Mayor of New York City
Campaign for the Mayoralty (1993)
September 11 attacks
Rudolph William Louis Giuliani KBE (/ˌdʒuːliˈɑːni/; born May
28, 1944) is an American lawyer, businessman, public speaker, former
mayor of New York City, and an informal adviser on cybersecurity to
the White House.
Politically a Democrat, then an Independent in the 1970s, and a
Republican since the 1980s, Giuliani was the United States Attorney
Southern District of New York
Southern District of New York during the 1980s. Giuliani
prosecuted pivotal cases against the American Mafia, and against
corrupt corporate financiers.
During his first term as mayor of New York City, Giuliani hired a new
police commissioner, William Bratton, who applied the broken windows
theory of urban decay, which holds that minor disorders and violations
create a permissive atmosphere that leads to further and more serious
crimes that can threaten the safety of a city. Within several
years, Giuliani was widely credited for major improvements in the
city's quality of life, and in lowering the rate of violent crimes.
While still Mayor, Giuliani ran for the
U.S. Senate in 2000; however,
he withdrew from the race upon learning of his prostate cancer
diagnosis. Giuliani was named Time magazine's Person of the Year
for 2001, and was given an honorary knighthood in 2002 by the
United Kingdom's Queen Elizabeth II for his leadership in the
aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001.
In 2002, Giuliani founded
Giuliani Partners (security consulting),
acquired and later sold Giuliani Capital Advisors (investment
banking), and joined a Texas firm while opening a Manhattan office for
the firm renamed Bracewell & Giuliani (legal services). Giuliani
sought the Republican Party's 2008 presidential nomination, and was
considered the early front runner in the race, before withdrawing
from the race to endorse the eventual nominee, John McCain. Giuliani
was considered a potential candidate for New York Governor in
2010 and for the Republican presidential nomination in 2012.
Giuliani declined all races, and instead remained in the business
On January 12, 2017, President-elect
Donald Trump named Giuliani his
informal cybersecurity adviser.
1 Early life
2 Legal career
2.1 Mafia Commission trial
2.2 Boesky, Milken trials
3 Mayoral campaigns
4.1 Law enforcement
4.2 City services
4.3 Appointees as defendants
U.S. Senate campaign
4.5 September 11 terrorist attacks
4.5.2 Communication preparedness
4.5.3 Public reaction
4.5.4 Time Person of the Year
5.1.1 Before 2008 election
5.1.2 2008 presidential campaign
5.1.3 After 2008 election
5.1.4 2016 presidential election
5.1.5 Advisor to President Donald Trump
5.2 Giuliani Partners
5.3 Bracewell & Giuliani
5.4 Greenberg Traurig
6 Personal life
6.1 Marriages and relationships
6.2 Prostate cancer
6.3 Religion and beliefs
7 Awards and honors
8 Media references
9 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Giuliani was born in an Italian-American enclave in East Flatbush in
New York City
New York City borough of Brooklyn, the only child of working-class
parents, Harold Angelo Giuliani (1908–1981) and Helen Giuliani (née
D'Avanzo; 1909–2002), both children of Italian immigrants.
Giuliani is of Tuscan origins from his father side, as his paternal
grandparents (Rodolfo and Evangelina Giuliani) were born in
Montecatini, Tuscany, Italy. He was raised a Roman Catholic.
Harold Giuliani, a plumber and a bartender, had trouble holding a
job, and was convicted of felony assault and robbery, serving time in
Sing Sing. After his release he worked as an enforcer for his
brother-in-law Leo D'Avanzo, who ran an organized crime operation
involved in loan sharking and gambling at a restaurant in
Brooklyn. The family lived in East Flatbush,
Brooklyn until Harold
died of prostate cancer in 1981, after which Helen moved to
Manhattan's Upper East Side. Helen was featured in a television
commercial to promote her son in the 1993 Mayoral Election.
In 1951, when Giuliani was seven, his family moved from
Garden City South, where he attended the local Catholic school, St.
Anne's. Later, he commuted back to
Brooklyn to attend Bishop
Loughlin Memorial High School, graduating in 1961.
Manhattan College in Riverdale, Bronx, where he
majored in political science with a minor in philosophy. There he
considered becoming a priest. Giuliani was elected president of
his class in his sophomore year, but was not re-elected in his junior
year. He joined the Phi Rho Pi fraternity. He graduated in 1965.
Giuliani eventually decided to forego the priesthood, instead
New York University
New York University School of Law in Manhattan, where he
made the NYU Law Review and graduated cum laude with a Juris
Doctor degree in 1968.
Giuliani started his political life as a Democrat. He volunteered for
Robert F. Kennedy's presidential campaign in 1968. He also worked as a
Democratic Party committeeman on Long Island in the mid-1960s,
and voted for
George McGovern for president in 1972.
Upon graduation, Giuliani clerked for Judge Lloyd Francis MacMahon,
United States District Judge for the Southern District of New
Giuliani did not serve in the military during the Vietnam War. His
conscription was deferred while he was enrolled at Manhattan College
and NYU Law. Upon graduation from the latter in 1968, he was
classified by the
Selective Service System
Selective Service System as 1-A, available for
military service. He applied for a deferment but was rejected. In
1969, Judge MacMahon wrote a letter to Giuliani's draft board, asking
that he be reclassified as 2-A, civilian occupation deferment, because
Giuliani, who was a law clerk for MacMahon, was an essential employee.
The deferment was granted. In 1970, Giuliani received a high draft
lottery number; he was not called up for service although by then he
had been reclassified 1-A. In 1970, Giuliani joined the United
States Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York. In
1973, he was named Chief of the Narcotics Unit and became executive
In 1975, Giuliani switched his party registration from Democratic to
Independent as he was recruited to Washington, D.C. during the
Ford administration, where he was named Associate Deputy Attorney
General and chief of staff to Deputy Attorney General Harold "Ace"
Tyler. His first high-profile prosecution was of Democratic U.S.
Bertram L. Podell
Bertram L. Podell (NY-13), who was convicted of
corruption. From 1977 to 1981, during the Carter administration,
Giuliani practiced law at the
Patterson, Belknap, Webb and Tyler
Patterson, Belknap, Webb and Tyler law
firm, as chief of staff to his previous DC boss, Ace Tyler. Tyler
later became critical of Giuliani's turn as a prosecutor, calling his
On December 8, 1980, one month after the election of Ronald Reagan
brought Republicans back to power in Washington, he switched his party
affiliation from Independent to Republican. Giuliani later said
the switches were because he found Democratic policies "naïve", and
that "by the time I moved to Washington, the Republicans had come to
make more sense to me". Others suggested that the switches were
made in order to get positions in the Justice Department.
Giuliani's mother maintained in 1988 that:
He only became a Republican after he began to get all these jobs from
them. He's definitely not a conservative Republican. He thinks he is,
but he isn't. He still feels very sorry for the poor.
In 1981, Giuliani was named Associate Attorney General in the Reagan
administration, the third-highest position in the Department of
Justice. As Associate Attorney General, Giuliani supervised the U.S.
Attorney Offices' federal law enforcement agencies, the Department of
Corrections, the Drug Enforcement Administration, and the United
States Marshals Service. In a well-publicized 1982 case, Giuliani
testified in defense of the federal government's "detention posture"
regarding the internment of over 2,000 Haitian asylum seekers who had
entered the country illegally. The U.S. government disputed the
assertion that most of the detainees had fled their country due to
political persecution, alleging instead that they were "economic
migrants". In defense of the government's position, Giuliani testified
that "political repression, at least in general, does not exist" under
Haiti Jean-Claude Duvalier's regime.
In 1983, Giuliani was appointed U.S. Attorney for the Southern
District of New York, which was technically a demotion but was sought
by Giuliani because of his desire to personally litigate cases. It was
in this position that he first gained national prominence by
prosecuting numerous high-profile cases, resulting in the convictions
Wall Street figures
Ivan Boesky and Michael Milken. He also focused
on prosecuting drug dealers, organized crime, and corruption in
government. He amassed a record of 4,152 convictions and 25
reversals. As a federal prosecutor, Giuliani was credited with
bringing the "perp walk", parading of suspects in front of the
previously alerted media, into common use as a prosecutorial tool.
After Giuliani "patented the perp walk", the tool was used by
increasing numbers of prosecutors nationwide.
Giuliani's critics claim he arranged public arrests of people, then
dropped charges for lack of evidence on high-profile cases rather than
going to trial. In a few cases, his public arrests of alleged
white-collar criminals at their workplaces with charges later dropped
or lessened, sparked controversy, and damaged the reputations of the
alleged "perps". He claimed veteran stock trader Richard Wigton,
of Kidder, Peabody & Co., was guilty of insider trading; in
February 1987 he had officers handcuff Wigton and march him through
the company's trading floor, with Wigton in tears. Giuliani had
his agents arrest Tim Tabor, a young arbitrageur and former colleague
of Wigton, so late that he had to stay overnight in jail before
Within three months, charges were dropped against both Wigton and
Tabor; Giuliani said, "We're not going to go to trial. We're just the
tip of the iceberg", but no further charges were forthcoming and the
investigation did not end until Giuliani's successor was in place.
Giuliani's high-profile raid of the Princeton/Newport firm ended with
the defendants having their cases overturned on appeal on the grounds
that what they had been convicted of were not crimes.
Mafia Commission trial
Mafia Commission Trial
Mafia Commission Trial (February 25, 1985 – November 19,
1986), Giuliani indicted eleven organized crime figures, including the
heads of New York's so-called "Five Families", under the Racketeer
Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) on charges including
extortion, labor racketeering, and murder for hire. Time magazine
called this "Case of Cases" possibly "the most significant assault on
the infrastructure of organized crime since the high command of the
Chicago Mafia was swept away in 1943", and quoted Giuliani's stated
intention: "Our approach is to wipe out the five families." Eight
defendants were found guilty on all counts and subsequently sentenced
on January 13, 1987 to hundreds of years of prison time.
According to an
FBI memo revealed about 20 years later, leaders of the
five New York mob families voted in 1987 on whether to issue a
contract for the death of U.S. attorney Rudolph Giuliani. Heads of the
Lucchese, Bonanno, and Genovese families rejected the idea, though
Gambino leader John Gotti encouraged assassination.
Boesky, Milken trials
Ivan Boesky was a
Wall Street arbitrageur who had amassed a fortune of
about $200 million by betting on corporate takeovers. He was
investigated by the
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for
making investments based on tips received from corporate insiders.
These stock and options acquisitions were sometimes brazen, with
massive purchases occurring only a few days before a corporation
announced a takeover. Although insider trading of this kind was
illegal, laws prohibiting it were rarely enforced until Boesky was
prosecuted. Boesky cooperated with the SEC and informed on several
others, including junk bond trader Michael Milken. Per agreement with
Giuliani, Boesky received a 3 1⁄2-year prison sentence along
with a $100 million fine. In 1989, Giuliani charged Milken under
the RICO Act with 98 counts of racketeering and fraud. In a highly
publicized case, Milken was indicted by a grand jury on these
Giuliani was U.S. Attorney until January 1989, resigning as the Reagan
administration ended. He garnered criticism until he left office for
his handling of cases, and was accused of prosecuting cases to further
his political ambitions. He joined the law firm White & Case
New York City
New York City as a partner. He remained with White & Case until
May 1990, when he joined the law firm Anderson Kill Olick &
Oshinsky, also in New York City.
Giuliani first ran for
New York City
New York City Mayor in 1989, attempting to
unseat three-term incumbent Ed Koch. He won the September 1989
Republican Party primary election against business magnate Ronald
Lauder, in a campaign marked by claims that Giuliani was not a true
Republican and by an acrimonious debate. In the Democratic
primary, Koch was upset by
Manhattan Borough President
Manhattan Borough President David Dinkins.
In the general election, Giuliani ran as the fusion candidate of both
the Republican and Liberal Parties. The Conservative Party, which had
often co-lined the Republican party candidate, withheld support from
Giuliani and ran Lauder instead. Conservative Party leaders were
unhappy with Giuliani on ideological grounds. They cited the Liberal
Party's endorsement statement that Giuliani "agreed with the Liberal
Party's views on affirmative action, gay rights, gun control, school
prayer and tuition tax credits."
During two televised debates, Giuliani framed himself as an agent of
change, saying, "I'm the reformer", that "If we keep going merrily
along, this city's going down", and that electing Dinkins would
represent "more of the same, more of the rotten politics that have
been dragging us down". Giuliani pointed out that Dinkins had not
filed a tax return for many years and of several other ethical
missteps, in particular a stock transfer to his son. Dinkins filed
several years of returns and said the tax matter had been fully paid
off, denied other wrongdoing, and said that "what we need is a mayor,
not a prosecutor", and that Giuliani refused to say "the R-word—he
doesn't like to admit he's a Republican." Dinkins won the
endorsements of three of the four daily New York newspapers, while
Giuliani won approval from the New York Post.
In the end, Giuliani lost to Dinkins by a margin of 47,080 votes out
of 1,899,845 votes cast, in the closest election in New York City's
history. The closeness of the race was particularly noteworthy
considering the small percentage of
New York City
New York City residents who are
registered Republicans and resulted in Giuliani being the presumptive
nominee for a re-match with Dinkins at the next election.
New York City
New York City mayoral election, 1993
Four years after he was beaten by Dinkins, Giuliani again ran for
mayor. Once again, Giuliani also ran on the Liberal Party line but not
the Conservative Party line, which ran activist George Marlin. The
city was suffering from a spike in unemployment associated with the
nationwide recession, with local unemployment rates going from 6.7% in
1989 to 11.1% in 1992, although crime rates had already begun to
decline under Dinkins.
Giuliani promised to focus the police department on shutting down
petty crimes and nuisances as a way of restoring the quality of life:
It's the street tax paid to drunks and panhandlers. It's the squeegee
men shaking down the motorist waiting at a light. It's the trash
storms, the swirling mass of garbage left by peddlers and panhandlers,
and open-air drug bazaars on unclean streets.
Dinkins and Giuliani never debated during the campaign, because they
were never able to agree on how to approach a debate. Dinkins
was endorsed by
The New York Times
The New York Times and Newsday, while Giuliani was
endorsed by the
New York Post
New York Post and, in a key switch from 1989, the
Daily News. Giuliani came to visit the late Lubavitcher Rebbe,
Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, seeking his blessing and
Giuliani won by a margin of 53,367 votes. He became the first
Mayor of New York City
Mayor of New York City since
John Lindsay in
New York City
New York City mayoral election, 1997
Giuliani's opponent in 1997 was Democratic Manhattan Borough President
Ruth Messinger, who had beaten
Al Sharpton in the September 9, 1997
Democratic primary. In the general election, Giuliani once again
had the Liberal Party and not the Conservative Party listing. Giuliani
ran an aggressive campaign, parlaying his image as a tough leader who
had cleaned up the city. Giuliani's popularity was at its highest
point to date, with a late October 1997
Quinnipiac University Polling
Institute poll showing him as having a 68 percent approval rating; 70
percent of New Yorkers were satisfied with life in the city and 64
percent said things were better in the city compared to four years
Throughout the campaign he was well ahead in the polls and had a
strong fund-raising advantage over Messinger. On her part, Messinger
lost the support of several usually Democratic constituencies,
including gay organizations and large labor unions. The local
daily newspapers—The New York Times, Daily News,
New York Post
New York Post and
Newsday—all endorsed Giuliani over Messinger.
In the end, Giuliani won 59% of the vote to Messinger's 41%, and
became the first registered Republican to win a second term as mayor
while on the Republican line since
Fiorello H. La Guardia
Fiorello H. La Guardia in 1941.
Voter turnout was the lowest in 12 years, with 38% of registered
voters casting ballots. The margin of victory included gains
in his share of the
African American vote (20% compared to 1993's 5%)
Hispanic vote (43% from 37%) while maintaining his base of
white ethnic, Catholic and Jewish voters from 1993.
Main article: Mayoralty of
Giuliani served as mayor of
New York City
New York City from 1994 through 2001.
In Giuliani's first term as mayor, the
New York City
New York City Police Department
at the instigation of Commissioner
Bill Bratton adopted an aggressive
enforcement/deterrent strategy based on James Q. Wilson's "Broken
Windows" approach. This involved crackdowns on relatively minor
offenses such as graffiti, turnstile jumping, cannabis possession, and
aggressive panhandling by "squeegee men", on the theory that this
would send a message that order would be maintained. The legal
underpinning for removing the "squeegee men" from the streets was
developed under Giuliani's predecessor, Mayor David Dinkins.
Bratton, with Deputy Commissioner Jack Maple, also created and
instituted CompStat, a computer-driven comparative statistical
approach to mapping crime geographically and in terms of emerging
criminal patterns, as well as charting officer performance by
quantifying criminal apprehensions. Critics of the system assert
that it creates an environment in which police officials are
encouraged to underreport or otherwise manipulate crime data. An
extensive study found a high correlation between crime rates reported
by the police through
CompStat and rates of crime available from other
sources, suggesting there had been no manipulation. The CompStat
initiative won the 1996 Innovations in Government Award from the
Kennedy School of Government.
National, New York City, and other major city crime rates
During Giuliani's administration, crime rates dropped in New York
City. The extent to which Giuliani deserves the credit is
disputed. Crime rates in
New York City
New York City had started to drop in 1991
under previous mayor David Dinkins, three years before Giuliani took
office. The rates of most crimes, including all categories of
violent crime, made consecutive declines during the last 36 months of
Dinkins's four-year term, ending a 30-year upward spiral. A small
nationwide drop in crime preceded Giuliani's election, and some
critics say that he may have been the beneficiary of a trend already
in progress. Additional contributing factors to the overall decline in
New York City
New York City crime during the 1990s were the addition of 7,000
officers to the NYPD, lobbied for and hired by the Dinkins
administration, and an overall improvement in the national
economy. Changing demographics were a key factor contributing to
crime rate reductions, which were similar across the country during
this time. Because the crime index is based on that of the FBI,
which is self-reported by police departments, some have alleged that
crimes were shifted into categories that the
FBI doesn't collect.
Giuliani's supporters cite studies concluding that the decline in New
York City's crime rate in the 1990s and 2000s exceeds all national
figures and therefore should be linked with a local dynamic that was
not present as such anywhere else in the country: what University of
Frank Zimring calls "the most focused form of
policing in history". In his book The Great American Crime Decline,
Zimring argues that "up to half of New York's crime drop in the 1990s,
and virtually 100 percent of its continuing crime decline since 2000,
has resulted from policing."
Bratton was featured on the cover of Time in 1996. Giuliani
reportedly forced Bratton out after two years, in what was seen as a
battle of two large egos in which Giuliani was not tolerant of
Bratton's celebrity. Bratton went on to become chief of the
Los Angeles Police Department. Giuliani's term also saw
allegations of civil rights abuses and other police misconduct under
other commissioners after Bratton's departure. There were police
shootings of unarmed suspects, and the scandals surrounding the
Abner Louima and the killings of
Amadou Diallo and Patrick
Dorismond. Giuliani supported the
New York City
New York City Police Department, for
example by releasing what he called Dorismond's "extensive criminal
record" to the public, including a sealed juvenile file.
The Giuliani administration advocated the privatization of failing
public schools and increasing school choice through a voucher-based
system. Giuliani supported protection for illegal immigrants. He
continued a policy of preventing city employees from contacting the
Immigration and Naturalization Service
Immigration and Naturalization Service about immigration violations,
on the grounds that illegal aliens should be able to take actions such
as sending their children to school or reporting crimes to the police
without fear of deportation.
During his mayoralty, gay and lesbian New Yorkers received domestic
partnership rights. Giuliani induced the city's Democratic-controlled
New York City
New York City Council, which had avoided the issue for years, to pass
legislation providing broad protection for same-sex partners. In 1998,
he codified local law by granting all city employees equal benefits
for their domestic partners.
Appointees as defendants
Several of Giuliani's appointees to head City agencies became
defendants in criminal proceedings.
In 2000, Giuliani appointed 34-year-old Russell Harding, the son of
Liberal Party of New York
Liberal Party of New York leader and longtime Giuliani mentor Raymond
Harding, to head the
New York City
New York City Housing Development Corporation,
although Harding had neither a college degree nor relevant experience.
In 2005, Harding pleaded guilty to defrauding the Housing Development
Corporation and to possession of child pornography. He was sentenced
to five years in prison. Russell Harding committed suicide in
In a related matter, Richard Roberts, appointed by Giuliani as Housing
Commissioner and as chairman of the Health and Hospitals Corporation,
pleaded guilty to perjury after lying to a grand jury about a car that
Harding bought for him with City funds.
Rudy Giuliani promotions of Bernard Kerik
Giuliani was a longtime backer of Bernard Kerik, who started out as a
NYPD detective driving for Giuliani's campaign. Giuliani appointed him
as the Commissioner of the Department of Correction and then as the
Police Commissioner. Giuliani was also the godfather to Kerik's two
youngest children. After Giuliani left office, Kerik was subject
to state and federal investigations resulting in his pleading guilty
in 2006, in a Bronx Supreme Court, to two unrelated ethics violations.
Kerik was ordered to pay $221,000 in fines. Kerik then pleaded guilty
in 2009, in a New York district court, to eight federal charges,
including tax fraud and false statements, and on February 18, 2010, he
was sentenced to four years in federal prison. Giuliani was not
implicated in any of the proceedings.
U.S. Senate campaign
Main article: United States Senate election in New York, 2000
Giuliani campaigned for Senate in 2000 before withdrawing after a
Due to term limits, Giuliani could not run in 2001 for a third term as
Mayor. In November 1998, four-term incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator
Daniel Patrick Moynihan announced his retirement and Giuliani
immediately indicated an interest in running in the 2000 election for
the now-open seat. Due to his high profile and visibility Giuliani was
supported by the state Republican Party. Giuliani's entrance led
Charles Rangel and others to recruit then-U.S.
Hillary Clinton to run for Moynihan's seat, hoping she
might combat his star power.
An early January 1999 poll showed Giuliani trailing Clinton by 10
points. In April 1999, Giuliani formed an exploratory committee in
connection with the Senate run. By January 2000, Giuliani had reversed
the polls situation, pulling nine points ahead after taking advantage
of several campaign stumbles by Clinton. Nevertheless, the
Giuliani campaign was showing some structural weaknesses; so closely
identified with New York City, he had somewhat limited appeal to
normally Republican voters in Upstate New York. The New York
Police Department's fatal shooting of
Patrick Dorismond in March 2000
inflamed Giuliani's already strained relations with the city's
minority communities, and Clinton seized on it as a major campaign
issue. By April 2000, reports showed Clinton gaining upstate and
generally outworking Giuliani, who stated that his duties as mayor
prevented him from campaigning more. Clinton was now 8 to 10
points ahead of Giuliani in the polls.
Then followed four tumultuous weeks, in which Giuliani's medical life,
romantic life, marital life, and political life all collided at once
in a most visible fashion. Giuliani discovered that he had prostate
cancer and needed treatment; his extramarital relationship with Judith
Nathan became public and the subject of a media frenzy; he announced a
separation from his wife Donna Hanover; and, after much indecision, on
May 19, 2000 he announced his withdrawal from the Senate race.
September 11 terrorist attacks
Rudy Giuliani during the September 11 attacks
Donald Rumsfeld and Giuliani at the site of the World Trade Center on
November 14, 2001
Giuliani was prominent in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks.
He made frequent appearances on radio and television on September 11
and afterwards—for example, to indicate that tunnels would be closed
as a precautionary measure, and that there was no reason to believe
that the dispersion of chemical or biological weaponry into the air
was a factor in the attack. In his public statements, Giuliani said:
Tomorrow New York is going to be here. And we're going to rebuild, and
we're going to be stronger than we were before... I want the people of
New York to be an example to the rest of the country, and the rest of
the world, that terrorism can't stop us.
The 9/11 attacks occurred on the scheduled date of the mayoral primary
to select the Democratic and Republican candidates to succeed
Giuliani. The primary was immediately delayed two weeks to September
25. During this period, Giuliani sought an unprecedented three-month
emergency extension of his term from January 1 to April 1 under the
New York State Constitution
New York State Constitution (Article 3 Section 25). He threatened
to challenge the law imposing term limits on elected city officials
and run for another full four-year term, if the primary candidates did
not consent to the extension of his mayoralty. In the end leaders
in the State Assembly and Senate indicated that they did not believe
the extension was necessary. The election proceeded as scheduled, and
the winning candidate, the Giuliani-endorsed Republican convert
Michael Bloomberg, took office on January 1, 2002 per normal custom.
Giuliani claimed to have been at the Ground Zero site "as often, if
not more, than most workers... I was there working with them. I was
exposed to exactly the same things they were exposed to. So in that
sense, I'm one of them." Some 9/11 workers have objected to those
claims. While his appointment logs were unavailable for
the six days immediately following the attacks, Giuliani spent a total
of 29 hours over three months at the site. This contrasted with
recovery workers at the site who spent this much time at the site in
two to three days.
Giuliani at a NYFPC briefing after 9/11
When Saudi Prince
Alwaleed bin Talal
Alwaleed bin Talal suggested that the attacks were
an indication that the United States "should re-examine its policies
in the Middle East and adopt a more balanced stand toward the
Palestinian cause", Giuliani asserted, "There is no moral equivalent
for this act. There is no justification for it... And one of the
reasons I think this happened is because people were engaged in moral
equivalency in not understanding the difference between liberal
democracies like the United States, like Israel, and terrorist states
and those who condone terrorism. So I think not only are those
statements wrong, they're part of the problem." Giuliani subsequently
rejected the prince's $10 million donation to disaster relief in the
aftermath of the attack.
Main article: Communication during the September 11 attacks
§ Radio communications
Giuliani has been widely criticized for his decision to locate the
Office of Emergency Management headquarters on the 23rd floor inside
7 World Trade Center
7 World Trade Center building. Those opposing the decision
perceived the office as a target for a terrorist attack in light of
the previous terrorist attack against the World Trade Center in
1993. The office was unable to coordinate efforts
between police and firefighters properly while evacuating its
headquarters. Large tanks of diesel fuel were placed in 7 World
Trade to power the command center. In May 1997, Giuliani put
responsibility for selecting the location on Jerome M. Hauer, who had
served under Giuliani from 1996 to 2000 before being appointed by him
as New York City's first Director of Emergency Management. Hauer has
taken exception to that account in interviews and provided Fox News
New York Magazine
New York Magazine with a memo demonstrating that he recommended a
Brooklyn but was overruled by Giuliani. Television
journalist Chris Wallace interviewed Giuliani on May 13, 2007, about
his 1997 decision to locate the command center at the World Trade
Center. Giuliani laughed during Wallace's questions and said that
Hauer recommended the
World Trade Center site
World Trade Center site and claimed that Hauer
said that the WTC site was the best location. Wallace presented
Giuliani a photocopy of Hauer's directive letter. The letter urged
Giuliani to locate the command center in Brooklyn, instead of lower
Manhattan. The February 1996 memo read, "The
[Brooklyn] building is secure and not as visible a target as buildings
in Lower Manhattan."
Giuliani at a joint session of Congress on September 20, 2001, in
which President Bush praised his efforts as Mayor and named Tom Ridge
to a new cabinet-level position to oversee homeland defense
In January 2008, an eight-page memo was revealed which detailed the
New York City
New York City Police Department's opposition in 1998 to location of
the city's emergency command center at the Trade Center site. The
Giuliani administration overrode these concerns.
9/11 Commission Report
9/11 Commission Report noted that lack of preparedness could have
led to the deaths of first responders at the scene of the attacks. The
Commission noted that the radios in use by the fire department were
the same radios which had been criticized for their ineffectiveness
following the 1993 World Trade Center bombings. Family members of 9/11
victims have said that these radios were a complaint of emergency
services responders for years. The radios were not working when
Fire Department chiefs ordered the 343 firefighters inside the towers
to evacuate, and they remained in the towers as the towers
collapsed. However, when Giuliani testified before the 9/11
Commission he said that the firefighters ignored the evacuation order
out of an effort to save lives. Giuliani testified to the
Commission, where some family members of responders who had died in
the attacks appeared to protest his statements. A 1994 mayoral
office study of the radios indicated that they were faulty.
Replacement radios were purchased in a $33 million no-bid contract
with Motorola, and implemented in early 2001. However, the radios were
recalled in March 2001 after a probationary firefighter's calls for
help at a house fire could not be picked up by others at the scene,
leaving firemen with the old analog radios from 1993. A book
later published by Commission members
Thomas Kean and Lee H. Hamilton,
Without Precedent: The Inside Story of the 9/11 Commission, argued
that the Commission had not pursued a tough enough line of questioning
An October 2001 study by the National Institute of Environmental
Safety and Health said that cleanup workers lacked adequate protective
In the wake of the attacks, Giuliani gained international attention
and was widely hailed for his leadership during the crisis. When
polled just six weeks after the attack Giuliani received a 79 percent
approval rating among
New York City
New York City voters, a dramatic increase over
the 36 percent rating he had received a year earlier—average at the
end of a two-term mayorship.
Oprah Winfrey called him
"America's Mayor" at a 9/11 memorial service held at
Yankee Stadium on
September 23, 2001. Other voices denied it was the mayor who
had pulled the city together. "You didn't bring us together, our pain
brought us together and our decency brought us together. We would have
come together if Bozo was the mayor", said civil rights activist Al
Sharpton, in a statement largely supported by Fernando Ferrer, one of
three main candidates for the mayoralty at the end of 2001. "He was a
power-hungry person", Sharpton also said.
Time Person of the Year
On December 24, 2001, Time magazine named Giuliani its Person of
the Year for 2001. Time observed that, before 9/11, the public
image of Giuliani had been that of a rigid, self-righteous, ambitious
politician. After 9/11, and perhaps owing also to his bout with
prostate cancer, his public image had been reformed to that of a man
who could be counted on to unite a city in the midst of its greatest
crisis. Historian Vincent J. Cannato concluded in September 2006:
With time, Giuliani's legacy will be based on more than just 9/11. He
left a city immeasurably better off—safer, more prosperous, more
confident—than the one he had inherited eight years earlier, even
with the smoldering ruins of the World Trade Center at its heart.
Debates about his accomplishments will continue, but the significance
of his mayoralty is hard to deny.
Giuliani was praised by some for his close involvement with the rescue
and recovery efforts, but others argue that "Giuliani has exaggerated
the role he played after the terrorist attacks, casting himself as a
hero for political gain." Giuliani has collected $11.4 million
from speaking fees in a single year (with increased demand after the
attacks). Before September 11, Giuliani's assets were estimated
to be somewhat less than $2 million, but his net worth could now be as
high as 30 times that amount. He has made most of his money since
New York City
New York City Fire Department at the New York Foreign
Press Center Briefing on "
New York City
New York City After September 11, 2001"
For his leadership on and after September 11, Giuliani was given an
honorary knighthood (KBE) by Queen
Elizabeth II on February 13,
Giuliani initially downplayed the health effects arising from the
September 11 attacks in the Financial District and lower Manhattan
areas in the vicinity of the World Trade Center site. He moved
quickly to reopen Wall Street, and it was reopened on September 17. In
the first month after the attacks, he said "The air quality is safe
and acceptable." However, in the weeks after the attacks, the
United States Geological Survey
United States Geological Survey identified hundreds of asbestos 'hot
spots' of debris dust that remained on buildings. By the end of the
month the USGS reported that the toxicity of the debris was akin to
that of drain cleaner. It would eventually be determined that a
wide swath of lower Manhattan and
Brooklyn had been heavily
contaminated by highly caustic and toxic materials. The
city's health agencies, such as the Department of Environmental
Protection, did not supervise or issue guidelines for the testing and
cleanup of private buildings. Instead, the city left this
responsibility to building owners.
Giuliani and Secretary of State
Colin Powell at the U.S. Delegation to
OSCE’s Anti-Semitism Meeting in Vienna, Austria, in 2003
Giuliani took control away from agencies such as the Federal Emergency
Management Agency, the Army Corps of Engineers and the Occupational
Safety and Health Administration, leaving the "largely unknown" city
Department of Design and Construction in charge of recovery and
cleanup. Documents indicate that the Giuliani administration never
enforced federal requirements requiring the wearing of respirators.
Concurrently, the administration threatened companies with dismissal
if cleanup work slowed. In June 2007, Christie Todd Whitman,
former Republican Governor of
New Jersey and director of the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), reportedly stated that the EPA
had pushed for workers at the WTC site to wear respirators but that
she had been blocked by Giuliani. She stated that she believed that
the subsequent lung disease and deaths suffered by WTC responders were
a result of these actions. However, former deputy mayor Joe
Lhota, then with the Giuliani campaign, replied, "All workers at
Ground Zero were instructed repeatedly to wear their
Giuliani asked the city's Congressional delegation to limit the city's
liability for Ground Zero illnesses to a total of $350 million. Two
years after Giuliani finished his term, FEMA appropriated $1 billion
to a special insurance fund, called the World Trade Center Captive
Insurance Company, to protect the city against 9/11 lawsuits.
In February 2007, the International Association of Fire Fighters
issued a letter asserting that Giuliani rushed to conclude the
recovery effort once gold and silver had been recovered from World
Trade Center vaults and thereby prevented the remains of many victims
from being recovered: "Mayor Giuliani's actions meant that fire
fighters and citizens who perished would either remain buried at
Ground Zero forever, with no closure for families, or be removed like
garbage and deposited at the Fresh Kills Landfill", it said, adding:
"Hundreds remained entombed in Ground Zero when Giuliani gave up on
them." Lawyers for the International Association of Fire Fighters
seek to interview Giuliani under oath as part of a federal legal
action alleging that
New York City
New York City negligently dumped body parts and
other human remains in the Fresh Kills Landfill.
Before 2008 election
Giuliani and President Bush in Las Cruces, New Mexico, on August 26,
Since leaving office as Mayor, Giuliani has remained politically
active by campaigning for Republican candidates for political offices
at all levels. As the first Republicans to simultaneously serve as
Mayor and Governor of New York since
Nelson Rockefeller and John
Lindsay, Giuliani and Governor
George Pataki were instrumental in
2004 Republican National Convention
2004 Republican National Convention to New York
City. He was a speaker at the convention, and endorsed President
George W. Bush
George W. Bush for re-election by recalling that immediately after the
World Trade Center towers fell,
Without really thinking, based on just emotion, spontaneous, I grabbed
the arm of then-Police Commissioner Bernard Kerik, and I said to him,
'Bernie, thank God George Bush is our president'.
Similarly, in June 2006, Giuliani started a website called Solutions
America to help elect Republican candidates across the nation.
After campaigning on Bush's behalf in the U.S. presidential election
of 2004, he was reportedly the top choice for Secretary of Homeland
Security after Tom Ridge's resignation. When suggestions were made
that Giuliani's confirmation hearings would be marred by details of
his past affairs and scandals, he turned down the offer and instead
recommended his friend and former New York Police Commissioner Bernard
Kerik. After the formal announcement of Kerik's nomination,
information about Kerik's past—most notably, that he had ties to
organized crime, failed to properly report gifts he had received, had
been sued for sexual harassment and had employed an undocumented alien
as a domestic servant—became known, and Kerik withdrew his
Giuliani cutting the ribbon of the new Drug Enforcement Administration
mobile museum in Dallas, Texas, in September 2003
On March 15, 2006, Congress formed the
Iraq Study Group
Iraq Study Group (ISG). This
bipartisan ten-person panel, of which Giuliani was one of the members,
was charged with assessing the
Iraq War and making recommendations.
They would eventually unanimously conclude that contrary to Bush
administration assertions, "The situation in
Iraq is grave and
deteriorating" and called for "changes in the primary mission" that
would allow "the United States to begin to move its forces out of
On May 24, 2006, after missing all of the group's meetings,
including a briefing from General David Petraeus, former Secretary of
Colin Powell and former Army Chief of Staff Eric Shinseki,
Giuliani resigned from the panel, citing "previous time
commitments". Giuliani's fundraising schedule had kept him from
participating in the panel, a schedule which raised $11.4 million in
speaking fees over 14 months, and that Giuliani had been forced
to resign after being given "an ultimatum to either show up for
meetings or leave the group" by group leader James Baker.
Giuliani subsequently said that he had started thinking about running
for President, and being on the panel might give it a political
Giuliani was described by Newsweek in January 2007 as "one of the most
consistent cheerleaders for the president's handling of the war in
Iraq" and as of June 2007, he remained one of the few candidates
for president to unequivocally support both the basis for the invasion
and the execution of the war.
Giuliani spoke in support of the removal of the People's Mujahedin of
Iran (MEK, also PMOI, MKO) from the United States State Department
list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations. The group was on the State
Department list from 1997 until September 2012. They were placed on
the list for killing six Americans in Iran during the 1970s and
attempting to attack the Iranian mission to the United Nations in
1992. Giuliani, along with other former government officials
and politicians Ed Rendell, R. James Woolsey, Porter Goss, Louis
Freeh, Michael Mukasey, James L. Jones, Tom Ridge, and Howard Dean,
were criticized for their involvement with the group. Some were
subpoenaed during an inquiry about who was paying the prominent
individuals' speaking fees. Giuliani and others wrote an article
for the conservative publication
National Review stating their
position that the group should not be classified as a terrorist
organization. They supported their position by pointing out that the
United Kingdom and the European Union had already removed the group
from their terrorism lists. They further assert that only the United
States and Iran still listed it as a terrorist group. However,
Canada did not delist the group until December 2012.
2008 presidential campaign
Rudy Giuliani presidential campaign, 2008
Presidential campaign logo
In November 2006 Giuliani announced the formation of an exploratory
committee toward a run for President of the United States in 2008. In
February 2007 he filed a "statement of candidacy" and confirmed on the
Larry King Live
Larry King Live that he was indeed running.
Giuliani at a rally at
San Diego State University
San Diego State University in August 2007 when
polls showed him as the front-runner for the Republican party's
Early polls showed Giuliani with one of the highest levels of name
recognition and support among the Republican candidates. Throughout
most of 2007 he was the leader in most nationwide opinion polling
among Republicans. Senator John McCain, who ranked a close second
behind the New York Mayor, had faded, and most polls showed Giuliani
to have more support than any of the other declared Republican
candidates, with only former Senator
Fred Thompson and former Governor
Mitt Romney showing greater support in some per-state Republican
polls. On November 7, 2007, Giuliani's campaign received an
endorsement from evangelist,
Christian Broadcasting Network
Christian Broadcasting Network founder,
and past presidential candidate Pat Robertson. This was viewed by
political observers as a possibly key development in the race, as it
gave credence that evangelicals and other social conservatives could
support Giuliani despite some of his positions on social issues such
as abortion and gay rights.
Giuliani's campaign hit a difficult stretch during November and
December 2007, during which time Bernard Kerik, whom Giuliani had
recommended for the position of Secretary of Homeland Security, was
indicted on 16 counts of tax fraud and other federal charges; the
media reported that while Mayor of New York, Giuliani had billed to
obscure city agencies several tens of thousands of dollars of mayoral
security expenses incurred while visiting Judith Nathan, with whom he
was having an extramarital affair (later analysis showed the
billing to likely be unrelated to hiding Nathan); and several
stories were published in the press regarding clients of Giuliani
Partners and Bracewell & Giuliani being in opposition to goals of
American foreign policy. Giuliani's national poll numbers began
steadily slipping and his unusual strategy of focusing more on later,
multi-primary big states rather than the smaller, first-voting states
was seen at risk.
Giuliani at a campaign event in Derry, New Hampshire, the day before
the New Hampshire primary
Despite his strategy, Giuliani did compete to a substantial
extent in the January 8, 2008 New Hampshire primary, but finished
a distant fourth with 9 percent of the vote. Similar poor
results continued in other early contests, as Giuliani's staff went
without pay in order to focus all efforts on the crucial late January
Florida Republican primary. The shift of the electorate's focus
from national security to the state of the economy also hurt
Giuliani, as did the resurgence of McCain's similarly themed
campaign. On January 29, 2008, Giuliani finished a distant third in
the Florida result with 15 percent of the vote, trailing McCain
and Romney. Facing declining polls and lost leads in the upcoming
large Super Tuesday states, including that of his home New
York, Giuliani withdrew from the race on January 30, endorsing
Giuliani's campaign ended up $3.6 million in arrears, and in June
2008 Giuliani sought to retire the debt by proposing to appear at
Republican fundraisers during the 2008 general election, and have part
of the proceeds go towards his campaign. During the 2008
Republican National Convention, Giuliani gave a prime-time speech that
praised McCain and his running mate, Sarah Palin, while criticizing
Democratic nominee Barack Obama. He cited Palin's executive experience
as a mayor and governor and belittled Obama's lack of same, and his
remarks were met with wild applause from the delegates. Giuliani
continued to be one of McCain's most active surrogates during the
remainder of McCain's eventually unsuccessful campaign.
After 2008 election
Following the end of his presidential campaign, Giuliani's "high
appearance fees dropped like a stone." He returned to work at
Giuliani Partners and Bracewell & Giuliani. Giuliani
explored hosting a syndicated radio show, and was reported to be in
talks with Westwood One about replacing Bill O'Reilly before that
position went to
Fred Thompson (another unsuccessful '08 GOP
Presidential primary candidate). During the March 2009 AIG
bonus payments controversy, Giuliani called for U.S. Treasury
Tim Geithner to step down and said that the Obama
administration lacked executive competence in dealing with the ongoing
Giuliani giving the keynote speech at the Jumeriah Essex House in
honor of the USS New York sailors and
Special Purpose Marine Air
Ground Task Force 26 Marines on November 8, 2009
Giuliani said his political career was not necessarily over, and did
not rule out a 2010 New York gubernatorial or 2012 presidential
bid. A November 2008
Siena College poll indicated that although
Governor David Paterson—promoted to the office via the Eliot Spitzer
prostitution scandal a year before—was popular among New Yorkers, he
would have just a slight lead over Giuliani in a hypothetical
matchup. By February 2009, after the prolonged Senate appointment
Siena College poll indicated that Paterson was losing
popularity among New Yorkers, and showed Giuliani with a fifteen-point
lead in the hypothetical contest. In January 2009, Giuliani said
he would not decide on a gubernatorial run for another six to eight
months, adding that he thought it would not be fair to the governor to
start campaigning early while the governor tries to focus on his
job. Giuliani worked to retire his presidential campaign debt,
but by the end of March 2009 it was still $2.4 million in arrears, the
largest such remaining amount for any of the 2008 contenders. In
April 2009, Giuliani strongly opposed Paterson's announced push for
same-sex marriage in New York and said it would likely cause a
backlash that could put Republicans in statewide office in 2010.
By late August 2009, there were still conflicting reports about
whether Giuliani was likely to run.
On December 23, 2009, Giuliani announced that he would not seek any
office in 2010, saying "The main reason has to do with my two
enterprises: Bracewell & Giuliani and Giuliani Partners. I'm very
busy in both." The decisions signaled a possible end to
Giuliani's political career. During the 2010 midterm
elections, Giuliani endorsed and campaigned for
Bob Ehrlich and Marco
On October 11, 2011, Giuliani announced that he was not running for
president. According to Kevin Law, the Director of the Long Island
Association, Giuliani believed that "As a moderate, he thought it was
a pretty significant challenge. He said it's tough to be a moderate
and succeed in GOP primaries", Giuliani said "If it's too late for
New Jersey Governor) Chris Christie, it's too late for me".
At a Republican fund-raising event in February 2015, Giuliani stated,
"I do not believe, and I know this is a horrible thing to say, but I
do not believe that the president [Barack Obama] loves America", and
"He doesn’t love you. And he doesn't love me. He wasn't brought up
the way you were brought up and I was brought up, through love of this
country." In response to criticism of the remarks, Giuliani said,
"Some people thought it was racist—I thought that was a joke, since
he was brought up by a white mother... This isn't racism. This is
socialism or possibly anti-colonialism."
White House deputy press
Eric Schultz said he agreed with Giuliani "that it was a
horrible thing to say", but said he would leave it up to the people
who heard Giuliani directly to assess if the remarks were appropriate
for the event. Although he received some support for his
controversial comments, Giuliani said he also received several death
threats within 48 hours.
2016 presidential election
Giuliani speaking at a campaign event for Republican Presidential
Donald Trump on August 31, 2016
Donald Trump in the 2016 U.S. presidential
election. He gave a prime time speech during the first night of the
2016 Republican National Convention. Earlier in the day, Giuliani
and former 2016 presidential candidate
Ben Carson appeared at an event
for the pro-Trump Great America PAC. Giuliani also appeared in a
Great America PAC
Great America PAC ad entitled "Leadership". Giuliani’s and Jeff
Sessions’s appearances were staples at Trump campaign rallies.
During the campaign, Giuliani praised Trump for his worldwide
accomplishments and helping fellow New Yorkers in their time of
need. He defended Trump against allegations of racism,
sexual assault, and not paying any federal income taxes for as
long as two decades. Giuliani was believed to be a likely pick
for Secretary of State in the Trump administration. However, on
December 9, 2016, Trump announced that Giuliani had removed his name
from consideration for any Cabinet post. On January 12, 2017,
President-elect Trump named Giuliani his informal cybersecurity
Advisor to President Donald Trump
In January 2017, Giuliani said that he advised U.S. President Donald
Trump on his issuing of Executive Order 13769, barring citizens of
seven Muslim-majority countries from entering the United States for 90
days and suspending the admission of all refugees for 120 days.
Main article: Giuliani Partners
After leaving the mayor's office, Giuliani founded a security
Giuliani Partners LLC, in 2002, a firm that has
been categorized by various media outlets as a lobbying entity
capitalizing on Giuliani's name recognition, and which has
been the subject of allegations surrounding staff hired by Giuliani
and due to the firm's chosen client base. Over five years,
Giuliani Partners earned more than $100 million.
In June 2007 he stepped down as CEO and Chairman of Giuliani
Partners, although this action was not made public until December
4, 2007; he maintained his equity interest in the firm.
Giuliani subsequently returned to active participation in the firm
following the election. In late 2009, Giuliani announced that they had
a security consulting contract with Rio de Janeiro, Brazil regarding
the 2016 Summer Olympics. He faced criticism in 2012 for advising
people once allied with
Slobodan Milošević who had lauded Serbian
Giuliani at a joint press conference with Serbian President Tomislav
Nikolić in 2012
Bracewell & Giuliani
Main article: Bracewell LLP
In 2005, Giuliani joined the law firm of Bracewell & Patterson LLP
(renamed Bracewell & Giuliani LLP) as a name partner and basis for
the expanding firm's new New York office. When he joined the
Texas-based firm he brought Marc Mukasey, the son of Attorney General
Michael Mukasey, into the firm.
Despite a busy schedule, Giuliani was highly active in the day-to-day
business of the law firm, which was a high-profile supplier of legal
and lobbying services to the oil, gas, and energy industries. Its
aggressive defense of pollution-causing coal-fired power plants
threatened to cause political risk for Giuliani, but association with
the firm helped Giuliani achieve fund-raising success in Texas.
In 2006, Giuliani acted as the lead counsel and lead spokesmen for
Bracewell & Giuliani client Purdue Pharma, the makers of
OxyContin, during their negotiations with federal prosecutors over
charges that the pharmaceutical company misled the public about
OxyContin's addictive properties. The agreement reached resulted in
Purdue Pharma and some of its executives paying $634.5 million in
Bracewell & Giuliani represented corporate clients before many
U.S. Government departments and agencies. Some clients have worked
with corporations and foreign governments.
Giuliani left the firm in January 2016, by “amicable
agreement,” and the firm was rebranded as Bracewell LLP.
On January 19, 2016, it was reported that Giuliani is moving to the
law firm Greenberg Traurig, where he will be the global chairman for
Greenberg's cybersecurity and crisis management group, as well as a
senior advisor to the firm's executive chairman.
Marriages and relationships
Giuliani with Congressman
Vito Fossella and First Lady Nancy Reagan,
On October 26, 1968, soon after he graduated from law school, he
married his second cousin, Regina Peruggi, whom Giuliani had known
since childhood. In the mid-70s the marriage was in trouble and in
1975 they agreed to a trial separation. Peruggi did not accompany
him to Washington when he accepted the job in the Attorney General's
Giuliani met local television personality
Donna Hanover sometime in
1982, and they began dating when she was working in Miami. Giuliani
filed for legal separation from Peruggi on August 12, 1982. The
Giuliani-Peruggi marriage legally ended in two ways: a civil divorce
was issued by the end of 1982, while a Roman Catholic church
annulment of the Giuliani-Peruggi marriage was granted at the end of
1983 reportedly because Giuliani had discovered that he and
Peruggi were second cousins. Giuliani biographer Wayne
Barrett reports that Peruggi's brother believes that Giuliani knew at
the time of the marriage that they were second cousins. Alan Placa,
Giuliani's best man, later became a priest and helped get the
annulment. Giuliani and Peruggi did not have any children.
Giuliani and Hanover then married in a Catholic ceremony at St.
Monica's Church in Manhattan on April 15, 1984. They had two
children, son Andrew and daughter Caroline.
Beginning in 1996, Hanover appeared at few public events. There
were reports that Hanover was aware of her husband's personal conduct
as early as 1995. On
Father's Day Giuliani had told reporters that he
was returning to
Gracie Mansion to play ball with Andrew, but instead
went to City Hall, to a basement suite with his press secretary. Three
hours later Hanover went to City Hall to confront Giuliani, but a
mayor's aide prevented her from entering the suite.
New York Air National Guard
New York Air National Guard major poses with
Rudy and Judith
Yankee Stadium in April 2009
Still married to Hanover, Giuliani met Judith Nathan, a twice-divorced
sales manager for a pharmaceutical company, in May 1999 at Club
Upper East Side
Upper East Side cigar bar. They formed an ongoing
relationship. To keep his relationship with Nathan from
public scrutiny, beginning in summer 1999 Giuliani had the costs for
NYPD security detail charged to obscure city agencies.
In early 2000, Nathan began getting city-provided chauffeur services
from the police department.
By March 2000, Giuliani had stopped wearing his wedding ring, and
his and Nathan's appearances at functions and events became publicly
visible although not mentioned in the press. In early
May 2000, the Daily News and then the
New York Post
New York Post broke news of
Giuliani's relationship with Nathan. Giuliani first publicly
acknowledged her on May 3, 2000, stating that Nathan was his "very
On May 10, 2000, Giuliani called a press conference to announce that
he intended to separate from Hanover. Hanover had not been
told about his plans before his press conference, an omission for
which Giuliani was widely criticized. Giuliani now went on to
praise Nathan as a "very, very fine woman", and said about Hanover
that "over the course of some period of time in many ways, we've grown
to live independent and separate lives". Hours later Hanover said, "I
had hoped that we could keep this marriage together. For several
years, it was difficult to participate in Rudy's public life because
of his relationship with one staff member".
Giuliani moved out of Gracie Mansion[when?] and into a couple's
apartment. Giuliani filed for divorce from Hanover in
October 2000, and a public battle broke out between their
representatives. Nathan was barred by court order from entering
Gracie Mansion or meeting his children before the divorce was
In May 2001, Giuliani's attorney revealed that Giuliani was impotent
due to prostate cancer treatments and had not had sex with Nathan for
the preceding year. "You don't get through treatment for cancer and
radiation all by yourself", Giuliani said. "You need people to help
you and care for you and support you. And I'm very fortunate I had a
lot of people who did that, but nobody did more to help me than Judith
Nathan." Giuliani argued in a court case that he aimed to
introduce Nathan to his children on
Father's Day 2001, and that
Hanover had prevented this visit. Giuliani and Hanover finally
settled their divorce case in July 2002 after his mayoralty had ended,
with Giuliani paying Hanover a $6.8 million settlement and granting
her custody of their children. Giuliani married Nathan on May 24,
2003, and gained a stepdaughter, Whitney. It was also Nathan's third
marriage after two divorces.
By March 2007,
The New York Times
The New York Times and the Daily News reported that
Giuliani had become estranged from both his son Andrew and his
daughter Caroline. In 2014, he said his relationship with
his children was better than ever, and was spotted eating and playing
golf with Andrew.
On April 4, 2018, Nathan filed for divorce from Giuliani after 15
years of marriage.
Nineteen years after Giuliani's father died at age 73 in April 1981 of
prostate cancer at Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, Giuliani
was diagnosed at age 55 in April 2000 with prostate cancer on prostate
biopsy after an elevated screening PSA. Giuliani chose a
combination prostate cancer treatment consisting of four months of
neoadjuvant Lupron hormonal therapy, then low dose-rate prostate
brachytherapy with permanent implantation of ninety TheraSeed
radioactive palladium-103 seeds in his prostate in September
2000, followed two months later by five weeks of fifteen-minute,
five-days-a-week external beam radiotherapy at Mount Sinai Medical
Center, with five months of adjuvant Lupron hormonal therapy.
Religion and beliefs
Giuliani has declined to comment publicly on his religious practice
and beliefs, although he identifies religion as an important part of
his life. When asked if he is a practicing Catholic, Giuliani
answered, "My religious affiliation, my religious practices and the
degree to which I am a good or not-so-good Catholic, I prefer to leave
to the priests."
Awards and honors
In 1998, Giuliani received The Hundred Year Association of New York's
Gold Medal Award "in recognition of outstanding contributions to the
City of New York".
House of Savoy:
Grand Cross (motu proprio) of the Order of
Savoy (December 2001)
For his leadership on and after September 11, Giuliani was made an
Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire
Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Her
Elizabeth II on February 13, 2002.
Giuliani was named Time magazine's "Person of the Year" for 2001
In 2002, the
Episcopal Diocese of New York
Episcopal Diocese of New York gave Giuliani the Fiorello
LaGuardia Public Service Award for Valor and Leadership in the Time of
Also in 2002, Former First Lady
Nancy Reagan awarded Giuliani the
Ronald Reagan Freedom Award.
In 2002, he received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest
Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out
annually by Jefferson Awards.
In 2003, Giuliani received the Academy of Achievement's Golden Plate
In 2004, construction began on the Rudolph W. Giuliani Trauma Center
at St. Vincent's Hospital in New York.
In 2005, Giuliani received honorary degrees from Loyola College in
Maryland and Middlebury College. In 2007, Giuliani received
an honorary Doctorate in Public Administration from The Citadel, The
Military College of South Carolina.
Judith Giuliani were honored by the American Heart
Association at its annual Heart of the Hamptons benefit in Water Mill,
In 2007, Giuliani was honored by the National Italian American
Foundation (NIAF), receiving the NIAF
Special Achievement Award for
In 2007, Giuliani was awarded the
Margaret Thatcher Medal of Freedom
by the Atlantic Bridge.
In the 2009 graduation ceremony for Drexel University's Earle Mack
School of Law, Giuliani was the keynote speaker and recipient of an
Giuliani was the Robert C. Vance Distinguished Lecturer at Central
Connecticut State University in 2013.
In 1993, Giuliani made a cameo appearance as himself in the Seinfeld
episode "The Non-Fat Yogurt".
In 2000, Giuliani made a cameo appearance in the Law & Order
Biographical drama Rudy: The
Rudy Giuliani Story (2003), in which he
is played by James Woods.
Kevin Keating's Documentary
Giuliani Time (2006).
In 2003, Giuliani made a cameo appearance as himself in the film Anger
Adam Sandler and Jack Nicholson.
New York City
New York City portal
Political positions of
Electoral history of
Public image of
Timeline of New York City, 1990s–2000s
^ "Rudolph Giuliani biography". Biography.com. A&E Television
Networks. Retrieved December 20, 2015.
Rudy Giuliani appointment". The Washington Post. The Washington
Post. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
^ a b Gina M Robertiello, "Giuliani, Rudolph", pp. 687–99, in Wilbur
R. Miller, ed, The Social History of Crime and Punishment in America:
An Encyclopedia (Thousand Oaks CA, New Delhi, London: Sage
Elisabeth Bumiller (May 20, 2000). "The Mayor's decision: The
overview; cancer is concern". New York Times.
^ "Person Of The Year 2001". Time.
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Rudy Giuliani attacks
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Pose Risk". The New York Times.
^ Meier, Barry (June 19, 2007). "Big Part of
OxyContin Profit Was
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ethics problem". Oakland Tribune. Associated Press. Archived from the
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^ "Ex-New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani Leaves Bracewell Law Firm".
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Greenberg Traurig Law Firm".
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2014. Archived from the original on April 1, 2007. Retrieved August
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The New York Times, May 4, 2001. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
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^ "Donna's Riskiest Role". Retrieved August 16, 2016.
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Disaffection". The Village Voice. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
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Judith Giuliani Gives Her Side",
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29, 2007; Retrieved May 6, 2007 Archived June 29, 2011, at the Wayback
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^ a b c
Elisabeth Bumiller (May 4, 2000). "Mayor Acknowledges 'Very
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8, 2000). "Metro Matters; 'Good Friend,' A Marriage, And Voters". The
New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
^ a b Jesse Drucker (May 4, 2000). "Rudy's "very good friend"". Salon.
Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved December 18,
^ New York Times, May 11, 2000 "The Mayor's Separation; Excerpts From
the Mayor's News Conference Concerning His Marriage". The New York
Times. May 11, 2000. Retrieved March 31, 2008.
^ New York Times, July 14, 2002, by Joyce WadlerWadler, Joyce (July
14, 2002). "Pronounced "Ex and Ex"". The New York Times. Retrieved
January 5, 2007.
^ New York Times, May 11, 2000, by Elisabeth Bumiller, Bumiller,
Elisabeth (May 11, 2000). "The Mayor's Separation: The Overview;
Giuliani and His Wife of 16 Years Are Separating". The New York Times.
Retrieved January 5, 2007.
^ The Softer, Gentler
Rudy Giuliani "The Softer, Gentler Rudy
^ a b Lloyd Grove, "The Thunderbolt", New York Magazine. Retrieved
June 12, 2007
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^ "Three's Company: Picking Up After Rudy", New York Magazine, August
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Time. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
^ Capehart, Jonathan (March 6, 2007). "Hizzoner the Curmudgeon". The
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'Mature' Relationship", The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
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^ Russ Buettner/Richard Perez-Pena, "Noticeably Absent From the
Giuliani Campaign: His Children", The New York Times. Retrieved June
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Dad – Rudy's son", Daily News, March 3, 2007
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son now on 'great terms'". Page Six. New York Post. NYP Holdings.
Retrieved December 2, 2015.
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cancer; Unsure on Senate". The New York Times. p. A1.
^ Bumiller, Elisabeth (September 16, 2000). "Mayor undergoes cancer
treatment; Radioactive seeds implanted in Giuliani's prostate gland".
The New York Times. p. A1.
^ Bumiller, Elisabeth (November 22, 2000). "Giuliani starts final
phase of cancer treatment". The New York Times. p. B4.
^ "Outspoken Catholic Archbishop Raymond Burke Says He'd Deny Rudy
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^ "100 Year Association of New York". Archived from the original on
August 27, 2009.
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^ "Transcripts". CNN. February 7, 2001. Retrieved March 30,
^ "NY Episcopal Diocese Honors Former Mayor Giuliani With The Fiorello
LaGuardia Public Service Award At St. Paul's Chapel For September 11
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Retrieved June 4, 2017.
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hospital for Giuliani raises questions". Catholic News Service.
Archived from the original on September 15, 2004.
^ Anderson, Nick; Cooperman, Alan (May 20, 2005). "Cardinal Denounces
Honor for Giuliani". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 30,
^ "Giuliani Speaks at College After Controversy". Fox News. Associated
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^ "Italian-American Awards Gala". c-spanvideo.org. C-SPAN. October 13,
2007. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
^ Baxter, Sarah (September 16, 2007). "
Rudy Giuliani mocks Hillary
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Earle Mack School of Law Inaugural Commencement". Daily Digest.
Drexel University. May 22, 2009. Retrieved November 18, 2015.
^ Burnham, Johnny J. (March 15, 2003). "Giuliani speaks at Vance
Lecture series". New Britain Herald. Archived from the original on
March 22, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
Ammann, Daniel (2009). The King of Oil: The Secret Lives of Marc Rich.
New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-57074-0.
Barrett, Wayne, (2000). Rudy!: An Investigative Biography of Rudolph
Giuliani. Basic Books; ISBN 0-7567-6114-X (Reprint by Diane
Barrett, Wayne & Collins, Dan (2006). Grand Illusion: The Untold
Rudy Giuliani and 9/11. Harper Collins.
Bratton, William; Knobler, Peter (1998). Turnaround: How America's Top
Cop Reversed the Crime Epidemic. New York: Random House.
Brodeur, Christopher X. (2002). Perverted Little Creep: Mayor Giuliani
vs Mayor Brodeur. ExtremeNY books, ISBN 0-9741593-0-1.
Dinkins, David N.; Knobler, Peter (2013). A Mayor's Life: Governing
New York's Gorgeous Mosaic. PublicAffairs, ISBN 978-1-61039-301-0
Doney, Kristin; Giuliani, Rudolph, W. (1998). What Will You Be?.
Public/Private Initiatives Inc. CS1 maint: Multiple names:
authors list (link)
Giuliani, Rudolph W., Kurson, Ken (2002). Leadership. Miramax Books.
ISBN 0-7868-6841-4. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
Gonzalez, Juan, (2002). Fallout: The Environmental Consequences of the
World Trade Center Collapse. New Press, ISBN 1-56584-754-7.
Heilemann, John; Halperin, Mark (2010). Game Change: Obama and the
Clintons, McCain and Palin, and the Race of a Lifetime. New York:
HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-173363-6.
Kirtzman, Andrew (2001).
Rudy Giuliani: Emperor of the City. Harper
Collins. ISBN 0-06-009389-7.
Koch, Edward I. (1999). Giuliani: Nasty Man. Barricade Books.
Mandery, Evan (1999). The Campaign:
Rudy Giuliani, Ruth Messinger, Al
Sharpton, and the Race to Be Mayor of New York City. Westview Press,
Newfield, Jack, (2003). The Full Rudy: The Man, the Myth, the Mania.
Thunder's Mouth Press, ISBN 1-56025-482-3.
Polner, Robert, (2005). America's Mayor: The Hidden History of Rudy
Giuliani's New York. Soft Skull Press, ISBN 1-932360-58-1.
Polner, Robert, (2007). America's Mayor, America's President? The
Strange Career of
Rudy Giuliani. [Preface by Jimmy Breslin] Soft Skull
Press, ISBN 1-933368-72-1.
Siegel, Fred (2005). The Prince of the City: Giuliani, New York, and
the Genius of American Life. Encounter Books.
Strober, Deborah Hart; Strober, Gerald S. (2007). Giuliani: Flawed Or
Flawless? The Oral Biography. John Wiley & Sons.
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