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The Rush–Bagot Treaty
Treaty
or Rush–Bagot Disarmament, was a treaty between the United States
United States
and the United Kingdom limiting naval armaments on the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and Lake Champlain, following the War of 1812. It was ratified by the United States
United States
Senate on April 16, 1818,[1] and was confirmed by Canada, following Confederation, in 1867. The treaty provided for a large demilitarization of lakes along the international boundary, where many British naval arrangements and forts remained. The treaty stipulated that the United States
United States
and British North America
British North America
could each maintain one military vessel (no more than 100 tons burden) as well as one cannon (no more than eighteen pounds) on Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario
and Lake Champlain. The remaining Great Lakes permitted the United States
United States
and British North America
British North America
to keep two military vessels "of like burden" on the waters armed with "like force". The treaty, and the separate Treaty
Treaty
of 1818, laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary between the U.S. and British North America.[2]

Contents

1 History 2 Military installations 3 Outcome 4 Plaques 5 Notes 6 External links

History[edit]

Plaque to Richard Rush, U.S. diplomat, at Old Fort Niagara

Plaque to Charles Bagot, British diplomat, at Old Fort Niagara

The origins of the Rush–Bagot Treaty
Treaty
can be traced to a correspondence of letters between Acting United States
United States
Secretary of State Richard Rush
Richard Rush
and the British Minister to Washington
British Minister to Washington
Sir Charles Bagot, which were exchanged and signed on April 27 and 28, 1817. After the terms of the notes were agreed upon by Rush and Bagot, the Rush–Bagot Agreement was unofficially recognized by both countries. On April 6, 1818, it was submitted to the United States
United States
Senate and formally ratified on April 16, 1818. The treaty eventually led to the Treaty
Treaty
of Washington of 1871, which completed disarmament. The United States and Canada agreed in 1946, through an exchange of diplomatic notes, that the stationing of naval vessels for training purposes was permissible provided each government was fully notified in advance. In 2004, the U.S. Coast Guard decided to arm 11 of its small cutters stationed on Lake Erie
Lake Erie
and Lake Huron
Lake Huron
with M240 7.62 mm machine guns. The American decision was based on a climbing number of smuggling operations as well as the increased threat of terrorist activity after the September 11, 2001, attacks. The Canadian government decided that the armament did not violate the treaty, as the guns were to be used for law enforcement rather than military activities. Canada reserved the right to arm its law enforcement vessels with similar weapons.[3] Military installations[edit]

HMCS Stone Frigate, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario

The Stone Frigate, located at the Royal Military College in Kingston, Ontario, was constructed during 1820 to store part of the dismantled British fleet from the War of 1812, which had been dismantled pursuant to the Rush–Bagot Treaty.[4] There are still military facilities near or next to the Great Lakes:

Canadian

CFB Kingston, Kingston, Ontario Royal Military College - Kingston, Ontario CFB Trenton, Trenton, Ontario CFD Mountain View
CFD Mountain View
- Prince Edward County, Ontario HMCS York Canadian Maritime Command
Canadian Maritime Command
Reserve base - Toronto 4th Canadian Division HQ - Toronto Denison Armoury/ASU Toronto
Toronto
- Toronto
Toronto
- site of former CFB Downsview airbase Canadian Forces College
Canadian Forces College
- Toronto Dalton Armoury, Toronto Oakville Armoury, Oakville, Ontario Col J.R. Barber Armoury, Georgetown, Ontario Moss Park Armoury, Toronto CFB Borden, Borden, Ontario Fort York Armoury, Toronto Four Mile Point Live Firing Range - Niagara-on-the-Lake ASU London, London, Ontario LFCATC Meaford, Meaford, Ontario

United States

Camp Perry
Camp Perry
- Port Clinton, Ohio Duluth Air National Guard Base
Duluth Air National Guard Base
- Duluth, Minnesota Minneapolis Armory
Minneapolis Armory
- Minneapolis Naval Station Great Lakes
Great Lakes
- North Chicago, Illinois Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station
Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station
- Niagara Falls, New York Selfridge Air National Guard Base
Selfridge Air National Guard Base
- Harrison Township, Michigan Wisconsin Air National Guard
Wisconsin Air National Guard
- General Mitchell International Airport - Milwaukee

Outcome[edit] The Canada– United States
United States
border was demilitarized, including the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and Lake Champlain. The US and Britain agreed to joint control over the Oregon Territory. The Rush–Bagot Agreement created the world's longest east–west boundary—5,527 miles, and the longest demilitarized border in the world.[5] Although the treaty had caused difficulties during World War I, its terms were not changed. Similar problems occurred before World War II, but Secretary of State Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
wanted to preserve the agreement because of its historical importance. In 1939 and 1940 Canada and the United States
United States
agreed to interpret the treaty so that weapons could be installed in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
but could not be operable until the ships left the Lakes. In 1942 the United States, by then having entered the war and became allies with Canada, successfully proposed that until the end of the war weapons could be completely installed and tested in the Lakes. After discussions in the Permanent Joint Board on Defense, in 1946 Canada similarly proposed to interpret the agreement as permitting using ships for training purposes if each country notified the other.[6] Plaques[edit]

Rush–Bagot Treaty
Treaty
plaque at Kingston, Ontario

Memorial terrace to the Rush–Bagot Treaty
Treaty
at Old Fort Niagara

An Ontario Heritage Trust plaque in Kingston, Ontario
Kingston, Ontario
recognizes the Rush–Bagot Agreement (44°13′48″N 76°27′59″W / 44.229894°N 76.466292°W / 44.229894; -76.466292). A plaque also stands at the former site of the British Legation in Washington, D.C. (38°54′13.7″N 77°3′8.4″W / 38.903806°N 77.052333°W / 38.903806; -77.052333) where the agreement was negotiated. A monument stands on the grounds of Old Fort Niagara
Old Fort Niagara
as well (43°15′48″N 79°03′49″W / 43.263347°N 79.063719°W / 43.263347; -79.063719), featuring reliefs of both Rush and Bagot, as well as the words of the treaty.[7] Notes[edit]

^ Norton, Mary Beth (2001). A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 246. ISBN 0-618-00550-1.  ^ "Rush-Bagot Convention Facts, information, pictures Encyclopedia.com articles about Rush–Bagot Convention". Encyclopedia.com. 2005-01-08. Retrieved 2011-05-05.  ^ Associated Press (11 March 2006). "Coast Guard cutters on Great Lakes are packing machine guns". Journal Times.  ^ Gilbert Collins Guidebook to the Historic Sites of the War of 1812 p. 201 ^ Naval Marine Archive – The Canadian Collection. "Rush-Bagot Agreement".  ^ Dziuban, Stanley W. (1959). "Chapter X, Co-operation in Other Fields". Military Relations Between the United States
United States
and Canada, 1939-1945. Washington DC: Center of Military History, United States Army. pp. 278–280. LCCN 59-60001.  ^ "Rush-Bagot Agreement". Heritagefdn.on.ca. Retrieved 2011-05-05. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Rush-Bagot Treaty

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Rush-Bagot_Convention.aspx Avalon Project - Text of Agreement Rush-Bagot Agreement Nuclear Weapons, the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain
HNN article about Rush-Bagot and its impact on the nuclear arms race Ontario Heritage Trust The Rush-Bagot Agreement, Under the terms of this 1817 arms-limitation agreement, the United States
United States
and Great Britain agreed to dismantle most of their armed vessels on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain
and to construct no new warships. The agreement, technically, is sti

.