Rumelia (Ottoman Turkish: روم ايلى, Rūm-ėli; Turkish:
Rumeli), also known as
Turkey in Europe, was a historical term
describing the area in southeastern
Europe that was administered by
the Ottoman Empire, mainly the Balkan Peninsula.
3 See also
5 External links
Rûm means "Roman", while
Rumelia (Turkish: Rumeli) means
"Land of the Romans" in Turkish, referring to the lands conquered by
the Ottoman Turks from the Byzantine Empire, at the time still known
as the Roman Empire (the neologism "Byzantine Empire" was coined only
in 1557 by a German historian, Hieronymus Wolf, in his work Corpus
Historiæ Byzantinæ). As such, "Roman" was long used in various
languages around the
Balkans to describe the lands of that empire.
Indeed today the region is known by Bosnian: Rumelija, Greek:
Ρωμυλία, Romylía, or Ρούμελη, Roúmeli; Albanian:
Rumelia; Macedonian and Serbian: Румелија, Rumelija and
Bulgarian: Румелия, Rumeliya. In old Latin Genoese documents it
is known as Romania, the common name for the
Byzantine Empire in the
Seljuk Turks used the name "Land of the Rûm" (Romans)
for defining Anatolia, which was gradually conquered by the armies of
Seljuk Empire from the
Byzantine Empire following the Battle of
Manzikert in 1071. The Seljuk
Sultanate of Rum
Sultanate of Rum (1077–1307) meant the
"Sultanate of Anatolia".
However, following the expansion of the
Ottoman Empire into Anatolia
Balkans starting from the second half of the 14th century, and
the conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 by Mehmed II, the
term Rumeli (Land of the Romans) was applied exclusively to define the
Balkan regions of the Ottoman Empire, which remained primarily
populated by Christians.
Rumeli Hisarı (Rumelian Fortress, 1452) on the European shore of the
Bosphorus strait in Istanbul.
Rumelia included the provinces of Thrace, Macedonia and Moesia,
Bulgaria and Turkish Thrace, bounded to the north by the
Sava and Danube, west by the Adriatic coast, and south by the
Morea. The name
Rumelia was ultimately applied to a province
composed of central Albania and north-western Macedonia, with Bitola
for its chief town.
Owing to administrative changes effected between 1870 and 1875, the
name ceased to correspond to any political division. Eastern Rumelia
was constituted as an autonomous province of the
Ottoman Empire by the
Treaty of Berlin, 1878, but on September 6, 1885, after a bloodless
revolution, it was united with Bulgaria. The
Kosovo Vilayet was
created in 1877.
Today, in Turkey, the word Trakya (Thrace) has mostly replaced Rumeli
(Rumelia) when referring to the part of
Turkey which is in Europe
(provinces of Edirne, Kırklareli, Tekirdağ, the northern part of
Çanakkale Province and the western part of
Istanbul Province), though
Rumelia remains in use in historical contexts and the word is used in
the context of the culture of current Turkish populations of the
Balkans and descendants of Turkish immigrants from the Balkans. This
Turkey is also referred to as Eastern
Thrace or Turkish
Thrace. In Greece, the term Ρούμελη (Rumeli) has been used
since Ottoman times to refer to Central Greece, especially when
juxtaposed with the
Peloponnese or Morea. The word Rumeli is also used
in some cases (mostly by
Istanbul denizens) to refer exclusively to
the part of
Istanbul Province that is situated west of the Bosphorus.
Turks in the Balkans
Sultanate of Rum
Millet (Ottoman Empire)
Ottoman wars in Europe
Ottoman Vardar Macedonia
Ottoman Bosnia and Herzegovina
Upper Thracian Plain
Upper Thracian Plain — in Bulgaria.
Thrace — in Greece.
^ Encyclopædia Britannica –
Rumelia at Encyclopædia Britannica.com
^ a b Reclus, Onésime; Ibáñez, Vicente Blasco; Reclus, Élisée;
Doré, Gustave (1907). Novísima Geografía Universal. Madrid La Edit.
Española-Americana. p. 636. OCLC 432767489. (in
^ Frucht, Richard (2004). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the
People, Lands, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 807.
^ Verena Knaus and Gail Warrander (2010). Kosovo. Bradt Travel Guides.
p. 11. ISBN 1841623318. CS1 maint: Uses authors
Ottoman Empire portal
"Rumelia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23 (11th ed.). 1911.
BNF: cb12403714g (data)
Coordinates: 41°00′00″N 21°20′00″E / 41.0000°N