Rudyard Kipling (/ˈrʌdjərd/ RUD-yərd; 30 December 1865 –
18 January 1936) was an English journalist, short-story
writer, poet, and novelist. He was born in India, which inspired much
of his work.
Kipling's works of fiction include
The Jungle Book
The Jungle Book (1894), Kim (1901),
and many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King"
(1888). His poems include "Mandalay" (1890), "Gunga Din"
(1890), "The Gods of the Copybook Headings" (1919), "The White Man's
Burden" (1899), and "If—" (1910). He is seen as an innovator in the
art of the short story. His children's books are classics;
one critic noted "a versatile and luminous narrative
Kipling in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was among the United
Kingdom's most popular writers
Henry James said, "Kipling
strikes me personally as the most complete man of genius, as distinct
from fine intelligence, that I have ever known." In 1907,
he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, as the first
English-language writer to receive the prize, and at 41, its youngest
recipient to date. He was also sounded for the British Poet
Laureateship and several times for a knighthood, but declined
Kipling's subsequent reputation has changed with the political and
social climate of the age. The contrasting views
of him continued for much of the 20th century.
George Orwell saw Kipling as "a jingo imperialist", who was "morally
insensitive and aesthetically disgusting". Literary critic
Douglas Kerr wrote: "[Kipling] is still an author who can inspire
passionate disagreement and his place in literary and cultural history
is far from settled. But as the age of the European empires recedes,
he is recognised as an incomparable, if controversial, interpreter of
how empire was experienced. That, and an increasing recognition of his
extraordinary narrative gifts, make him a force to be reckoned
1 Childhood (1865–1882)
1.1 Education in Britain
1.2 Return to India
2 Early adult life (1882–1914)
2.1 Return to London
2.3 United States
2.3.1 Life in New England
2.5 Visits to South Africa
2.6.1 Speculative fiction
2.6.2 Nobel laureate and beyond
First World War
First World War (1914–18)
3.1 Death of John Kipling
4 After the war (1918–1936)
5.2 Links with camping and scouting
5.4 Reputation in India
7 See also
9 Cited sources
10 Further reading
11 External links
11.1 Other information
Malabar Point, Bombay, 1865.
Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865 in Bombay, in the Bombay
Presidency of British India, to
Alice Kipling (née MacDonald) and
John Lockwood Kipling. Alice (one of the four noted
MacDonald sisters) was a vivacious woman, of
whom Lord Dufferin would say, "Dullness and Mrs Kipling cannot exist
in the same room." Lockwood
Kipling, a sculptor and pottery designer, was the Principal and
Professor of Architectural Sculpture at the newly founded Sir
Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art in Bombay.
John Lockwood and Alice had met in 1863 and courted at
Rudyard Lake in
Rudyard, Staffordshire, England. They married and moved to India in
1865. They had been so moved by the beauty of the
Rudyard Lake area
that they named their first child after it. Two of Alice's sisters
were married artists: Georgiana to the painter Edward Burne-Jones, and
her sister Agnes to Edward Poynter. Kipling's most prominent relative
was his first cousin, Stanley Baldwin, who was Conservative Prime
Minister three times in the 1920s and 1930s.
Kipling's birth home on the campus of the J. J. School of Art in
Bombay was for many years used as the Dean's residence.
Although a cottage bears a plaque noting it as his birth site, the
original one may have been torn down and replaced decades
ago. Some historians and conservationists take the view
that the bungalow marks a site merely close to the home of Kipling's
birth, as it was built in 1882 — about 15 years after Kipling was
born. Kipling seems to have said as much to the Dean when visiting J.
J. School in the 1930s.
Kipling's India: a map of British India
Kipling wrote of Bombay:
Mother of Cities to me,
For I was born in her gate,
Between the palms and the sea,
Where the world-end steamers wait.
According to Bernice M. Murphy, "Kipling's parents considered
themselves 'Anglo-Indians' [a term used in the 19th century for people
of British origin living in India] and so too would their son, though
he spent the bulk of his life elsewhere. Complex issues of identity
and national allegiance would become prominent in his
Kipling referred to such conflicts. For example: "In the afternoon
heats before we took our sleep, she (the Portuguese ayah, or nanny) or
Hindu bearer, or male attendant) would tell us stories and
Indian nursery songs all unforgotten, and we were sent into the
dining-room after we had been dressed, with the caution 'Speak English
now to Papa and Mamma.' So one spoke 'English', haltingly translated
out of the vernacular idiom that one thought and dreamed
Education in Britain
English Heritage blue plaque marking Kipling’s time in Southsea,
Kipling's days of "strong light and darkness" in Bombay ended when he
was five. As was the custom in British India, he and his
three-year-old sister Alice ("Trix") were taken to the United Kingdom
— in their case to Southsea, Portsmouth — to live with a couple
who boarded children of British nationals living abroad.
For the next six years (from October 1871 to April 1877), the children
lived with the couple – Captain Pryse Agar Holloway, once an officer
in the merchant navy, and Sarah Holloway – at their house, Lorne
Lodge, 4 Campbell Road, Southsea.
In his autobiography published 65 years later, Kipling recalled the
stay with horror, and wondered if the combination of cruelty and
neglect which he experienced there at the hands of Mrs Holloway might
not have hastened the onset of his literary life: "If you
cross-examine a child of seven or eight on his day's doings (specially
when he wants to go to sleep) he will contradict himself very
satisfactorily. If each contradiction be set down as a lie and
retailed at breakfast, life is not easy. I have known a certain amount
of bullying, but this was calculated torture — religious as well as
scientific. Yet it made me give attention to the lies I soon found it
necessary to tell: and this, I presume, is the foundation of literary
Kipling's England: A map of England showing Kipling's homes
Trix fared better at Lorne Lodge; Mrs Holloway apparently hoped that
Trix would eventually marry the Holloways' son. The two
Kipling children, however, had no relatives in England they could
visit, except that they spent a month each Christmas with a maternal
aunt Georgiana ("Georgy") and her husband, Edward Burne-Jones, at
their house, The Grange, in Fulham, London, which Kipling called "a
paradise which I verily believe saved me."
In the spring of 1877, Alice returned from India and removed the
children from Lorne Lodge. Kipling remembers, "Often and often
afterwards, the beloved Aunt would ask me why I had never told any one
how I was being treated. Children tell little more than animals, for
what comes to them they accept as eternally established. Also,
badly-treated children have a clear notion of what they are likely to
get if they betray the secrets of a prison-house before they are clear
In January 1878, Kipling was admitted to the United Services College
at Westward Ho!, Devon, a school recently founded to prepare boys for
the army. It proved rough going for him at first, but later led to
firm friendships and provided the setting for his schoolboy stories
Stalky & Co. (1899). While there, Kipling met and fell
in love with Florence Garrard, who was boarding with Trix at Southsea
(to which Trix had returned.) Florence became the model for Maisie in
Kipling's first novel,
The Light That Failed
The Light That Failed (1891).
Return to India
Near the end of his schooling, it was decided that Kipling did not
have the academic ability to get into Oxford University on a
scholarship. His parents lacked the wherewithal to finance
him, and so Kipling's father obtained him a job in Lahore,
where the father served as Principal of the Mayo College of Art and
Curator of the
Lahore Museum. Kipling was to be assistant editor of a
local newspaper, the Civil and Military Gazette.
He sailed for India on 20 September 1882 and arrived in Bombay on 18
October. He described the moment years later: "So, at sixteen years
and nine months, but looking four or five years older, and adorned
with real whiskers which the scandalised Mother abolished within one
hour of beholding, I found myself at Bombay where I was born, moving
among sights and smells that made me deliver in the vernacular
sentences whose meaning I knew not. Other Indian-born boys have told
me how the same thing happened to them." This arrival
changed Kipling, as he explains: "There were yet three or four days'
rail to Lahore, where my people lived. After these, my English years
fell away, nor ever, I think, came back in full strength".
Early adult life (1882–1914)
From 1883 to 1889, Kipling worked in
British India for local
newspapers such as the
Civil and Military Gazette in
Lahore and The
Pioneer in Allahabad.
Lahore Railway Station in the 1880s
Bundi, Rajputana, where Kipling was inspired to write Kim.
The former, which was the newspaper Kipling was to call his "mistress
and most true love", appeared six days a week throughout
the year, except for one-day breaks for Christmas and Easter. Stephen
Wheeler, the editor, worked Kipling hard, but Kipling's need to write
was unstoppable. In 1886, he published his first collection of verse,
Departmental Ditties. That year also brought a change of editors at
the newspaper; Kay Robinson, the new editor, allowed more creative
freedom and Kipling was asked to contribute short stories to the
In an article printed in the Chums boys' annual, an ex-colleague of
Kipling's stated that "he never knew such a fellow for ink — he
simply revelled in it, filling up his pen viciously, and then throwing
the contents all over the office, so that it was almost dangerous to
approach him." The anecdote continues: "In the hot weather
when he (Kipling) wore only white trousers and a thin vest, he is said
to have resembled a
Dalmatian dog more than a human being, for he was
spotted all over with ink in every direction."
In the summer of 1883, Kipling visited Shimla, then Simla, a
well-known hill station and the summer capital of British India. By
then it was the practice for the
Viceroy of India
Viceroy of India and government to
move to Simla for six months, and the town became a "centre of power
as well as pleasure". Kipling's family became annual
visitors to Simla, and Lockwood Kipling was asked to serve in Christ
Rudyard Kipling returned to Simla for his annual leave
each year from 1885 to 1888, and the town featured prominently in many
stories he wrote for the Gazette. "My month's leave at
Simla, or whatever Hill Station my people went to, was pure joy
—every golden hour counted. It began in heat and discomfort, by rail
and road. It ended in the cool evening, with a wood fire in one's
bedroom, and next morn — thirty more of them ahead! — the early
cup of tea, the Mother who brought it in, and the long talks of us all
together again. One had leisure to work, too, at whatever play-work
was in one's head, and that was usually full."
Back in Lahore, 39 of his stories appeared in the Gazette between
November 1886 and June 1887. Kipling included most of them in Plain
Tales from the Hills, his first prose collection, published in
Calcutta in January 1888, a month after his 22nd birthday. Kipling's
time in Lahore, however, had come to an end. In November 1887, he was
moved to the Gazette's larger sister newspaper, The Pioneer, in
Allahabad in the United Provinces, where worked as assistant editor
and lived in Belvedere House from 1888 to
Rudyard Kipling (right) with his father John Lockwood Kipling
(left), circa 1890
Kipling's writing continued at a frenetic pace. In 1888, he published
six collections of short stories: Soldiers Three, The Story of the
Gadsbys, In Black and White, Under the Deodars, The Phantom Rickshaw,
and Wee Willie Winkie. These contain a total of 41 stories, some quite
long. In addition, as The Pioneer's special correspondent in the
western region of Rajputana, he wrote many sketches that were later
collected in Letters of Marque and published in From Sea to Sea and
Other Sketches, Letters of Travel.
Kipling was discharged from The Pioneer in early 1889 after a dispute.
By this time, he had been increasingly thinking of his future. He sold
the rights to his six volumes of stories for £200 and a small
royalty, and the Plain Tales for £50; in addition he received
six-months' salary , from The Pioneer, in lieu of notice.
Return to London
Kipling decided to use the money to move to London, as the literary
centre of the British Empire. On 9 March 1889, he left India,
travelling first to San Francisco via Rangoon, Singapore, Hong Kong,
and Japan. Kipling was favourably impressed by Japan, calling its
people "gracious folk and fair manners".
Kipling later wrote that he "had lost his heart" to a geisha whom he
called O-Toyo, writing while in the
United States during the same trip
across the Pacific, "I had left the innocent East far behind....
Weeping softly for O-Toyo.... O-Toyo was a darling."
Kipling then travelled through the United States, writing articles for
The Pioneer that were later published in From Sea to Sea and Other
Sketches, Letters of Travel.
Starting his American travels in San Francisco, Kipling went north to
Portland, Oregon, then Seattle, Washington, up to Victoria and
Vancouver, British Columbia, through Medicine Hat, Alberta, back into
the US to Yellowstone National Park, down to Salt Lake City, then east
Omaha, Nebraska and on to Chicago, Illinois, then to Beaver,
Pennsylvania on the
Ohio River to visit the Hill family. From there,
he went to
Chautauqua with Professor Hill, and later to Niagara Falls,
Toronto, Washington, D.C., New York, and Boston.
In the course of this journey he met
Mark Twain in Elmira, New York,
and was deeply impressed. Kipling arrived unannounced at Twain's home,
and later wrote that as he rang the doorbell, "It occurred to me for
the first time that
Mark Twain might possibly have other engagements
other than the entertainment of escaped lunatics from India, be they
ever so full of admiration."
A portrait of Kipling by John Collier, ca. 1891
Rudyard Kipling, by Bourne & Shepherd, Calcutta (1892)
As it was, Twain gladly welcomed Kipling and had a two-hour
conversation with him on trends in Anglo-American literature and about
what Twain was going to write in a sequel to Tom Sawyer, with Twain
assuring Kipling that a sequel was coming, although he had not decided
upon the ending: either Sawyer would be elected to Congress or he
would be hanged. Twain also passed along the literary
advice that an author should "get your facts first and then you can
distort 'em as much as you please." Twain, who rather
liked Kipling, later wrote of their meeting: "Between us, we cover all
knowledge; he covers all that can be known and I cover the
rest." Kipling then crossed the
October 1889. He soon made his début in the
London literary world, to
In London, Kipling had several stories accepted by magazines. He found
a place to live for the next two years at Villiers Street, near
Charing Cross (in a building subsequently named Kipling House):
Meantime, I had found me quarters in Villiers Street, Strand, which
forty-six years ago was primitive and passionate in its habits and
population. My rooms were small, not over-clean or well-kept, but from
my desk I could look out of my window through the fanlight of Gatti's
Music-Hall entrance, across the street, almost on to its stage. The
Charing Cross trains rumbled through my dreams on one side, the boom
of the Strand on the other, while, before my windows, Father Thames
Shot tower walked up and down with his traffic.
In the next two years, he published a novel, The Light That Failed,
had a nervous breakdown, and met an American writer and publishing
agent, Wolcott Balestier, with whom he collaborated on a novel, The
Naulahka (a title which he uncharacteristically misspelt; see
below). In 1891, as advised his doctors, Kipling took
another sea voyage, to South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and once
again India. He cut short his plans to spend Christmas
with his family in India when he heard of Balestier's sudden death
from typhoid fever and decided to return to
London immediately. Before
his return, he had used the telegram to propose to and be accepted by
Wolcott's sister Caroline Starr Balestier (1862–1939), called
"Carrie", whom he had met a year earlier, and with whom he had
apparently been having an intermittent romance. Meanwhile,
late in 1891, a collection of his short stories on the British in
India, Life's Handicap, was published in London.
On 18 January 1892, Carrie Balestier (aged 29) and Rudyard Kipling
(aged 26) married in London, in the "thick of an influenza epidemic,
when the undertakers had run out of black horses and the dead had to
be content with brown ones." The wedding was held at All
Souls Church, Langham Place.
Henry James gave the bride away.
Kipling in his study at Naulakha, Vermont, US, 1895.
Kipling and his wife settled upon a honeymoon that took them first to
United States (including a stop at the Balestier family estate
near Brattleboro, Vermont) and then to Japan. On arriving
in Yokohama, they discovered that their bank, The New Oriental Banking
Corporation, had failed. Taking this loss in their stride, they
returned to the US, back to
Vermont — Carrie by this time was
pregnant with their first child — and rented a small cottage on a
farm near Brattleboro for $10 a month. According to
Kipling, "We furnished it with a simplicity that fore-ran the
hire-purchase system. We bought, second or third hand, a huge, hot-air
stove which we installed in the cellar. We cut generous holes in our
thin floors for its eight-inch [20 cm] tin pipes (why we were not
burned in our beds each week of the winter I never can understand) and
we were extraordinarily and self-centredly content."
In this house, which they called Bliss Cottage, their first child,
Josephine, was born "in three-foot of snow on the night of 29 December
1892. Her Mother's birthday being the 31st and mine the 30th of the
same month, we congratulated her on her sense of the fitness of
Rudyard Kipling's America 1892–1896, 1899
It was also in this cottage that the first dawnings of the Jungle
Books came to Kipling: "The workroom in the Bliss Cottage was seven
feet by eight, and from December to April, the snow lay level with its
window-sill. It chanced that I had written a tale about Indian
Forestry work which included a boy who had been brought up by wolves.
In the stillness, and suspense, of the winter of '92 some memory of
the Masonic Lions of my childhood's magazine, and a phrase in
Haggard's Nada the Lily, combined with the echo of this tale. After
blocking out the main idea in my head, the pen took charge, and I
watched it begin to write stories about
Mowgli and animals, which
later grew into the two Jungle Books."
With Josephine's arrival, Bliss Cottage was felt to be congested, so
eventually the couple bought land — 10 acres (4.0 ha) on a
rocky hillside overlooking the
Connecticut River — from Carrie's
brother Beatty Balestier and built their own house. Kipling named this
Naulakha, in honour of Wolcott and of their collaboration, and this
time the name was spelt correctly. From his early years in
Lahore (1882–87), Kipling had become enamoured with the Mughal
architecture, especially the
Naulakha pavilion situated in
Lahore Fort, which eventually inspired the title of his novel as well
as the house. The house still stands on Kipling Road,
three miles (5 km) north of Brattleboro in Dummerston, Vermont: a big,
secluded, dark-green house, with shingled roof and sides, which
Kipling called his "ship", and which brought him "sunshine and a mind
at ease". His seclusion in Vermont, combined with his
healthy "sane clean life", made Kipling both inventive and prolific.
In a mere four years he produced, along with the Jungle Books, a book
of short stories (The Day's Work), a novel (Captains Courageous), and
a profusion of poetry, including the volume The Seven Seas. The
Barrack-Room Ballads was issued in March 1892, first
published individually for the most part in 1890, and contained his
poems "Mandalay" and "Gunga Din". He especially enjoyed writing the
Jungle Books and also corresponding with many children who wrote to
him about them.
Life in New England
The writing life in Naulakha was occasionally interrupted by visitors,
including his father, who visited soon after his retirement in
1893, and the British writer Arthur Conan Doyle, who
brought his golf clubs, stayed for two days, and gave Kipling an
extended golf lesson. Kipling seemed to take
to golf, occasionally practising with the local Congregational
minister and even playing with red-painted balls when the ground was
covered in snow. However, winter golf was "not
altogether a success because there were no limits to a drive; the ball
might skid two miles (3 km) down the long slope to Connecticut
Kipling loved the outdoors, not least of whose marvels in
Vermont was the turning of the leaves each fall. He described this
moment in a letter: "A little maple began it, flaming blood-red of a
sudden where he stood against the dark green of a pine-belt. Next
morning there was an answering signal from the swamp where the sumacs
grow. Three days later, the hill-sides as fast as the eye could range
were afire, and the roads paved, with crimson and gold. Then a wet
wind blew, and ruined all the uniforms of that gorgeous army; and the
oaks, who had held themselves in reserve, buckled on their dull and
bronzed cuirasses and stood it out stiffly to the last blown leaf,
till nothing remained but pencil-shadings of bare boughs, and one
could see into the most private heart of the woods."
The Kiplings' first daughter Josephine, 1895. She died of pneumonia
in 1899 aged 6.
In February 1896,
Elsie Kipling was born, the couple's second
daughter. By this time, according to several biographers, their
marital relationship was no longer light-hearted and
spontaneous. Although they would always remain loyal to
each other, they seemed now to have fallen into set roles.
In a letter to a friend who had become engaged around this time, the
30‑year‑old Kipling offered this sombre counsel: marriage
principally taught "the tougher virtues — such as humility,
restraint, order, and forethought."
The Kiplings loved life in
Vermont and might have lived out their
lives there, were it not for two incidents — one of global politics,
the other of family discord. By the early 1890s, the United Kingdom
Venezuela were in a border dispute involving British Guiana. The
US had made several offers to arbitrate, but in 1895, the new American
Secretary of State
Richard Olney upped the ante by arguing for the
American "right" to arbitrate on grounds of sovereignty on the
continent (see the
Olney interpretation as an extension of the Monroe
Doctrine). This raised hackles in Britain, and the
situation grew into a major Anglo-American crisis, with talk of war on
Although the crisis eased into greater US–British cooperation,
Kipling was bewildered by what he felt was persistent anti-British
sentiment in the US, especially in the press. He wrote in
a letter that it felt like being "aimed at with a decanter across a
friendly dinner table." By January 1896, he had
decided to end his family's "good wholesome life" in the
US and seek their fortunes elsewhere.
A family dispute became the final straw. For some time, relations
between Carrie and her brother Beatty Balestier had been strained,
owing to his drinking and insolvency. In May 1896, an inebriated
Beatty encountered Kipling on the street and threatened him with
physical harm. The incident led to Beatty's eventual
arrest, but in the subsequent hearing and the resulting publicity,
Kipling's privacy was destroyed, and he was left feeling miserable and
exhausted. In July 1896, a week before the hearing was to resume, the
Kiplings packed their belongings, left the
United States and returned
Torquay house, with an English heritage blue plaque on the
By September 1896, the Kiplings were in Torquay, Devon, on the
south-western coast of England, in a hillside home overlooking the
English Channel. Although Kipling did not much care for his new house,
whose design, he claimed, left its occupants feeling dispirited and
gloomy, he managed to remain productive and socially
Kipling was now a famous man, and in the previous two or three years
had increasingly been making political pronouncements in his writings.
The Kiplings had welcomed their first son, John, in August 1897.
Kipling had begun work on two poems, "Recessional" (1897) and "The
White Man's Burden" (1899), which were to create controversy when
published. Regarded by some as anthems for enlightened and duty-bound
empire-building (capturing the mood of the Victorian era), the poems
were seen by others as propaganda for brazen-faced imperialism and its
attendant racial attitudes; still others saw irony in the poems and
warnings of the perils of empire.
Take up the White Man's burden—
Send forth the best ye breed—
Go, bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives' need;
To wait, in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild—
Your new-caught sullen peoples,
Half devil and half child.
—The White Man's Burden
There was also foreboding in the poems, a sense that all could yet
come to naught.
Far-called, our navies melt away;
On dune and headland sinks the fire:
Lo, all our pomp of yesterday
Is one with
Nineveh and Tyre!
Judge of the Nations, spare us yet.
Lest we forget—lest we forget!
A prolific writer during his time in Torquay, he also wrote Stalky
& Co., a collection of school stories (born of his experience at
United Services College in Westward Ho!), whose juvenile
protagonists display a know-it-all, cynical outlook on patriotism and
authority. According to his family, Kipling enjoyed reading aloud
stories from Stalky & Co. to them and often went into spasms of
laughter over his own jokes.
Visits to South Africa
H.A. Gwynne, Julian Ralph, Perceval Landon, and
Rudyard Kipling in
South Africa, 1900–1901.
In early 1898, the Kiplings travelled to
South Africa for their winter
holiday, so beginning an annual tradition which (except the following
year) would last until 1908. They would stay in "The Woolsack", a
house on Cecil Rhodes's estate at
Groote Schuur (now a student
residence for the University of Cape Town), within walking distance of
With his new reputation as Poet of the Empire, Kipling was warmly
received by some of the influential politicians of the Cape Colony,
including Rhodes, Sir Alfred Milner, and Leander Starr Jameson.
Kipling cultivated their friendship and came to admire the men and
their politics. The period 1898–1910 was crucial in the history of
South Africa and included the
Second Boer War
Second Boer War (1899–1902), the
ensuing peace treaty, and the 1910 formation of the Union of South
Africa. Back in England, Kipling wrote poetry in support of the
British cause in the Boer War and on his next visit to
South Africa in
early 1900, became a correspondent for The Friend newspaper in
Bloemfontein, which had been commandeered by Lord Roberts for British
Although his journalistic stint was to last only two weeks, it was
Kipling's first work on a newspaper staff since he left The Pioneer in
Allahabad more than ten years before. At The Friend, he
made lifelong friendships with Perceval Landon, H. A. Gwynne, and
others. He also wrote articles published more widely
expressing his views on the conflict. Kipling penned an
inscription for the
Honoured Dead Memorial
Honoured Dead Memorial (Siege memorial) in
Kipling at his desk, 1899. Portrait by his cousin, Sir Philip
In 1897, Kipling moved from
Torquay to Rottingdean, East Sussex –
first to North End House and then to The Elms. In 1902,
Kipling bought Bateman's, a house built in 1634 and located in rural
Bateman's was Kipling's home from 1902 until his death in
1936. The house and its surrounding buildings, the mill
and 33 acres (13 ha), were bought for £9,300. It had no
bathroom, no running water upstairs and no electricity, but Kipling
loved it: "Behold us, lawful owners of a grey stone lichened house —
A.D. 1634 over the door — beamed, panelled, with old oak staircase,
and all untouched and unfaked. It is a good and peaceable place. We
have loved it ever since our first sight of it" (from a November 1902
In the non-fiction realm, he became involved in the debate over the
British response to the rise in German naval power known as the
Tirpitz Plan, to build a fleet to challenge the Royal Navy, publishing
a series of articles in 1898 collected as A Fleet in Being. On a visit
United States in 1899, Kipling and his daughter Josephine
developed pneumonia, from which she eventually died.
"He sat in defiance of municipal orders, astride the gun Zam-Zammeh,
on her old platform, opposite the old Ajaibgher, the Wonder House, as
the natives called the
In the wake of his daughter's death, Kipling concentrated on
collecting material for what became
Just So Stories
Just So Stories for Little
Children, published in 1902, the year after Kim. The
American literary scholar David Scott has argued that Kim disproves
the claim by
Edward Said about Kipling as a promoter of
Kipling — who was deeply interested in Buddhism — as he presented
Tibetan Buddhism in a fairly sympathetic light and aspects of the
novel appeared to reflect a Buddhist understanding of the
universe. Kipling was offended by the German
Emperor Wilhelm II's Hun speech (Hunnenrede) in 1900, urging German
troops being sent to China to crush the
Boxer Rebellion to behave like
"Huns" and take no prisoners.
In a 1902 poem, The Rowers, Kipling attacked the Kaiser as a threat to
Britain and made the first use of the term "Hun" as an anti-German
insult, using Wilhelm's own words and the actions of German troops in
China to portray Germans as essentially barbarian. In an
interview with the French newspaper Le Figaro, the
called Germany a menace and called for an Anglo-French alliance to
stop it. In another letter at the same time, Kipling
described the "unfrei peoples of Central Europe" as living in "the
Middle Ages with machine guns".
Kipling wrote a number of speculative fiction short stories, including
"The Army of a Dream", in which he sought to show a more efficient and
responsible army than the hereditary bureaucracy of England at the
time, and two science fiction stories: "With the Night Mail" (1905)
and "As Easy As A.B.C." (1912). Both were set in the 21st century in
Aerial Board of Control
Aerial Board of Control universe. They read like modern hard
science fiction, and introduced the literary technique
known as indirect exposition, which would later become one of science
fiction writer Robert Heinlein's hallmarks. This technique is one that
Kipling picked up in India, and used to solve the problem of his
English readers not understanding much about Indian society, when
writing The Jungle Book.
Nobel laureate and beyond
In 1907, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, having been
nominated in that year by Charles Oman, professor at the University of
Oxford. The prize citation said it was "in consideration
of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of
ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the
creations of this world-famous author." Nobel prizes had been
established in 1901 and Kipling was the first English-language
recipient. At the award ceremony in
Stockholm on 10 December 1907, the
Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy, Carl David af Wirsén,
praised both Kipling and three centuries of English literature:
The Swedish Academy, in awarding the
Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature this
year to Rudyard Kipling, desires to pay a tribute of homage to the
literature of England, so rich in manifold glories, and to the
greatest genius in the realm of narrative that that country has
produced in our times.
To "book-end" this achievement came the publication of two connected
poetry and story collections:
Puck of Pook's Hill
Puck of Pook's Hill (1906), and Rewards
and Fairies (1910). The latter contained the poem "If—". In a 1995
BBC opinion poll, it was voted the UK's favourite poem.
This exhortation to self-control and stoicism is arguably Kipling's
most famous poem.
Rudyard Kipling by George Wylie Hutchinson
Such was Kipling's popularity that he was asked by his friend Max
Aitken to intervene in the 1911 Canadian election on behalf of the
Conservatives. In 1911, the major issue in
Canada was a
reciprocity treaty with the
United States signed by the Liberal Prime
Wilfrid Laurier and vigorously opposed by the
Conservatives under Sir Robert Borden. On 7 September 1911, the
Montreal Daily Star newspaper published a front-page appeal against
the agreement by Kipling, who wrote: "It is her own soul that Canada
risks today. Once that soul is pawned for any consideration, Canada
must inevitably conform to the commercial, legal, financial, social,
and ethical standards which will be imposed on her by the sheer
admitted weight of the United States." At the time, the
Montreal Daily Star was Canada's most read newspaper. Over the next
week, Kipling's appeal was reprinted in every English newspaper in
Canada and is credited with helping to turn Canadian public opinion
against the Liberal government.
Kipling sympathised with the anti-Home Rule stance of Irish Unionists,
who opposed Irish autonomy. He was friends with Edward Carson, the
Dublin-born leader of Ulster Unionism, who raised the Ulster
Volunteers to prevent Home Rule in Ireland. Kipling wrote in a letter
to a friend that Ireland was not a nation, and that before the English
arrived in 1169, the Irish were a gang of cattle thieves living in
savagery and killing each other while "writing dreary poems" about it
all. In his view it was only British rule that allowed Ireland to
advance. A visit to Ireland in 1911 confirmed Kipling's
prejudices. He wrote that the Irish countryside was beautiful, but
spoiled by what he called the ugly homes of Irish farmers, with
Kipling adding that God had made the Irish into poets having "deprived
them of love of line or knowledge of colour". In contrast,
Kipling had nothing but praise for the "decent folk" of the Protestant
majority and Unionist Ulster.
Kipling wrote the poem "Ulster" in 1912, reflecting his Unionist
politics. Kipling often referred to the
Irish Unionists as "our
party". Kipling had no sympathy or understanding for Irish
nationalism, seeing Home Rule as an act of treason by the government
of the Liberal Prime Minister
H. H. Asquith
H. H. Asquith that would plunge Ireland
into the Dark Ages and allow the Irish Catholic majority to oppress
the Protestant minority. The scholar David Gilmour wrote
that Kipling's lack of understanding of Ireland could be seen in his
John Redmond — the Anglophile leader of the Irish
Parliamentary Party who wanted Home Rule because he believed it was
the best way of keeping the
United Kingdom together — as a traitor
working to break up the United Kingdom. Ulster was first
publicly read at an Unionist rally in Belfast, where the largest Union
Jack ever made was unfolded. Kipling admitted it was meant
to strike a "hard blow" against the Asquith government's Home Rule
bill: "Rebellion, rapine, hate, Oppression, wrong and greed, Are
loosed to rule our fate, By England's act and deed".
Ulster generated much controversy with the Conservative MP Sir Mark
Sykes — who as a Unionist was opposed to the Home Rule bill —
condemning Ulster in
The Morning Post as a "direct appeal to ignorance
and a deliberate attempt to foster religious hate".
Kipling was a staunch opponent of Bolshevism, a position which he
shared with his friend Henry Rider Haggard. The two had bonded on
Kipling's arrival in
London in 1889 largely due to their shared
opinions, and remained lifelong friends.
According to the English magazine Masonic Illustrated, Kipling became
a Freemason in about 1885, before the usual minimum age of
21, being initiated into Hope and Perseverance Lodge No.
782 in Lahore. He later wrote to The Times, "I was Secretary for some
years of the Lodge... which included Brethren of at least four creeds.
I was entered [as an Apprentice] by a member from Brahmo Somaj, a
Hindu, passed [to the degree of Fellow Craft] by a Mohammedan, and
raised [to the degree of Master Mason] by an Englishman. Our Tyler was
an Indian Jew." Kipling received not only the three degrees of Craft
Masonry but also the side degrees of
Mark Master Mason
Mark Master Mason and Royal Ark
Kipling so loved his Masonic experience that he memorialised its
ideals in his poem "The Mother Lodge", and used the
fraternity and its symbols as vital plot devices in his novella The
Man Who Would Be King.
First World War
First World War (1914–18)
At the beginning of the First World War, like many other writers,
Kipling wrote pamphlets and poems enthusiastically supporting the UK
war aims of restoring Belgium, after it had been occupied by Germany,
together with generalised statements that Britain was standing up for
the cause of good. In September 1914, Kipling was asked by the
government to write propaganda, an offer that he accepted.
Kipling's pamphlets and stories were popular with the British people
during the war, his major themes being to glorify the British military
as the place for heroic men to be, while citing German atrocities
against Belgian civilians and the stories of women brutalised by a
horrific war unleashed by Germany, yet surviving and triumphing in
spite of their suffering.
Kipling was enraged by reports of the
Rape of Belgium
Rape of Belgium together with
the sinking of the RMS Lusitania in 1915, which he saw as a
deeply inhumane act, which led him to see the war as a crusade for
civilisation against barbarism. In a 1915 speech, Kipling
declared, "There was no crime, no cruelty, no abomination that the
mind of men can conceive of which the German has not perpetrated, is
not perpetrating, and will not perpetrate if he is allowed to go
on.... Today, there are only two divisions in the world... human
beings and Germans."
Alongside his passionate antipathy towards Germany, Kipling was
privately deeply critical of how the war was being fought by the
British Army, complaining as early as October 1914 that Germany should
have been defeated by now, and something must be wrong with the
British Army. Kipling, who was shocked by the heavy losses
that the British Expeditionary Force had taken by the autumn of 1914,
blaming the entire pre-war generation of British politicians, who he
argued had failed to learn the lessons of the Boer War. Thus thousands
of British soldiers were now paying with their lives for their failure
in the fields of France and Belgium.
Kipling had scorn for men who shirked duty in the First World War. In
"The New Army in Training" (1915), Kipling concluded by
This much we can realise, even though we are so close to it, the old
safe instinct saves us from triumph and exultation. But what will be
the position in years to come of the young man who has deliberately
elected to outcaste himself from this all-embracing brotherhood? What
of his family, and, above all, what of his descendants, when the books
have been closed and the last balance struck of sacrifice and sorrow
in every hamlet, village, parish, suburb, city, shire, district,
province, and Dominion throughout the Empire?
Death of John Kipling
2nd Lt John Kipling
Memorial to 2nd Lt
John Kipling in
Burwash Parish Church, Sussex,
Kipling's son John was killed in action at the
Battle of Loos
Battle of Loos in
September 1915, at age 18. John had initially wanted to join the Royal
Navy, but having had his application turned down after a failed
medical examination due to poor eyesight, he opted to apply for
military service as an army officer. But again, his eyesight was an
issue during the medical examination. In fact, he tried twice to
enlist, but was rejected. His father had been lifelong friends with
Lord Roberts, former commander-in-chief of the British Army, and
colonel of the Irish Guards, and at Rudyard's request, John was
accepted into the Irish Guards.
John Kipling was sent to Loos two days into the battle in a
reinforcement contingent. He was last seen stumbling through the mud
blindly, with a possible facial injury. A body identified as his was
found in 1992, although that identification has been
challenged. In 2015, the
Commonwealth War Grave Commission
Commonwealth War Grave Commission confirmed that they had correctly
identified the burial place of John Kipling; they record
his date of death as 27 September 1915, and that he is buried at St
Mary's A.D.S. Cemetery, Haisnes.
After his son's death, Kipling wrote, "If any question why we died /
Tell them, because our fathers lied." It is speculated that these
words may reveal feelings of guilt at his role in getting John a
commission in the Irish Guards. Others, such as English
professor Tracy Bilsing, contend that the line refers to Kipling's
disgust that British leaders failed to learn the lessons of the Boer
War, and were unprepared for the struggle with Germany in 1914, with
the "lie" of the "fathers" being that the
British Army was prepared
for any war when it was not.
John's death has been linked to Kipling's 1916 poem "My Boy Jack",
notably in the play My Boy Jack and its subsequent television
adaptation, along with the documentary Rudyard Kipling: A Remembrance
Tale. However, the poem was originally published at the head of a
story about the
Battle of Jutland
Battle of Jutland and appears to refer to a death at
sea; the "Jack" referred to is probably a generic "Jack
Tar". In the Kipling family, Jack was the name of the
family dog, while
John Kipling was always John, making the
identification of the protagonist of "My Boy Jack" with John Kipling
somewhat questionable. However, Kipling was indeed emotionally
devastated by the death of his son. He is said to have assuaged his
grief by reading the novels of
Jane Austen aloud to his wife and
daughter. During the war, he wrote a booklet The Fringes
of the Fleet containing essays and poems on various
nautical subjects of the war. Some of these were set to music by the
English composer Edward Elgar.
Kipling became friends with a French soldier named Maurice Hammoneau,
whose life had been saved in the
First World War
First World War when his copy of Kim,
which he had in his left breast pocket, stopped a bullet. Hammoneau
presented Kipling with the book, with bullet still embedded, and his
Croix de Guerre
Croix de Guerre as a token of gratitude. They continued to correspond,
and when Hammoneau had a son, Kipling insisted on returning the book
On 1 August 1918, a poem, "The Old Volunteer", appeared under his name
in The Times. The next day, he wrote to the newspaper to disclaim
authorship and a correction appeared. Although
The Times employed a
private detective to investigate, the detective appears to have
suspected Kipling himself of being the author, and the identity of the
hoaxer was never established.
After the war (1918–1936)
Kipling, aged 60, on the cover of Time magazine, 27 September 1926.
Partly in response to John's death, Kipling joined Sir Fabian Ware's
Imperial War Graves Commission (now the Commonwealth War Graves
Commission), the group responsible for the garden-like British war
graves that can be found to this day dotted along the former Western
Front and the other places in the world where
British Empire troops
lie buried. His main contributions to the project were his selection
of the biblical phrase, "Their Name Liveth For Evermore"
(Ecclesiasticus 44.14, KJV), found on the Stones of Remembrance in
larger war cemeteries, and his suggestion of the phrase "Known unto
God" for the gravestones of unidentified servicemen. He also chose the
inscription "The Glorious Dead" on the Cenotaph, Whitehall, London.
Additionally, he wrote a two-volume history of the Irish Guards, his
son's regiment, published in 1923 and seen as one of the finest
examples of regimental history.
Kipling's short story "The Gardener" depicts visits to the war
cemeteries, and the poem "The King's Pilgrimage" (1922) a journey
King George V
King George V made, touring the cemeteries and memorials under
construction by the Imperial War Graves Commission. With the
increasing popularity of the automobile, Kipling became a motoring
correspondent for the British press, writing enthusiastically of trips
around England and abroad, though he was usually driven by a
After the war, Kipling was sceptical of the
Fourteen Points and the
League of Nations, but had hopes that the
United States would abandon
isolationism and the post-war world be dominated by an
Anglo-French-American alliance. He hoped the United States
would take on a
League of Nations
League of Nations mandate for Armenia as the best way
of preventing isolationism, and hoped that Theodore Roosevelt, whom
Kipling admired, would again become president. Kipling was
saddened by Roosevelt's death in 1919, believing him to be the only
American politician capable of keeping the
United States in the "game"
of world politics.
Kipling was hostile towards communism, writing of the Bolshevik
take-over in 1917 that one sixth of the world had "passed bodily out
of civilization." In a 1918 poem, Kipling wrote of Soviet
Russia that everything good in Russia had been destroyed by the
Bolsheviks – all that was left was "the sound of weeping and the
sight of burning fire, and the shadow of a people trampled into the
In 1920, Kipling co-founded the Liberty League with
Haggard and Lord Sydenham. This short-lived enterprise focused on
promoting classic liberal ideals as a response to the rising power of
communist tendencies within Great Britain, or as Kipling put it, "to
combat the advance of Bolshevism".
Kipling (second from left) as rector of the University of St
Andrews, Scotland in 1923
In 1922, Kipling, having referred to the work of engineers in some of
his poems, such as "The Sons of Martha", "Sappers", and "McAndrew's
Hymn", and in other writings, including short-story
anthologies such as The Day's Work, was asked by a
University of Toronto
University of Toronto civil engineering professor, Herbert E. T.
Haultain, for assistance in developing a dignified obligation and
ceremony for graduating engineering students. Kipling was enthusiastic
in his response and shortly produced both, formally entitled "The
Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer". Today engineering graduates all
Canada are presented with an iron ring at a ceremony to remind
them of their obligation to society. In 1922
Kipling became Lord Rector of St Andrews University in Scotland, a
Kipling, as a Francophile, argued strongly for an Anglo-French
alliance to uphold the peace, calling Britain and France in 1920 the
"twin fortresses of European civilization". Similarly,
Kipling repeatedly warned against revising the
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles in
Germany's favour, which he predicted would lead to a new world
war. An admirer of Raymond Poincaré, Kipling was one of
few British intellectuals who supported the French Occupation of the
Ruhr in 1923, at a time when the British government and most public
opinion was against the French position. In contrast to
the popular British view of Poincaré as a cruel bully intent on
impoverishing Germany with unreasonable reparations, Kipling argued
that he was rightfully trying to preserve France as a great power in
the face of an unfavourable situation. Kipling argued
that even before 1914, Germany's larger economy and higher birth rate
had made that country stronger than France; with much of France
devastated by war and the French suffering heavy losses meant that its
low birth rate would give it trouble, while Germany was mostly
undamaged and still with a higher birth rate. So he reasoned that the
future would bring German domination if Versailles were revised in
Germany's favour, and it was madness for Britain to pressurise France
into doing so.
Kipling late in his life, portrait by Elliott & Fry.
In 1924, Kipling was opposed to the Labour government of Ramsay
MacDonald as "
Bolshevism without bullets". He believed that Labour was
a communist front organisation, and "excited orders and instructions
from Moscow" would expose Labour as such to the British
people. Kipling's views were on the right. Though he
Benito Mussolini to some extent in the 1920s, he was against
Oswald Mosley was "a bounder and an arriviste". By
1935, he was calling Mussolini a deranged and dangerous egomaniac and
in 1933 wrote, "The Hitlerites are out for blood".
Despite his anti-communism, the first major translations of Kipling
into Russian took place under Lenin's rule in the early 1920s, and
Kipling was popular with Russian readers in the interwar period. Many
younger Russian poets and writers, such as Konstantin Simonov, were
influenced by him. Kipling's clarity of style, use of
colloquial language and employment of rhythm and rhyme were seen as
major innovations in poetry that appealed to many younger Russian
Though it was obligatory for Soviet journals to begin translations of
Kipling with an attack on him as a "fascist" and an "imperialist",
such was Kipling's popularity with Russian readers that his works were
not banned in the
Soviet Union until 1939, with the signing of the
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. The ban was lifted in 1941
after Operation Barbarossa, when Britain become a Soviet ally, but
imposed for good with the
Cold War in 1946.
A left-facing swastika in 1911, a symbol of good luck.
Covers of two of Kipling's books from 1919 (l) and 1930 (r) showing
the removal of the swastika
Many older editions of Rudyard Kipling's books have a swastika printed
on the cover, associated with a picture of an elephant carrying a
lotus flower, reflecting the influence of Indian culture. Kipling's
use of the swastika was based on the Indian sun symbol conferring good
luck and the
Sanskrit word meaning "fortunate" or
"well-being". He used the swastika symbol in both right
and left-facing forms, and it was in general use by others at the
In a note to
Edward Bok after the death of Lockwood Kipling in 1911,
Rudyard said: "I am sending with this for your acceptance, as some
little memory of my father to whom you were so kind, the original of
one of the plaques that he used to make for me. I thought it being the
Swastika would be appropriate for your Swastika. May it bring you even
more good fortune." Once the
Nazis came to power and
usurped the swastika, Kipling ordered that it should no longer adorn
his books. Less than a year before his death, Kipling
gave a speech (titled "An Undefended Island") to the Royal Society of
St George on 6 May 1935, warning of the danger which Nazi Germany
posed to Britain.
Kipling scripted the first Royal Christmas Message, delivered via the
BBC's Empire Service by
George V in 1932. In
1934, he published a short story in The Strand Magazine, "Proofs of
Holy Writ", postulating that
William Shakespeare had helped to polish
the prose of the King James Bible.
Kipling kept writing until the early 1930s, but at a slower pace and
with less success than before. On the night of 12 January 1936 he
suffered a haemorrhage in his small intestine. He underwent surgery,
but died less than a week later on 18 January 1936, at the age of 70
of a perforated duodenal ulcer. His death
had previously been incorrectly announced in a magazine, to which he
wrote, "I've just read that I am dead. Don't forget to delete me from
your list of subscribers."
The pallbearers at the funeral included Kipling's cousin, Prime
Minister Stanley Baldwin, and the marble casket was covered by a Union
Jack. Kipling was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium
in north-west London, and his ashes interred at Poets' Corner, part of
the South Transept of Westminster Abbey, next to the graves of Charles
Dickens and Thomas Hardy.
In 2010, the
International Astronomical Union
International Astronomical Union approved that a crater
on the planet Mercury should be named after Kipling — one of ten
newly discovered impact craters observed by the
in 2008–2009. In 2012, an extinct species of crocodile,
Goniopholis kiplingi, was named in his honour "in recognition for his
enthusiasm for natural sciences".
More than 50 unpublished poems by Kipling, discovered by the American
scholar Thomas Pinney, were released for the first time in March
Kipling's writing has strongly influenced that of others. His stories
for adults remain in print and have garnered high praise from writers
as different as Poul Anderson, Jorge Luis Borges, and Randall Jarrell,
who wrote, "After you have read Kipling's fifty or seventy-five best
stories you realize that few men have written this many stories of
this much merit, and that very few have written more and better
His children's stories remain popular and his Jungle Books made into
several films. The first was made by producer Alexander Korda. Other
films have been produced by The Walt Disney Company. A number of his
poems were set to music by Percy Grainger. A series of short films
based on some of his stories was broadcast by the
1964. Kipling's work is still popular today.
T. S. Eliot
T. S. Eliot edited
A Choice of Kipling's Verse
A Choice of Kipling's Verse (1941) with an
introductory essay. Eliot was aware of the complaints
that had been levelled against Kipling and he dismissed them one by
one: that Kipling is "a Tory" using his verse to transmit right wing
political views, or "a journalist" pandering to popular taste; while
Eliot writes, "I cannot find any justification for the charge that he
held a doctrine of race superiority." Eliot finds
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immense gift for using words, an amazing curiosity and power of
observation with his mind and with all his senses, the mask of the
entertainer, and beyond that a queer gift of second sight, of
transmitting messages from elsewhere, a gift so disconcerting when we
are made aware of it that thenceforth we are never sure when it is not
present: all this makes Kipling a writer impossible wholly to
understand and quite impossible to belittle.— T.S.
Of Kipling's verse, such as his Barrack-Room Ballads, Eliot writes "of
a number of poets who have written great poetry, only... a very few
whom I should call great verse writers. And unless I am mistaken,
Kipling's position in this class is not only high, but
In response to Eliot,
George Orwell wrote a long consideration of
Kipling's work for Horizon in 1942, noting that although as a "jingo
imperialist" Kipling was "morally insensitive and aesthetically
disgusting", his work had many qualities which ensured that while
"every enlightened person has despised him... nine-tenths of those
enlightened persons are forgotten and Kipling is in some sense still
One reason for Kipling's power [was] his sense of responsibility,
which made it possible for him to have a world-view, even though it
happened to be a false one. Although he had no direct connexion with
any political party, Kipling was a Conservative, a thing that does not
exist nowadays. Those who now call themselves Conservatives are either
Liberals, Fascists or the accomplices of Fascists. He identified
himself with the ruling power and not with the opposition. In a gifted
writer this seems to us strange and even disgusting, but it did have
the advantage of giving Kipling a certain grip on reality. The ruling
power is always faced with the question, 'In such and such
circumstances, what would you do?', whereas the opposition is not
obliged to take responsibility or make any real decisions. Where it is
a permanent and pensioned opposition, as in England, the quality of
its thought deteriorates accordingly. Moreover, anyone who starts out
with a pessimistic, reactionary view of life tends to be justified by
events, for Utopia never arrives and 'the gods of the copybook
headings', as Kipling himself put it, always return. Kipling sold out
to the British governing class, not financially but emotionally. This
warped his political judgement, for the British ruling class were not
what he imagined, and it led him into abysses of folly and snobbery,
but he gained a corresponding advantage from having at least tried to
imagine what action and responsibility are like. It is a great thing
in his favour that he is not witty, not 'daring', has no wish to
épater les bourgeois. He dealt largely in platitudes, and since we
live in a world of platitudes, much of what he said sticks. Even his
worst follies seem less shallow and less irritating than the
'enlightened' utterances of the same period, such as Wilde's epigrams
or the collection of cracker-mottoes at the end of Man and
Superman.— George Orwell
Alison Brackenbury writes, "Kipling is poetry's Dickens, an
outsider and journalist with an unrivalled ear for sound and
The English folk singer
Peter Bellamy was a lover of Kipling's poetry,
much of which he believed to have been influenced by English
traditional folk forms. He recorded several albums of Kipling's verse
set to traditional airs, or to tunes of his own composition written in
traditional style. However, in the case of the bawdy folk
song, "The Bastard King of England", which is commonly credited to
Kipling, it is believed that the song is actually
Kipling is often quoted in discussions of contemporary British
political and social issues. In 1911, Kipling wrote the poem The Reeds
of Runnymede that celebrated Magna Carta, and summoned up a vision of
the "stubborn Englishry" determined to defend their rights. In 1996,
the following verses of the poem were quoted by former Prime Minister
Margaret Thatcher warning against the encroachment of the European
Union on national sovereignty:
At Runnymede, at Runnymede,
Oh, hear the reeds at Runnymede:
‘You musn’t sell, delay, deny,
A freeman’s right or liberty.
It wakes the stubborn Englishry,
We saw ’em roused at Runnymede!
… And still when Mob or Monarch lays
Too rude a hand on English ways,
The whisper wakes, the shudder plays,
Across the reeds at Runnymede.
And Thames, that knows the mood of kings,
And crowds and priests and suchlike things,
Rolls deep and dreadful as he brings
Their warning down from Runnymede!
Political singer-songwriter Billy Bragg, who attempts to reclaim
English nationalism from the right-wing, has reclaimed Kipling for an
inclusive sense of Englishness. Kipling's enduring
relevance has been noted in the United States, as it has become
Afghanistan and other areas about which he
Links with camping and scouting
In 1903, Kipling gave permission to Elizabeth Ford Holt to borrow
themes from the Jungle Books to establish Camp Mowglis, a summer camp
for boys on the shores of
Newfound Lake in New Hampshire. Throughout
their lives, Kipling and his wife Carrie maintained an active interest
in Camp Mowglis, which still continues the traditions that Kipling
inspired. Buildings at Mowglis have names such as Akela, Toomai,
Baloo, and Panther. The campers are referred to as "the Pack", from
the youngest "Cubs" to the oldest living in "Den".
Kipling's links with the
Scouting movements were also strong. Robert
Baden-Powell, founder of Scouting, used many themes from Jungle Book
stories and Kim in setting up his junior Wolf Cubs. These ties still
exist, such as the popularity of "Kim's Game". The movement is named
after Mowgli's adopted wolf family, and adult helpers of Wolf Cub
Packs take names from The Jungle Book, especially the adult leader
called Akela after the leader of the Seeonee wolf pack.
Bateman's, Kipling's beloved home — which he referred to as "A
good and peaceable place" — in Burwash, East Sussex, is now a public
museum dedicated to the author
After the death of Kipling's wife in 1939, his house,
Burwash, East Sussex, where he had lived from 1902 until 1936, was
bequeathed to the National Trust. It is now a public museum dedicated
to the author. Elsie Bambridge, his only child who lived to maturity,
died childless in 1976, and bequeathed her copyrights to the National
Trust, which in turn donated them to the
University of Sussex
University of Sussex to
ensure better public access.
Novelist and poet Sir
Kingsley Amis wrote a poem, "Kipling at
Bateman's", after visiting
Burwash (where Amis's father lived briefly
in the 1960s). as part of a
BBC television series on writers and their
In 2003, actor
Ralph Fiennes read excerpts from Kipling's works from
the study in Bateman's, including, The Jungle Book, Something of
Myself, Kim, and The Just So Stories, and poems, including "If ..."
and "My Boy Jack", for a CD published by the National
Reputation in India
In modern-day India, whence he drew much of his material, Kipling's
reputation remains controversial, especially amongst modern
nationalists and some post-colonial critics.
Rudyard Kipling was a
prominent supporter of Colonel Reginald Dyer, who was responsible for
Jallianwala Bagh massacre
Jallianwala Bagh massacre in
Amritsar (in the province of Punjab).
Kipling called Dyer "the man who saved India" and initiated
collections for the latter's homecoming prize. However,
Subhash Chopra writes in his book Kipling Sahib – the Raj Patriot
that the benefit fund was started by
The Morning Post newspaper, not
by Kipling, and that Kipling made no contribution to the Dyer fund.
While Kipling's name was conspicuously absent from the list of donors
as published in The Morning Post, he clearly admired
Other contemporary Indian intellectuals such as
Ashis Nandy have taken
a more nuanced view. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of
independent India, often described Kipling's novel Kim as one of his
G. V. Desani, an Indian writer of fiction, had a more negative opinion
of Kipling. He alludes to Kipling in his novel, All About H. Hatterr:
I happen to pick up R. Kipling's autobiographical "Kim".
Therein, this self-appointed whiteman's burden-bearing sherpa feller's
stated how, in the Orient, blokes hit the road and think nothing of
walking a thousand miles in search of something.
Khushwant Singh wrote in 2001 that he considers
Kipling's "If—" "the essence of the message of The Gita in
English", referring to the Bhagavad Gita, an ancient
R. K. Narayan
R. K. Narayan said, "Kipling, the supposed expert writer
on India, showed a better understanding of the mind of the animals in
the jungle than of the men in an Indian home or the
In November 2007, it was announced that Kipling's birth home in the
campus of the J. J. School of Art in
Mumbai would be turned into a
museum celebrating the author and his works.
Rudyard Kipling bibliography
Kipling's bibliography includes fiction (including novels and short
stories), non-fiction, and poetry. Several of his works were
List of Nobel laureates in Literature
HMS Birkenhead (1845) – ship mentioned in one of
^ The Times, (London) 18 January 1936, p. 12.
^ "The Man who would be King". Notes on the text by John McGivering.
^ a b c d e Rutherford, Andrew (1987). General Preface to the Editions
of Rudyard Kipling, in "
Puck of Pook's Hill
Puck of Pook's Hill and Rewards and Fairies",
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.cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em ISBN 0-19-282575-5
^ a b c d e Rutherford, Andrew (1987). Introduction to the Oxford
World's Classics edition of 'Plain Tales from the Hills', by Rudyard
Kipling. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-281652-7
James Joyce considered Tolstoy, Kipling and
D'Annunzio the "three
writers of the nineteenth century who had the greatest natural
talents", but that they "did not fulfill that promise". He also noted
their "semi-fanatic ideas about religion, or about patriotism". Diary
of David Fleischman, 21 July 1938, quoted in
James Joyce by Richard
Ellmann, p. 661, Oxford University Press (1983)
^ Alfred Nobel Foundation. "Who is the youngest ever to receive a
Nobel Prize, and who is the oldest?". Nobelprize.com. p. 409.
Archived from the original on 25 September 2006. Retrieved 30
^ Birkenhead, Lord. (1978). Rudyard Kipling, Appendix B, "Honours and
Awards". Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London; Random House Inc., New
^ Lewis, Lisa. (1995). Introduction to the Oxford World's Classics
edition of "Just So Stories", by Rudyard Kipling. Oxford University
Press. pp. xv–xlii. ISBN 0-19-282276-4
^ Quigley, Isabel. (1987). Introduction to the Oxford World's Classics
edition of "The Complete Stalky & Co.", by Rudyard Kipling. Oxford
University Press. pp. xiii–xxviii. ISBN 0-19-281660-8
^ Said, Edward. (1993). Culture and Imperialism. London: Chatto &
Windus. p. 196. ISBN 0-679-75054-1.
^ Sandison, Alan. (1987). Introduction to the Oxford World's Classics
edition of Kim, by Rudyard Kipling. Oxford University Press. pp.
xiii–xxx. ISBN 0-19-281674-8
^ Orwell, George (30 September 2006). "Essay on Kipling". Archived
from the original on 18 September 2006. Retrieved 30 September 2006.
^ Douglas Kerr, University of Hong Kong (30 May 2002). "Rudyard
Kipling." The Literary Encyclopedia. The Literary Dictionary Company.
26 September 2006.
^ a b c d e Carrington, C.E. (Charles Edmund) (1955). Rudyard Kipling:
His Life and Work. Macmillan & Co.
^ Flanders, Judith. (2005). A Circle of Sisters: Alice Kipling,
Georgiana Burne-Jones, Agnes Poynter, and Louisa Baldwin. W. W. Norton
and Company, New York. ISBN 0-393-05210-9
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Gilmour
^ "My Rival" 1885. Notes edited by John Radcliffe.
^ Gilmour, p. 32.
^ thepotteries.org (13 January 2002). "did you know..." The
potteries.org. Retrieved 2 October 2006.
^ Ahmed, Zubair (27 November 2007). "Kipling's India home to become
BBC News. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
^ Sir J. J. College of Architecture (30 September 2006). "Campus". Sir
J. J. College of Architecture, Mumbai. Archived from the original on
28 July 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2006.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url
status unknown (link)
^ Aklekar, Rajendra (12 August 2014). "Red tape keeps Kipling bungalow
Mumbai Mirror. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
^ Kipling, Rudyard (1894) "To the City of Bombay", dedication to Seven
Seas, Macmillan & Co.
^ Murphy, Bernice M. (21 June 1999). "
Rudyard Kipling – A Brief
Biography". School of English, The Queen's University of Belfast.
Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 6 October
2006.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Kipling, Rudyard (1935). "Something
of Myself". Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved
6 September 2008.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ Pinney, Thomas (2011) . "Kipling, (Joseph) Rudyard
(1865–1936)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.).
Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/34334.(Subscription or
UK public library membership required.)
^ Pinney, Thomas (1995). "A Very Young Person, Notes on the text".
Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
^ a b c d Carpenter, Humphrey and Prichard, Mari. (1984). Oxford
Companion to Children's Literature. Oxford University Press. pp.
296–297. ISBN 0192115820.
^ Chums, No. 256, Vol. V, 4 August 1897, p. 798.
^ Neelam, S (8 June 2008). "Rudyard Kipling's
Allahabad bungalow in
shambles". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
^ "Kipling, Rudyard — 1865–1936—Homes & haunts —
Allahabad (from the collection of William Carpenter)". Library
of Congress US. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
^ a b Scott, p. 315
^ a b Pinney, Thomas (editor). Letters of Rudyard Kipling, volume 1.
Macmillan & Co.,
London and NY.
^ a b c d Hughes, James (2010). "Those Who Passed Through: Unusual
Visits to Unlikely Places". New York History. 91 (2): 146–151.
^ Kipling, Rudyard (1956) Kipling: a selection of his stories and
poems, Volume 2 p. 349 Doubleday, 1956
^ Coates, John D. (1997). The Day's Work: Kipling and the Idea of
Sacrifice. Fairleigh University Press. p. 130. ISBN 083863754X.
^ Kaplan, Robert D. (1989)
Lahore as Kipling Knew It. The New York
Times. Retrieved 9 March 2008
^ Kipling, Rudyard (1996) Writings on Writing. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 0-521-44527-2, pp. 36 and 173
^ Mallet, Phillip (2003). Rudyard Kipling: A Literary Life. Palgrave
Macmillan, New York. ISBN 0-333-55721-2
^ a b Ricketts, Harry (1999). Rudyard Kipling: A life. Carroll and
Graf Publishers Inc., New York. ISBN 0-7867-0711-9
^ Kipling, Rudyard. (1920). Letters of Travel (1892–1920). Macmillan
Nicolson, Adam (2001). Carrie Kipling 1862–1939: The Hated Wife.
Faber & Faber, London. ISBN 0-571-20835-5
^ a b Pinney, Thomas (editor). Letters of Rudyard Kipling, volume 2.
Macmillan & Co.
^ Kipling, Rudyard. 1899. The White Man's Burden. Published
simultaneously in The Times, London, and McClure's Magazine (US) 12
^ Snodgrass, Chris (2002). A Companion to Victorian Poetry. Blackwell,
^ Kipling, Rudyard. (July 1897). "Recessional'". The Times, London
^ "Something of Myself", published 1935,
South Africa Chapter
^ Reilly, Bernard F., Center for Research Libraries, Chicago,
Illinois. email to Marion Wallace The Friend newspaper, Orange Free
State, South Africa.
^ Carrington, C. E. (1955). The life of Rudyard Kipling, Doubleday
& Co., Garden City, NY, p. 236.
^ Kipling, Rudyard (18 March 1900). "Kipling at Cape Town: Severe
Arraignment of Treacherous Afrikanders and Demand for Condign
Punishment By and By" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 21.
^ "Kipling.s Sussex: The Elms". Kipling.org.
^ "Bateman's: Jacobean house, home of Rudyard Kipling". National
C. E. Carrington (1955). The life of Rudyard Kipling, p. 286.
Bateman's House". Nationaltrust.org.uk. 17 November 2005. Archived
from the original on 17 January 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2010.CS1
maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ "Writers History – Kipling Rudyard". writershistory.com. Archived
from the original on 25 April 2015.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
^ Scott, pp. 318–319.
^ Leoshko, J. (2001). "What is in Kim?
Rudyard Kipling and Tibetan
Buddhist Traditions". South Asia Research. 21 (1): 51–75.
^ a b c d Gilmour, p. 206
^ Bennett, Arnold (1917). Books and Persons Being Comments on a Past
Epoch 1908–1911. London: Chatto & Windus.
^ Fred Lerner. "A Master of Our Art:
Rudyard Kipling and modern
Science Fiction". The Kipling Society.
^ Nomination Database. Nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 4 May 2017.
Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature 1907 – presentation Speech".
^ a b Emma Jones (2004). The Literary Companion. Robson. p. 25.
^ a b c MacKenzie, David & Dutil, Patrice (2011)
Canada 1911: The
Decisive Election that Shaped the Country. Toronto: Dundurn. p. 211.
^ Gilmour, p. 242.
^ a b c Gilmour, p. 243.
^ Gilmour, p. 241.
^ Gilmour, pp. 242–244.
^ a b c Gilmour, p. 244.
^ a b Mackey, Albert G. (1946). Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Vol. 1.
Chicago: The Masonic History Co.
^ Our brother Rudyard Kipling. Masonic lecture.
Albertpike.wordpress.com (7 October 2011). Retrieved on 4 May 2017.
^ "Official Visit to Meridian Lodge No. 687" (PDF). 12 February 2014.
^ a b c d Bilsing, Tracey (Summer 2000). "The Process of Manufacture
of Rudyard Kipling's Private Propaganda" (PDF). War Literature and the
Arts. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 15
^ a b Gilmour, p. 250.
^ a b Gilmour, p. 251.
^ "Full text of 'The new army in training'". archive.org.
^ Brown, Jonathan (28 August 2006). "The Great War and its aftermath:
The son who haunted Kipling". The Independent. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
It was only his father's intervention that allowed
John Kipling to
serve on the Western Front — and the poet never got over his death.
^ Quinlan, Mark (11 December 2007). "The controversy over John
Kipling's burial place". War Memorials Archive Blog. Retrieved 3 May
^ "Solving the mystery of Rudyard Kipling's son".
BBC News Magazine.
18 January 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
^ McGreevy, Ronan (25 September 2015). "Grave of Rudyard Kipling's son
correctly named, says authority". The Irish Times. Retrieved 3 May
^ "Casualty record: Lieutenant Kipling, John". Commonwealth War Graves
Commission. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
^ Webb, George (1997). Foreword to: Kipling, Rudyard. The Irish Guards
in the Great War. 2 vols. Spellmount. p. 9.
^ Southam, Brian (6 March 2010). "Notes on "My Boy Jack"". Retrieved
23 July 2011.
^ "The Many Lovers of Miss Jane Austen", BBC2 broadcast, 9 pm 23
^ The Fringes of the Fleet, Macmillan & Co., 1916.
^ Original correspondence between Kipling and Maurice Hammoneau and
his son Jean Hammoneau concerning the affair at the Library of
Congress under the title: How "Kim" saved the life of a French
soldier: a remarkable series of autograph letters of Rudyard Kipling,
with the soldier's Croix de Guerre, 1918–1933. LOC Ref #2007566938.
The library also possesses the actual French 389-page paperback
edition of Kim that saved Hammoneau's life, LOC Ref #2007581430
^ Simmers, George (27 May 1918). "A Kipling Hoax". The Times.
^ Kipling, Rudyard (1923). The
Irish Guards in the Great War. 2 vols.
^ a b Gilmour, p. 273.
^ Gilmour, pp. 273–274.
^ a b Hodgson, p. 1060.
^ "The Liberty League – a campaign against Bolshevism". jot101.com.
Retrieved 2 January 2017.
^ Miller, David and Dinan, William (2008) A Century of Spin. Pluto
Press. ISBN 978-0-7453-2688-7
^ Gilmour, p. 275.
^ Kipling, Rudyard (1940) The Definitive edition of Rudyard Kipling's
verse. Hodder & Stoughton.
^ "The day's work". Internet Archive.
^ "The Iron Ring". Ironring.ca. Retrieved 10 September 2008.
^ "The Calling of an Engineer". Ironring.ca. Retrieved 24 November
^ a b Gilmour, p. 300.
^ a b c Gilmour, pp. 300–301.
^ Gilmour, p. 293.
^ Gilmour, pp. 302 and 304.
^ a b Hodgson, pp. 1059–1060.
^ Hodgson, pp. 1062–1063.
^ Hodgson, p. 1059.
^ a b c Smith, Michael."Kipling and the Swastika". Kipling.org.
^ Schliemann, H, Troy and its remains, London: Murray, 1875, pp. 102,
^ Boxer, Sarah (29 June 2000). "One of the World's Great Symbols
Strives for a Comeback". Think Tank. The New York Times. Retrieved 7
^ Rudyard Kipling, War Stories and Poems (Oxford Paperbacks, 1999),
^ Knight, Sam (17 March 2017). "'
London Bridge is down': the secret
plan for the days after the Queen's death". The Guardian. Retrieved 12
^ Rose, Kenneth (1983). King George V. London: Weidenfeld and
Nicolson. p. 394. ISBN 978-1-84212-001-9.
^ Short Stories from the Strand, The Folio Society, 1992
Harry Ricketts (2000). Rudyard Kipling: A Life. Carroll & Graf.
pp. 388–. ISBN 978-0-7867-0830-7. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
^ Rudyard Kipling's Waltzing Ghost: The Literary Heritage of Brown's
Hotel, paragraph 11, Sandra Jackson-Opoku, Literary Traveler.
^ Chernega, Carol (2011). A Dream House: Exploring the Literary Homes
of England. p. 90. Dog Ear Publishing. ISBN 1457502461.
^ a b "History – Rudyard Kipling". Westminster abbey.org.
^ – Article from the Red Orbit News network 16 March 2010. Retrieved
18 March 2010
Rudyard Kipling inspires naming of prehistoric crocodile". BBC
Online. 20 March 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
^ Flood, Alison (25 February 2013). "50 unseen
Rudyard Kipling poems
discovered". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
^ Jarrell, Randall (1999). "On Preparing to Read Kipling." No Other
Book: Selected Essays. New York: HarperCollins.
^ The Indian Tales of
Rudyard Kipling on IMDb
^ Eliot. Eliot's essay occupies 31 pages.
^ Eliot, p. 29.
^ Eliot, p. 22.
^ Eliot, p. 36.
^ Orwell, George (February 1942). "Rudyard Kipling". Horizon.
Retrieved 4 December 2013.
^ Brackenbury, Alison. "Poetry Hero: Rudyard Kipling". Poetry News.
The Poetry Society (Spring 2011). Archived from the original on 23 May
2013. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
^ Pareles, Jon (26 September 1991). "Peter Bellamy, 47; British Folk
Singer Who Wrote Opera". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
^ "Bastard King of England, The". fresnostate.edu.
^ “Keith Joseph Memorial Lecture ("Liberty and Limited
Government")”. Margaret Thatcher.org. 1996 Jan 11.
BBC Radio 4 – Rhyme and Reason, Billy Bragg".
^ World View: Is
Afghanistan turning into another Vietnam?, Johnathan
Power, The Citizen, 31 December 2010
^ Is America waxing or waning?, Andrew Sullivan, The Atlantic, 12
^ Dufour, Steve. "Rudyard Kipling, official poet of the 911 War".
^ "History of Mowglis". Retrieved 26 November 2013.
^ "ScoutBase UK: The Library –
Scouting history – Me Too! – The
history of Cubbing in the
United Kingdom 1916–present".
Scoutbase.org.uk. Archived from the original on 25 November 2005.
Retrieved 10 September 2008.
^ "History at Bateman's". National Trust. 22 February 2019.
^ Howard, Philip (19 September 1977) "University library to have
Kipling papers". The Times", p. 1.
^ leader, Zachary (2007). The Life of Kingsley Amis. Vintage. pp.
704–705. ISBN 0375424989.
^ "Personal touch brings Kipling's Sussex home to life". The Argus.
Rudyard Kipling Readings by Ralph Fiennes". Allmusic.
^ "History repeats itself, in stopping short". telegraphindia.com.
^ Subhash Chopra (2016). Kipling Sahib: the Raj patriot. London: New
Millennium. ISBN 978-1858454405.
^ Globalization and educational rights: an intercivilizational
analysis, Joel H. Spring, p. 137.
^ Post independence voices in South Asian writings, Malashri Lal,
Alamgīr Hashmī, Victor J. Ramraj, 2001.
^ Khushwant Singh, Review of The Book of Prayer by Renuka Narayanan ,
^ "When Malgudi man courted controversy". The Hindu. Retrieved 13
^ Ahmed, Zubair (27 November 2007). "Kipling's India home to become
BBC News. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
Eliot, T.S. (1941). A Choice of Kipling's Verse, made by T. S. Eliot
with an essay on Rudyard Kipling. Faber and
Gilmour, David (2003). The long recessional: the imperial life of
Rudyard Kipling. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-1466830004.
Hodgson, Katherine (October 1998). "The Poetry of
Rudyard Kipling in
Soviet Russia". The Modern Language Review. 93 (4): 1058–1071.
Scott, David (June 2011). "Kipling, the Orient, and Orientals:
'Orientalism' Reoriented?". Journal of World History. 22 (2):
299–328 . JSTOR 23011713.
Biography and criticism
Allen, Charles (2007). Kipling Sahib: India and the Making of Rudyard
Kipling, Abacus. ISBN 978-0-349-11685-3
Bauer, Helen Pike (1994). Rudyard Kipling: A Study of the Short
Fiction. New York: Twayne
Birkenhead, Lord (Frederick Smith, 2nd Earl of Birkenhead) (1978).
Rudyard Kipling. Worthing: Littlehampton Book Services Ltd.
Carrington, Charles (1955). Rudyard Kipling: His Life and Work.
London: Macmillan & Co.
David, C. (2007). Rudyard Kipling: a critical study, New Delhi: Anmol.
Dillingham, William B (2005). Rudyard Kipling: Hell and Heroism New
York: Palgrave Macmillan[ISBN missing]
Gilbert, Elliot L. ed. (1965). Kipling and the Critics (New York: New
York University Press)
Gilmour, David (2003). The Long Recessional: The Imperial Life of
Rudyard Kipling New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Green, Roger Lancelyn, ed. (1971). Kipling: the Critical Heritage.
London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Gross, John, ed. (1972). Rudyard Kipling: the Man, his Work and his
World. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson
Harris, Brian (2014). The Surprising Mr Kipling: An anthology and
reassessment of the poetry of Rudyard Kipling. CreateSpace.
Harris, Brian (2015). The Two Sided Man. CreateSpace.
Kemp, Sandra (1988). Kipling's Hidden Narratives Oxford: Blackwell
Lycett, Andrew (1999). Rudyard Kipling. London: Weidenfeld &
Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-81907-0
Lycett, Andrew (ed.) (2010). Kipling Abroad, I. B. Tauris.
Mallett, Phillip (2003). Rudyard Kipling: A Literary Life Basingstoke:
Montefiore, Jan (ed.) (2013). In Time's Eye: Essays on Rudyard
Kipling. Manchester: Manchester University Press
Narita, Tatsushi (2011).
T. S. Eliot
T. S. Eliot and his Youth as 'A Literary
Columbus'. Nagoya: Kougaku Shuppan
Nicolson, Adam (2001). Carrie Kipling 1862–1939 : The Hated
Wife. Faber & Faber, London. ISBN 0-571-20835-5
Ricketts, Harry (2001). Rudyard Kipling: A Life. New York: Da Capo
Press ISBN 0-7867-0830-1
Rooney, Caroline, and Kaori Nagai, eds. (2011). Kipling and Beyond:
Patriotism, Globalisation, and Postcolonialism. Palgrave Macmillan;
214 pages; scholarly essays on Kipling's "boy heroes of empire,"
Kipling and C.L.R. James, and Kipling and the new American empire,
Rutherford, Andrew, ed. (1964). Kipling's Mind and Art. Edinburgh and
London: Oliver and Boyd
Sergeant, David (2013). Kipling's Art of Fiction 1884–1901 Oxford:
Oxford University Press
Martin Seymour-Smith (1990). Rudyard
Shippey, Tom, "Rudyard Kipling," in: Cahier Calin: Makers of the
Middle Ages. Essays in Honor of William Calin, ed.
Richard Utz and
Elizabeth Emery (Kalamazoo, MI: Studies in Medievalism, 2011),
Tompkins, J.M.S. (1959). The Art of Rudyard Kipling. London: Methuen
Walsh, Sue (2010). Kipling's Children's Literature: Language,
Identity, and Constructions of Childhood Farnham: Ashgate
Wilson, Angus (1978). The Strange Ride of Rudyard Kipling: His Life
and Works New York: The Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-67701-9
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The Light That Failed
The Light That Failed (1891)
The Naulahka: A Story of West and East (co-author, Wolcott Balestier,
Captains Courageous (1896)
Plain Tales from the Hills (1888)
Soldiers Three (1888)
The Story of the Gadsbys
The Story of the Gadsbys (1888)
In Black and White (1888)
The Phantom 'Rickshaw and other Eerie Tales
The Phantom 'Rickshaw and other Eerie Tales (1888)
Under the Deodars
Under the Deodars (1888)
Wee Willie Winkie and Other Child Stories
Wee Willie Winkie and Other Child Stories (1888)
From Sea to Sea and Other Sketches, Letters of Travel (1889)
Barrack-Room Ballads (1892, poetry)
Many Inventions (1893)
The Jungle Book
The Jungle Book (1894)
The Second Jungle Book
The Second Jungle Book (1895)
"Letting in the Jungle"
Mowgli Stories (c. 1895)
The Seven Seas (1896, poetry)
The Day's Work (1898)
Stalky & Co. (1899)
Just So Stories
Just So Stories (1902)
The Five Nations
The Five Nations (1903, poetry)
Puck of Pook's Hill
Puck of Pook's Hill (1906)
Rewards and Fairies
Rewards and Fairies (1910)
The Fringes of the Fleet
The Fringes of the Fleet (1915, non-fiction)
Debits and Credits (1926)
Limits and Renewals (1932)
Rudyard Kipling's Verse: Definitive Edition (1940)
A Choice of Kipling's Verse
A Choice of Kipling's Verse (by T. S. Eliot, 1941)
"The Absent-Minded Beggar"
"The Ballad of the "Clampherdown""
"The Ballad of East and West"
"The Bell Buoy"
"The Female of the Species"
"The Gods of the Copybook Headings"
"Hymn Before Action"
"In the Neolithic Age"
"The King's Pilgrimage"
"The Last of the Light Brigade"
"The Lowestoft Boat"
"The Mary Gloster"
"My Boy Jack"
"A Song in Storm"
"The Sons of Martha"
"The White Man's Burden"
"The Widow at Windsor"
"The Arrest of Lieutenant Golightly"
"Baa Baa, Black Sheep"
"Bread upon the Waters"
"The Broken Link Handicap"
"The Butterfly that Stamped"
"The Conversion of Aurelian McGoggin"
"The Devil and the Deep Sea"
"The Drums of the Fore and Aft"
"His Chance in Life"
"His Wedded Wife"
"In the House of Suddhoo"
"Learoyd, Mulvaney and Ortheris"
"The Man Who Would Be King"
"A Matter of Fact"
"Miss Youghal's Sais"
"The Mother Hive"
"The Other Man"
"The Rescue of Pluffles"
"The Ship that Found Herself"
"The Sing-Song of Old Man Kangaroo"
"The Taking of Lungtungpen"
"Three and – an Extra"
"The Three Musketeers"
"Toomai of the Elephants"
"Watches of the Night"
"Yoked with an Unbeliever"
Indian Railway Library
Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer
Law of the jungle
Aerial Board of Control
My Boy Jack (1997 play)
Rudyard Kipling: A Remembrance Tale (2006 documentary)
My Boy Jack (2007 film)
Elsie Bambridge (daughter)
John Kipling (son)
John Lockwood Kipling
John Lockwood Kipling (father)
MacDonald sisters (mother's family)
Stanley Baldwin (cousin)
Georgiana Burne-Jones (aunt)
Edward Burne-Jones (uncle)
Philip Burne-Jones (cousin)
Edward Poynter (uncle)
Alfred Baldwin (uncle)
vteLaureates of the Nobel Prize in Literature1901–1925
1901: Sully Prudhomme
1902: Theodor Mommsen
1903: Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
Frédéric Mistral / José Echegaray
1905: Henryk Sienkiewicz
1906: Giosuè Carducci
1907: Rudyard Kipling
1908: Rudolf Eucken
1909: Selma Lagerlöf
1910: Paul Heyse
1911: Maurice Maeterlinck
1912: Gerhart Hauptmann
1913: Rabindranath Tagore
1915: Romain Rolland
1916: Verner von Heidenstam
1917: Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan
1919: Carl Spitteler
1920: Knut Hamsun
1921: Anatole France
1922: Jacinto Benavente
1923: W. B. Yeats
1924: Władysław Reymont
1925: George Bernard Shaw
1926: Grazia Deledda
1927: Henri Bergson
1928: Sigrid Undset
1929: Thomas Mann
1930: Sinclair Lewis
1931: Erik Axel Karlfeldt
1932: John Galsworthy
1933: Ivan Bunin
1934: Luigi Pirandello
1936: Eugene O'Neill
1937: Roger Martin du Gard
1938: Pearl S. Buck
1939: Frans Eemil Sillanpää
1944: Johannes V. Jensen
1945: Gabriela Mistral
1946: Hermann Hesse
1947: André Gide
1948: T. S. Eliot
1949: William Faulkner
1950: Bertrand Russell
1951: Pär Lagerkvist
1952: François Mauriac
1953: Winston Churchill
1954: Ernest Hemingway
1955: Halldór Laxness
1956: Juan Ramón Jiménez
1957: Albert Camus
1958: Boris Pasternak
1959: Salvatore Quasimodo
1960: Saint-John Perse
1961: Ivo Andrić
1962: John Steinbeck
1963: Giorgos Seferis
Jean-Paul Sartre (declined award)
1965: Mikhail Sholokhov
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Shmuel Yosef Agnon / Nelly Sachs
1967: Miguel Ángel Asturias
1968: Yasunari Kawabata
1969: Samuel Beckett
1970: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
1971: Pablo Neruda
1972: Heinrich Böll
1973: Patrick White
Eyvind Johnson / Harry Martinson
1975: Eugenio Montale
1976: Saul Bellow
1977: Vicente Aleixandre
1978: Isaac Bashevis Singer
1979: Odysseas Elytis
1980: Czesław Miłosz
1981: Elias Canetti
1982: Gabriel García Márquez
1983: William Golding
1984: Jaroslav Seifert
1985: Claude Simon
1986: Wole Soyinka
1987: Joseph Brodsky
1988: Naguib Mahfouz
1989: Camilo José Cela
1990: Octavio Paz
1991: Nadine Gordimer
1992: Derek Walcott
1993: Toni Morrison
1994: Kenzaburō Ōe
1995: Seamus Heaney
1996: Wisława Szymborska
1997: Dario Fo
1998: José Saramago
1999: Günter Grass
2000: Gao Xingjian
2001: V. S. Naipaul
2002: Imre Kertész
2003: J. M. Coetzee
2004: Elfriede Jelinek
2005: Harold Pinter
2006: Orhan Pamuk
2007: Doris Lessing
2008: J. M. G. Le Clézio
2009: Herta Müller
2010: Mario Vargas Llosa
2011: Tomas Tranströmer
2012: Mo Yan
2013: Alice Munro
2014: Patrick Modiano
2015: Svetlana Alexievich
2016: Bob Dylan
2017: Kazuo Ishiguro
vteNobel Laureates in English Literature
Tagore, Beckett, and Brodsky also wrote in Bengali, French, and
Russian languages respectively alongside English.
vteRudyard Kipling's The Jungle BookBooks
The Jungle Book
The Jungle Book (1894)
The Second Jungle Book
The Second Jungle Book (1895)
Mowgli Stories (1933)
"Letting in the Jungle"
"Toomai of the Elephants"
The Jungle Book
The Jungle Book (1967)
The Jungle Book
The Jungle Book (1994)
The Jungle Book: Mowgli's Story (1998)
The Jungle Book
The Jungle Book 2 (2003)
The Jungle Book
The Jungle Book (2016)
Jungle Cubs (1996–1998)
"Colonel Hathi's March"
"The Bare Necessities"
"I Wan'na Be like You"
"Trust in Me"
"That's What Friends Are For"
"My Own Home"
"Jungle Jungle Baat Chali Hai"
The Jungle Book
The Jungle Book (1993)
The Jungle Book
The Jungle Book Groove Party (2000)
The Jungle Book: Alive with Magic
Colonel Hathi's Pizza Outpost
Elephant Boy (1937)
Rudyard Kipling's Jungle Book
Rudyard Kipling's Jungle Book (1942)
The Second Jungle Book:
Mowgli: Legend of the Jungle (2018)
Mowgli's Brothers (1976)
Jungle Book Shōnen
Mowgli: The New Adventures of the Jungle Book (1998)
The Jungle Book
The Jungle Book (2010–)
The Third Jungle Book
The Third Jungle Book (1992)
A dzsungel könyve
Law of the jungle
The Graveyard Book
The Graveyard Book (2008)
vteRudyard Kipling's The Light that FailedFilms
The Light That Failed
The Light That Failed (1923)
The Light That Failed
The Light That Failed (1939)
"Bite the bullet"
vteVictorian-era children's literatureAuthors
Henry Cadwallader Adams
R. M. Ballantyne
Lucy Lyttelton Cameron
Christabel Rose Coleridge
Juliana Horatia Ewing
Frederic W. Farrar
G. E. Farrow
Anna Maria Hall
L. T. Meade
G. A. Henty
Frances Hodgson Burnett
W. H. G. Kingston
Mary Louisa Molesworth
Frances Mary Peard
William Brighty Rands
Talbot Baines Reed
Elizabeth Missing Sewell
Mary Martha Sherwood
Flora Annie Steel
Robert Louis Stevenson
Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna
Charlotte Maria Tucker
Charlotte Mary Yonge
Eleanor Vere Boyle
Thomas Dalziel (engraver)
H. H. Emmerson
Edmund Evans (engraver)
Sydney Prior Hall
Harold Robert Millar
J. G. Sowerby
List of 19th-century British children's literature titles
Marcus Ward & Co.
Frederick Warne & Co
BNF: cb13091505s (data)
ISNI: 0000 0001 2098 9213
WorldCat Identities (vi