The Info List - Rudy Giuliani

Mayor of New York City

Mayoralty Campaign for the Mayoralty (1993) Crime Control

Bill Bratton Stop-and-Frisk Broken windows

Reelection (1997) Kerik promotions

September 11 attacks

Political positions Public image


v t e

Rudolph William Louis Giuliani KBE[1] (/ˌdʒuːliˈɑːni/; born May 28, 1944) is an American lawyer, businessman, public speaker, former mayor of New York City, and an informal adviser on cybersecurity to the White House.[2] Politically a Democrat, then an Independent in the 1970s, and a Republican since the 1980s, Giuliani was the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York
Southern District of New York
during the 1980s. Giuliani prosecuted pivotal cases against the American Mafia, and against corrupt corporate financiers. During his first term as mayor of New York City, Giuliani hired a new police commissioner, William Bratton, who applied the broken windows theory of urban decay, which holds that minor disorders and violations create a permissive atmosphere that leads to further and more serious crimes that can threaten the safety of a city.[3] Within several years, Giuliani was widely credited for major improvements in the city's quality of life, and in lowering the rate of violent crimes.[3] While still Mayor, Giuliani ran for the U.S. Senate
U.S. Senate
in 2000; however, he withdrew from the race upon learning of his prostate cancer diagnosis.[4] Giuliani was named Time magazine's Person of the Year for 2001,[5] and was given an honorary knighthood in 2002 by the United Kingdom's Queen Elizabeth II[6] for his leadership in the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001. In 2002, Giuliani founded Giuliani Partners (security consulting), acquired and later sold Giuliani Capital Advisors (investment banking), and joined a Texas firm while opening a Manhattan office for the firm renamed Bracewell & Giuliani (legal services). Giuliani sought the Republican Party's 2008 presidential nomination, and was considered the early front runner in the race,[7] before withdrawing from the race to endorse the eventual nominee, John McCain. Giuliani was considered a potential candidate for New York Governor in 2010[8][9] and for the Republican presidential nomination in 2012.[10] Giuliani declined all races, and instead remained in the business sector.[11][12][13] On January 12, 2017, President-elect Donald Trump
Donald Trump
named Giuliani his informal cybersecurity adviser.[14]


1 Early life 2 Legal career

2.1 Mafia Commission trial 2.2 Boesky, Milken trials

3 Mayoral campaigns

3.1 1989 3.2 1993 3.3 1997

4 Mayoralty

4.1 Law enforcement 4.2 City services 4.3 Appointees as defendants 4.4 2000 U.S. Senate
U.S. Senate
campaign 4.5 September 11 terrorist attacks

4.5.1 Response 4.5.2 Communication preparedness 4.5.3 Public reaction 4.5.4 Time Person of the Year 4.5.5 Aftermath

5 Post-mayoralty

5.1 Politics

5.1.1 Before 2008 election 5.1.2 2008 presidential campaign 5.1.3 After 2008 election 5.1.4 2016 presidential election 5.1.5 Advisor to President Donald Trump

5.2 Giuliani Partners 5.3 Bracewell & Giuliani 5.4 Greenberg Traurig

6 Personal life

6.1 Marriages and relationships 6.2 Prostate cancer 6.3 Religion and beliefs

7 Awards and honors 8 Media references 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Early life[edit] Giuliani was born in an Italian-American enclave in East Flatbush in the New York City
New York City
borough of Brooklyn, the only child of working-class parents, Harold Angelo Giuliani (1908–1981) and Helen Giuliani (née D'Avanzo; 1909–2002), both children of Italian immigrants.[15] Giuliani is of Tuscan origins from his father side, as his paternal grandparents (Rodolfo and Evangelina Giuliani) were born in Montecatini, Tuscany, Italy.[16] He was raised a Roman Catholic.[17] Harold Giuliani, a plumber and a bartender,[18] had trouble holding a job, and was convicted of felony assault and robbery, serving time in Sing Sing.[19] After his release he worked as an enforcer for his brother-in-law Leo D'Avanzo, who ran an organized crime operation involved in loan sharking and gambling at a restaurant in Brooklyn.[20] The family lived in East Flatbush, Brooklyn
until Harold died of prostate cancer in 1981,[21] after which Helen moved to Manhattan's Upper East Side. Helen was featured in a television commercial to promote her son in the 1993 Mayoral Election.[21] In 1951, when Giuliani was seven, his family moved from Brooklyn
to Garden City South, where he attended the local Catholic school, St. Anne's.[22] Later, he commuted back to Brooklyn
to attend Bishop Loughlin Memorial High School, graduating in 1961.[23] Giuliani attended Manhattan College
Manhattan College
in Riverdale, Bronx, where he majored in political science with a minor in philosophy.[24] There he considered becoming a priest.[24] Giuliani was elected president of his class in his sophomore year, but was not re-elected in his junior year. He joined the Phi Rho Pi fraternity. He graduated in 1965. Giuliani eventually decided to forego the priesthood, instead attending New York University
New York University
School of Law in Manhattan, where he made the NYU Law Review[24] and graduated cum laude with a Juris Doctor degree in 1968.[25] Giuliani started his political life as a Democrat. He volunteered for Robert F. Kennedy's presidential campaign in 1968. He also worked as a Democratic Party committeeman on Long Island in the mid-1960s,[26][27] and voted for George McGovern
George McGovern
for president in 1972.[28] Legal career[edit] Upon graduation, Giuliani clerked for Judge Lloyd Francis MacMahon, United States District Judge for the Southern District of New York.[29] Giuliani did not serve in the military during the Vietnam War. His conscription was deferred while he was enrolled at Manhattan College and NYU Law. Upon graduation from the latter in 1968, he was classified by the Selective Service System
Selective Service System
as 1-A, available for military service. He applied for a deferment but was rejected. In 1969, Judge MacMahon wrote a letter to Giuliani's draft board, asking that he be reclassified as 2-A, civilian occupation deferment, because Giuliani, who was a law clerk for MacMahon, was an essential employee. The deferment was granted. In 1970, Giuliani received a high draft lottery number; he was not called up for service although by then he had been reclassified 1-A.[30][31] In 1970, Giuliani joined the United States Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York.[32] In 1973, he was named Chief of the Narcotics Unit and became executive U.S. attorney.[25] In 1975, Giuliani switched his party registration from Democratic to Independent[27] as he was recruited to Washington, D.C. during the Ford administration, where he was named Associate Deputy Attorney General and chief of staff to Deputy Attorney General Harold "Ace" Tyler.[27] His first high-profile prosecution was of Democratic U.S. Representative Bertram L. Podell
Bertram L. Podell
(NY-13), who was convicted of corruption.[33] From 1977 to 1981, during the Carter administration, Giuliani practiced law at the Patterson, Belknap, Webb and Tyler
Patterson, Belknap, Webb and Tyler
law firm, as chief of staff to his previous DC boss, Ace Tyler. Tyler later became critical of Giuliani's turn as a prosecutor, calling his tactics "overkill".[27] On December 8, 1980, one month after the election of Ronald Reagan brought Republicans back to power in Washington, he switched his party affiliation from Independent to Republican.[27] Giuliani later said the switches were because he found Democratic policies "naïve", and that "by the time I moved to Washington, the Republicans had come to make more sense to me".[15] Others suggested that the switches were made in order to get positions in the Justice Department.[27] Giuliani's mother maintained in 1988 that:

He only became a Republican after he began to get all these jobs from them. He's definitely not a conservative Republican. He thinks he is, but he isn't. He still feels very sorry for the poor.[27]

In 1981, Giuliani was named Associate Attorney General in the Reagan administration,[34] the third-highest position in the Department of Justice. As Associate Attorney General, Giuliani supervised the U.S. Attorney Offices' federal law enforcement agencies, the Department of Corrections, the Drug Enforcement Administration, and the United States Marshals Service. In a well-publicized 1982 case, Giuliani testified in defense of the federal government's "detention posture" regarding the internment of over 2,000 Haitian asylum seekers who had entered the country illegally. The U.S. government disputed the assertion that most of the detainees had fled their country due to political persecution, alleging instead that they were "economic migrants". In defense of the government's position, Giuliani testified that "political repression, at least in general, does not exist" under President of Haiti
Jean-Claude Duvalier's regime.[24][35] In 1983, Giuliani was appointed U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York, which was technically a demotion but was sought by Giuliani because of his desire to personally litigate cases. It was in this position that he first gained national prominence by prosecuting numerous high-profile cases, resulting in the convictions of Wall Street
Wall Street
figures Ivan Boesky and Michael Milken. He also focused on prosecuting drug dealers, organized crime, and corruption in government.[25] He amassed a record of 4,152 convictions and 25 reversals. As a federal prosecutor, Giuliani was credited with bringing the "perp walk", parading of suspects in front of the previously alerted media, into common use as a prosecutorial tool.[36] After Giuliani "patented the perp walk", the tool was used by increasing numbers of prosecutors nationwide.[37] Giuliani's critics claim he arranged public arrests of people, then dropped charges for lack of evidence on high-profile cases rather than going to trial. In a few cases, his public arrests of alleged white-collar criminals at their workplaces with charges later dropped or lessened, sparked controversy, and damaged the reputations of the alleged "perps".[38] He claimed veteran stock trader Richard Wigton, of Kidder, Peabody & Co., was guilty of insider trading; in February 1987 he had officers handcuff Wigton and march him through the company's trading floor, with Wigton in tears.[39] Giuliani had his agents arrest Tim Tabor, a young arbitrageur and former colleague of Wigton, so late that he had to stay overnight in jail before posting bond.[39][40] Within three months, charges were dropped against both Wigton and Tabor; Giuliani said, "We're not going to go to trial. We're just the tip of the iceberg", but no further charges were forthcoming and the investigation did not end until Giuliani's successor was in place.[40] Giuliani's high-profile raid of the Princeton/Newport firm ended with the defendants having their cases overturned on appeal on the grounds that what they had been convicted of were not crimes.[41] Mafia Commission trial[edit] In the Mafia Commission Trial
Mafia Commission Trial
(February 25, 1985 – November 19, 1986), Giuliani indicted eleven organized crime figures, including the heads of New York's so-called "Five Families", under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) on charges including extortion, labor racketeering, and murder for hire. Time magazine called this "Case of Cases" possibly "the most significant assault on the infrastructure of organized crime since the high command of the Chicago Mafia was swept away in 1943", and quoted Giuliani's stated intention: "Our approach is to wipe out the five families."[42] Eight defendants were found guilty on all counts and subsequently sentenced on January 13, 1987 to hundreds of years of prison time.[43][44] According to an FBI
memo revealed about 20 years later, leaders of the five New York mob families voted in 1987 on whether to issue a contract for the death of U.S. attorney Rudolph Giuliani. Heads of the Lucchese, Bonanno, and Genovese families rejected the idea, though Gambino leader John Gotti encouraged assassination.[45] Boesky, Milken trials[edit] Ivan Boesky was a Wall Street
Wall Street
arbitrageur who had amassed a fortune of about $200 million by betting on corporate takeovers. He was investigated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
(SEC) for making investments based on tips received from corporate insiders. These stock and options acquisitions were sometimes brazen, with massive purchases occurring only a few days before a corporation announced a takeover. Although insider trading of this kind was illegal, laws prohibiting it were rarely enforced until Boesky was prosecuted. Boesky cooperated with the SEC and informed on several others, including junk bond trader Michael Milken. Per agreement with Giuliani, Boesky received a ​3 1⁄2-year prison sentence along with a $100 million fine.[46] In 1989, Giuliani charged Milken under the RICO Act with 98 counts of racketeering and fraud. In a highly publicized case, Milken was indicted by a grand jury on these charges.[47] Mayoral campaigns[edit] Giuliani was U.S. Attorney until January 1989, resigning as the Reagan administration ended. He garnered criticism until he left office for his handling of cases, and was accused of prosecuting cases to further his political ambitions.[24] He joined the law firm White & Case in New York City
New York City
as a partner. He remained with White & Case until May 1990, when he joined the law firm Anderson Kill Olick & Oshinsky, also in New York City.[48] 1989[edit] Giuliani first ran for New York City
New York City
Mayor in 1989, attempting to unseat three-term incumbent Ed Koch. He won the September 1989 Republican Party primary election against business magnate Ronald Lauder, in a campaign marked by claims that Giuliani was not a true Republican and by an acrimonious debate.[49] In the Democratic primary, Koch was upset by Manhattan Borough President
Manhattan Borough President
David Dinkins. In the general election, Giuliani ran as the fusion candidate of both the Republican and Liberal Parties. The Conservative Party, which had often co-lined the Republican party candidate, withheld support from Giuliani and ran Lauder instead.[50] Conservative Party leaders were unhappy with Giuliani on ideological grounds. They cited the Liberal Party's endorsement statement that Giuliani "agreed with the Liberal Party's views on affirmative action, gay rights, gun control, school prayer and tuition tax credits."[51] During two televised debates, Giuliani framed himself as an agent of change, saying, "I'm the reformer",[52] that "If we keep going merrily along, this city's going down", and that electing Dinkins would represent "more of the same, more of the rotten politics that have been dragging us down".[49] Giuliani pointed out that Dinkins had not filed a tax return for many years and of several other ethical missteps, in particular a stock transfer to his son.[52] Dinkins filed several years of returns and said the tax matter had been fully paid off, denied other wrongdoing, and said that "what we need is a mayor, not a prosecutor", and that Giuliani refused to say "the R-word—he doesn't like to admit he's a Republican."[52] Dinkins won the endorsements of three of the four daily New York newspapers, while Giuliani won approval from the New York Post.[53] In the end, Giuliani lost to Dinkins by a margin of 47,080 votes out of 1,899,845 votes cast, in the closest election in New York City's history. The closeness of the race was particularly noteworthy considering the small percentage of New York City
New York City
residents who are registered Republicans and resulted in Giuliani being the presumptive nominee for a re-match with Dinkins at the next election.[25] 1993[edit] Main article: New York City
New York City
mayoral election, 1993 Four years after he was beaten by Dinkins, Giuliani again ran for mayor. Once again, Giuliani also ran on the Liberal Party line but not the Conservative Party line, which ran activist George Marlin.[54] The city was suffering from a spike in unemployment associated with the nationwide recession, with local unemployment rates going from 6.7% in 1989 to 11.1% in 1992, although crime rates had already begun to decline under Dinkins.[55][56][57] Giuliani promised to focus the police department on shutting down petty crimes and nuisances as a way of restoring the quality of life:

It's the street tax paid to drunks and panhandlers. It's the squeegee men shaking down the motorist waiting at a light. It's the trash storms, the swirling mass of garbage left by peddlers and panhandlers, and open-air drug bazaars on unclean streets.[58]

Dinkins and Giuliani never debated during the campaign, because they were never able to agree on how to approach a debate.[49][54] Dinkins was endorsed by The New York Times
The New York Times
and Newsday,[59] while Giuliani was endorsed by the New York Post
New York Post
and, in a key switch from 1989, the Daily News.[60] Giuliani came to visit the late Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, seeking his blessing and endorsement.[61] Giuliani won by a margin of 53,367 votes. He became the first Republican elected Mayor of New York City
Mayor of New York City
since John Lindsay
John Lindsay
in 1965.[62] 1997[edit] Main article: New York City
New York City
mayoral election, 1997 Giuliani's opponent in 1997 was Democratic Manhattan Borough President Ruth Messinger, who had beaten Al Sharpton
Al Sharpton
in the September 9, 1997 Democratic primary.[63] In the general election, Giuliani once again had the Liberal Party and not the Conservative Party listing. Giuliani ran an aggressive campaign, parlaying his image as a tough leader who had cleaned up the city. Giuliani's popularity was at its highest point to date, with a late October 1997 Quinnipiac University
Quinnipiac University
Polling Institute poll showing him as having a 68 percent approval rating; 70 percent of New Yorkers were satisfied with life in the city and 64 percent said things were better in the city compared to four years previously.[64] Throughout the campaign he was well ahead in the polls and had a strong fund-raising advantage over Messinger. On her part, Messinger lost the support of several usually Democratic constituencies, including gay organizations and large labor unions.[65] The local daily newspapers—The New York Times, Daily News, New York Post
New York Post
and Newsday—all endorsed Giuliani over Messinger.[66] In the end, Giuliani won 59% of the vote to Messinger's 41%, and became the first registered Republican to win a second term as mayor while on the Republican line since Fiorello H. La Guardia
Fiorello H. La Guardia
in 1941.[63] Voter turnout was the lowest in 12 years, with 38% of registered voters casting ballots.[67] The margin of victory included gains[68] in his share of the African American
African American
vote (20% compared to 1993's 5%) and the Hispanic
vote (43% from 37%) while maintaining his base of white ethnic, Catholic and Jewish voters from 1993.[68] Mayoralty[edit] Main article: Mayoralty of Rudy
Giuliani Giuliani served as mayor of New York City
New York City
from 1994 through 2001. Law enforcement[edit] In Giuliani's first term as mayor, the New York City
New York City
Police Department at the instigation of Commissioner Bill Bratton
Bill Bratton
adopted an aggressive enforcement/deterrent strategy based on James Q. Wilson's "Broken Windows" approach.[69] This involved crackdowns on relatively minor offenses such as graffiti, turnstile jumping, cannabis possession, and aggressive panhandling by "squeegee men", on the theory that this would send a message that order would be maintained. The legal underpinning for removing the "squeegee men" from the streets was developed under Giuliani's predecessor, Mayor David Dinkins.[69] Bratton, with Deputy Commissioner Jack Maple, also created and instituted CompStat, a computer-driven comparative statistical approach to mapping crime geographically and in terms of emerging criminal patterns, as well as charting officer performance by quantifying criminal apprehensions.[70] Critics of the system assert that it creates an environment in which police officials are encouraged to underreport or otherwise manipulate crime data. An extensive study found a high correlation between crime rates reported by the police through CompStat and rates of crime available from other sources, suggesting there had been no manipulation.[71] The CompStat initiative won the 1996 Innovations in Government Award from the Kennedy School of Government.[72]

National, New York City, and other major city crime rates (1990–2002).[73]

During Giuliani's administration, crime rates dropped in New York City.[71] The extent to which Giuliani deserves the credit is disputed.[74] Crime rates in New York City
New York City
had started to drop in 1991 under previous mayor David Dinkins, three years before Giuliani took office.[75] The rates of most crimes, including all categories of violent crime, made consecutive declines during the last 36 months of Dinkins's four-year term, ending a 30-year upward spiral.[76] A small nationwide drop in crime preceded Giuliani's election, and some critics say that he may have been the beneficiary of a trend already in progress. Additional contributing factors to the overall decline in New York City
New York City
crime during the 1990s were the addition of 7,000 officers to the NYPD, lobbied for and hired by the Dinkins administration, and an overall improvement in the national economy.[75] Changing demographics were a key factor contributing to crime rate reductions, which were similar across the country during this time.[77] Because the crime index is based on that of the FBI, which is self-reported by police departments, some have alleged that crimes were shifted into categories that the FBI
doesn't collect.[78] Giuliani's supporters cite studies concluding that the decline in New York City's crime rate in the 1990s and 2000s exceeds all national figures and therefore should be linked with a local dynamic that was not present as such anywhere else in the country: what University of California sociologist Frank Zimring calls "the most focused form of policing in history". In his book The Great American Crime Decline, Zimring argues that "up to half of New York's crime drop in the 1990s, and virtually 100 percent of its continuing crime decline since 2000, has resulted from policing."[79][80] Bratton was featured on the cover of Time in 1996.[81] Giuliani reportedly forced Bratton out after two years, in what was seen as a battle of two large egos in which Giuliani was not tolerant of Bratton's celebrity.[82][83] Bratton went on to become chief of the Los Angeles Police Department.[84] Giuliani's term also saw allegations of civil rights abuses and other police misconduct under other commissioners after Bratton's departure. There were police shootings of unarmed suspects,[85] and the scandals surrounding the torture of Abner Louima
Abner Louima
and the killings of Amadou Diallo
Amadou Diallo
and Patrick Dorismond. Giuliani supported the New York City
New York City
Police Department, for example by releasing what he called Dorismond's "extensive criminal record" to the public, including a sealed juvenile file.[86] City services[edit] The Giuliani administration advocated the privatization of failing public schools and increasing school choice through a voucher-based system.[87] Giuliani supported protection for illegal immigrants. He continued a policy of preventing city employees from contacting the Immigration and Naturalization Service
Immigration and Naturalization Service
about immigration violations, on the grounds that illegal aliens should be able to take actions such as sending their children to school or reporting crimes to the police without fear of deportation.[88] During his mayoralty, gay and lesbian New Yorkers received domestic partnership rights. Giuliani induced the city's Democratic-controlled New York City
New York City
Council, which had avoided the issue for years, to pass legislation providing broad protection for same-sex partners. In 1998, he codified local law by granting all city employees equal benefits for their domestic partners.[89] Appointees as defendants[edit] Several of Giuliani's appointees to head City agencies became defendants in criminal proceedings. In 2000, Giuliani appointed 34-year-old Russell Harding, the son of Liberal Party of New York
Liberal Party of New York
leader and longtime Giuliani mentor Raymond Harding, to head the New York City
New York City
Housing Development Corporation, although Harding had neither a college degree nor relevant experience. In 2005, Harding pleaded guilty to defrauding the Housing Development Corporation and to possession of child pornography. He was sentenced to five years in prison.[90] Russell Harding committed suicide in 2012.[91] In a related matter, Richard Roberts, appointed by Giuliani as Housing Commissioner and as chairman of the Health and Hospitals Corporation, pleaded guilty to perjury after lying to a grand jury about a car that Harding bought for him with City funds.[92] Main article: Rudy
Giuliani promotions of Bernard Kerik Giuliani was a longtime backer of Bernard Kerik, who started out as a NYPD
detective driving for Giuliani's campaign. Giuliani appointed him as the Commissioner of the Department of Correction and then as the Police Commissioner. Giuliani was also the godfather to Kerik's two youngest children.[93] After Giuliani left office, Kerik was subject to state and federal investigations resulting in his pleading guilty in 2006, in a Bronx Supreme Court, to two unrelated ethics violations. Kerik was ordered to pay $221,000 in fines. Kerik then pleaded guilty in 2009, in a New York district court, to eight federal charges, including tax fraud and false statements, and on February 18, 2010, he was sentenced to four years in federal prison.[94] Giuliani was not implicated in any of the proceedings. 2000 U.S. Senate
U.S. Senate
campaign[edit] Main article: United States Senate election in New York, 2000

Giuliani campaigned for Senate in 2000 before withdrawing after a cancer diagnosis

Due to term limits, Giuliani could not run in 2001 for a third term as Mayor. In November 1998, four-term incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan announced his retirement and Giuliani immediately indicated an interest in running in the 2000 election for the now-open seat. Due to his high profile and visibility Giuliani was supported by the state Republican Party. Giuliani's entrance led Democratic Congressman Charles Rangel
Charles Rangel
and others to recruit then-U.S. First Lady Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
to run for Moynihan's seat, hoping she might combat his star power. An early January 1999 poll showed Giuliani trailing Clinton by 10 points.[95] In April 1999, Giuliani formed an exploratory committee in connection with the Senate run. By January 2000, Giuliani had reversed the polls situation, pulling nine points ahead after taking advantage of several campaign stumbles by Clinton.[95] Nevertheless, the Giuliani campaign was showing some structural weaknesses; so closely identified with New York City, he had somewhat limited appeal to normally Republican voters in Upstate New York.[96] The New York Police Department's fatal shooting of Patrick Dorismond in March 2000 inflamed Giuliani's already strained relations with the city's minority communities,[97] and Clinton seized on it as a major campaign issue.[97] By April 2000, reports showed Clinton gaining upstate and generally outworking Giuliani, who stated that his duties as mayor prevented him from campaigning more.[98] Clinton was now 8 to 10 points ahead of Giuliani in the polls.[97] Then followed four tumultuous weeks, in which Giuliani's medical life, romantic life, marital life, and political life all collided at once in a most visible fashion. Giuliani discovered that he had prostate cancer and needed treatment; his extramarital relationship with Judith Nathan became public and the subject of a media frenzy; he announced a separation from his wife Donna Hanover; and, after much indecision, on May 19, 2000 he announced his withdrawal from the Senate race.[99] September 11 terrorist attacks[edit] Main article: Rudy
Giuliani during the September 11 attacks

Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld
and Giuliani at the site of the World Trade Center on November 14, 2001

Response[edit] Giuliani was prominent in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. He made frequent appearances on radio and television on September 11 and afterwards—for example, to indicate that tunnels would be closed as a precautionary measure, and that there was no reason to believe that the dispersion of chemical or biological weaponry into the air was a factor in the attack. In his public statements, Giuliani said:

Tomorrow New York is going to be here. And we're going to rebuild, and we're going to be stronger than we were before... I want the people of New York to be an example to the rest of the country, and the rest of the world, that terrorism can't stop us.[100]

The 9/11 attacks occurred on the scheduled date of the mayoral primary to select the Democratic and Republican candidates to succeed Giuliani. The primary was immediately delayed two weeks to September 25. During this period, Giuliani sought an unprecedented three-month emergency extension of his term from January 1 to April 1 under the New York State Constitution
New York State Constitution
(Article 3 Section 25).[101] He threatened to challenge the law imposing term limits on elected city officials and run for another full four-year term, if the primary candidates did not consent to the extension of his mayoralty.[102] In the end leaders in the State Assembly and Senate indicated that they did not believe the extension was necessary. The election proceeded as scheduled, and the winning candidate, the Giuliani-endorsed Republican convert Michael Bloomberg, took office on January 1, 2002 per normal custom. Giuliani claimed to have been at the Ground Zero site "as often, if not more, than most workers... I was there working with them. I was exposed to exactly the same things they were exposed to. So in that sense, I'm one of them." Some 9/11 workers have objected to those claims.[103][104][105] While his appointment logs were unavailable for the six days immediately following the attacks, Giuliani spent a total of 29 hours over three months at the site. This contrasted with recovery workers at the site who spent this much time at the site in two to three days.[106]

Giuliani at a NYFPC briefing after 9/11

When Saudi Prince Alwaleed bin Talal
Alwaleed bin Talal
suggested that the attacks were an indication that the United States "should re-examine its policies in the Middle East and adopt a more balanced stand toward the Palestinian cause", Giuliani asserted, "There is no moral equivalent for this act. There is no justification for it... And one of the reasons I think this happened is because people were engaged in moral equivalency in not understanding the difference between liberal democracies like the United States, like Israel, and terrorist states and those who condone terrorism. So I think not only are those statements wrong, they're part of the problem." Giuliani subsequently rejected the prince's $10 million donation to disaster relief in the aftermath of the attack.[107] Communication preparedness[edit] Main article: Communication during the September 11 attacks § Radio communications Giuliani has been widely criticized for his decision to locate the Office of Emergency Management headquarters on the 23rd floor inside the 7 World Trade Center
7 World Trade Center
building. Those opposing the decision perceived the office as a target for a terrorist attack in light of the previous terrorist attack against the World Trade Center in 1993.[108][109][110] The office was unable to coordinate efforts between police and firefighters properly while evacuating its headquarters.[111] Large tanks of diesel fuel were placed in 7 World Trade to power the command center. In May 1997, Giuliani put responsibility for selecting the location on Jerome M. Hauer, who had served under Giuliani from 1996 to 2000 before being appointed by him as New York City's first Director of Emergency Management. Hauer has taken exception to that account in interviews and provided Fox News and New York Magazine
New York Magazine
with a memo demonstrating that he recommended a location in Brooklyn
but was overruled by Giuliani. Television journalist Chris Wallace interviewed Giuliani on May 13, 2007, about his 1997 decision to locate the command center at the World Trade Center. Giuliani laughed during Wallace's questions and said that Hauer recommended the World Trade Center site
World Trade Center site
and claimed that Hauer said that the WTC site was the best location. Wallace presented Giuliani a photocopy of Hauer's directive letter. The letter urged Giuliani to locate the command center in Brooklyn, instead of lower Manhattan.[112][113][114][115][116] The February 1996 memo read, "The [Brooklyn] building is secure and not as visible a target as buildings in Lower Manhattan."[117]

Giuliani at a joint session of Congress on September 20, 2001, in which President Bush praised his efforts as Mayor and named Tom Ridge to a new cabinet-level position to oversee homeland defense initiatives

In January 2008, an eight-page memo was revealed which detailed the New York City
New York City
Police Department's opposition in 1998 to location of the city's emergency command center at the Trade Center site. The Giuliani administration overrode these concerns.[118] The 9/11 Commission Report
9/11 Commission Report
noted that lack of preparedness could have led to the deaths of first responders at the scene of the attacks. The Commission noted that the radios in use by the fire department were the same radios which had been criticized for their ineffectiveness following the 1993 World Trade Center bombings. Family members of 9/11 victims have said that these radios were a complaint of emergency services responders for years.[119] The radios were not working when Fire Department chiefs ordered the 343 firefighters inside the towers to evacuate, and they remained in the towers as the towers collapsed.[120][121] However, when Giuliani testified before the 9/11 Commission he said that the firefighters ignored the evacuation order out of an effort to save lives.[122][123] Giuliani testified to the Commission, where some family members of responders who had died in the attacks appeared to protest his statements.[124] A 1994 mayoral office study of the radios indicated that they were faulty. Replacement radios were purchased in a $33 million no-bid contract with Motorola, and implemented in early 2001. However, the radios were recalled in March 2001 after a probationary firefighter's calls for help at a house fire could not be picked up by others at the scene, leaving firemen with the old analog radios from 1993.[120][125] A book later published by Commission members Thomas Kean
Thomas Kean
and Lee H. Hamilton, Without Precedent: The Inside Story of the 9/11 Commission, argued that the Commission had not pursued a tough enough line of questioning with Giuliani.[126] An October 2001 study by the National Institute of Environmental Safety and Health said that cleanup workers lacked adequate protective gear.[109][127] Public reaction[edit] In the wake of the attacks, Giuliani gained international attention and was widely hailed for his leadership during the crisis.[128] When polled just six weeks after the attack Giuliani received a 79 percent approval rating among New York City
New York City
voters, a dramatic increase over the 36 percent rating he had received a year earlier—average at the end of a two-term mayorship.[129][130] Oprah Winfrey
Oprah Winfrey
called him "America's Mayor" at a 9/11 memorial service held at Yankee Stadium
Yankee Stadium
on September 23, 2001.[131][132] Other voices denied it was the mayor who had pulled the city together. "You didn't bring us together, our pain brought us together and our decency brought us together. We would have come together if Bozo was the mayor", said civil rights activist Al Sharpton, in a statement largely supported by Fernando Ferrer, one of three main candidates for the mayoralty at the end of 2001. "He was a power-hungry person", Sharpton also said.[133] Time Person of the Year[edit] On December 24, 2001,[134] Time magazine named Giuliani its Person of the Year for 2001.[100] Time observed that, before 9/11, the public image of Giuliani had been that of a rigid, self-righteous, ambitious politician. After 9/11, and perhaps owing also to his bout with prostate cancer, his public image had been reformed to that of a man who could be counted on to unite a city in the midst of its greatest crisis. Historian Vincent J. Cannato concluded in September 2006:

With time, Giuliani's legacy will be based on more than just 9/11. He left a city immeasurably better off—safer, more prosperous, more confident—than the one he had inherited eight years earlier, even with the smoldering ruins of the World Trade Center at its heart. Debates about his accomplishments will continue, but the significance of his mayoralty is hard to deny.[135]

Giuliani was praised by some for his close involvement with the rescue and recovery efforts, but others argue that "Giuliani has exaggerated the role he played after the terrorist attacks, casting himself as a hero for political gain."[136] Giuliani has collected $11.4 million from speaking fees in a single year (with increased demand after the attacks).[137] Before September 11, Giuliani's assets were estimated to be somewhat less than $2 million, but his net worth could now be as high as 30 times that amount.[138] He has made most of his money since leaving office.[139]

Giuliani and New York City
New York City
Fire Department at the New York Foreign Press Center Briefing on " New York City
New York City
After September 11, 2001"

Aftermath[edit] For his leadership on and after September 11, Giuliani was given an honorary knighthood (KBE) by Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
on February 13, 2002.[140] Giuliani initially downplayed the health effects arising from the September 11 attacks in the Financial District and lower Manhattan areas in the vicinity of the World Trade Center site.[141] He moved quickly to reopen Wall Street, and it was reopened on September 17. In the first month after the attacks, he said "The air quality is safe and acceptable."[142] However, in the weeks after the attacks, the United States Geological Survey
United States Geological Survey
identified hundreds of asbestos 'hot spots' of debris dust that remained on buildings. By the end of the month the USGS reported that the toxicity of the debris was akin to that of drain cleaner.[143] It would eventually be determined that a wide swath of lower Manhattan and Brooklyn
had been heavily contaminated by highly caustic and toxic materials.[143][144] The city's health agencies, such as the Department of Environmental Protection, did not supervise or issue guidelines for the testing and cleanup of private buildings. Instead, the city left this responsibility to building owners.[143]

Giuliani and Secretary of State Colin Powell
Colin Powell
at the U.S. Delegation to OSCE’s Anti-Semitism Meeting in Vienna, Austria, in 2003

Giuliani took control away from agencies such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Army Corps of Engineers and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, leaving the "largely unknown" city Department of Design and Construction in charge of recovery and cleanup. Documents indicate that the Giuliani administration never enforced federal requirements requiring the wearing of respirators. Concurrently, the administration threatened companies with dismissal if cleanup work slowed.[145][146] In June 2007, Christie Todd Whitman, former Republican Governor of New Jersey
New Jersey
and director of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), reportedly stated that the EPA had pushed for workers at the WTC site to wear respirators but that she had been blocked by Giuliani. She stated that she believed that the subsequent lung disease and deaths suffered by WTC responders were a result of these actions.[147] However, former deputy mayor Joe Lhota, then with the Giuliani campaign, replied, "All workers at Ground Zero were instructed repeatedly to wear their respirators."[148] Giuliani asked the city's Congressional delegation to limit the city's liability for Ground Zero illnesses to a total of $350 million. Two years after Giuliani finished his term, FEMA appropriated $1 billion to a special insurance fund, called the World Trade Center Captive Insurance Company, to protect the city against 9/11 lawsuits.[149] In February 2007, the International Association of Fire Fighters issued a letter asserting that Giuliani rushed to conclude the recovery effort once gold and silver had been recovered from World Trade Center vaults and thereby prevented the remains of many victims from being recovered: "Mayor Giuliani's actions meant that fire fighters and citizens who perished would either remain buried at Ground Zero forever, with no closure for families, or be removed like garbage and deposited at the Fresh Kills Landfill", it said, adding: "Hundreds remained entombed in Ground Zero when Giuliani gave up on them."[150] Lawyers for the International Association of Fire Fighters seek to interview Giuliani under oath as part of a federal legal action alleging that New York City
New York City
negligently dumped body parts and other human remains in the Fresh Kills Landfill.[151] Post-mayoralty[edit] Politics[edit] Before 2008 election[edit]

Giuliani and President Bush in Las Cruces, New Mexico, on August 26, 2004

Since leaving office as Mayor, Giuliani has remained politically active by campaigning for Republican candidates for political offices at all levels. As the first Republicans to simultaneously serve as Mayor and Governor of New York since Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
and John Lindsay, Giuliani and Governor George Pataki
George Pataki
were instrumental in bringing the 2004 Republican National Convention
2004 Republican National Convention
to New York City.[152] He was a speaker at the convention, and endorsed President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
for re-election by recalling that immediately after the World Trade Center towers fell,

Without really thinking, based on just emotion, spontaneous, I grabbed the arm of then-Police Commissioner Bernard Kerik, and I said to him, 'Bernie, thank God George Bush is our president'.[153]

Similarly, in June 2006, Giuliani started a website called Solutions America to help elect Republican candidates across the nation. After campaigning on Bush's behalf in the U.S. presidential election of 2004, he was reportedly the top choice for Secretary of Homeland Security after Tom Ridge's resignation. When suggestions were made that Giuliani's confirmation hearings would be marred by details of his past affairs and scandals, he turned down the offer and instead recommended his friend and former New York Police Commissioner Bernard Kerik. After the formal announcement of Kerik's nomination, information about Kerik's past—most notably, that he had ties to organized crime, failed to properly report gifts he had received, had been sued for sexual harassment and had employed an undocumented alien as a domestic servant—became known, and Kerik withdrew his nomination.[154]

Giuliani cutting the ribbon of the new Drug Enforcement Administration mobile museum in Dallas, Texas, in September 2003

On March 15, 2006, Congress formed the Iraq Study Group
Iraq Study Group
(ISG). This bipartisan ten-person panel, of which Giuliani was one of the members, was charged with assessing the Iraq War
Iraq War
and making recommendations. They would eventually unanimously conclude that contrary to Bush administration assertions, "The situation in Iraq
is grave and deteriorating" and called for "changes in the primary mission" that would allow "the United States to begin to move its forces out of Iraq".[155] On May 24, 2006, after missing all of the group's meetings,[156] including a briefing from General David Petraeus, former Secretary of State Colin Powell
Colin Powell
and former Army Chief of Staff Eric Shinseki,[157] Giuliani resigned from the panel, citing "previous time commitments".[158] Giuliani's fundraising schedule had kept him from participating in the panel, a schedule which raised $11.4 million in speaking fees over 14 months,[156] and that Giuliani had been forced to resign after being given "an ultimatum to either show up for meetings or leave the group" by group leader James Baker.[159] Giuliani subsequently said that he had started thinking about running for President, and being on the panel might give it a political spin.[160] Giuliani was described by Newsweek in January 2007 as "one of the most consistent cheerleaders for the president's handling of the war in Iraq"[161] and as of June 2007, he remained one of the few candidates for president to unequivocally support both the basis for the invasion and the execution of the war.[162] Giuliani spoke in support of the removal of the People's Mujahedin of Iran (MEK, also PMOI, MKO) from the United States State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations. The group was on the State Department list from 1997 until September 2012. They were placed on the list for killing six Americans in Iran during the 1970s and attempting to attack the Iranian mission to the United Nations in 1992.[163][164] Giuliani, along with other former government officials and politicians Ed Rendell, R. James Woolsey, Porter Goss, Louis Freeh, Michael Mukasey, James L. Jones, Tom Ridge, and Howard Dean, were criticized for their involvement with the group. Some were subpoenaed during an inquiry about who was paying the prominent individuals' speaking fees.[165] Giuliani and others wrote an article for the conservative publication National Review
National Review
stating their position that the group should not be classified as a terrorist organization. They supported their position by pointing out that the United Kingdom and the European Union had already removed the group from their terrorism lists. They further assert that only the United States and Iran still listed it as a terrorist group.[166] However, Canada did not delist the group until December 2012.[167] 2008 presidential campaign[edit] Main article: Rudy
Giuliani presidential campaign, 2008

Presidential campaign logo

In November 2006 Giuliani announced the formation of an exploratory committee toward a run for President of the United States in 2008. In February 2007 he filed a "statement of candidacy" and confirmed on the television program Larry King Live
Larry King Live
that he was indeed running.[168]

Giuliani at a rally at San Diego State University
San Diego State University
in August 2007 when polls showed him as the front-runner for the Republican party's nomination

Early polls showed Giuliani with one of the highest levels of name recognition and support among the Republican candidates. Throughout most of 2007 he was the leader in most nationwide opinion polling among Republicans. Senator John McCain, who ranked a close second behind the New York Mayor, had faded, and most polls showed Giuliani to have more support than any of the other declared Republican candidates, with only former Senator Fred Thompson
Fred Thompson
and former Governor Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
showing greater support in some per-state Republican polls.[169] On November 7, 2007, Giuliani's campaign received an endorsement from evangelist, Christian Broadcasting Network
Christian Broadcasting Network
founder, and past presidential candidate Pat Robertson.[170] This was viewed by political observers as a possibly key development in the race, as it gave credence that evangelicals and other social conservatives could support Giuliani despite some of his positions on social issues such as abortion and gay rights.[171] Giuliani's campaign hit a difficult stretch during November and December 2007, during which time Bernard Kerik, whom Giuliani had recommended for the position of Secretary of Homeland Security, was indicted on 16 counts of tax fraud and other federal charges;[172] the media reported that while Mayor of New York, Giuliani had billed to obscure city agencies several tens of thousands of dollars of mayoral security expenses incurred while visiting Judith Nathan, with whom he was having an extramarital affair[173] (later analysis showed the billing to likely be unrelated to hiding Nathan);[174] and several stories were published in the press regarding clients of Giuliani Partners and Bracewell & Giuliani being in opposition to goals of American foreign policy.[175] Giuliani's national poll numbers began steadily slipping and his unusual strategy of focusing more on later, multi-primary big states rather than the smaller, first-voting states was seen at risk.[176][177]

Giuliani at a campaign event in Derry, New Hampshire, the day before the New Hampshire primary

Despite his strategy, Giuliani did compete to a substantial extent[178] in the January 8, 2008 New Hampshire primary, but finished a distant fourth with 9 percent of the vote.[179] Similar poor results continued in other early contests, as Giuliani's staff went without pay in order to focus all efforts on the crucial late January Florida Republican primary.[180] The shift of the electorate's focus from national security to the state of the economy also hurt Giuliani,[177] as did the resurgence of McCain's similarly themed campaign. On January 29, 2008, Giuliani finished a distant third in the Florida result with 15 percent of the vote, trailing McCain and Romney.[181] Facing declining polls and lost leads in the upcoming large Super Tuesday states,[182][183] including that of his home New York,[184] Giuliani withdrew from the race on January 30, endorsing McCain.[185] Giuliani's campaign ended up $3.6 million in arrears,[186] and in June 2008 Giuliani sought to retire the debt by proposing to appear at Republican fundraisers during the 2008 general election, and have part of the proceeds go towards his campaign.[186] During the 2008 Republican National Convention, Giuliani gave a prime-time speech that praised McCain and his running mate, Sarah Palin, while criticizing Democratic nominee Barack Obama. He cited Palin's executive experience as a mayor and governor and belittled Obama's lack of same, and his remarks were met with wild applause from the delegates.[187] Giuliani continued to be one of McCain's most active surrogates during the remainder of McCain's eventually unsuccessful campaign.[188] After 2008 election[edit] Following the end of his presidential campaign, Giuliani's "high appearance fees dropped like a stone."[189] He returned to work at both Giuliani Partners and Bracewell & Giuliani.[190] Giuliani explored hosting a syndicated radio show, and was reported to be in talks with Westwood One about replacing Bill O'Reilly before that position went to Fred Thompson
Fred Thompson
(another unsuccessful '08 GOP Presidential primary candidate).[191][192] During the March 2009 AIG bonus payments controversy, Giuliani called for U.S. Treasury Secretary Tim Geithner
Tim Geithner
to step down and said that the Obama administration lacked executive competence in dealing with the ongoing financial crisis.[193]

Giuliani giving the keynote speech at the Jumeriah Essex House in honor of the USS New York sailors and Special
Purpose Marine Air Ground Task Force 26 Marines on November 8, 2009

Giuliani said his political career was not necessarily over, and did not rule out a 2010 New York gubernatorial or 2012 presidential bid.[194] A November 2008 Siena College
Siena College
poll indicated that although Governor David Paterson—promoted to the office via the Eliot Spitzer prostitution scandal a year before—was popular among New Yorkers, he would have just a slight lead over Giuliani in a hypothetical matchup.[195] By February 2009, after the prolonged Senate appointment process, a Siena College
Siena College
poll indicated that Paterson was losing popularity among New Yorkers, and showed Giuliani with a fifteen-point lead in the hypothetical contest.[196] In January 2009, Giuliani said he would not decide on a gubernatorial run for another six to eight months, adding that he thought it would not be fair to the governor to start campaigning early while the governor tries to focus on his job.[197] Giuliani worked to retire his presidential campaign debt, but by the end of March 2009 it was still $2.4 million in arrears, the largest such remaining amount for any of the 2008 contenders.[198] In April 2009, Giuliani strongly opposed Paterson's announced push for same-sex marriage in New York and said it would likely cause a backlash that could put Republicans in statewide office in 2010.[199] By late August 2009, there were still conflicting reports about whether Giuliani was likely to run.[200] On December 23, 2009, Giuliani announced that he would not seek any office in 2010, saying "The main reason has to do with my two enterprises: Bracewell & Giuliani and Giuliani Partners. I'm very busy in both."[201][202] The decisions signaled a possible end to Giuliani's political career.[202][203] During the 2010 midterm elections, Giuliani endorsed and campaigned for Bob Ehrlich
Bob Ehrlich
and Marco Rubio.[204][205] On October 11, 2011, Giuliani announced that he was not running for president. According to Kevin Law, the Director of the Long Island Association, Giuliani believed that "As a moderate, he thought it was a pretty significant challenge. He said it's tough to be a moderate and succeed in GOP primaries", Giuliani said "If it's too late for ( New Jersey
New Jersey
Governor) Chris Christie, it's too late for me".[206] At a Republican fund-raising event in February 2015, Giuliani stated, "I do not believe, and I know this is a horrible thing to say, but I do not believe that the president [Barack Obama] loves America", and "He doesn’t love you. And he doesn't love me. He wasn't brought up the way you were brought up and I was brought up, through love of this country."[207] In response to criticism of the remarks, Giuliani said, "Some people thought it was racist—I thought that was a joke, since he was brought up by a white mother... This isn't racism. This is socialism or possibly anti-colonialism." White House
White House
deputy press secretary Eric Schultz
Eric Schultz
said he agreed with Giuliani "that it was a horrible thing to say", but said he would leave it up to the people who heard Giuliani directly to assess if the remarks were appropriate for the event.[207] Although he received some support for his controversial comments, Giuliani said he also received several death threats within 48 hours.[208] 2016 presidential election[edit]

Giuliani speaking at a campaign event for Republican Presidential nominee Donald Trump
Donald Trump
on August 31, 2016

Giuliani supported Donald Trump
Donald Trump
in the 2016 U.S. presidential election. He gave a prime time speech during the first night of the 2016 Republican National Convention.[209] Earlier in the day, Giuliani and former 2016 presidential candidate Ben Carson
Ben Carson
appeared at an event for the pro-Trump Great America PAC.[210] Giuliani also appeared in a Great America PAC
Great America PAC
ad entitled "Leadership".[211] Giuliani’s and Jeff Sessions’s appearances were staples at Trump campaign rallies.[212] During the campaign, Giuliani praised Trump for his worldwide accomplishments and helping fellow New Yorkers in their time of need.[213] He defended Trump against allegations of racism,[214] sexual assault,[215] and not paying any federal income taxes for as long as two decades.[216] Giuliani was believed to be a likely pick for Secretary of State in the Trump administration.[217] However, on December 9, 2016, Trump announced that Giuliani had removed his name from consideration for any Cabinet post.[218] On January 12, 2017, President-elect Trump named Giuliani his informal cybersecurity adviser.[14] Advisor to President Donald Trump[edit] In January 2017, Giuliani said that he advised U.S. President Donald Trump on his issuing of Executive Order 13769, barring citizens of seven Muslim-majority countries from entering the United States for 90 days and suspending the admission of all refugees for 120 days.[219] Giuliani Partners[edit] Main article: Giuliani Partners After leaving the mayor's office, Giuliani founded a security consulting business, Giuliani Partners LLC, in 2002, a firm that has been categorized by various media outlets as a lobbying entity capitalizing on Giuliani's name recognition,[220][221] and which has been the subject of allegations surrounding staff hired by Giuliani and due to the firm's chosen client base.[222] Over five years, Giuliani Partners earned more than $100 million.[223] In June 2007 he stepped down as CEO and Chairman of Giuliani Partners,[175] although this action was not made public until December 4, 2007;[224] he maintained his equity interest in the firm.[175] Giuliani subsequently returned to active participation in the firm following the election. In late 2009, Giuliani announced that they had a security consulting contract with Rio de Janeiro, Brazil regarding the 2016 Summer Olympics.[203] He faced criticism in 2012 for advising people once allied with Slobodan Milošević
Slobodan Milošević
who had lauded Serbian war criminals.[225]

Giuliani at a joint press conference with Serbian President Tomislav Nikolić in 2012

Bracewell & Giuliani[edit] Main article: Bracewell LLP In 2005, Giuliani joined the law firm of Bracewell & Patterson LLP (renamed Bracewell & Giuliani LLP) as a name partner and basis for the expanding firm's new New York office.[226] When he joined the Texas-based firm he brought Marc Mukasey, the son of Attorney General Michael Mukasey, into the firm. Despite a busy schedule, Giuliani was highly active in the day-to-day business of the law firm, which was a high-profile supplier of legal and lobbying services to the oil, gas, and energy industries. Its aggressive defense of pollution-causing coal-fired power plants threatened to cause political risk for Giuliani, but association with the firm helped Giuliani achieve fund-raising success in Texas.[227] In 2006, Giuliani acted as the lead counsel and lead spokesmen for Bracewell & Giuliani client Purdue Pharma, the makers of OxyContin, during their negotiations with federal prosecutors over charges that the pharmaceutical company misled the public about OxyContin's addictive properties. The agreement reached resulted in Purdue Pharma and some of its executives paying $634.5 million in fines.[228] Bracewell & Giuliani represented corporate clients before many U.S. Government departments and agencies. Some clients have worked with corporations and foreign governments.[229] Giuliani left the firm in January 2016,[230] by “amicable agreement,”[231] and the firm was rebranded as Bracewell LLP. Greenberg Traurig[edit] On January 19, 2016, it was reported that Giuliani is moving to the law firm Greenberg Traurig, where he will be the global chairman for Greenberg's cybersecurity and crisis management group, as well as a senior advisor to the firm's executive chairman.[232] Personal life[edit] Marriages and relationships[edit]

Giuliani with Congressman Vito Fossella
Vito Fossella
and First Lady Nancy Reagan, 2002

On October 26, 1968, soon after he graduated from law school, he married his second cousin, Regina Peruggi, whom Giuliani had known since childhood. In the mid-70s the marriage was in trouble and in 1975 they agreed to a trial separation.[233] Peruggi did not accompany him to Washington when he accepted the job in the Attorney General's Office.[24] Giuliani met local television personality Donna Hanover sometime in 1982, and they began dating when she was working in Miami. Giuliani filed for legal separation from Peruggi on August 12, 1982.[233] The Giuliani-Peruggi marriage legally ended in two ways: a civil divorce was issued by the end of 1982,[234] while a Roman Catholic church annulment of the Giuliani-Peruggi marriage was granted at the end of 1983[233] reportedly because Giuliani had discovered that he and Peruggi were second cousins.[235][236] Giuliani biographer Wayne Barrett reports that Peruggi's brother believes that Giuliani knew at the time of the marriage that they were second cousins. Alan Placa, Giuliani's best man, later became a priest and helped get the annulment. Giuliani and Peruggi did not have any children.[237] Giuliani and Hanover then married in a Catholic ceremony at St. Monica's Church in Manhattan on April 15, 1984.[233][238] They had two children, son Andrew and daughter Caroline. Beginning in 1996, Hanover appeared at few public events.[239] There were reports that Hanover was aware of her husband's personal conduct as early as 1995. On Father's Day
Father's Day
Giuliani had told reporters that he was returning to Gracie Mansion
Gracie Mansion
to play ball with Andrew, but instead went to City Hall, to a basement suite with his press secretary. Three hours later Hanover went to City Hall to confront Giuliani, but a mayor's aide prevented her from entering the suite.[240]

A New York Air National Guard
New York Air National Guard
major poses with Rudy
and Judith Giuliani at Yankee Stadium
Yankee Stadium
in April 2009

Still married to Hanover, Giuliani met Judith Nathan, a twice-divorced sales manager for a pharmaceutical company, in May 1999 at Club Macanudo, an Upper East Side
Upper East Side
cigar bar.[241] They formed an ongoing relationship.[241][242] To keep his relationship with Nathan from public scrutiny, beginning in summer 1999 Giuliani had the costs for his NYPD
security detail charged to obscure city agencies.[173][243] In early 2000, Nathan began getting city-provided chauffeur services from the police department.[243] By March 2000, Giuliani had stopped wearing his wedding ring,[244] and his and Nathan's appearances at functions and events became publicly visible[244][245] although not mentioned in the press.[246] In early May 2000, the Daily News and then the New York Post
New York Post
broke news of Giuliani's relationship with Nathan.[246] Giuliani first publicly acknowledged her on May 3, 2000, stating that Nathan was his "very good friend".[244] On May 10, 2000, Giuliani called a press conference to announce that he intended to separate from Hanover.[247][248] Hanover had not been told about his plans before his press conference,[249] an omission for which Giuliani was widely criticized.[250] Giuliani now went on to praise Nathan as a "very, very fine woman", and said about Hanover that "over the course of some period of time in many ways, we've grown to live independent and separate lives". Hours later Hanover said, "I had hoped that we could keep this marriage together. For several years, it was difficult to participate in Rudy's public life because of his relationship with one staff member".[251] Giuliani moved out of Gracie Mansion[when?] and into a couple's apartment.[252][253] Giuliani filed for divorce from Hanover in October 2000,[254] and a public battle broke out between their representatives.[255] Nathan was barred by court order from entering Gracie Mansion
Gracie Mansion
or meeting his children before the divorce was final.[256] In May 2001, Giuliani's attorney revealed that Giuliani was impotent due to prostate cancer treatments and had not had sex with Nathan for the preceding year. "You don't get through treatment for cancer and radiation all by yourself", Giuliani said. "You need people to help you and care for you and support you. And I'm very fortunate I had a lot of people who did that, but nobody did more to help me than Judith Nathan."[257] Giuliani argued in a court case that he aimed to introduce Nathan to his children on Father's Day
Father's Day
2001, and that Hanover had prevented this visit.[240] Giuliani and Hanover finally settled their divorce case in July 2002 after his mayoralty had ended, with Giuliani paying Hanover a $6.8 million settlement and granting her custody of their children.[258] Giuliani married Nathan on May 24, 2003, and gained a stepdaughter, Whitney. It was also Nathan's third marriage after two divorces.[251] By March 2007, The New York Times
The New York Times
and the Daily News reported that Giuliani had become estranged from both his son Andrew and his daughter Caroline.[259][260] In 2014, he said his relationship with his children was better than ever, and was spotted eating and playing golf with Andrew.[261] On April 4, 2018, Nathan filed for divorce from Giuliani after 15 years of marriage.[262] Prostate cancer[edit] Nineteen years after Giuliani's father died at age 73 in April 1981 of prostate cancer at Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, Giuliani was diagnosed at age 55 in April 2000 with prostate cancer on prostate biopsy after an elevated screening PSA.[263] Giuliani chose a combination prostate cancer treatment consisting of four months of neoadjuvant Lupron hormonal therapy, then low dose-rate prostate brachytherapy with permanent implantation of ninety TheraSeed radioactive palladium-103 seeds in his prostate in September 2000,[264] followed two months later by five weeks of fifteen-minute, five-days-a-week external beam radiotherapy at Mount Sinai Medical Center,[265] with five months of adjuvant Lupron hormonal therapy. Religion and beliefs[edit] Giuliani has declined to comment publicly on his religious practice and beliefs, although he identifies religion as an important part of his life. When asked if he is a practicing Catholic, Giuliani answered, "My religious affiliation, my religious practices and the degree to which I am a good or not-so-good Catholic, I prefer to leave to the priests."[266] Awards and honors[edit]

In 1998, Giuliani received The Hundred Year Association of New York's Gold Medal Award "in recognition of outstanding contributions to the City of New York".[267] House of Savoy: Knight
Grand Cross
Grand Cross
(motu proprio) of the Order of Merit of Savoy
(December 2001)[268] For his leadership on and after September 11, Giuliani was made an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire
Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire
by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
on February 13, 2002.[269] Giuliani was named Time magazine's "Person of the Year" for 2001 In 2002, the Episcopal Diocese of New York
Episcopal Diocese of New York
gave Giuliani the Fiorello LaGuardia Public Service Award for Valor and Leadership in the Time of Global Crisis.[270] Also in 2002, Former First Lady Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
awarded Giuliani the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Freedom Award.[271] In 2002, he received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.[272] In 2003, Giuliani received the Academy of Achievement's Golden Plate Award In 2004, construction began on the Rudolph W. Giuliani Trauma Center at St. Vincent's Hospital in New York.[273] In 2005, Giuliani received honorary degrees from Loyola College in Maryland[274] and Middlebury College.[275] In 2007, Giuliani received an honorary Doctorate in Public Administration from The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina. In 2006, Rudy
and Judith Giuliani
Judith Giuliani
were honored by the American Heart Association at its annual Heart of the Hamptons benefit in Water Mill, New York. In 2007, Giuliani was honored by the National Italian American Foundation (NIAF), receiving the NIAF Special
Achievement Award for Public Service.[276] In 2007, Giuliani was awarded the Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
Medal of Freedom by the Atlantic Bridge.[277] In the 2009 graduation ceremony for Drexel University's Earle Mack School of Law, Giuliani was the keynote speaker and recipient of an honorary degree.[278] Giuliani was the Robert C. Vance Distinguished Lecturer at Central Connecticut State University in 2013.[279]

Media references[edit]

In 1993, Giuliani made a cameo appearance as himself in the Seinfeld episode "The Non-Fat Yogurt". In 2000, Giuliani made a cameo appearance in the Law & Order episode "Endurance". Biographical drama Rudy: The Rudy
Giuliani Story (2003), in which he is played by James Woods. Kevin Keating's Documentary Giuliani Time (2006). In 2003, Giuliani made a cameo appearance as himself in the film Anger Management, starring Adam Sandler
Adam Sandler
and Jack Nicholson.

See also[edit]

New York City
New York City
portal Biography portal

Political positions of Rudy
Giuliani Electoral history of Rudy
Giuliani Public image of Rudy
Giuliani Timeline of New York City, 1990s–2000s


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Law Firm". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ a b c d "The Smoking Gun: Public Documents, Mug Shots". June 12, 2014. Archived from the original on April 1, 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2016.  ^ Lynda Richardson, "A Scholarly Fund-Raiser's Stroll to the Park", The New York Times, May 4, 2001. Retrieved March 31, 2008. ^ Powell, Michael and Goldfarb, Zachary A. Powell, Michael; Goldfarb, Zachary A. (March 8, 2006). "On 'Feeling Thermometer', Giuliani is the Hottest'". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 15, 2006.  Washington Post, March 8, 2006, p. A04 ^ "Giuliani To Wed At Gracie Mansion". Retrieved August 16, 2016.  ^ "All not in the family for GOP hopeful Giuliani". CNN. March 6, 2007. Retrieved December 12, 2007.  ^ "Donna's Riskiest Role". Retrieved August 16, 2016.  ^ Margaret Carlson, "In Rudy's Playground", Time, July 11, 1999. Retrieved February 15, 2007. ^ a b Barrett, Wayne (August 15, 2007). "Public Displays of Disaffection". The Village Voice. Retrieved November 19, 2015.  ^ a b Eric Konigsberg, "Drawing Fire, Judith Giuliani
Judith Giuliani
Gives Her Side", The New York Times, August 5, 2007; Retrieved August 14, 2007 ^ Heidi Evans, "Eager Judi left coal town in dust", Daily News, April 29, 2007; Retrieved May 6, 2007 Archived June 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Michael Saul; Heidi Evans & David Saltonstall (December 7, 2007). "Mayor's Gal Got Security Earlier than We Knew". Daily News. New York. Retrieved December 7, 2007.  ^ a b c Elisabeth Bumiller (May 4, 2000). "Mayor Acknowledges 'Very Good Friend'". The New York Times. Retrieved December 7, 2007.  ^ New York Times, May 8, 2000, by Joyce Purnick, Purnick, Joyce (May 8, 2000). "Metro Matters; 'Good Friend,' A Marriage, And Voters". The New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2008.  ^ a b Jesse Drucker (May 4, 2000). "Rudy's "very good friend"". Salon. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved December 18, 2007.  ^ New York Times, May 11, 2000 "The Mayor's Separation; Excerpts From the Mayor's News Conference Concerning His Marriage". The New York Times. May 11, 2000. Retrieved March 31, 2008.  ^ New York Times, July 14, 2002, by Joyce WadlerWadler, Joyce (July 14, 2002). "Pronounced "Ex and Ex"". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2007.  ^ New York Times, May 11, 2000, by Elisabeth Bumiller, Bumiller, Elisabeth (May 11, 2000). "The Mayor's Separation: The Overview; Giuliani and His Wife of 16 Years Are Separating". The New York Times. Retrieved January 5, 2007.  ^ The Softer, Gentler Rudy
Giuliani "The Softer, Gentler Rudy Giuliani" (PDF).  ^ a b Lloyd Grove, "The Thunderbolt", New York Magazine. Retrieved June 12, 2007 ^ "Login". Retrieved August 16, 2016.  ^ "Three's Company: Picking Up After Rudy", New York Magazine, August 24, 2004 ^ "Giuliani Divorce Settlement Reached". Retrieved August 16, 2016.  ^ Carlson, Margaret (May 20, 2001). "No Grace At Gracie Mansion". Time. Retrieved May 22, 2010.  ^ Capehart, Jonathan (March 6, 2007). "Hizzoner the Curmudgeon". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 30, 2010.  ^ Elisabeth Bumiller, "Giuliani Breaks Silence, Citing 'Adult' and 'Mature' Relationship", The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2007. ^ "Giuliani settles divorce out of court". BBC News Online. July 10, 2002. Retrieved January 4, 2010.  ^ Russ Buettner/Richard Perez-Pena, "Noticeably Absent From the Giuliani Campaign: His Children", The New York Times. Retrieved June 12, 2007. ^ Daniel Saltonstall, "Wife Makes Strive: Judi cause of tension with Dad – Rudy's son", Daily News, March 3, 2007 ^ Smith, Emily (December 22, 2014). "Giuliani and formerly estranged son now on 'great terms'". Page Six. New York Post. NYP Holdings. Retrieved December 2, 2015.  ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/reliable-source/wp/2018/04/04/judith-giuliani-files-for-divorce-from-rudy-giuliani/ ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth (April 28, 2000). "Giuliani fighting prostate cancer; Unsure on Senate". The New York Times. p. A1.  ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth (September 16, 2000). "Mayor undergoes cancer treatment; Radioactive seeds implanted in Giuliani's prostate gland". The New York Times. p. A1.  ^ Bumiller, Elisabeth (November 22, 2000). "Giuliani starts final phase of cancer treatment". The New York Times. p. B4.  ^ "Outspoken Catholic Archbishop Raymond Burke Says He'd Deny Rudy Giuliani Communion - Fox News". October 3, 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2016.  ^ "100 Year Association of New York". Archived from the original on August 27, 2009.  ^ "Events: 2001". House of Savoy. Retrieved April 1, 2009.  ^ "Transcripts". CNN. February 7, 2001. Retrieved March 30, 2010.  ^ "NY Episcopal Diocese Honors Former Mayor Giuliani With The Fiorello LaGuardia Public Service Award At St. Paul's Chapel For September 11 Leadership". PR Newswire/HighBeam Research. [dead link] ^ " Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Presidential Foundation & Library". Archived from the original on October 14, 2008.  ^ "Past Winners". jeffersonawards.org. Jefferson Awards Foundation. Retrieved June 4, 2017.  ^ Early, Tracy (September 13, 2004). "Naming center at Catholic hospital for Giuliani raises questions". Catholic News Service. Archived from the original on September 15, 2004.  ^ Anderson, Nick; Cooperman, Alan (May 20, 2005). "Cardinal Denounces Honor for Giuliani". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 30, 2010.  ^ "Giuliani Speaks at College After Controversy". Fox News. Associated Press. May 22, 2005. Retrieved November 8, 2007.  ^ "Italian-American Awards Gala". c-spanvideo.org. C-SPAN. October 13, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2010.  ^ Baxter, Sarah (September 16, 2007). " Rudy
Giuliani mocks Hillary claim to be Iron Lady". The Sunday Times. London. p. A1. Retrieved November 19, 2015.  ^ " Earle Mack School of Law
Earle Mack School of Law
Inaugural Commencement". Daily Digest. Drexel University. May 22, 2009. Retrieved November 18, 2015.  ^ Burnham, Johnny J. (March 15, 2003). "Giuliani speaks at Vance Lecture series". New Britain Herald. Archived from the original on March 22, 2017. Retrieved November 19, 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

Ammann, Daniel (2009). The King of Oil: The Secret Lives of Marc Rich. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-57074-0.  Barrett, Wayne, (2000). Rudy!: An Investigative Biography of Rudolph Giuliani. Basic Books; ISBN 0-7567-6114-X (Reprint by Diane Publishing Co.). Barrett, Wayne & Collins, Dan (2006). Grand Illusion: The Untold Story of Rudy
Giuliani and 9/11. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-053660-8.  Bratton, William; Knobler, Peter (1998). Turnaround: How America's Top Cop Reversed the Crime Epidemic. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-679-45251-5.  Brodeur, Christopher X. (2002). Perverted Little Creep: Mayor Giuliani vs Mayor Brodeur. ExtremeNY books, ISBN 0-9741593-0-1. Dinkins, David N.; Knobler, Peter (2013). A Mayor's Life: Governing New York's Gorgeous Mosaic. PublicAffairs, ISBN 978-1-61039-301-0 Doney, Kristin; Giuliani, Rudolph, W. (1998). What Will You Be?. Public/Private Initiatives Inc. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Giuliani, Rudolph W., Kurson, Ken (2002). Leadership. Miramax Books. ISBN 0-7868-6841-4. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Gonzalez, Juan, (2002). Fallout: The Environmental Consequences of the World Trade Center Collapse. New Press, ISBN 1-56584-754-7. Heilemann, John; Halperin, Mark (2010). Game Change: Obama and the Clintons, McCain and Palin, and the Race of a Lifetime. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-173363-6.  Kirtzman, Andrew (2001). Rudy
Giuliani: Emperor of the City. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-009389-7.  Koch, Edward I. (1999). Giuliani: Nasty Man. Barricade Books. ISBN 1-56980-155-X. Mandery, Evan (1999). The Campaign: Rudy
Giuliani, Ruth Messinger, Al Sharpton, and the Race to Be Mayor of New York City. Westview Press, ISBN 0-8133-6698-4. Newfield, Jack, (2003). The Full Rudy: The Man, the Myth, the Mania. Thunder's Mouth Press, ISBN 1-56025-482-3. Polner, Robert, (2005). America's Mayor: The Hidden History of Rudy Giuliani's New York. Soft Skull Press, ISBN 1-932360-58-1. Polner, Robert, (2007). America's Mayor, America's President? The Strange Career of Rudy
Giuliani. [Preface by Jimmy Breslin] Soft Skull Press, ISBN 1-933368-72-1. Siegel, Fred (2005). The Prince of the City: Giuliani, New York, and the Genius of American Life. Encounter Books. ISBN 1-59403-084-7.  Strober, Deborah Hart; Strober, Gerald S. (2007). Giuliani: Flawed Or Flawless? The Oral Biography. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-73835-2. 

External links[edit]

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Wikiquote has quotations related to: Rudy

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rudy

has original works written by or about: Rudolph Giuliani

Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission Appearances on C-SPAN Profile at SourceWatch Vote 2008: Rudy
Giuliani, NewsHour with Jim Lehrer Genealogy of Rudy
Giuliani Giuliani Partners at Stockpikr public companies Giuliani Partners has done business with Rudolph W. Giuliani Vulnerability Study study prepared for his 1993 Mayoral Campaign A film clip "The Open Mind – American Justice, Part I (1984)" is available at the Internet Archive A film clip "The Open Mind – American Justice, Part II (1984)" is available at the Internet Archive Rudy
Giuliani at Curlie (based on DMOZ) La Guardia and Wagner Archives/The Giuliani Collection

Legal offices

Preceded by John Shenefield United States Associate Attorney General 1981–1983 Succeeded by Lowell Jensen

Preceded by John Martin United States Attorney
United States Attorney
for the Southern District of New York 1983–1989 Succeeded by Benito Romano Acting

Party political offices

Preceded by Diane McGrath Republican nominee for Mayor of New York City 1989, 1993, 1997 Succeeded by Michael Bloomberg

Preceded by Zell Miller Keynote Speaker of the Republican National Convention 2008 Succeeded by Chris Christie

Political offices

Preceded by David Dinkins Mayor of New York City 1994–2001 Succeeded by Michael Bloomberg

Awards and achievements

Preceded by Billy Graham Recipient of the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Freedom Award 2002 Succeeded by George H. W. Bush

v t e



Regina Peruggi
Regina Peruggi
(first spouse) Donna Hanover (second spouse) Judith Giuliani
Judith Giuliani
(third spouse)


Rudy: The Rudy
Giuliani Story Giuliani Time Public image



Mayor of New York City Promotion of Kerik September 11 attacks


Giuliani Partners Bracewell & Giuliani




Mayoral election, 1997 Senate election, 2000 Presidential campaign, 2008 Political positions Electoral history

v t e

(2004 ←)    United States presidential election, 2008    (→ 2012)

United States elections, 2008 Candidates Comparison Debates Congressional support Fundraising Ballot access Timeline Super Tuesday Potomac primary Super Tuesday II General polls Statewide general polls International polls International reaction

Democratic Party

Convention Primary polls General polls Debates Primaries Primary results Superdelegates

Democratic candidates

Nominee Barack Obama (campaign positions)

VP nominee Joe Biden (positions)

Other candidates: Evan Bayh
Evan Bayh
(campaign) Joe Biden
Joe Biden
(campaign) Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
(campaign) Chris Dodd
Chris Dodd
(campaign) John Edwards
John Edwards
(campaign) Mike Gravel
Mike Gravel
(campaign) Dennis Kucinich
Dennis Kucinich
(campaign) Bill Richardson
Bill Richardson
(campaign) Tom Vilsack
Tom Vilsack

Republican Party

Convention Primary polls General polls Debates Primaries Primary results

Republican candidates

Nominee John McCain (campaign positions)

VP nominee Sarah Palin (candidacy positions)

Other candidates: Sam Brownback John Cox Jim Gilmore
Jim Gilmore
(campaign) Rudy
Giuliani (campaign) Mike Huckabee
Mike Huckabee
(campaign) Duncan Hunter
Duncan Hunter
(campaign) Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
(campaign) Ray McKinney Ron Paul
Ron Paul
(campaign) Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
(campaign) Tom Tancredo
Tom Tancredo
(campaign) Fred Thompson
Fred Thompson
(campaign) Tommy Thompson
Tommy Thompson

Draft movements

Democratic Party Al Gore Mark Warner
Mark Warner

Republican Party Newt Gingrich Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice

Independent Michael Bloomberg
Michael Bloomberg

Third party and independent candidates

Constitution Party Convention

Nominee Chuck Baldwin
Chuck Baldwin
(campaign) VP nominee Darrell Castle

Candidates Daniel Imperato Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes

Green Party Convention

Nominee Cynthia McKinney (campaign positions) VP nominee Rosa Clemente

Candidates Elaine Brown Jesse Johnson Kent Mesplay Kat Swift

Libertarian Party Convention

Nominee Bob Barr (campaign positions) VP nominee Wayne Allyn Root

Candidates Mike Gravel
Mike Gravel
(campaign) Daniel Imperato Michael Jingozian Steve Kubby Wayne Allyn Root Mary Ruwart Doug Stanhope

American Party

Nominee Diane Beall Templin

America's Independent Party

Nominee Alan Keyes
Alan Keyes
(campaign) VP nominee Brian Rohrbough

Boston Tea Party

Nominee Charles Jay

New American Independent Party

Nominee Frank McEnulty

Objectivist Party

Nominee Tom Stevens

Peace and Freedom Party

Nominee Ralph Nader
Ralph Nader
(campaign) VP nominee Matt Gonzalez

Candidates: Gloria La Riva Cynthia McKinney
Cynthia McKinney
(campaign) Brian Moore (campaign)

Prohibition Party

Nominee Gene Amondson

Reform Party

Nominee Ted Weill VP nominee Frank McEnulty

Socialism and Liberation Party

Nominee Gloria La Riva VP nominee Eugene Puryear

Socialist Party

Nominee Brian Moore (campaign) VP nominee Stewart Alexander

Candidates Eric Chester

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee Róger Calero Alternate nominee James Harris VP nominee Alyson Kennedy

Independent / Other

Jeff Boss Stephen Colbert Earl Dodge Bradford Lyttle Frank Moore Joe Schriner Jonathon Sharkey

Other 2008 elections: House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

Mayors of the City of New York since the 1898 Consolidation

Van Wyck (1898–1901) Low (1902–03) McClellan (1904–09) Gaynor (1910–13) Kline (1913) Mitchel (1914–17) Hylan (1918–25) Walker (1926–32) McKee (1932) O'Brien (1933) LaGuardia (1934–45) O'Dwyer (1946–50) Impelitteri (1950–53) Wagner (1954–65) Lindsay (1966–73) Beame (1974–77) Koch (1978–89) Dinkins (1990–93) Giuliani (1994–2001) Bloomberg (2002–13) de Blasio (2014–)

v t e

Republican Party nominees for Mayor of the City of New York since the 1898 Consolidation

Benjamin F. Tracy Seth Low William Mills Ivins Sr. Otto Bannard John Purroy Mitchel William M. Bennett Henry H. Curran Frank D. Waterman Fiorello H. La Guardia Lewis H. Pounds Fiorello H. La Guardia Jonah J. Goldstein Newbold Morris Edward F. Corsi Harold Riegelman Robert Christenberry Louis Lefkowitz John Lindsay John J. Marchi Roy M. Goodman Ed Koch Diane McGrath Rudy
Giuliani Michael Bloomberg Joe Lhota Nicole Malliotakis

v t e

Members of the Iraq
Study Group


James Baker
James Baker
(Co-chair) Lee Hamilton (Co-chair)


Vernon Jordan, Jr. Edwin Meese Sandra Day O'Connor Leon Panetta William Perry Chuck Robb Alan Simpson Lawrence Eagleburger

Resigned prior to final report

Robert Gates Rudy

v t e

Time Persons of the Year


Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)


Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)


Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush


Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)


v t e

Executive Office of the President – Trump Administration

Office Name Term Office Name Term

Chief of Staff John F. Kelly 2017– National Security Advisor John Bolton 2018–

Deputy Chief of Staff Joe Hagin 2017– Deputy National Security Advisor Maj. Gen. Ricky L. Waddell 2017–

Chris Liddell 2018–

Tom Bossert
Tom Bossert
(Homeland Security) 2017–

Michael Anton
Michael Anton
(Strategic Comm.) 2017–

Nadia Schadlow
Nadia Schadlow
(Strategy) 2018–

NSC Exec. Secretary/Chief of Staff Keith Kellogg 2017–

Counselor to the President Kellyanne Conway
Kellyanne Conway
(Sr. Counselor) 2017– Comms. Director Mercedes Schlapp 2017–

Johnny DeStefano 2018–

Senior Advisers Stephen Miller (Policy) Jared Kushner
Jared Kushner
(Strategic Planning) Ivanka Trump 2017– 2017– 2017– Deputy Comm. Director Jessica Ditto 2017–

Media Affairs Director Helen Aguirre Ferré 2017–

Policy Advisers Andrew Bremberg
Andrew Bremberg
(Domestic Policy) 2017– Social Media Director Dan Scavino 2018–

Marc Short
Marc Short
(Legislative Affairs) 2017–

Peter Navarro
Peter Navarro
(Trade) 2017–

Larry Kudlow
Larry Kudlow
(Economic) 2018– Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders 2017–

White House
White House
Counsel Don McGahn 2017– Deputy Press Secretary Raj Shah
Raj Shah
(Principal) 2017–

Lindsay Walters 2017–

Hogan Gidley 2017–

Counsel Ty Cobb 2017– Press Assistant Caroline Sunshine 2018–

Legal Adviser Jay Sekulow 2017– Deputy Director of Nominations Mary Elizabeth Taylor 2017–

Office of Intergovernmental Affairs Director Justin R. Clark 2017–

Public Liaison Assistant Andrew Giuliani 2017–

Staff Secretary Derek Lyons 2018-

Cabinet Secretary Bill McGinley 2017– Political Director Bill Stepien 2017–

Social Secretary Anna Cristina Niceta Lloyd 2017– Campaign Manager Brad Parscale 2018–

Campaign Adviser/Online Producer Lara Trump 2017–

Campaign Adviser John McEntee 2017–

Personal Secretary to the President Madeleine Westerhout 2017– Chief of Staff to the First Lady Lindsay Reynolds 2017–

Assistant to the President for Intragovernmental and Technology Initiatives Reed Cordish 2017–

Presidential Personnel Director John DeStefano 2017– Special
Representative for International Negotiations Jason Greenblatt 2017–

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 71618074 LCCN: nr95032260 ISNI: 0000 0001 0914 4586 GND: 124208363 SUDOC: 070447047 BNF: cb144701751 (data) NDL: 00915092 SNAC: w6zs6rmw