Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic,
literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe
toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak
in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as
glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval
rather than the classical. It was partly a reaction to the
Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and
political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific
rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. It
was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature,
but had a major impact on historiography,
education, the social sciences, and the natural
sciences.[not in citation given] It had a
significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers
influencing liberalism, radicalism, conservatism and
The movement emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of
aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as
apprehension, horror and terror, and awe—especially that experienced
in confronting the new aesthetic categories of the sublimity and
beauty of nature. It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something
noble, but also spontaneity as a desirable characteristic (as in the
musical impromptu). In contrast to the
Romanticism revived medievalism and
elements of art and narrative perceived as authentically medieval in
an attempt to escape population growth, early urban sprawl, and
Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang
movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of
the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution
were also proximate factors.
Romanticism assigned a high value to the
achievements of "heroic" individualists and artists, whose examples,
it maintained, would raise the quality of society. It also promoted
the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom
from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to
historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the
representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century,
Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism. The
Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple
processes, including social and political changes and the spread of
1 Defining Romanticism
1.1 Basic characteristics
1.4 Context and place in history
2.2 Great Britain
2.9 South America
2.10 United States
2.10.1 Influence of European
Romanticism on American writers
4 Visual arts
6 Outside the arts
7 Romantic nationalism
7.1 Polish nationalism and messianism
9 Romantic authors
10 Scholars of Romanticism
11 See also
11.1 Related terms
11.2 Opposing terms
11.3 Related subjects
11.4 Related movements
13 Further reading
14 External links
The nature of
Romanticism may be approached from the primary
importance of the free expression of the feelings of the artist. The
importance the Romantics placed on emotion is summed up in the remark
of the German painter Caspar David Friedrich, "the artist's feeling is
his law". To William Wordsworth, poetry should begin as
"the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings", which the poet then
"recollect[s] in tranquility", evoking a new but corresponding emotion
the poet can then mold into art.
To express these feelings, it was considered the content of art had to
come from the imagination of the artist, with as little interference
as possible from "artificial" rules dictating what a work should
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Samuel Taylor Coleridge and others believed there were
natural laws the imagination—at least of a good creative
artist—would unconsciously follow through artistic inspiration if
left alone. As well as rules, the influence of models from
other works was considered to impede the creator's own imagination, so
that originality was essential. The concept of the genius, or artist
who was able to produce his own original work through this process of
creation from nothingness, is key to Romanticism, and to be derivative
was the worst sin. This idea is
often called "romantic originality". Translator and
August Wilhelm Schlegel
August Wilhelm Schlegel argued in his Lectures on
Dramatic Arts and Letters that the most phenomenal power of human
nature is its capacity to divide and diverge into opposite
William Blake, The Little Girl Found, from Songs of Innocence and
Not essential to Romanticism, but so widespread as to be normative,
was a strong belief and interest in the importance of nature. This
particularly in the effect of nature upon the artist when he is
surrounded by it, preferably alone. In contrast to the usually very
social art of the Enlightenment, Romantics were distrustful of the
human world, and tended to believe a close connection with nature was
mentally and morally healthy. Romantic art addressed its audiences
with what was intended to be felt as the personal voice of the artist.
So, in literature, "much of romantic poetry invited the reader to
identify the protagonists with the poets themselves".
According to Isaiah Berlin,
Romanticism embodied "a new and restless
spirit, seeking violently to burst through old and cramping forms, a
nervous preoccupation with perpetually changing inner states of
consciousness, a longing for the unbounded and the indefinable, for
perpetual movement and change, an effort to return to the forgotten
sources of life, a passionate effort at self-assertion both individual
and collective, a search after means of expressing an unappeasable
yearning for unattainable goals".
The group of words with the root "Roman" in the various European
languages, such as "romance" and "Romanesque", has a complicated
history, but by the middle of the 18th century "romantic" in English
and romantique in French were both in common use as adjectives of
praise for natural phenomena such as views and sunsets, in a sense
close to modern English usage but without the amorous connotation. The
application of the term to literature first became common in Germany,
where the circle around the Schlegel brothers, critics August and
Friedrich, began to speak of romantische Poesie ("romantic poetry") in
the 1790s, contrasting it with "classic" but in terms of spirit rather
than merely dating.
Friedrich Schlegel wrote in his Dialogue on
Poetry (1800), "I seek and find the romantic among the older moderns,
in Shakespeare, in Cervantes, in Italian poetry, in that age of
chivalry, love and fable, from which the phenomenon and the word
itself are derived."
In both French and German the closeness of the adjective to roman,
meaning the fairly new literary form of the novel, had some effect on
the sense of the word in those languages. The use of the word,
invented by Friedrich Schlegel, did not become general very quickly,
and was probably spread more widely in France by its persistent use by
Germaine de Staël
Germaine de Staël in her De l'Allemagne (1813), recounting her
travels in Germany. In England Wordsworth wrote in a
preface to his poems of 1815 of the "romantic harp" and "classic
lyre", but in 1820 Byron could still write, perhaps
slightly disingenuously, "I perceive that in Germany, as well as in
Italy, there is a great struggle about what they call 'Classical' and
'Romantic', terms which were not subjects of classification in
England, at least when I left it four or five years ago".
It is only from the 1820s that
Romanticism certainly knew itself by
its name, and in 1824 the
Académie française took the wholly
ineffective step of issuing a decree condemning it in
The period typically called Romantic varies greatly between different
countries and different artistic media or areas of thought. Margaret
Drabble described it in literature as taking place "roughly between
1770 and 1848", and few dates much earlier than 1770 will
be found. In English literature,
M. H. Abrams
M. H. Abrams placed it between 1789,
or 1798, this latter a very typical view, and about 1830, perhaps a
little later than some other critics. Others have
proposed 1780–1830. In other fields and other countries
the period denominated as Romantic can be considerably different;
musical Romanticism, for example, is generally regarded as only having
ceased as a major artistic force as late as 1910, but in an extreme
Four Last Songs
Four Last Songs of
Richard Strauss are described
stylistically as "Late Romantic" and were composed in
1946–48. However, in most fields the Romantic Period is
said to be over by about 1850, or earlier.
The early period of the Romantic Era was a time of war, with the
French Revolution (1789–1799) followed by the
Napoleonic Wars until
1815. These wars, along with the political and social turmoil that
went along with them, served as the background for
Romanticism. The key generation of French Romantics born
between 1795–1805 had, in the words of one of their number, Alfred
de Vigny, been "conceived between battles, attended school to the
rolling of drums". According to Jacques Barzun, there were
three generations of Romantic artists. The first emerged in the 1790s
and 1800s, the second in the 1820s, and the third later in the
Context and place in history
The more precise characterization and specific definition of
Romanticism has been the subject of debate in the fields of
intellectual history and literary history throughout the 20th century,
without any great measure of consensus emerging. That it was part of
the Counter-Enlightenment, a reaction against the Age of
Enlightenment, is generally accepted in current scholarship. Its
relationship to the French Revolution, which began in 1789 in the very
early stages of the period, is clearly important, but highly variable
depending on geography and individual reactions. Most Romantics can
be said to be broadly progressive in their views, but a considerable
number always had, or developed, a wide range of conservative
views, and nationalism was in many countries strongly
associated with Romanticism, as discussed in detail below.
In philosophy and the history of ideas,
Romanticism was seen by Isaiah
Berlin as disrupting for over a century the classic Western traditions
of rationality and the idea of moral absolutes and agreed values,
leading "to something like the melting away of the very notion of
objective truth", and hence not only to nationalism, but
also fascism and totalitarianism, with a gradual recovery coming only
after World War II. For the Romantics, Berlin says, in
the realm of ethics, politics, aesthetics it was the authenticity and
sincerity of the pursuit of inner goals that mattered; this applied
equally to individuals and groups—states, nations, movements. This
is most evident in the aesthetics of romanticism, where the notion of
eternal models, a Platonic vision of ideal beauty, which the artist
seeks to convey, however imperfectly, on canvas or in sound, is
replaced by a passionate belief in spiritual freedom, individual
creativity. The painter, the poet, the composer do not hold up a
mirror to nature, however ideal, but invent; they do not imitate (the
doctrine of mimesis), but create not merely the means but the goals
that they pursue; these goals represent the self-expression of the
artist's own unique, inner vision, to set aside which in response to
the demands of some "external" voice—church, state, public opinion,
family friends, arbiters of taste—is an act of betrayal of what
alone justifies their existence for those who are in any sense
John William Waterhouse, The Lady of Shalott, 1888, after a poem by
Tennyson; like many Victorian paintings, romantic but not Romantic.
Arthur Lovejoy attempted to demonstrate the difficulty of defining
Romanticism in his seminal article "On The Discrimination of
Romanticisms" in his Essays in the History of Ideas (1948); some
Romanticism as essentially continuous with the present,
some like Robert Hughes see in it the inaugural moment of
modernity, and some like Chateaubriand,
Novalis and Samuel
Taylor Coleridge see it as the beginning of a tradition of resistance
to Enlightenment rationalism—a
"Counter-Enlightenment"— to be associated
most closely with German Romanticism. An earlier definition comes from
Charles Baudelaire: "
Romanticism is precisely situated neither in
choice of subject nor exact truth, but in the way of
The end of the Romantic era is marked in some areas by a new style of
Realism, which affected literature, especially the novel and drama,
painting, and even music, through
Verismo opera. This movement was led
by France, with
Flaubert in literature and
Goya were important precursors of Realism in
their respective media. However, Romantic styles, now often
representing the established and safe style against which Realists
rebelled, continued to flourish in many fields for the rest of the
century and beyond. In music such works from after about 1850 are
referred to by some writers as "Late Romantic" and by others as
"Neoromantic" or "Postromantic", but other fields do not usually use
these terms; in
English literature and painting the convenient term
"Victorian" avoids having to characterise the period further.
In northern Europe, the Early Romantic visionary optimism and belief
that the world was in the process of great change and improvement had
largely vanished, and some art became more conventionally political
and polemical as its creators engaged polemically with the world as it
was. Elsewhere, including in very different ways the United States and
Russia, feelings that great change was underway or just about to come
were still possible. Displays of intense emotion in art remained
prominent, as did the exotic and historical settings pioneered by the
Romantics, but experimentation with form and technique was generally
reduced, often replaced with meticulous technique, as in the poems of
Tennyson or many paintings. If not realist, late 19th-century art was
often extremely detailed, and pride was taken in adding authentic
details in a way that earlier Romantics did not trouble with. Many
Romantic ideas about the nature and purpose of art, above all the
pre-eminent importance of originality, remained important for later
generations, and often underlie modern views, despite opposition from
See also: Romantic poetry
The Death of Chatterton
The Death of Chatterton 1856, by suicide at 17 in 1770
Romanticism found recurrent themes in the evocation or
criticism of the past, the cult of "sensibility" with its emphasis on
women and children, the isolation of the artist or narrator, and
respect for nature. Furthermore, several romantic authors, such as
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne, based their writings on the
supernatural/occult and human psychology.
Romanticism tended to regard
satire as something unworthy of serious attention, a prejudice still
influential today. The romantic movement in literature
was preceded by the Enlightenment and succeeded by Realism.
Some authors cite 16th century poet
Isabella di Morra
Isabella di Morra as an early
precursor of Romantic literature. Her lyrics covering themes of
isolation and loneliness, which reflected the tragic events of her
life, are considered "an impressive prefigurement of
Romanticism", differing from the Petrarchist fashion of
the time based on the philosophy of love.
The precursors of
Romanticism in English poetry go back to the middle
of the 18th century, including figures such as Joseph Warton
(headmaster at Winchester College) and his brother Thomas Warton,
Poetry at Oxford University. Joseph
maintained that invention and imagination were the chief qualities of
Thomas Chatterton is generally considered the first Romantic
poet in English. The Scottish poet James Macpherson
influenced the early development of
Romanticism with the international
success of his
Ossian cycle of poems published in 1762, inspiring both
Goethe and the young Walter Scott. Both Chatterton and Macpherson's
work involved elements of fraud, as what they claimed was earlier
literature that they had discovered or compiled was, in fact, entirely
their own work. The Gothic novel, beginning with
Horace Walpole's The
Castle of Otranto (1764), was an important precursor of one strain of
Romanticism, with a delight in horror and threat, and exotic
picturesque settings, matched in Walpole's case by his role in the
early revival of Gothic architecture. Tristram Shandy, a novel by
Laurence Sterne (1759–67) introduced a whimsical version of the
anti-rational sentimental novel to the English literary public.
Title page of Volume III of Des Knaben Wunderhorn, 1808
An early German influence came from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, whose
The Sorrows of Young Werther
The Sorrows of Young Werther had young men throughout
Europe emulating its protagonist, a young artist with a very sensitive
and passionate temperament. At that time Germany was a multitude of
small separate states, and Goethe's works would have a seminal
influence in developing a unifying sense of nationalism. Another
philosophic influence came from the
German idealism of Johann Gottlieb
Fichte and Friedrich Schelling, making
Jena (where Fichte lived, as
well as Schelling, Hegel,
Schiller and the brothers Schlegel) a center
German Romanticism (see
Jena Romanticism). Important writers
were Ludwig Tieck,
Novalis (Heinrich von Ofterdingen, 1799), Heinrich
von Kleist and Friedrich Hölderlin.
Heidelberg later became a center
of German Romanticism, where writers and poets such as Clemens
Brentano, Achim von Arnim, and
Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff
Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff (Aus
dem Leben eines Taugenichts) met regularly in literary circles.
Important motifs in
German Romanticism are travelling, nature, for
example the German Forest, and Germanic myths. The later German
Romanticism of, for example E. T. A. Hoffmann's
Der Sandmann (The
Sandman), 1817, and Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff's Das Marmorbild
(The Marble Statue), 1819, was darker in its motifs and has gothic
elements. The significance to
Romanticism of childhood innocence, the
importance of imagination, and racial theories all combined to give an
unprecedented importance to folk literature, non-classical mythology
and children's literature, above all in Germany. Brentano and von
Arnim were significant literary figures who together published Des
Knaben Wunderhorn ("The Boy's Magic Horn" or cornucopia), a collection
of versified folk tales, in 1806–08. The first collection of
Grimms' Fairy Tales
Grimms' Fairy Tales by the
Brothers Grimm was published in
1812. Unlike the much later work of Hans Christian
Andersen, who was publishing his invented tales in Danish from 1835,
these German works were at least mainly based on collected folk tales,
and the Grimms remained true to the style of the telling in their
early editions, though later rewriting some parts. One of the
brothers, Jacob, published in 1835 Deutsche Mythologie, a long
academic work on Germanic mythology. Another strain is
exemplified by Schiller's highly emotional language and the depiction
of physical violence in his play
The Robbers of 1781.
Main article: Romantic literature in English
George Henry Harlow, Byron c. 1816
In English literature, the key figures of the Romantic movement are
considered to be the group of poets including William Wordsworth,
Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats, Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley,
and the much older William Blake, followed later by the isolated
figure of John Clare; also such novelists as
Walter Scott from
Scotland and Mary Shelley, and the essayists
William Hazlitt and
Charles Lamb. The publication in 1798 of Lyrical Ballads, with many of
the finest poems by Wordsworth and Coleridge, is often held to mark
the start of the movement. The majority of the poems were by
Wordsworth, and many dealt with the lives of the poor in his native
Lake District, or his feelings about nature—which he more fully
developed in his long poem The Prelude, never published in his
lifetime. The longest poem in the volume was Coleridge's The Rime of
the Ancient Mariner, which showed the Gothic side of English
Romanticism, and the exotic settings that many works featured. In the
period when they were writing, the
Lake Poets were widely regarded as
a marginal group of radicals, though they were supported by the critic
William Hazlitt and others.
Chateaubriand in Rome, 1808
Lord Byron and
Walter Scott achieved enormous fame and
influence throughout Europe with works exploiting the violence and
drama of their exotic and historical settings;
Goethe called Byron
"undoubtedly the greatest genius of our century". Scott
achieved immediate success with his long narrative poem The Lay of the
Last Minstrel in 1805, followed by the full epic poem Marmion in 1808.
Both were set in the distant Scottish past, already evoked in Ossian;
Romanticism and Scotland were to have a long and fruitful partnership.
Byron had equal success with the first part of Childe Harold's
Pilgrimage in 1812, followed by four "Turkish tales", all in the form
of long poems, starting with
The Giaour in 1813, drawing from his
Grand Tour, which had reached Ottoman Europe, and orientalizing the
themes of the
Gothic novel in verse. These featured different
variations of the "Byronic hero", and his own life contributed a
further version. Scott meanwhile was effectively inventing the
historical novel, beginning in 1814 with Waverley, set in the 1745
Jacobite rising, which was an enormous and highly profitable success,
followed by over 20 further
Waverley Novels over the next 17 years,
with settings going back to the
Crusades that he had researched to a
degree that was new in literature.
In contrast to Germany,
English literature had little
connection with nationalism, and the Romantics were often regarded
with suspicion for the sympathy many felt for the ideals of the French
Revolution, whose collapse and replacement with the dictatorship of
Napoleon was, as elsewhere in Europe, a shock to the movement. Though
his novels celebrated Scottish identity and history, Scott was
politically a firm Unionist, but admitted to Jacobite sympathies.
Several spent much time abroad, and a famous stay on
Lake Geneva with
Byron and Shelley in 1816 produced the hugely influential novel
Frankenstein by Shelley's wife-to-be
Mary Shelley and the novella The
Vampyre by Byron's doctor John William Polidori. The lyrics of Robert
Burns in Scotland and Thomas Moore, from Ireland reflected in
different ways their countries and the Romantic interest in folk
literature, but neither had a fully Romantic approach to life or their
Though they have modern critical champions such as György Lukács,
Scott's novels are today more likely to be experienced in the form of
the many operas that composers continued to base on them over the
following decades, such as Donizetti's
Lucia di Lammermoor
Lucia di Lammermoor and
I puritani (both 1835). Byron is now most highly
regarded for his short lyrics and his generally unromantic prose
writings, especially his letters, and his unfinished satire Don
Juan. Unlike many Romantics, Byron's widely publicised
personal life appeared to match his work, and his death at 36 in 1824
from disease when helping the
Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence appeared from
a distance to be a suitably Romantic end, entrenching his
legend. Keats in 1821 and Shelley in 1822 both died in
Italy, Blake (at almost 70) in 1827, and Coleridge largely ceased to
write in the 1820s. Wordsworth was by 1820 respectable and highly
regarded, holding a government sinecure, but wrote relatively little.
In the discussion of English literature, the Romantic period is often
regarded as finishing around the 1820s, or sometimes even earlier,
although many authors of the succeeding decades were no less committed
to Romantic values.
The most significant novelist in English during the peak Romantic
period, other than Walter Scott, was Jane Austen, whose essentially
conservative world-view had little in common with her Romantic
contemporaries, retaining a strong belief in decorum and social rules,
though critics[who?] have detected tremors under the surface
of some works, especially
Mansfield Park (1814) and Persuasion
(1817). But around the mid-century the undoubtedly
Romantic novels of the Yorkshire-based
Brontë family appeared. Most
Jane Eyre and Emily's Wuthering Heights, both
published in 1847, which also introduced more Gothic themes. While
these two novels were written and published after the Romantic period
is said to have ended, their novels were heavily influenced by
Romantic literature they'd read as children.
Byron, Keats and Shelley all wrote for the stage, but with little
success in England, with Shelley's
The Cenci perhaps the best work
produced, though that was not played in a public theatre in England
until a century after his death. Byron's plays, along with
dramatizations of his poems and Scott's novels, were much more popular
on the Continent, and especially in France, and through these versions
several were turned into operas, many still performed today. If
contemporary poets had little success on the stage, the period was a
legendary one for performances of Shakespeare, and went some way to
restoring his original texts and removing the Augustan "improvements"
to them. The greatest actor of the period, Edmund Kean, restored the
tragic ending to King Lear; Coleridge said that, "Seeing
him act was like reading
Shakespeare by flashes of
Romanticism in Scotland
Robert Burns in Alexander Nasmyth's portrait of 1787
Although after union with England in 1707 Scotland increasingly
adopted English language and wider cultural norms, its literature
developed a distinct national identity and began to enjoy an
international reputation. Allan Ramsay (1686–1758) laid the
foundations of a reawakening of interest in older Scottish literature,
as well as leading the trend for pastoral poetry, helping to develop
Habbie stanza as a poetic form. James Macpherson
(1736–96) was the first Scottish poet to gain an international
reputation. Claiming to have found poetry written by the ancient bard
Ossian, he published translations that acquired international
popularity, being proclaimed as a Celtic equivalent of the Classical
epics. Fingal, written in 1762, was speedily translated into many
European languages, and its appreciation of natural beauty and
treatment of the ancient legend has been credited more than any single
work with bringing about the Romantic movement in European, and
especially in German literature, through its influence on Johann
Gottfried von Herder and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. It
was also popularised in France by figures that included
Napoleon. Eventually it became clear that the poems were
not direct translations from the Gaelic, but flowery adaptations made
to suit the aesthetic expectations of his audience.
Robert Burns (1759–96) and
Walter Scott (1771–1832) were highly
influenced by the
Ossian cycle. Burns, an Ayrshire poet and lyricist,
is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland and a major
influence on the Romantic movement. His poem (and song) "Auld Lang
Syne" is often sung at
Hogmanay (the last day of the year), and "Scots
Wha Hae" served for a long time as an unofficial national anthem of
the country. Scott began as a poet and also collected and
published Scottish ballads. His first prose work, Waverley in 1814, is
often called the first historical novel. It launched a
highly successful career, with other historical novels such as Rob Roy
The Heart of Midlothian
The Heart of Midlothian (1818) and
Ivanhoe (1820). Scott
probably did more than any other figure to define and popularise
Scottish cultural identity in the nineteenth century.
Other major literary figures connected with
Romanticism include the
poets and novelists
James Hogg (1770–1835), Allan Cunningham
(1784–1842) and John Galt (1779–1839). One of the most
significant figures of the Romantic movement, Lord Byron, was brought
up in Scotland until he inherited his family's English
Raeburn's portrait of
Walter Scott in 1822 Scotland was also the
location of two of the most important literary magazines of the era,
The Edinburgh Review (founded in 1802) and Blackwood's Magazine
(founded in 1817), which had a major impact on the development of
British literature and drama in the era of
Romanticism. Ian Duncan and Alex Benchimol
suggest that publications like the novels of Scott and these magazines
were part of a highly dynamic Scottish
Romanticism that by the early
nineteenth century, caused Edinburgh to emerge as the cultural capital
of Britain and become central to a wider formation of a "British Isles
Scottish "national drama" emerged in the early 1800s, as plays with
specifically Scottish themes began to dominate the Scottish stage.
Theatres had been discouraged by the
Church of Scotland
Church of Scotland and fears of
Jacobite assemblies. In the later eighteenth century, many plays were
written for and performed by small amateur companies and were not
published and so most have been lost. Towards the end of the century
there were "closet dramas", primarily designed to be read, rather than
performed, including work by Scott, Hogg, Galt and Joanna Baillie
(1762–1851), often influenced by the ballad tradition and Gothic
Romanticism in France
Romanticism was relatively late in developing in French literature,
more so than in the visual arts. The 18th-century precursor to
Romanticism, the cult of sensibility, had become associated with the
Ancien regime, and the
French Revolution had been more of an
inspiration to foreign writers than those experiencing it at
first-hand. The first major figure was François-René de
Chateaubriand, a minor aristocrat who had remained a royalist
throughout the Revolution, and returned to France from exile in
England and America under Napoleon, with whose regime he had an uneasy
relationship. His writings, all in prose, included some fiction, such
as his influential novella of exile René (1802), which anticipated
Byron in its alienated hero, but mostly contemporary history and
politics, his travels, a defence of religion and the medieval spirit
Génie du christianisme
Génie du christianisme 1802), and finally in the 1830s and 1840s his
Mémoires d'Outre-Tombe ("Memoirs from beyond
The "battle of Hernani" was fought nightly at the theatre in 1830
After the Bourbon Restoration, French
Romanticism developed in the
lively world of Parisian theatre, with productions of Shakespeare,
Schiller (in France a key Romantic author), and adaptations of Scott
and Byron alongside French authors, several of whom began to write in
the late 1820s. Cliques of pro- and anti-Romantics developed, and
productions were often accompanied by raucous vocalizing by the two
sides, including the shouted assertion by one theatregoer in 1822 that
"Shakespeare, c'est l'aide-de-camp de Wellington" ("
Alexandre Dumas began as a
dramatist, with a series of successes beginning with Henri III et sa
cour (1829) before turning to novels that were mostly historical
adventures somewhat in the manner of Scott, most famously The Three
Musketeers and The Count of Monte Cristo, both of 1844. Victor Hugo
published as a poet in the 1820s before achieving success on the stage
with Hernani—a historical drama in a quasi-Shakespearian style that
had famously riotous performances on its first run in
1830. Like Dumas, Hugo is best known for his novels, and
was already writing
The Hunchback of Notre-Dame
The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (1831), one of the
best known works, which became a paradigm of the French Romantic
movement. The preface to his unperformed play "Cromwell" gives an
important manifesto of French Romanticism, stating that "there are no
rules, or models". The career of
Prosper Mérimée followed a similar
pattern; he is now best known as the originator of the story of
Carmen, with his novella published 1845.
Alfred de Vigny
Alfred de Vigny remains best
known as a dramatist, with his play on the life of the English poet
Chatterton (1835) perhaps his best work.
George Sand was a central
figure of the Parisian literary scene, famous both for her novels and
criticism and her affairs with
Chopin and several others;
she too was inspired by the theatre, and wrote works to be staged at
her private estate.
French Romantic poets of the 1830s to 1850s include Alfred de Musset,
Gérard de Nerval,
Alphonse de Lamartine
Alphonse de Lamartine and the flamboyant Théophile
Gautier, whose prolific output in various forms continued until his
death in 1872.
Stendhal is today probably the most highly regarded French novelist of
the period, but he stands in a complex relation with Romanticism, and
is notable for his penetrating psychological insight into his
characters and his realism, qualities rarely prominent in Romantic
fiction. As a survivor of the French retreat from Moscow in 1812,
fantasies of heroism and adventure had little appeal for him, and like
Goya he is often seen as a forerunner of Realism. His most important
works are Le Rouge et le Noir (The Red and the Black, 1830) and La
Chartreuse de Parme (The Charterhouse of Parma, 1839).
Adam Mickiewicz on the Ayu-Dag, by Walenty Wańkowicz, 1828
Romanticism in Poland
Romanticism in Poland
Romanticism in Poland is often taken to begin with the publication of
Adam Mickiewicz's first poems in 1822, and end with the crushing of
January Uprising of 1863 against the Russians. It was strongly
marked by interest in Polish history. Polish Romanticism
revived the old "Sarmatism" traditions of the szlachta or Polish
nobility. Old traditions and customs were revived and portrayed in a
positive light in the Polish messianic movement and in works of great
Polish poets such as
Adam Mickiewicz (Pan Tadeusz), Juliusz Słowacki
and Zygmunt Krasiński, as well as prose writers such as Henryk
Sienkiewicz. This close connection between Polish
Polish history became one of the defining qualities of the literature
Romanticism period, differentiating it from that of other
countries. They had not suffered the loss of national statehood as was
the case with Poland. Influenced by the general spirit and
main ideas of European Romanticism, the literature of Polish
Romanticism is unique, as many scholars have pointed out, in having
developed largely outside of Poland and in its emphatic focus upon the
issue of Polish nationalism. The Polish intelligentsia, along with
leading members of its government, left Poland in the early 1830s,
during what is referred to as the "Great Emigration", resettling in
France, Germany, Great Britain, Turkey, and the United States.
Juliusz Słowacki, a Polish poet considered one of the "Three
National Bards" of Polish literature—a major figure in the Polish
Romantic period, and the father of modern Polish drama.
Their art featured emotionalism and irrationality, fantasy and
imagination, personality cults, folklore and country life, and the
propagation of ideals of freedom. In the second period, many of the
Polish Romantics worked abroad, often banished from Poland by the
occupying powers due to their politically subversive ideas. Their work
became increasingly dominated by the ideals of political struggle for
freedom and their country's sovereignty. Elements of mysticism became
more prominent. There developed the idea of the poeta wieszcz (the
prophet). The wieszcz (bard) functioned as spiritual leader to the
nation fighting for its independence. The most notable poet so
recognized was Adam Mickiewicz.
Zygmunt Krasinski also wrote to inspire political and religious hope
in his countrymen. Unlike his predecessors, who called for victory at
whatever price in Poland's struggle against Russia, Krasinski
emphasized Poland's spiritual role in its fight for independence,
advocating an intellectual rather than a military superiority. His
works best exemplify the Messianic movement in Poland: in two early
dramas, Nie-boska komedyia (1835; The Undivine Comedy) and
Irydion (1836; Iridion), as well as in the later Psalmy przyszłości
(1845), he asserted that Poland was the Christ of Europe: specifically
chosen by God to carry the world's burdens, to suffer, and eventually
Romanticism is associated with the writers Konstantin
Batyushkov (A Vision on the Shores of the Lethe, 1809), Vasily
Zhukovsky (The Bard, 1811; Svetlana, 1813) and
Nikolay Karamzin (Poor
Liza, 1792; Julia, 1796; Martha the Mayoress, 1802; The Sensitive and
the Cold, 1803). However the principal exponent of
Alexander Pushkin (The Prisoner of the Caucasus,
1820–1821; The Robber Brothers, 1822; Ruslan and Ludmila, 1820;
Eugene Onegin, 1825–1832). Pushkin's work influenced many writers in
the 19th century and led to his eventual recognition as Russia's
greatest poet. Other Russian Romantic poets include
Mikhail Lermontov (A Hero of Our Time, 1839), Fyodor Tyutchev
Yevgeny Baratynsky (Eda, 1826), Anton Delvig, and
Influenced heavily by Lord Byron, Lermontov sought to explore the
Romantic emphasis on metaphysical discontent with society and self,
while Tyutchev's poems often described scenes of nature or passions of
love. Tyutchev commonly operated with such categories as night and
day, north and south, dream and reality, cosmos and chaos, and the
still world of winter and spring teeming with life. Baratynsky's style
was fairly classical in nature, dwelling on the models of the previous
Romanticism in Spanish literature
El escritor José de Espronceda, portrait by Antonio María Esquivel
(c. 1845) (Museo del Prado, Madrid)
Romanticism in Spanish literature
Romanticism in Spanish literature developed a well-known literature
with a huge variety of poets and playwrights. The most important
Spanish poet during this movement was José de Espronceda. After him
there were other poets like Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, Mariano José de
Larra and the dramatists
Ángel de Saavedra
Ángel de Saavedra and José Zorrilla, author
of Don Juan Tenorio. Before them may be mentioned the pre-romantics
José Cadalso and Manuel José Quintana. The plays of
Antonio García Gutiérrez
Antonio García Gutiérrez were adapted to produce Giuseppe Verdi's
Il trovatore and Simon Boccanegra. Spanish
influenced regional literatures. For example, in
Catalonia and in
Galicia there was a national boom of writers in the local languages,
like the Catalan
Jacint Verdaguer and the Galician Rosalía de Castro,
the main figures of the national revivalist movements
There are scholars who consider Spanish
Romanticism to be
Existentialism because it is more anguished than the movement in
other European countries. Foster et al., for example, say that the
work of Spain's writers such as Espronceda, Larra, and other writers
in the 19th century demonstrated a "metaphysical crisis".
These observers put more weight on the link between the 19th-century
Spanish writers with the existentialist movement that emerged
immediately after. According to Richard Caldwell, the writers that we
now identify with Spain's romanticism were actually precursors to
those who galvanized the literary movement that emerged in the
1920s. This notion is the subject of debate for there are
authors who stress that Spain's romanticism is one of the earliest in
Europe, while some assert that Spain really had no period
of literary romanticism. This controversy underscores a
certain uniqueness to Spanish romanticism in comparison to its
Portuguese poet, novelist, politician and playwright Almeida Garrett
Romanticism began in
Portugal with the publication of the poem Camões
(1825), by Almeida Garrett, who was raised by his uncle D. Alexandre,
bishop of Angra, in the precepts of Neoclassicism, which can be
observed in his early work. The author himself confesses (in Camões'
preface) that he voluntarily refused to follow the principles of epic
poetry enunciated by
Aristotle in his Poetics, as he did the same to
Horace's Ars Poetica.
Almeida Garrett had participated in the 1820
Liberal Revolution, which caused him to exile himself in England in
1823 and then in France, after the Vila-Francada. While living in
Great Britain, he had contacts with the Romantic movement and read
authors such as Shakespeare, Scott, Ossian, Byron, Hugo, Lamartine and
de Staël, at the same time visiting feudal castles and ruins of
Gothic churches and abbeys, which would be reflected in his writings.
In 1838, he presented Um Auto de
Gil Vicente ("A Play by Gil
Vicente"), in an attempt to create a new national theatre, free of
Greco-Roman and foreign influence. But his masterpiece would be Frei
Luís de Sousa (1843), named by himself as a "Romantic drama" and it
was acclaimed as an exceptional work, dealing with themes as national
independence, faith, justice and love. He was also deeply interested
in Portuguese folkloric verse, which resulted in the publication of
Romanceiro ("Traditional Portuguese Ballads") (1843), that recollect a
great number of ancient popular ballads, known as "romances" or
"rimances", in redondilha maior verse form, that contained stories of
chivalry, life of saints, crusades, courtly love, etc. He wrote the
novels Viagens na Minha Terra, O Arco de Sant'Ana and
Alexandre Herculano is, alongside Almeida Garrett, one of the founders
of Portuguese Romanticism. He too was forced to exile to Great Britain
and France because of his liberal ideals. All of his poetry and prose
are (unlike Almeida Garrett's) entirely Romantic, rejecting
Greco-Roman myth and history. He sought inspiration in
medieval Portuguese poems and chronicles as in the Bible. His output
is vast and covers many different genres, such as historical essays,
poetry, novels, opuscules and theatre, where he brings back a whole
world of Portuguese legends, tradition and history, especially in
Eurico, o Presbítero ("Eurico, the Priest") and Lendas e Narrativas
("Legends and Narratives"). His work was influenced by Chateaubriand,
Walter Scott and the Old Testament
António Feliciano de Castilho
António Feliciano de Castilho made the case for Ultra-Romanticism,
publishing the poems A Noite no Castelo ("Night in the Castle") and Os
Ciúmes do Bardo ("The Jealousy of the Bard"), both in 1836, and the
drama Camões. He became an unquestionable master for successive
Ultra-Romantic generations, whose influence would not be challenged
until the famous Coimbra Question. He also created polemics by
Goethe's Faust without knowing German, but using French
versions of the play. Other notable figures of Portuguese Romanticism
are the famous novelists
Camilo Castelo Branco
Camilo Castelo Branco and Júlio Dinis, and
Soares de Passos, Bulhão Pato and Pinheiro Chagas.
Romantic style would be revived in the beginning of the 20th century,
notably through the works of poets linked to the Portuguese
Renaissance (Renascença Portuguesa), such as Teixeira de Pascoais,
Jaime Cortesão, Mário Beirão, among others, who can be considered
Neo-Romantics. An early Portuguese expression of
Romanticism is found
already in poets such as
Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage
Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage (especially in
his sonnets dated at the end of the 18th century) and Leonor de
Almeida Portugal, Marquise of Alorna.
Italian poet Isabella di Morra, sometimes cited as a precursor of
Romanticism in Italian literature was a minor movement, yet still
important; it began officially in 1816 when
Germaine de Staël
Germaine de Staël wrote
an article in the journal Biblioteca italiana called "Sulla maniera e
l'utilità delle traduzioni", inviting Italian people to reject
Neoclassicism and to study new authors from other countries. Before
Ugo Foscolo had already published poems anticipating
Romantic themes. The most important Romantic writers were Ludovico di
Breme, Pietro Borsieri and Giovanni Berchet. Better known authors such
Alessandro Manzoni and
Giacomo Leopardi were influenced by
Enlightenment as well as by
Romanticism and Classicism.
A print exemplifying the contrast between neoclassical vs. romantic
styles of landscape and architecture (or the "Grecian" and the
"Gothic" as they are termed here), 1816
Spanish-speaking South American
Romanticism was influenced heavily by
Esteban Echeverría, who wrote in the 1830 and 1840s. His writings
were influenced by his hatred for the Argentine dictator Juan Manuel
de Rosas, and filled with themes of blood and terror, using the
metaphor of a slaughterhouse to portray the violence of Rosas'
Romanticism is characterized and divided in three different
periods. The first one is basically focused on the creation of a sense
of national identity, using the ideal of the heroic Indian. Some
examples include José de Alencar, who wrote
Iracema and O Guarani,
and Gonçalves Dias, renowned by the poem "Canção do exílio" (Song
of the Exile). The second period, sometimes called Ultra-Romanticism,
is marked by a profound influence of European themes and traditions,
involving the melancholy, sadness and despair related to unobtainable
Lord Byron are commonly quoted in these works. Some
of the most notable authors of this phase are Álvares de Azevedo,
Casimiro de Abreu,
Fagundes Varela and Junqueira Freire. The third
cycle is marked by social poetry, especially the abolitionist
movement, and it includes Castro Alves,
Tobias Barreto and Pedro Luís
Pereira de Sousa.
Dennis Malone Carter, Decatur Boarding the Tripolitan Gunboat, 1878.
Romanticist vision of the Battle of Tripoli, during the First Barbary
War. It represents the moment when the American war hero Stephen
Decatur was fighting hand-to-hand against the Muslim pirate captain.
American literature and Romantic literature in English
Thomas Cole, The Course of Empire: The Savage State (1 of 5), 1836
In the United States, at least by 1818 with William Cullen Bryant's
"To a Waterfowl",
Romantic poetry was being published. American
Gothic literature made an early appearance with Washington
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow (1820) and
Rip Van Winkle
Rip Van Winkle (1819),
followed from 1823 onwards by the
Leatherstocking Tales of James
Fenimore Cooper, with their emphasis on heroic simplicity and their
fervent landscape descriptions of an already-exotic mythicized
frontier peopled by "noble savages", similar to the philosophical
theory of Rousseau, exemplified by Uncas, from The Last of the
Mohicans. There are picturesque "local color" elements in Washington
Irving's essays and especially his travel books. Edgar Allan Poe's
tales of the macabre and his balladic poetry were more influential in
France than at home, but the romantic American novel developed fully
with the atmosphere and melodrama of Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet
Letter (1850). Later Transcendentalist writers such as Henry David
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson still show elements of its influence
and imagination, as does the romantic realism of Walt Whitman. The
poetry of Emily Dickinson—nearly unread in her own time—and Herman
Moby-Dick can be taken as epitomes of American
Romantic literature. By the 1880s, however, psychological and social
realism were competing with
Romanticism in the novel.
Influence of European
Romanticism on American writers
The European Romantic movement reached America in the early 19th
Romanticism was just as multifaceted and
individualistic as it was in Europe. Like the Europeans, the American
Romantics demonstrated a high level of moral enthusiasm, commitment to
individualism and the unfolding of the self, an emphasis on intuitive
perception, and the assumption that the natural world was inherently
good, while human society was filled with corruption.
Romanticism became popular in American politics, philosophy and art.
The movement appealed to the revolutionary spirit of America as well
as to those longing to break free of the strict religious traditions
of early settlement. The Romantics rejected rationalism and religious
intellect. It appealed to those in opposition of Calvinism, which
includes the belief that the destiny of each individual is
preordained. The Romantic movement gave rise to New England
Transcendentalism, which portrayed a less restrictive relationship
between God and Universe. The new philosophy presented the individual
with a more personal relationship with God.
Romanticism appealed to Americans in a similar fashion, for both
privileged feeling over reason, individual freedom of expression over
the restraints of tradition and custom. It often involved a rapturous
response to nature. It encouraged the rejection of harsh, rigid
Calvinism, and promised a new blossoming of American
Romanticism embraced the individual and rebelled against the
confinement of neoclassicism and religious tradition. The Romantic
movement in America created a new literary genre that continues to
influence American writers. Novels, short stories, and poems replaced
the sermons and manifestos of yore. Romantic literature was personal,
intense, and portrayed more emotion than ever seen in neoclassical
literature. America's preoccupation with freedom became a great source
of motivation for Romantic writers as many were delighted in free
expression and emotion without so much fear of ridicule and
controversy. They also put more effort into the psychological
development of their characters, and the main characters typically
displayed extremes of sensitivity and excitement.
The works of the Romantic Era also differed from preceding works in
that they spoke to a wider audience, partly reflecting the greater
distribution of books as costs came down during the
Gothic Revival architecture
Romantic architecture appeared in the late 18th century in a reaction
against the rigid forms of neoclassical architecture. reached its peak
in the mid-19th century, and continued to appear until the end of the
19th century. It was designed to evoke an emotional reaction, either
respect for tradition or nostalgia for a bucolic past. It was
frequently inspired by the architecture of the Middle Ages, especially
Gothic architecture, It was strongly influenced by romanticism in
literature, particularly the historical novels of
Victor Hugo and Sir
Walter Scott. It sometimes moved into the domain of eclecticism, with
features assembled from different historic periods and regions of the
Gothic Revival architecture was a popular variant of the romantic
style, particularly in the construction of churches, Cathedrals, and
university buildings. Notable examples include the completion of
Cologne Cathedral in Germany, by Karl Friedrich Schinkel. The
cathedral had been begun in 1248 but work was halted in 1473. The
original plans for the facade were discovered in 1840, and it was
decided to recommence.. Schinkel followed the original design as much
as possible, but used modern construction technology, including an
iron frame for the roof. The building was finished in
In Britain, notable examples include the
Royal Pavillion in Brighton,
a romantic version of traditional
Indian architecture by John Nash
(1815-1823), and the
Houses of Parliament
Houses of Parliament in London, built in a Gothic
revival style by
Charles Barry between 1840 and 1876.
In France, one of the earliest examples of romantic architecture is
the Hameau de la Reine, the small rustic hamlet created at the Palace
of Versailles for Queen
Marie Antoinette between 1783 and 1785 by the
Richard Mique with the help of the romantic painter
Hubert Robert. It consisted of twelve structures, ten of which still
exist, in the style of villages in Normandy. It was designed for the
Queen and her friends to amuse themselves by playing at being
peasants, and included a farmhouse with a dairy, a mill, a boudoir, a
pigeon loft, a tower in the form of a lighthouse from which one could
fish in the pond, a belvedere, a cascade and grotto, and a luxuriously
furnished cottage with a billiard room for the Queen.
French romantic architecture in the 19th century was strongly
influenced by two writers; Victor Hugo, whose novel The Hunchback of
Notre Dame inspired a resurgence in interest in the Middle Ages; and
Prosper Merimée, who wrote celebrated romantic novels and short
stories and was also the first head of the commission of Historic
Monuments in France, responsible for publicizing and restoring (and
sometimes romanticizing) many French cathedrals and monuments
desecrated and ruined after the French Revolution. His projects were
carried out by the architect Eugene Viollet-le-Duc. These included the
restoration (sometimes creative) of the Cathedral of Notre Dame de
Paris, the fortified city of Carcassonne, and the unfinished medieval
Château de Pierrefonds.
The romantic style continued in the second half of the 19th century.
The Palais Garnier, the Paris opera house designed by Charles Garnier
was a highly romantic and eclectic combination of artistic styles.
Another notable example of late 19th century romanticism is the
Basilica of Sacré-Coeur by Paul Abadie, who drew upon the model of
Byzantine architecture for his elongated domes
Hameau de la Reine,
Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles (1783-1785)
Royal Pavilion in
Brighton by John Nash (1815-1823)
Cologne Cathedral, (1840-1880)
Grand Staircase of the
Paris Opera by Charles Garnier (1861-75)
Basilica of Sacré-Coeur by
Paul Abadie (1875-1914)
Thomas Jones, The Bard, 1774, a prophetic combination of Romanticism
and nationalism by the Welsh artist
In the visual arts,
Romanticism first showed itself in landscape
painting, where from as early as the 1760s British artists began to
turn to wilder landscapes and storms, and Gothic architecture, even if
they had to make do with Wales as a setting. Caspar David Friedrich
J. M. W. Turner
J. M. W. Turner were born less than a year apart in 1774 and 1775
respectively and were to take German and English landscape painting to
their extremes of Romanticism, but both their artistic sensibilities
were formed when forms of
Romanticism was already strongly present in
art. John Constable, born in 1776, stayed closer to the English
landscape tradition, but in his largest "six-footers" insisted on the
heroic status of a patch of the working countryside where he had grown
up—challenging the traditional hierarchy of genres, which relegated
landscape painting to a low status. Turner also painted very large
landscapes, and above all, seascapes. Some of these large paintings
had contemporary settings and staffage, but others had small figures
that turned the work into history painting in the manner of Claude
Lorrain, like Salvator Rosa, a late
Baroque artist whose landscapes
had elements that Romantic painters repeatedly turned to. Friedrich
often used single figures, or features like crosses, set alone amidst
a huge landscape, "making them images of the transitoriness of human
life and the premonition of death".
Girodet de Roussy-Trioson,
Ossian receiving the Ghosts of
the French Heroes, 1800–02
Other groups of artists expressed feelings that verged on the
mystical, many largely abandoning classical drawing and proportions.
William Blake and
Samuel Palmer and the other members
of the Ancients in England, and in Germany Philipp Otto Runge. Like
Friedrich, none of these artists had significant influence after their
deaths for the rest of the 19th century, and were 20th century
rediscoveries from obscurity, though Blake was always known as a poet,
and Norway's leading painter
Johan Christian Dahl
Johan Christian Dahl was heavily
influenced by Friedrich. The Rome-based
Nazarene movement of German
artists, active from 1810, took a very different path, concentrating
on medievalizing history paintings with religious and nationalist
The arrival of
Romanticism in French art was delayed by the strong
Neoclassicism on the academies, but from the
it became increasingly popular, initially in the form of history
paintings propagandising for the new regime, of which Girodet's Ossian
receiving the Ghosts of the French Heroes, for Napoleon's Château de
Malmaison, was one of the earliest. Girodet's old teacher David was
puzzled and disappointed by his pupil's direction, saying: "Either
Girodet is mad or I no longer know anything of the art of
painting". A new generation of the French
school, developed personal Romantic styles, though still
concentrating on history painting with a political message. Théodore
Géricault (1791–1824) had his first success with The Charging
Chasseur, a heroic military figure derived from Rubens, at the Paris
Salon of 1812 in the years of the Empire, but his next major completed
The Raft of the Medusa
The Raft of the Medusa of 1821, remains the greatest achievement
of the Romantic history painting, which in its day had a powerful
Eugène Delacroix (1798–1863) made his first Salon hits with The
Barque of Dante (1822),
The Massacre at Chios
The Massacre at Chios (1824) and Death of
Sardanapalus (1827). The second was a scene from the Greek War of
Independence, completed the year Byron died there, and the last was a
scene from one of Byron's plays. With Shakespeare, Byron was to
provide the subject matter for many other works of Delacroix, who also
spent long periods in North Africa, painting colourful scenes of
mounted Arab warriors. His
Liberty Leading the People
Liberty Leading the People (1830) remains,
with the Medusa, one of the best-known works of French Romantic
painting. Both reflected current events, and increasingly "history
painting", literally "story painting", a phrase dating back to the
Italian Renaissance meaning the painting of subjects with groups of
figures, long considered the highest and most difficult form of art,
did indeed become the painting of historical scenes, rather than those
from religion or mythology.
Goya was called "the last great painter in whose art thought
and observation were balanced and combined to form a faultless
unity". But the extent to which he was a Romantic is a
complex question. In Spain, there was still a struggle to introduce
the values of the Enlightenment, in which
Goya saw himself as a
participant. The demonic and anti-rational monsters thrown up by his
imagination are only superficially similar to those of the Gothic
fantasies of northern Europe, and in many ways he remained wedded to
the classicism and realism of his training, as well as looking forward
to the Realism of the later 19th century. But he, more
than any other artist of the period, exemplified the Romantic values
of the expression of the artist's feelings and his personal
imaginative world. He also shared with many of the
Romantic painters a more free handling of paint, emphasized in the new
prominence of the brushstroke and impasto, which tended to be
repressed in neoclassicism under a self-effacing finish.
Cavalier gaulois by Antoine-Augustin Préault, Pont d'Iéna, Paris
Sculpture remained largely impervious to Romanticism, probably partly
for technical reasons, as the most prestigious material of the day,
marble, does not lend itself to expansive gestures. The leading
sculptors in Europe,
Antonio Canova and Bertel Thorvaldsen, were both
based in Rome and firm Neoclassicists, not at all tempted to allow
influence from medieval sculpture, which would have been one possible
approach to Romantic sculpture. When it did develop, true Romantic
sculpture—with the exception of a few artists such as Rudolf
Maison— rather oddly was missing in Germany, and mainly
found in France, with François Rude, best known from his group of the
1830s from the
Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe in Paris, David d'Angers, and Auguste
Préault. Préault's plaster relief entitled Slaughter, which
represented the horrors of wars with exacerbated passion, caused so
much scandal at the 1834 Salon that Préault was banned from this
official annual exhibition for nearly twenty years. In
Italy, the most important Romantic sculptor was Lorenzo
Francisco Goya, The Third of May 1808, 1814
Théodore Géricault, The Raft of the Medusa, 1819
Liberty Leading the People
Liberty Leading the People 1830
J.M.W. Turner, The Fighting Téméraire tugged to her last Berth to be
broken up, 1839
In France, historical painting on idealized medieval and Renaissance
themes is known as the style Troubadour, a term with no equivalent for
other countries, though the same trends occurred there. Delacroix,
Richard Parkes Bonington
Richard Parkes Bonington all worked in this style, as did
lesser specialists such as
Pierre-Henri Révoil (1776–1842) and
Fleury-François Richard (1777–1852). Their pictures are often
small, and feature intimate private and anecdotal moments, as well as
those of high drama. The lives of great artists such as
commemorated on equal terms with those of rulers, and fictional
characters were also depicted. Fleury-Richard's Valentine of Milan
weeping for the death of her husband, shown in the
Paris Salon of
1802, marked the arrival of the style, which lasted until the
mid-century, before being subsumed into the increasingly academic
history painting of artists like Paul Delaroche.
Francesco Hayez, Crusaders Thirsting near Jerusalem
Another trend was for very large apocalyptic history paintings, often
combining extreme natural events, or divine wrath, with human
disaster, attempting to outdo The Raft of the Medusa, and now often
drawing comparisons with effects from Hollywood. The leading English
artist in the style was John Martin, whose tiny figures were dwarfed
by enormous earthquakes and storms, and worked his way through the
biblical disasters, and those to come in the final days. Other works
such as Delacroix's
Death of Sardanapalus
Death of Sardanapalus included larger figures, and
these often drew heavily on earlier artists, especially
Rubens, with extra emotionalism and special effects.
Elsewhere in Europe, leading artists adopted Romantic styles: in
Russia there were the portraitists
Orest Kiprensky and Vasily
Ivan Aivazovsky specializing in marine painting, and in
Hans Gude painted scenes of fjords. In Italy Francesco Hayez
(1791–1882) was the leading artist of
mid-19th-century Milan. His long, prolific and extremely successful
career saw him begin as a Neoclassical painter, pass right through the
Romantic period, and emerge at the other end as a sentimental painter
of young women. His Romantic period included many historical pieces of
"Troubadour" tendencies, but on a very large scale, that are heavily
Gian Battista Tiepolo
Gian Battista Tiepolo and other late
Romanticism had its counterpart in the American visual arts,
most especially in the exaltation of an untamed American landscape
found in the paintings of the Hudson River School. Painters like
Albert Bierstadt and
Frederic Edwin Church
Frederic Edwin Church and others
often expressed Romantic themes in their paintings. They sometimes
depicted ancient ruins of the old world, such as in Fredric Edwin
Church's piece Sunrise in Syria. These works reflected the Gothic
feelings of death and decay. They also show the Romantic ideal that
Nature is powerful and will eventually overcome the transient
creations of men. More often, they worked to distinguish themselves
from their European counterparts by depicting uniquely American scenes
and landscapes. This idea of an American identity in the art world is
reflected in W. C. Bryant's poem, To Cole, the Painter, Departing for
Europe, where Bryant encourages Cole to remember the powerful scenes
that can only be found in America.
Some American paintings (such as Albert Bierstadt's The Rocky
Mountains, Lander's Peak) promote the literary idea of the "noble
savage" by portraying idealized Native Americans living in harmony
with the natural world. Thomas Cole's paintings tend towards allegory,
The Voyage of Life
The Voyage of Life series painted in the early 1840s,
showing the stages of life set amidst an awesome and immense nature.
Thomas Cole, Childhood, one of the four scenes in The Voyage of Life,
William Blake, Albion Rose, 1794–95
Louis Janmot, from his series The Poem of the Soul, before 1854
Thomas Cole, 1842, The Voyage of LifeOld Age
See also: Romantic music, Musical nationalism, and List of
Ludwig van Beethoven, painted by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820
Romanticism is predominantly a German phenomenon—so much so
that one respected French reference work defines it entirely in terms
of "The role of music in the aesthetics of German
romanticism". Another French encyclopedia holds that the
German temperament generally "can be described as the deep and diverse
action of romanticism on German musicians", and that there is only one
true representative of
Romanticism in French music, Hector Berlioz,
while in Italy, the sole great name of musical
Romanticism is Giuseppe
Verdi, "a sort of [Victor] Hugo of opera, gifted with a real genius
for dramatic effect". Nevertheless, the huge popularity of German
Romantic music led, "whether by imitation or by reaction", to an often
nationalistically inspired vogue amongst Polish, Hungarian, Russian,
Czech, and Scandinavian musicians, successful "perhaps more because of
its extra-musical traits than for the actual value of musical works by
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres,
Portrait of Niccolò Paganini, 1819
Chopin in 1838 by Eugène Delacroix
Although the term "Romanticism" when applied to music has come to
imply the period roughly from 1800 until 1850, or else until around
1900, the contemporary application of "romantic" to music did not
coincide with this modern interpretation. Indeed, one of the earliest
sustained applications of the term to music occurs in 1789, in the
Mémoires of André Grétry. This is of particular
interest because it is a French source on a subject mainly dominated
by Germans, but also because it explicitly acknowledges its debt to
Rousseau (himself a composer, amongst other things) and,
by so doing, establishes a link to one of the major influences on the
Romantic movement generally. In 1810 E.T.A. Hoffmann
named Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven as "the three masters of
instrumental compositions" who "breathe one and the same romantic
spirit". He justified his view on the basis of these composers' depth
of evocative expression and their marked individuality. In Haydn's
music, according to Hoffmann, "a child-like, serene disposition
prevails", while Mozart (in the late E-flat major Symphony, for
example) "leads us into the depths of the spiritual world", with
elements of fear, love, and sorrow, "a presentiment of the infinite
... in the eternal dance of the spheres". Beethoven's music, on the
other hand, conveys a sense of "the monstrous and immeasurable", with
the pain of an endless longing that "will burst our breasts in a fully
coherent concord of all the passions". This elevation in
the valuation of pure emotion resulted in the promotion of music from
the subordinate position it had held in relation to the verbal and
plastic arts during the Enlightenment. Because music was considered to
be free of the constraints of reason, imagery, or any other precise
concept, it came to be regarded, first in the writings of Wackenroder
and Tieck and later by writers such as Schelling and Wagner, as
preeminent among the arts, the one best able to express the secrets of
the universe, to evoke the spirit world, infinity, and the
This chronologic agreement of musical and literary Romanticism
continued as far as the middle of the 19th century, when Richard
Wagner denigrated the music of
Meyerbeer and Berlioz as "neoromantic":
"The Opera, to which we shall now return, has swallowed down the
Neoromanticism of Berlioz, too, as a plump, fine-flavoured oyster,
whose digestion has conferred on it anew a brisk and well-to-do
It was only toward the end of the 19th century that the newly emergent
discipline of Musikwissenschaft (musicology)—itself a product of the
historicizing proclivity of the age—attempted a more scientific
periodization of music history, and a distinction between Viennese
Classical and Romantic periods was proposed. The key figure in this
trend was Guido Adler, who viewed Beethoven and
Franz Schubert as
transitional but essentially Classical composers, with Romanticism
achieving full maturity only in the post-Beethoven generation of
Frédéric Chopin, Robert Schumann, Berlioz, and Franz Liszt. From
Adler's viewpoint, found in books like Der Stil in der Musik (1911),
composers of the
New German School
New German School and various late-19th-century
nationalist composers were not Romantics but "moderns" or "realists"
(by analogy with the fields of painting and literature), and this
schema remained prevalent through the first decades of the 20th
By the second quarter of the 20th century, an awareness that radical
changes in musical syntax had occurred during the early 1900s caused
another shift in historical viewpoint, and the change of century came
to be seen as marking a decisive break with the musical past. This in
turn led historians such as Alfred Einstein to extend the
musical "Romantic Era" throughout the 19th century and into the first
decade of the 20th. It has continued to be referred to as such in some
of the standard music references such as The Oxford Companion to
Music and Grout's History of Western Music
but was not unchallenged. For example, the prominent German
musicologist Friedrich Blume, the chief editor of the first edition of
Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart
Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart (1949–86), accepted the
earlier position that
Romanticism together constitute a
single period beginning in the middle of the 18th century, but at the
same time held that it continued into the 20th century, including such
pre–World War II developments as expressionism and
neoclassicism. This is reflected in some notable recent
reference works such as the New Grove Dictionary of Music and
Musicians and the new edition of Musik in Geschichte und
Felix Mendelssohn, 1839
Robert Schumann, 1839
Franz Liszt, 1847
Daniel Auber, c. 1868
Hector Berlioz, 1850
Portrait of Giuseppe Verdi, 1886
Richard Wagner, c. 1870s
Giacomo Meyerbeer, 1847
In the contemporary music culture, the romantic musician followed a
public career depending on sensitive middle-class audiences rather
than on a courtly patron, as had been the case with earlier musicians
and composers. Public persona characterized a new generation of
virtuosi who made their way as soloists, epitomized in the concert
Paganini and Liszt, and the conductor began to emerge as an
important figure, on whose skill the interpretation of the
increasingly complex music depended.
Outside the arts
Akseli Gallen-Kallela, The Forging of the Sampo, 1893. An artist
from Finland deriving inspiration from the Finnish "national epic",
Romanticism in science
The Romantic movement affected most aspects of intellectual life, and
Romanticism and science had a powerful connection, especially in the
period 1800–40. Many scientists were influenced by versions of the
Naturphilosophie of Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph
von Schelling and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich
Hegel and others, and
without abandoning empiricism, sought in their work to uncover what
they tended to believe was a unified and organic Nature. The English
scientist Sir Humphry Davy, a prominent Romantic thinker, said that
understanding nature required "an attitude of admiration, love and
worship, [...] a personal response". He believed that
knowledge was only attainable by those who truly appreciated and
respected nature. Self-understanding was an important aspect of
Romanticism. It had less to do with proving that man was capable of
understanding nature (through his budding intellect) and therefore
controlling it, and more to do with the emotional appeal of connecting
himself with nature and understanding it through a harmonious
History writing was very strongly, and many would say harmfully,
influenced by Romanticism. In England
Thomas Carlyle was
a highly influential essayist who turned historian; he both invented
and exemplified the phrase "hero-worship", lavishing
largely uncritical praise on strong leaders such as Oliver Cromwell,
Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great and Napoleon.
Romantic nationalism had a largely
negative effect on the writing of history in the 19th century, as each
nation tended to produce its own version of history, and the critical
attitude, even cynicism, of earlier historians was often replaced by a
tendency to create romantic stories with clearly distinguished heroes
and villains. Nationalist ideology of the period placed
great emphasis on racial coherence, and the antiquity of peoples, and
tended to vastly over-emphasize the continuity between past periods
and the present, leading to national mysticism. Much historical
effort in the 20th century was devoted to combating the romantic
historical myths created in the 19th century.
To insulate theology from scientism or reductionism in science,
19th-century post-Enlightenment German theologians developed a
modernist or so-called liberal conception of Christianity, led by
Friedrich Schleiermacher and Albrecht Ritschl. They took the Romantic
approach of rooting religion in the inner world of the human spirit,
so that it is a person's feeling or sensibility about spiritual
matters that comprises religion.
Main article: Romantic chess
Romantic chess was the style of chess which emphasized quick, tactical
maneuvers rather than long-term strategic planning. The
Romantic era in chess is generally considered to have begun with
Joseph MacDonnell and Pierre LaBourdonnais, the two dominant chess
players in the 1830s. The 1840s was dominated by Howard Staunton, and
other leading players of the era included Adolf Anderssen, Daniel
Harrwitz, Henry Bird, Louis Paulsen, and Paul Morphy. The "Immortal
Game", played by
Adolf Anderssen and
Lionel Kieseritzky on 21 June
1851 in London—where Anderssen made bold sacrifices to secure
victory, giving up both rooks and a bishop, then his queen, and then
checkmating his opponent with his three remaining minor pieces—is
considered a supreme example of Romantic chess. The end
of the Romantic era in chess is considered to be the 1873 Vienna
Wilhelm Steinitz popularized positional play and the
Main article: Romantic nationalism
Egide Charles Gustave Wappers, Episode of the Belgian Revolution of
1830, 1834, Musée d'
Art Ancien, Brussels. A romantic vision by a
Hans Gude, Fra Hardanger, 1847. Example of Norwegian romantic
One of Romanticism's key ideas and most enduring legacies is the
assertion of nationalism, which became a central theme of Romantic art
and political philosophy. From the earliest parts of the movement,
with their focus on development of national languages and folklore,
and the importance of local customs and traditions, to the movements
that would redraw the map of Europe and lead to calls for
self-determination of nationalities, nationalism was one of the key
vehicles of Romanticism, its role, expression and meaning. One of the
most important functions of medieval references in the 19th century
was nationalist. Popular and epic poetry were its workhorses. This is
visible in Germany and Ireland, where underlying Germanic or Celtic
linguistic substrates dating from before the Romanization-Latinization
were sought out.
Romantic nationalism was strongly inspired by Rousseau, and by
the ideas of Johann Gottfried von Herder, who in 1784 argued that the
geography formed the natural economy of a people, and shaped their
customs and society.
The nature of nationalism changed dramatically, however, after the
French Revolution with the rise of Napoleon, and the reactions in
Napoleonic nationalism and republicanism were, at
first, inspirational to movements in other nations: self-determination
and a consciousness of national unity were held to be two of the
reasons why France was able to defeat other countries in battle. But
as the French Republic became Napoleon's Empire,
Napoleon became not
the inspiration for nationalism, but the object of its struggle. In
Prussia, the development of spiritual renewal as a means to engage in
the struggle against
Napoleon was argued by, among others, Johann
Gottlieb Fichte, a disciple of Kant. The word Volkstum, or
nationality, was coined in German as part of this resistance to the
now conquering emperor. Fichte expressed the unity of language and
nation in his address "To the German Nation" in 1806:
Those who speak the same language are joined to each other by a
multitude of invisible bonds by nature herself, long before any human
art begins; they understand each other and have the power of
continuing to make themselves understood more and more clearly; they
belong together and are by nature one and an inseparable whole.
...Only when each people, left to itself, develops and forms itself in
accordance with its own peculiar quality, and only when in every
people each individual develops himself in accordance with that common
quality, as well as in accordance with his own peculiar
quality—then, and then only, does the manifestation of divinity
appear in its true mirror as it ought to be.
This view of nationalism inspired the collection of folklore by such
people as the Brothers Grimm, the revival of old epics as national,
and the construction of new epics as if they were old, as in the
Kalevala, compiled from Finnish tales and folklore, or Ossian, where
the claimed ancient roots were invented. The view that fairy tales,
unless contaminated from outside literary sources, were preserved in
the same form over thousands of years, was not exclusive to Romantic
Nationalists, but fit in well with their views that such tales
expressed the primordial nature of a people. For instance, the
Brothers Grimm rejected many tales they collected because of their
similarity to tales by Charles Perrault, which they thought proved
they were not truly German tales; Sleeping Beauty
survived in their collection because the tale of
them that the figure of the sleeping princess was authentically
Vuk Karadžić contributed to Serbian folk literature, using
peasant culture as the foundation. He regarded the oral literature of
the peasants as an integral part of Serbian culture, compiling it to
use in his collections of folk songs, tales, and proverbs, as well as
the first dictionary of vernacular Serbian. Similar
projects were undertaken by the Russian Alexander Afanasyev, the
Peter Christen Asbjørnsen
Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe, and the
Englishman Joseph Jacobs.
Polish nationalism and messianism
November Uprising (1830–31), in the Kingdom of Poland, against
the Russian Empire
Romanticism played an essential role in the national awakening of many
Central European peoples lacking their own national states, not least
in Poland, which had recently failed to restore its independence when
Russia's army crushed the Polish Uprising under Nicholas I. Revival
and reinterpretation of ancient myths, customs and traditions by
Romantic poets and painters helped to distinguish their indigenous
cultures from those of the dominant nations and crystallise the
mythography of Romantic nationalism. Patriotism, nationalism,
revolution and armed struggle for independence also became popular
themes in the arts of this period. Arguably, the most distinguished
Romantic poet of this part of Europe was Adam Mickiewicz, who
developed an idea that Poland was the Messiah of Nations, predestined
to suffer just as
Jesus had suffered to save all the people. The
Polish self-image as a "Christ among nations" or the martyr of Europe
can be traced back to its history of
Christendom and suffering under
invasions. During the periods of foreign occupation, the Catholic
Church served as bastion of Poland's national identity and language,
and the major promoter of Polish culture. The partitions came to be
seen in Poland as a Polish sacrifice for the security for Western
Adam Mickiewicz wrote the patriotic drama Dziady
(directed against the Russians) where he depicts Poland as the Christ
of Nations. He also wrote "Verily I say unto you, it is not for you to
learn civilization from foreigners, but it is you who are to teach
them civilization ... You are among the foreigners like the Apostles
among the idolaters". In "Books of the Polish nation and Polish
pilgrimage" Mickiewicz detailed his vision of Poland as a Messias and
a Christ of Nations, that would save mankind. Dziady is known for
various interpretation. The most known ones are the moral aspect of
part II, individualist and romantic message of part IV, as well as
deeply patriotic, messianistic and Christian vision in part III of the
poem. Zdzisław Kępiński, however, focuses his interpretation on
Slavic pagan and occult elements found in the drama. In his book
Mickiewicz hermetyczny he writes about hermetic, theosophic and
alchemical philosophy on the book as well as Masonic symbols.
Romanticism in the 18th century
Joseph Vernet, 1759, Shipwreck; the 18th century "sublime"
Joseph Wright, 1774, Cave at evening,
Smith College Museum of Art,
Henry Fuseli, 1781, The Nightmare, a classical artist whose themes
often anticipate the Romantic
Philip James de Loutherbourg, Coalbrookdale by Night, 1801, a key
location of the English Industrial Revolution
French Romantic painting
Théodore Géricault, The Charging Chasseur, c. 1812
Ingres, The Death of Leonardo da Vinci, 1818, one of his Troubadour
Eugène Delacroix, Collision of Moorish Horsemen, 1843–44
Eugène Delacroix, The Bride of Abydos, 1857, after the poem by Byron
Joseph Anton Koch, Waterfalls at Subiaco 1812–1813, a "classical"
landscape to art historians
James Ward, 1814–1815, Gordale Scar
John Constable, 1821, The Hay Wain, one of Constable's large "six
J. C. Dahl, 1826, Eruption of Vesuvius, by Friedrich's closest
William Blake, c. 1824–27, The Wood of the Self-Murderers: The
Harpies and the Suicides, Tate
Karl Bryullov, The Last Day of Pompeii, 1833, The State Russian
Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia
Isaac Levitan, Pacific, 1898, State Russian Museum, St.Petersburg
J. M. W. Turner, The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons
(1835), Philadelphia Museum of Art
Hans Gude, Winter Afternoon, 1847, National Gallery of Norway, Oslo
Ivan Aivazovsky, 1850, The Ninth Wave, Russian Museum, St. Petersburg
John Martin, 1852, The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, Laing Art
Frederic Edwin Church, 1860, Twilight in the Wilderness, Cleveland
Museum of Art
Albert Bierstadt, 1863, The Rocky Mountains, Lander's Peak
Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Józef Ignacy Kraszewski
Cyprian Kamil Norwid
Edgar Allan Poe
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Henry David Thoreau
Scholars of Romanticism
M. H. Abrams
Jeffrey N. Cox
Paul de Man
Anne K. Mellor
Susan J. Wolfson
Coleridge's theory of life
List of romantics
Mal du siècle
Middle Ages in history
List of Romantic poets
Romanticism in science
Opium and Romanticism
Hudson River School
Hudson River School
Hudson River School artists
Norwegian romantic nationalism
Sturm und Drang
Vegetarianism and Romanticism
^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Romanticism. Retrieved 30 January 2008,
from Encyclopædia Britannica Online". Britannica.com. Archived from
the original on 13 October 2005. Retrieved
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^ Casey, Christopher (October 30, 2008). ""Grecian Grandeurs and the
Rude Wasting of Old Time": Britain, the Elgin Marbles, and
Post-Revolutionary Hellenism". Foundations. Volume III, Number 1.
Archived from the original on May 13, 2009. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
^ David Levin, History as Romantic Art: Bancroft, Prescott, and
^ Gerald Lee Gutek, A history of the Western educational experience
(1987) ch. 12 on Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
^ Ashton Nichols, "Roaring Alligators and Burning Tygers:
Science from William Bartram to Charles Darwin," Proceedings of the
American Philosophical Society 2005 149(3): 304–15
^ Morrow, John (2011). "
Romanticism and political thought in the early
19th century" (PDF). In Stedman Jones, Gareth; Claeys, Gregory
(eds.). The Cambridge History of Nineteenth-Century Political Thought.
The Cambridge History of Political Thought. Cambridge, United Kingdom:
Cambridge University Press. pp. 39–76.
doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521430562. ISBN 978-0-511-97358-1. Retrieved
10 September 2017.
^ Perpinya, Núria. Ruins, Nostalgia and Ugliness. Five Romantic
Middle Ages and a spoon of Game of Thrones and
Avant-garde oddity. Berlin: Logos Verlag. 2014
^ "'A remarkable thing,' continued Bazarov, 'these funny old
romantics! They work up their nervous system into a state of
agitation, then, of course, their equilibrium is upset.'" (Ivan
Turgenev, Fathers and Sons, chap. 4 )
^ Szabolcsi, B. (1970). "The Decline of Romanticism: End of the
Century, Turn of the Century-- Introductory Sketch of an Essay".
Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 12 (1/4): 263.
doi:10.2307/901360. JSTOR 901360.
^ Novotny, 96
^ From the Preface to the 2nd edition of Lyrical Ballads, quoted Day,
^ Day, 3
^ Ruthven (2001) p. 40 quote: "Romantic ideology of literary
authorship, which conceives of the text as an autonomous object
produced by an individual genius."
^ Spearing (1987) quote: "Surprising as it may seem to us, living
after the Romantic movement has transformed older ideas about
literature, in the
Middle Ages authority was prized more highly than
^ Eco (1994) p. 95 quote:
Much art has been and is repetitive. The concept of absolute
originality is a contemporary one, born with Romanticism; classical
art was in vast measure serial, and the "modern" avant-garde (at the
beginning of this century) challenged the Romantic idea of "creation
from nothingness", with its techniques of collage, mustachios on the
Mona Lisa, art about art, and so on.
^ Waterhouse (1926), throughout; Smith (1924); Millen, Jessica
Creativity and the Ideal of Originality: A Contextual
Analysis, in Cross-sections, The Bruce Hall Academic Journal –
Volume VI, 2010 PDF; Forest Pyle, The
Ideology of Imagination: Subject
and Society in the Discourse of
Romanticism (Stanford University
Press, 1995) p. 28.
^ 1963–, Breckman, Warren (2008). European Romanticism: A Brief
History with Documents. Rogers D. Spotswood Collection. (1st ed.).
Boston: Bedford/St. Martins. ISBN 978-0-312-45023-6.
^ Day 3–4; quotation from M.H. Abrams, quoted in Day, 4
^ Berlin, 92
^ Ferber, 6–7
^ a b Ferber, 7
^ Christiansen, 241.
^ Christiansen, 242.
^ in her Oxford Companion article, quoted by Day, 1
^ Day, 1–5
^ Mellor, Anne; Matlak, Richard (1996). British Literature
1780–1830. NY: Harcourt Brace & Co./Wadsworth.
^ Edward F. Kravitt, The Lied: Mirror of Late
Romanticism (New Haven
and London: Yale University Press, 1996): 47. ISBN 0-300-06365-2.
^ a b Greenblatt et al., Norton Anthology of English Literature,
eighth edition, "The Romantic Period – Volume D" (New York: W.W.
Norton & Company Inc., 2006):[page needed]
^ Johnson, 147, inc. quotation
^ Barzun, 469
^ Day, 1–3; the arch-conservative and Romantic is Joseph de Maistre,
but many Romantics swung from youthful radicalism to conservative
views in middle age, for example Wordsworth. Samuel Palmer's only
published text was a short piece opposing the Repeal of the corn laws.
^ Berlin, 57
^ Several of Berlin's pieces dealing with this theme are collected in
the work referenced. See in particular: Berlin, 34–47, 57–59,
^ Berlin, 57–58
^ Linda Simon The Sleep of Reason by Robert Hughes
^ Three Critics of the Enlightenment: Vico, Hamann, Herder, Pimlico,
2000 ISBN 0-7126-6492-0 was one of Isaiah Berlin's many
publications on the Enlightenment and its enemies that did much to
popularise the concept of a
Counter-Enlightenment movement that he
characterised as relativist, anti-rationalist, vitalist and organic,
^ Darrin M. McMahon, "The
Counter-Enlightenment and the Low-Life of
Literature in Pre-Revolutionary France" Past and Present No. 159 (May
1998:77–112) p. 79 note 7.
^ "Baudelaire's speech at the "Salon des curiosités Estethiques" (in
French). Fr.wikisource.org. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
^ Sutherland, James (1958) English
Satire p. 1. There were a few
exceptions, notably Byron, who integrated satire into some of his
greatest works, yet shared much in common with his Romantic
contemporaries. Bloom, p. 18.
^ Paul F. Grendler, Renaissance Society of America, Encyclopedia of
the Renaissance, Scribner, 1999, p. 193
^ John Keats. By Sidney Colvin, p. 106. Elibron Classics
^ Thomas Chatterton, Grevel Lindop, 1972, Fyffield Books, p. 11
^ Zipes, Jack (1988). The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to
the Modern World (1st ed.). Routledge. pp. 7–8.
^ Zipes, Jack (2000). The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales. Oxford
University Press. pp. 13–14, 218–19.
^ Christiansen, 215.
^ Christiansen, 192–96.
^ Christiansen, 197–200.
^ Christiansen, 213–20.
^ Christiansen, 188–89.
^ Or at least he tried to; Kean played the tragic Lear for a few
performances. They were not well received, and with regret, he
reverted to Nahum Tate's version with a comic ending, which had been
standard since 1689. See Stanley Wells, "Introduction" from King Lear
Oxford University Press, 2000, p. 69.
^ Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, Table Talk, 27 April 1823 in Coleridge,
Samuel Taylor; Morley, Henry (1884). Table
Talk of Samuel Taylor
Coleridge and The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Christobel, &c. New
York: Routledge. p. 38.
^ J. Buchan, Crowded with
Genius (London: Harper Collins, 2003),
ISBN 0-06-055888-1, p. 311.
^ J. Buchan, Crowded with
Genius (London: Harper Collins, 2003),
ISBN 0-06-055888-1, p. 163.
^ H. Gaskill, The Reception of
Ossian in Europe (Continuum, 2004),
ISBN 0-8264-6135-2, p. 140.
^ D. Thomson, The Gaelic Sources of Macpherson's "Ossian" (Aberdeen:
Oliver & Boyd, 1952).
^ L. McIlvanney, "Hugh Blair, Robert Burns, and the Invention of
Scottish Literature", Eighteenth-Century Life, vol. 29 (2), Spring
2005, pp. 25–46.
^ K. S. Whetter, Understanding Genre and Medieval Romance (Aldershot:
Ashgate, 2008), ISBN 0-7546-6142-3, p. 28.
^ N. Davidson, The Origins of Scottish Nationhood (Pluto Press, 2008),
ISBN 0-7453-1608-5, p. 136.
^ A. Maunder, FOF Companion to the British Short Story (Infobase
Publishing, 2007), ISBN 0-8160-7496-8, p. 374.
^ P. MacKay, E. Longley and F. Brearton, Modern Irish and Scottish
Poetry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011),
ISBN 0-521-19602-7, p. 59.
^ A. Jarrels, "'Associations respect[ing] the past': Enlightenment and
Romantic historicism", in J. P. Klancher, A Concise Companion to the
Romantic Age (Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, 2009),
ISBN 0-631-23355-5, p. 60.
^ A. Benchimol, ed., Intellectual Politics and Cultural Conflict in
the Romantic Period: Scottish Whigs, English Radicals and the Making
of the British Public Sphere (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2010),
ISBN 0-7546-6446-5, p. 210.
^ A. Benchimol, ed., Intellectual Politics and Cultural Conflict in
the Romantic Period: Scottish Whigs, English Radicals and the Making
of the British Public Sphere (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2010),
ISBN 0-7546-6446-5, p. 209.
^ I. Brown, The Edinburgh History of Scottish Literature:
Enlightenment, Britain and Empire (1707–1918) (Edinburgh: Edinburgh
University Press, 2007), ISBN 0-7486-2481-3, pp. 229–30.
^ Christiansen, 202–03, 241–42.
^ Christiansen, 239–46, 240 quoted.
^ Christiansen, 244–46.
^ Leon Dyczewski, Values in the Polish cultural tradition (2002) p.
^ Christopher J. Murray, Encyclopedia of the romantic era, 1760–1850
(2004) vol. 2. p. 742
^ "Nie-Boska komedia" (in Polish).
^ "Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin (1799–1837)". University of Virginia
Slavic Department. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
^ "El escritor José de Espronceda".
Museo del Prado
Museo del Prado (in Spanish).
Madrid. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
^ Philip W. Silver, Ruin and restitution: reinterpreting romanticism
in Spain (1997) p. 13
^ Gerald Brenan, The literature of the Spanish people: from Roman
times to the present (1965) p. 364
^ Foster, David; Altamiranda, Daniel; de Urioste, Carmen (2001).
Spanish Literature : Current debates on Hispanism. New York:
Garland Publishing, Inc. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-8153-3563-4.
^ Caldwell, Richard (1970). "The Persistence of Romantic Thought in
Spain". Modern Language Review. 65: 803–12.
^ Sebold, Russell (1974). El primer romantico 'europeo' de España.
Madrid: Editorial Gredos. ISBN 978-84-249-0591-0.
^ Shaw, Donald (1963). "Towards an Understanding of Spanish
Romanticism". Modern Language Review. 58: 190–95.
^ Almeida Garrett, João Baptista (1990). Obras Completas de Almeida
Garrett – 2 Volumes. Porto: Lello Editores.
^ Infopédia. "Artigo de apoio Infopédia – Almeida Garrett".
Infopédia – Dicionários Porto Editora (in Portuguese). Retrieved
^ a b c José., Saraiva, António (1996). História da literatura
portuguesa. Lopes, Oscar (17a ed.). [Porto, Portugal]: Porto Editora.
ISBN 978-972-0-30170-3. OCLC 35124986.
^ Infopédia. "Artigo de apoio Infopédia – Alexandre Herculano".
Infopédia – Dicionários Porto Editora (in Portuguese). Retrieved
^ Gaetana Marrone, Paolo Puppa, Encyclopedia of Italian Literary
Studies: A–J, Taylor & Francis, 2007, p. 1242
^ La nuova enciclopedia della letteratura. Milan: Garzanti. 1985.
^ Roberto González Echevarría and Enrique Pupo-Walker, The Cambridge
History of Latin American Literature: Brazilian Literature (1996) vol.
2 p. 367
^ a b George L. McMichael and Frederick C. Crews, eds. Anthology of
American Literature: Colonial through romantic (6th ed. 1997) p. 613
^ "Romanticism, American", in The Oxford Dictionary of American Art
and Artists ed by Ann Lee Morgan (
Oxford University Press, 2007)
^ The relationship of the American poet Wallace Stevens to Romanticism
is raised in the poem "Another Weeping Woman" and its commentary.
^ Weber, Patrick, Histoire de l'
Architecture (2008), p. 63
^ Weber, Patrick, Histoire de l'
Architecture (2008), pp. 64
^ Weber, Patrick, Histoire de l'
Architecture (2008), pp. 64-65
^ Saule 2014, p. 92.
^ Weber, Patrick, Histoire de l'
Architecture (2008), pp. 64
^ Poisson, Georges; Eugène Viollet-le-Duc (in French) (2014)
^ Weber, Patrick, Histoire de l'
Architecture (2008), pp. 64-65
^ Novotny, 96–101, 99 quoted
^ Novotny, 112–21
^ Honour, 184–190, 187 quoted
^ Walter Friedlaender, From David to Delacroix, 1974, remains the best
available account of the subject.
^ "Romanticism". metmuseum.org.
^ Novotny, 142
^ Novotny, 133–42
^ Hughes, 279–80
^ McKay, James, The Dictionary of Sculptors in Bronze, Antique
Collectors Club, London, 1995
^ Novotny, 397, 379–84
^ Dizionario di arte e letteratura. Bologna: Zanichelli. 2002.
^ Noon, throughout, especially pp. 124–155
^ Boyer 1961, 585.
^ Ferchault 1957.
^ Grétre 1789.
^ a b c Samson 2001.
^ Hoffmann 1810, col. 632.
^ Boyer 1961, 585–86.
^ Wagner 1995, 77.
^ Einstein 1947.
^ Warrack 2002.
^ Grout 1960, 492.
^ Blume 1970; Samson 2001.
^ Wehnert 1998.
^ Christiansen, 176–78.
^ Cunningham, A., and Jardine, N., ed.
Romanticism and the Sciences,
^ Bossi, M., and Poggi, S., ed.
Romanticism in Science: Science in
Europe, 1790–1840, p.xiv; Cunningham, A., and Jardine, N., ed.
Romanticism and the Sciences, p. 2.
^ E. Sreedharan (2004). A Textbook of Historiography, 500 B.C. to A.D.
2000. Orient Blackswan. pp. 128–68.
^ in his published lectures On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and The Heroic in
History of 1841
^ Ceri Crossley (2002). French Historians and Romanticism: Thierry,
Guizot, the Saint-Simonians, Quinet, Michelet. Routledge.
^ Philip Clayton and Zachary Simpson, eds. The Oxford Handbook of
Religion and Science (2006) p. 161
^ David Shenk (2007). The Immortal Game: A History of Chess. Knopf
Doubleday. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-307-38766-0.
^ Hartston, Bill (1996). Teach Yourself Chess. Hodder & Stoughton.
p. 150. ISBN 978-0-340-67039-2.
^ Fichte, Johann (1806). "Address to the German Nation". Fordham
University. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
^ Maria Tatar, The Hard Facts of the Grimms' Fairy Tales, p. 31
^ Prilozi za književnost, jezik, istoriju i folklor (in Serbian).
Државна штампарија Краљевине Срба,
Хрвата и Словенаца. 1965. p. 264. Retrieved 19
^ Jack Zipes, The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and
Basile to the Brothers Grimm, p. 846, ISBN 0-393-97636-X
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