Desert
White Sun of the Desert
was released, a very popular film in a genre of ostern; the film is traditionally watched by cosmonauts before any trip into space.[384]

Shukhov Tower on the Oka River
Shukhov Tower on the Oka River
served early radio and TV broadcasting.

Russian animation
Russian animation
dates back to late Russian Empire
Russian Empire
times. During the Soviet era, Soyuzmultfilm
Soyuzmultfilm
studio was the largest animation producer. Soviet animators developed a great variety of pioneering techniques and aesthetic styles, with prominent directors including Ivan Ivanov-Vano, Fyodor Khitruk and Aleksandr Tatarsky. Many Soviet cartoon heroes such as the Russian-style Winnie-the-Pooh, cute little Cheburashka, Wolf and Hare from Nu, Pogodi!, are iconic images in Russia
Russia
and many surrounding countries. The late 1980s and 1990s were a period of crisis in Russian cinema and animation. Although Russian filmmakers became free to express themselves, state subsidies were drastically reduced, resulting in fewer films produced. The early years of the 21st century have brought increased viewership and subsequent prosperity to the industry on the back of the economic revival. Production levels are already higher than in Britain and Germany.[385] Russia's total box-office revenue in 2007 was $565 million, up 37% from the previous year.[386] In 2002 the Russian Ark
Russian Ark
became the first feature film ever to be shot in a single take. The traditions of Soviet animation were developed recently by such directors as Aleksandr Petrov and studios like Melnitsa Animation. While there were few stations or channels in the Soviet time, in the past two decades many new state and privately owned radio stations and TV channels have appeared. In 2005 a state-run English language Russia Today TV started broadcasting, and its Arabic version Rusiya Al-Yaum was launched in 2007. Censorship and Media freedom in Russia
Media freedom in Russia
has always been a main theme of Russian media. Sports Main article: Sport in Russia

The Russia national football team
Russia national football team
at UEFA Euro 2012

Soviet and later Russian athletes have always been in the top four for the number of gold medals collected at the Summer Olympics. Soviet gymnasts, track-and-field athletes, weightlifters, wrestlers, boxers, fencers, shooters, cross country skiers, biathletes, speed skaters and figure skaters were consistently among the best in the world, along with Soviet basketball, handball, volleyball and ice hockey players.[387] The 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
were held in Moscow
Moscow
while the 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
were hosted in Sochi. See also: Doping in Russia Russia
Russia
has the most Olympic medals stripped for doping violations (51), the most of any country, four times the number of the runner-up, and more than a third of the global total, and 129 athletes caught doping at the Olympics, also the most of any country. From 2011 to 2015, more than a thousand Russian competitors in various sports, including summer, winter, and Paralympic sports, benefited from a state-sponsored cover-up,[388][389][390][391][392] with no indication that the program has ceased since then.[393]

KHL finals, the league is considered to be the second-best in the world

Although ice hockey was only introduced during the Soviet era, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
national team managed to win gold at almost all the Olympics and World Championships they contested. Russian players Valery Kharlamov, Sergei Makarov, Vyacheslav Fetisov
Vyacheslav Fetisov
and Vladislav Tretiak hold four of six positions in the IIHF
IIHF
Team of the Century.[394] Russia
Russia
has not won the Olympic ice hockey tournament since the Unified Team won gold in 1992. Russia
Russia
won the 1993, 2008, 2009,[395] 2012 and the 2014 IIHF
IIHF
World Championships. The Kontinental Hockey League
Kontinental Hockey League
(KHL) was founded in 2008 as a successor to the Russian Superleague. It is ranked the top hockey league in Europe
Europe
as of 2009[update],[396] and the second-best in the world.[397] It is an international professional ice hockey league in Eurasia
Eurasia
and consists of 29 teams, of which 21 are based in Russia
Russia
and 7 more are located in Latvia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Finland, Slovakia, Croatia
Croatia
and China. KHL is on the 4th place by attendance in Europe.[398] Bandy, also known as Russian hockey, is another traditionally popular ice sport.[399] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
won all the Bandy
Bandy
World Championships for men between 1957–79[400] and some thereafter too. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia
Russia
has continuously been one of the most successful teams, winning many world championships.

Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
with the Russia
Russia
men's national ice hockey team

Opening of the 2014 Winter Olympics

Association football
Association football
is one of the most popular sports in modern Russia. The Soviet national team became the first European Champions by winning Euro 1960. Appearing in four FIFA World Cups from 1958 to 1970, Lev Yashin
Lev Yashin
is regarded as one of the greatest goalkeepers in the history of football, and was chosen on the FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
Dream Team.[401] The Soviet national team reached the finals of Euro 1988. In 1956 and 1988, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
won gold at the Olympic football tournament. Russian clubs CSKA Moscow
Moscow
and Zenit St Petersburg
Zenit St Petersburg
won the UEFA Cup
UEFA Cup
in 2005 and 2008. The Russian national football team
Russian national football team
reached the semi-finals of Euro 2008, losing only to the eventual champions Spain. Russia
Russia
will host the 2018 FIFA World Cup, with 11 host cities located in the European part of the country and in the Ural region.[402] In 2007, the Russian national basketball team
Russian national basketball team
won the European Basketball Championship. The Russian basketball club PBC CSKA Moscow is one of the top teams in Europe, winning the Euroleague
Euroleague
in 2006 and 2008. Larisa Latynina, who currently holds the record for the most gold Olympic medals won by a woman, established the USSR as the dominant force in gymnastics for many years.[403] Today, Russia
Russia
is the leading nation in rhythmic gymnastics with Yevgeniya Kanayeva. Double 50m and 100m freestyle Olympic gold medalist Alexander Popov is widely considered the greatest sprint swimmer in history.[404] Russian synchronized swimming is the best in the world, with almost all gold medals at Olympics and World Championships having been swept by Russians
Russians
in recent decades. Figure skating
Figure skating
is another popular sport in Russia, especially pair skating and ice dancing. With the exception of 2010 a Soviet or Russian pair has won gold at every Winter Olympics since 1964. Since the end of the Soviet era, tennis has grown in popularity and Russia
Russia
has produced a number of famous players, including Maria Sharapova. In martial arts, Russia
Russia
produced the sport Sambo and renowned fighters, like Fedor Emelianenko. Chess
Chess
is a widely popular pastime in Russia; from 1927, Russian grandmasters have held the world chess championship almost continuously.[405] The 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
were held in Sochi
Sochi
in the south of Russia. In 2016 the McLaren Report found evidence of widespread state-sponsored doping and an institutional conspiracy to cover up Russian competitors' positive drug tests.[406] As of December 1, 2017 25 athletes are disqualified, 11 medals are stripped. Formula One
Formula One
is also becoming increasingly popular in Russia. In 2010 Vitaly Petrov
Vitaly Petrov
of Vyborg
Vyborg
became the first Russian to drive in Formula One, and was soon followed by a second – Daniil Kvyat, from Ufa
Ufa
– in 2014. There had only been two Russian Grands Prix (in 1913 and 1914), but the Russian Grand Prix
Russian Grand Prix
returned as part of the Formula One season in 2014, as part of a six-year deal.[407] Russia
Russia
will host the 2018 FIFA World Cup, this will be the first football World Cup ever held in Eastern Europe, and the first held in Europe
Europe
since 2006. Russia
Russia
will also host games of the Euro 2020. National holidays and symbols Main articles: Public holidays in Russia
Public holidays in Russia
and Cultural icons of Russia

Scarlet Sails celebration on the Neva
Neva
river in Saint Petersburg

There are seven public holidays in Russia,[408] except those always celebrated on Sunday. Russian New Year traditions resemble those of the Western Christmas, with New Year Trees and gifts, and Ded Moroz (Father Frost) playing the same role as Santa Claus. Orthodox Christmas falls on January 7, because the Russian Orthodox Church still follows the Julian calendar, and all Orthodox holidays are 13 days after Western ones. Two other major Christian holidays are Easter and Trinity Sunday. Kurban Bayram
Kurban Bayram
and Uraza Bayram
Uraza Bayram
are celebrated by Russian Muslims. Further Russian public holidays include Defender of the Fatherland Day (February 23), which honors Russian men, especially those serving in the army; International Women's Day
International Women's Day
(March 8), which combines the traditions of Mother's Day
Mother's Day
and Valentine's Day; Spring and Labor Day (May 1); Victory Day (May 9); Russia Day
Russia Day
(June 12); and Unity Day (November 4), commemorating the popular uprising which expelled the Polish occupation force from Moscow
Moscow
in 1612. Victory Day is the second most popular holiday in Russia; it commemorates the victory over Nazism
Nazism
in the Great Patriotic War. A huge military parade, hosted by the President of Russia, is annually organised in Moscow
Moscow
on Red Square. Similar parades take place in all major Russian cities and cities with the status Hero city
Hero city
or City of Military Glory. Popular non-public holidays include Old New Year (the New Year according to the Julian Calendar on January 14), Tatiana Day
Tatiana Day
(students holiday on January 25), Maslenitsa
Maslenitsa
(a pre-Christian spring holiday a week before the Great Lent), Cosmonautics Day
Cosmonautics Day
(in tribute to the first human trip into space), Ivan Kupala
Ivan Kupala
Day (another pre-Christian holiday on July 7) and Peter and Fevronia Day
Peter and Fevronia Day
(which takes place on July 8 and is the Russian analogue of Valentine's Day, focusing, however, on family love and fidelity).

Matryoshka doll
Matryoshka doll
taken apart

State symbols of Russia
Russia
include the Byzantine
Byzantine
double-headed eagle, combined with St. George
St. George
of Moscow
Moscow
in the Russian coat of arms. The Russian flag
Russian flag
dates from the late Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
period and has been widely used since the time of the Russian Empire. The Russian anthem shares its music with the Soviet Anthem, though not the lyrics. The imperial motto God is with us and the Soviet motto Proletarians of all countries, unite! are now obsolete and no new motto has replaced them. The hammer and sickle and the full Soviet coat of arms
Soviet coat of arms
are still widely seen in Russian cities as a part of old architectural decorations. The Soviet Red Stars are also encountered, often on military equipment and war memorials. The Red Banner continues to be honored, especially the Banner of Victory
Banner of Victory
of 1945. The Matryoshka doll
Matryoshka doll
is a recognizable symbol of Russia, and the towers of Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin
Kremlin
and Saint Basil's Cathedral
Saint Basil's Cathedral
in Moscow
Moscow
are Russia's main architectural icons. Cheburashka
Cheburashka
is a mascot of the Russian national Olympic team. St. Mary, St. Nicholas, St. Andrew, St. George, St. Alexander Nevsky, St. Sergius of Radonezh
Sergius of Radonezh
and St. Seraphim of Sarov are Russia's patron saints. Chamomile
Chamomile
is the national flower, while birch is the national tree. The Russian bear
Russian bear
is an animal symbol and a national personification of Russia, though this image has a Western origin and Russians
Russians
themselves have accepted it only fairly recently. The native Russian national personification is Mother Russia. Tourism Main article: Tourism in Russia

Grand Cascade in Peterhof, a popular tourist destination in Saint Petersburg

Tourism in Russia
Tourism in Russia
has seen rapid growth since the late Soviet period, first domestic tourism and then international tourism, fueled by the rich cultural heritage and great natural variety of the country. Major tourist routes in Russia
Russia
include a journey around the Golden Ring
Golden Ring
of ancient cities, cruises on the big rivers like the Volga, and long journeys on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway. In 2013, Russia
Russia
was visited by 28.4 million tourists; it is the ninth most visited country in the world and the seventh most visited in Europe.[409] The number of Western visitors dropped in 2014.[410]

The Motherland Calls
The Motherland Calls
in Volgograd
Volgograd
is the tallest statue of a woman in the world (not including pedestals)

The most visited destinations in Russia
Russia
are Moscow
Moscow
and Saint Petersburg, the current and former capitals of the country. Recognized as World Cities, they feature such world-renowned museums as the Tretyakov Gallery
Tretyakov Gallery
and the Hermitage, famous theaters like Bolshoi and Mariinsky, ornate churches like Saint Basil's Cathedral, Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Saint Isaac's Cathedral
Saint Isaac's Cathedral
and Church of the Savior on Blood, impressive fortifications like the Kremlin
Kremlin
and Peter and Paul Fortress, beautiful squares and streets like Red Square, Palace Square, Tverskaya Street, Nevsky Prospect, and Arbat Street. Rich palaces and parks are found in the former imperial residences in suburbs of Moscow
Moscow
(Kolomenskoye, Tsaritsyno) and St Petersburg (Peterhof, Strelna, Oranienbaum, Gatchina, Pavlovsk and Tsarskoye Selo). Moscow
Moscow
displays Soviet architecture at its best, along with modern skyscrapers, while St Petersburg, nicknamed Venice of the North, boasts of its classical architecture, many rivers, canals and bridges. Kazan, the capital of Tatarstan, shows a mix of Christian Russian and Muslim Tatar cultures. The city has registered a brand The Third Capital of Russia, though a number of other major cities compete for this status, including Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
and Nizhny Novgorod. The warm subtropical Black Sea
Black Sea
coast of Russia
Russia
is the site for a number of popular sea resorts, like Sochi, the follow-up host of the 2014 Winter Olympics. The mountains of the Northern Caucasus
Caucasus
contain popular ski resorts such as Dombay. The most famous natural destination in Russia
Russia
is Lake Baikal, the Blue Eye of Siberia. This unique lake, the oldest and deepest in the world, has crystal-clear waters and is surrounded by taiga-covered mountains. Other popular natural destinations include Kamchatka
Kamchatka
with its volcanoes and geysers, Karelia
Karelia
with its lakes and granite rocks, the snowy Altai Mountains, and the wild steppes of Tuva. See also

Russia
Russia
portal Europe
Europe
portal

Book: Russia

Outline of Russia Index of Soviet Union-related articles

References

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Arkhangelsk
Oblast

Internal additional non-constitutional divisions by different institutions

Economic regions (by Ministry of Economic Development) Military districts (by Ministry of Defence) Federal districts (by President) Judicial districts (by law "On arbitration courts")

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World Heritage Sites in Russia
World Heritage Sites in Russia
by federal district

Central

Church of the Ascension in Kolomenskoye Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin
Kremlin
and Red Square Novodevichy Convent Trinity Sergius Lavra White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal Historic Centre of Yaroslavl

Southern

Western Caucasus

Northwestern

Curonian Spit1 Ferapontov Monastery Kizhi Pogost Virgin Komi Forests Historic Monuments of Novgorod
Novgorod
and Surroundings Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
and Surroundings Solovetsky Islands Struve Geodetic Arc2

Far Eastern

Lena Pillars Volcanoes of Kamchatka Central Sikhote-Alin Wrangel Island

Siberian

Golden Mountains of Altai Lake Baikal Landscapes of Dauria3 Putorana Plateau Uvs Nuur Basin3

Volga

Assumption Cathedral of Sviyazhsk Bolghar Kazan
Kazan
Kremlin

North Caucasian

Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent

1 Shared with Lithuania 2 Shared with nine other countries 3 Shared with Mongolia

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People from Russia

Political and religious leaders

Pre-1168 1168–1917 1922–1991 1991–present RSFSR leaders General secretaries Soviet premiers (1st deputies) Soviet heads of state (and their spouses) Prime ministers (1st deputies) Foreign ministers Prosecutors general Metropolitans and Patriarchs Saints (1, 2)

Military figures and explorers

Field marshals Soviet marshals Admirals Aviators Cosmonauts

Scientists, engineers and inventors

Aerospace engineers Astronomers and astrophysicists Biologists Chemists Earth scientists Electrical engineers IT developers Linguists and philologists Mathematicians Naval engineers Physicians and psychologists Physicists Weaponry makers

Artists and writers

Architects Ballet dancers Composers Opera singers Novelists Philosophers Playwrights Poets

Sportspeople

Chess
Chess
players

 Geographic locale

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Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland1 Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia2 Artsakh2 Kosovo Northern Cyprus2 South Ossetia2 Transnistria

Dependencies

Denmark

Faroe Islands1

autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia2

Sovereign Base Areas

Gibraltar

British Overseas Territory

Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey

Crown dependencies

Special
Special
areas of internal sovereignty

Finland

Åland Islands

autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921

Norway

Svalbard

unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard
Svalbard
Treaty

United Kingdom

Northern Ireland

country of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
subject to the British-Irish Agreement

1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe
Europe
are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe
Europe
are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links.

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Countries and dependencies of Asia

Sovereign states

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Cyprus Egypt Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Palestine Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand East Timor
East Timor
(Timor-Leste) Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Taiwan

Dependencies and special administrative regions

Australia

Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands

China

Hong Kong Macau

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia British Indian Ocean Territory

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Countries bordering the Baltic Sea

 Denmark  Estonia  Finland  Germany  Latvia  Lithuania  Poland  Russia  Sweden

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Black Sea

Countries bordering the Black Sea

 Bulgaria  Georgia  Romania  Russia  Turkey  Ukraine

Cities

Batumi Burgas Constanța Giresun Hopa Istanbul Kerch Mangalia Năvodari Novorossiysk Odessa Ordu Poti Rize Samsun Sevastopol Sochi Sukhumi1 Trabzon Varna Yalta Zonguldak

1 Disputed statehood — partial international recognition, but considered by most countries to be Georgian territory.

International organizations

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Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
(APEC)

Nations

 Australia  Brunei  Canada  Chile  China  Hong Kong¹  Indonesia  Japan  South Korea  Malaysia  Mexico  New Zealand  Papua New Guinea  Peru  Philippines  Russia  Singapore  Chinese Taipei²  Thailand  United States  Vietnam

Summits

1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Other

APEC Business Travel Card APEC blue APEC Climate Center APEC Youth Science Festival

1. A special administrative region of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China"; 2. Officially the Republic of China, participates as "Chinese Taipei"

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BRICS

Membership

Brazil Russia India China South Africa

Summits

Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
2009 Brasília 2010 Sanya 2011 New Delhi 2012 Durban 2013 Fortaleza 2014 Ufa
Ufa
2015 Goa 2016 Xiamen 2017 Johannesburg 2018 Brazil
Brazil
2019

Bilateral relations

Brazil–China Brazil–India Brazil–Russia Brazil–South Africa China–India China–Russia China–South Africa India–Russia India–South Africa Russia–South Africa

Leaders

Temer Putin Modi Xi Ramaphosa

Related

New Development Bank BRICS
BRICS
Contingent Reserve Arrangement BRICS
BRICS
Leaders BRICS
BRICS
Cable BRICS
BRICS
Universities League

BRICS
BRICS
U-17 Football Cup

2016 Goa

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Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS)

Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia Eurasian Economic Union Union State

Membership

Members

Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Moldova Russia Tajikistan Uzbekistan

Associate members

Turkmenistan Ukraine

Former members

Georgia (1993–2009)

History

Russian Empire Soviet Union Dissolution of the Soviet Union Union of Sovereign States Belavezha Accords
Belavezha Accords
(Near abroad) Alma-Ata Protocol

Sports

Unified Team at the Olympics Unified Team at the Paralympics CIS national bandy team CIS national football team CIS national ice hockey team CIS national rugby team CIS Cup (football)

Military

Collective Security Treaty Organization Collective Rapid Reaction Force Joint CIS Air Defense System

Economics

Economic Court CISFTA Eurasian Economic Community Eurasian Patent Convention Eurasian Patent Organization EU Technical Aid

Organization

Interstate Aviation Committee Council of Ministers of Defense of the CIS

Category

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Council of Europe

Institutions

Secretary General Committee of Ministers Parliamentary Assembly Congress Court of Human Rights Commissioner for Human Rights Commission for the Efficiency of Justice Commission against Racism and Intolerance

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia1 Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

Observers

Canada Holy See Israel Japan Mexico United States Sovereign Military Order of Malta

Former members

Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1991–1992) Saar (assoc. 1950–1956)

1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of Europe
Europe
as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.

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East Asia
Asia
Summit (EAS)

First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth Ninth Tenth Eleventh Twelfth

 Australia  Brunei  Cambodia  China  India  Indonesia  Japan  Laos  Malaysia  Myanmar  New Zealand  Philippines  Russia  Singapore  South Korea  Thailand  United States  Vietnam

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Eurasian Economic Union

Member states

Armenia Belarus Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Russia

Observer members

Moldova

Prospective members

Mongolia Syria Tajikistan

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Group of Eight
Group of Eight
(G8) and Group of Eight
Group of Eight
+ Five (G8+5)

G8 members

 Canada  France  Germany  Italy  Japan  Russia  United Kingdom  United States

Representative

 European Union

G8+5

 Brazil  China  India  Mexico  South Africa

See also

Group of Six Group of Seven G7+1

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G20
G20
major economies

 Argentina  Australia  Brazil  Canada  China  European Union  France  Germany  India  Indonesia  Italy  Japan  Mexico  Russia  Saudi Arabia  South Africa  Republic of Korea  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States

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Organization of the Black Sea
Black Sea
Economic Cooperation (BSEC)

   

 Albania  Armenia  Azerbaijan

 Bulgaria  Georgia  Greece

 Moldova  Romania  Russia

 Serbia  Turkey  Ukraine

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Quartet on the Middle East

Negotiating parties

Israel Palestinian Authority

Diplomatic quartet

European Union
European Union
(Mogherini) Russia
Russia
(Lavrov) United Nations
United Nations
(Guterres) United States
United States
(Sullivan)

Special
Special
Envoy

Kito de Boer

Associated organizations

Elections Reform Support Group

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Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
(SCO)

Summits

Beijing 2012 Dushanbe 2014 Astana 2017

Member states

China India Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Pakistan Russia Tajikistan Uzbekistan

Observer states

Afghanistan Belarus Iran Mongolia

Dialogue partners

Armenia Azerbaijan Cambodia Nepal Sri Lanka Turkey

Guests

ASEAN CIS Turkmenistan

See also

Eurasian Land Bridge Three Evils Working languages

Chinese Russian

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Security Council of the United Nations

Power

Chapter V Chapter VII Veto Resolution

Organization

Military Observer Peacebuilding Commission Counter-Terrorism Committee Peacekeeping

Missions

United Nations
United Nations
Command Unified Task Force

Members

Permanent

 China  France  Russia  United Kingdom  United States

2016–2017

 Egypt  Japan  Senegal  Ukraine  Uruguay

2017

 Italy

2017–2018

 Bolivia  Ethiopia  Kazakhstan  Sweden

Category

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World Trade Organization

System

Accession and membership Appellate Body Dispute Settlement Body International Trade Centre Chronology of key events

Issues

Criticism Doha Development Round Singapore
Singapore
issues Quota Elimination Peace Clause

Agreements

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Agriculture Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Technical Barriers to Trade Trade Related Investment Measures Trade in Services Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Government Procurement Information Technology Marrakech Agreement Doha Declaration Bali Package

Ministerial Conferences

1st (1996) 2nd (1998) 3rd (1999) 4th (2001) 5th (2003) 6th (2005) 7th (2009) 8th (2011) 9th (2013) 10th (2015)

People

Roberto Azevêdo
Roberto Azevêdo
(Director-General) Pascal Lamy Supachai Panitchpakdi Alejandro Jara Rufus Yerxa

Members

Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belize Benin Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Burkina Faso Burma Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Costa Rica Côte d'Ivoire Cuba Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Fiji Gabon The Gambia Georgia Ghana Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong1 Iceland India Indonesia Israel Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lesotho Liberia Liechtenstein Macau1 Macedonia Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Montenegro Morocco Mozambique Namibia Nepal New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Qatar Russia Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Switzerland Tajikistan Taiwan2 Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe

European Union

Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom

Special
Special
administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China". Officially the Republic of China, participates as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", and "Chinese Taipei" in short.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 168830626 LCCN: n92056007 GND: 4076899-5 SUDOC: 031531156 BNF: cb122728378 (data) HDS: 3376 NDL: 0056

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