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Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
Day is an American holiday in honor of the civil rights leader Rosa Parks. In the U.S. states of California
California
and Missouri
Missouri
it is celebrated on her birthday, February 4. In Ohio
Ohio
and Oregon
Oregon
it is celebrated on the day she was arrested, December 1. Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
Day was created by the California
California
State Legislature and first celebrated in 2000.[1] The holiday was first designated in the U.S. state of Ohio
Ohio
championed by Joyce Beatty, advocate who helped Ohio's legislation pass to honor the late leader.[2] It is also celebrated by the Columbus Ohio
Ohio
bus system (COTA) with a special tribute to the late civil rights leader.[3] As of 2014, Missouri Governor Jay Nixon
Jay Nixon
proclaimed Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
Day official in the state.[4] In 2014, Oregon
Oregon
governor Kitzhaber declared that Oregon
Oregon
will celebrate its first Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
Day.[5]

Contents

1 Observances by state 2 Origins 3 See also

3.1 Other holidays honoring African Americans 3.2 Other holidays honoring women 3.3 Other civil rights holidays

4 References

Observances by state[edit]

State Current local observances

California The holiday was first observed on February 4, 2000 and every year thereafter, created by an act of the California
California
legislature.[6]

Missouri Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
Day made official February 4, 2015 by proclamation by Governor Jay Nixon.[7]

Ohio Holiday is observed on December 1, the day Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
was arrested.[6]

Oregon Holiday is observed on December 1, the day Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
was arrested.[6]

Origins[edit] Main articles: Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
and Montgomery bus boycott

Seat layout on the bus where Parks sat, December 1, 1955

Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
(February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was a seamstress by profession; she was also the secretary for the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP. Twelve years before her history-making arrest, Parks was stopped from boarding a city bus by driver James F. Blake, who ordered her to board at the back door and then drove off without her. Parks vowed never again to ride a bus driven by Blake. As a member of the NAACP, Parks was an investigator assigned to cases of sexual assault. In 1945, she was sent to Abbeville, Alabama, to investigate the gang rape of Recy Taylor. The protest that arose around the Taylor case was the first instance of a nationwide civil rights protest, and it laid the groundwork for the Montgomery bus boycott.[8] In 1955, Parks completed a course in "Race Relations" at the Highlander Folk School in Tennessee where nonviolent civil disobedience had been discussed as a tactic. On December 1, 1955, Parks was sitting in the frontmost row for black people. When a Caucasian man boarded the bus, the bus driver told everyone in her row to move back. At that moment, Parks realized that she was again on a bus driven by Blake. While all of the other black people in her row complied, Parks refused, and was arrested[9] for failing to obey the driver's seat assignments, as city ordinances did not explicitly mandate segregation but did give the bus driver authority to assign seats. Found guilty on December 5,[10] Parks was fined $10 plus a court cost of $4[11], but she appealed. Rosa Park's action gained notoriety leading to the Montgomery Bus Boycott, which was a seminal event in the Civil Rights Movement, and was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. The campaign lasted from December 1, 1955—when Rosa Parks, an African American
African American
woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person—to December 20, 1956, when a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect, and led to a United States
United States
Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama
Alabama
and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional.[12] Many important figures in the Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
took part in the boycott, including Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
and Ralph Abernathy. The 381-day boycott almost bankrupted the bus company and effectively made segregation in buses unconstitutional and illegal. See also[edit]

Public holidays in the United States

Other holidays honoring African Americans[edit]

Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Day Malcolm X Day Harriet Tubman Day

Other holidays honoring women[edit]

Susan B. Anthony Day International Women's Day Women's Equality Day National Girls and Women in Sports Day

Other civil rights holidays[edit]

Harvey Milk Day

References[edit]

^ http://www.leginfo.ca.gov/pub/99-00/bill/asm/ab_0101-0150/acr_116_bill_20000204_chaptered.html ^ Ohio's Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
Day Placed into National Congressional Record  ^ COTA’s Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
Day  ^ " Missouri
Missouri
celebrates Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
Day".  ^ "December 1st is Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
Day in Oregon".  ^ a b c " Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
Day".  ^ " Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
to be honored by Missouri
Missouri
on Feb. 4th".  ^ McGuire, Danielle L. (2010). At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape, and Resistance- A New History of the Civil Rights Movement from Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
to the Rise of Black Power. Random House. p. 8 and 39. ISBN 978-0-307-26906-5.  ^ "Rosa Park's arrest report" (PDF). December 1, 1955.  ^ "Parks, Rosa Louise." Encyclopedia Americana. Grolier Online (accessed May 8, 2009). ^ "Rosa Parks, civil rights icon, dead at 92 - The Boston Globe". Boston.com. 2005-10-25. Retrieved 2012-09-28.  ^ Montgomery Bus Boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott
~ Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
Veterans

v t e

Holidays, observances, and celebrations in the United States

January

New Year's Day
New Year's Day
(federal) Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Martin Luther King Jr. Day
(federal)

Confederate Heroes Day (TX) Fred Korematsu Day
Fred Korematsu Day
(CA, FL, HI, VA) Idaho Human Rights Day (ID) Inauguration Day (federal quadrennial, DC area) Kansas Day (KS) Lee–Jackson Day
Lee–Jackson Day
(formerly Lee–Jackson–King Day) (VA) Robert E. Lee Day
Robert E. Lee Day
(FL) Stephen Foster Memorial Day (36) The Eighth (LA, former federal)

January–February

Super Bowl Sunday

February American Heart Month Black History Month

Washington's Birthday/Presidents' Day (federal) Valentine's Day

Georgia Day (GA) Groundhog Day Lincoln's Birthday
Lincoln's Birthday
(CA, CT, IL, IN, MO, NJ, NY, WV) National Girls and Women in Sports Day National Freedom Day (36) Primary Election Day (WI) Ronald Reagan Day
Ronald Reagan Day
(CA) Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
Day (CA, MO) Susan B. Anthony Day
Susan B. Anthony Day
(CA, FL, NY, WI, WV, proposed federal)

February–March

Mardi Gras

Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
(religious) Courir de Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras
(religious) Super Tuesday

March Irish-American Heritage Month National Colon Cancer Awareness Month Women's History Month

St. Patrick's Day (religious) Spring break
Spring break
(week)

Casimir Pulaski Day
Casimir Pulaski Day
(IL) Cesar Chavez Day
Cesar Chavez Day
(CA, CO, TX, proposed federal) Evacuation Day (Suffolk County, MA) Harriet Tubman Day
Harriet Tubman Day
(NY) Holi
Holi
(NY, religious) Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras
(AL (in two counties), LA) Maryland Day
Maryland Day
(MD) National Poison Prevention Week
National Poison Prevention Week
(week) Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole Day (HI) Saint Joseph's Day
Saint Joseph's Day
(religious) Seward's Day (AK) Texas Independence Day
Texas Independence Day
(TX) Town Meeting Day (VT)

March–April

Easter
Easter
(religious)

Palm Sunday
Palm Sunday
(religious) Passover
Passover
(religious) Good Friday
Good Friday
(CT, NC, PR, religious) Easter
Easter
Monday (religious)

April Confederate History Month

420 Day April Fools' Day Arbor Day Confederate Memorial Day
Confederate Memorial Day
(AL, MS) Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust
Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust
(week) Earth Day Emancipation Day
Emancipation Day
(DC) Thomas Jefferson's Birthday
Jefferson's Birthday
(AL) Pascua Florida (FL) Patriots' Day
Patriots' Day
(MA, ME) San Jacinto Day
San Jacinto Day
(TX) Siblings Day Walpurgis Night
Walpurgis Night
(religious)

May Asian Pacific American Heritage Month Jewish American Heritage Month

Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(federal) Mother's Day (36) Cinco de Mayo

Harvey Milk Day
Harvey Milk Day
(CA) Law Day (36) Loyalty Day (36) Malcolm X Day
Malcolm X Day
(CA, IL, proposed federal) May Day Military Spouse Day National Day of Prayer
National Day of Prayer
(36) National Defense Transportation Day (36) National Maritime Day (36) Peace Officers Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(36) Truman Day
Truman Day
(MO)

June Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Pride Month

Father's Day (36)

Bunker Hill Day
Bunker Hill Day
(Suffolk County, MA) Carolina Day
Carolina Day
(SC) Emancipation Day
Emancipation Day
In Texas / Juneteenth
Juneteenth
(TX) Flag Day (36, proposed federal) Helen Keller Day
Helen Keller Day
(PA) Honor America Days (3 weeks) Jefferson Davis Day
Jefferson Davis Day
(AL, FL) Kamehameha Day
Kamehameha Day
(HI) Odunde Festival
Odunde Festival
(Philadelphia, PA) Senior Week (week) West Virginia Day
West Virginia Day
(WV)

July

Independence Day (federal)

Lā Hoʻihoʻi Ea (HI, unofficial) Parents' Day
Parents' Day
(36) Pioneer Day (UT)

July–August

Summer vacation

August

American Family Day (AZ) Barack Obama Day
Barack Obama Day
(IL) Bennington Battle Day (VT) Hawaii Admission Day / Statehood Day (HI) Lyndon Baines Johnson Day
Lyndon Baines Johnson Day
(TX) National Aviation Day
National Aviation Day
(36) Service Reduction Day (MD) Victory over Japan Day (RI, former federal) Women's Equality Day
Women's Equality Day
(36)

September Prostate Cancer Awareness Month

Labor Day
Labor Day
(federal)

California
California
Admission Day (CA) Carl Garner Federal Lands Cleanup Day (36) Constitution Day (36) Constitution Week (week) Defenders Day
Defenders Day
(MD) Gold Star Mother's Day
Gold Star Mother's Day
(36) National Grandparents Day
National Grandparents Day
(36) National Payroll Week (week) Native American Day (CA, TN, proposed federal) Patriot Day
Patriot Day
(36)

September–October Hispanic Heritage Month

Oktoberfest

Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
(religious) Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
(religious)

October Breast Cancer Awareness Month Disability Employment Awareness Month Filipino American History Month LGBT History Month

Columbus Day
Columbus Day
(federal) Halloween

Alaska Day (AK) Child Health Day (36) General Pulaski Memorial Day German-American Day Indigenous Peoples' Day
Indigenous Peoples' Day
(VT) International Day of Non-Violence Leif Erikson Day
Leif Erikson Day
(36) Missouri
Missouri
Day (MO) National School Lunch Week Native American Day (SD) Nevada Day
Nevada Day
(NV) Sweetest Day White Cane Safety Day
White Cane Safety Day
(36)

October–November

Diwali
Diwali
(religious)

November Native American Indian Heritage Month

Veterans Day
Veterans Day
(federal) Thanksgiving (federal)

Day after Thanksgiving (24) Election Day (CA, DE, HI, KY, MT, NJ, NY, OH, PR, WV, proposed federal) Family Day (NV) Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(religious) Lā Kūʻokoʻa (HI, unofficial) Native American Heritage Day (MD, WA) Obama Day
Obama Day
(Perry County, AL)

December

Christmas
Christmas
(religious, federal)

Alabama
Alabama
Day (AL) Christmas
Christmas
Eve (KY, NC, SC) Day after Christmas
Christmas
(KY, NC, SC, TX) Festivus Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(religious, week) Indiana Day
Indiana Day
(IN) Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
(religious, week) National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
(36) New Year's Eve Pan American Aviation Day (36) Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
Day (OH, OR) Wright Brothers Day (36)

Varies (year round)

Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
(religious) Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
(religious) Ramadan
Ramadan
(religious, month)

Legend: (federal) = federal holidays, (state) = state holidays, (religious) = religious holidays, (week) = weeklong holidays, (month) = monthlong holidays, (36) = Title 36 Observances and Ceremonies Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in the United States, which often represent the major celebrations of the month. See also: Lists of holidays, Hallmark holidays, public holidays in the United States, New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico and the United States Vir

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