HOME
The Info List - Roman Syria





Syria
Syria
was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in 64 BC by Pompey
Pompey
in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.[1] Following the partition of the Herodian Kingdom
Herodian Kingdom
into tetrarchies in 6 AD, it was gradually absorbed into Roman provinces, with Roman Syria
Syria
annexing Iturea and Trachonitis. Later, in 135 AD, in the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt, Syrian province was merged with Judea province, creating the larger province of Syria
Syria
Palaestina.

Contents

1 Provincia Syria 2 Creation of Syria
Syria
Palæstina 3 Aftermath

3.1 Provincia Syria-Coele 3.2 Phoenice 3.3 Dominate reform 3.4 Syria
Syria
in the Byzantine Empire

4 Episcopal sees 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Provincia Syria[edit]

The ancient city of Palmyra
Palmyra
was an important trading center and possibly Roman Syria's most prospering city

The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian
Hadrian
(ruled 117–138 AD), showing, in western Asia, the imperial province of Syria
Syria
(Syria/Lebanon), with 4 legions deployed in 125 AD. (During the Principate)

Syria
Syria
was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in 64 BC by Pompey
Pompey
in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.[2] During the early empire, the Roman army in Syria
Syria
accounted for three legions with auxiliaries,[citation needed] they defended the border with Parthia. Following the partition of the Herodian Kingdom
Herodian Kingdom
into tetrarchies in 6 AD, it was gradually absorbed into Roman provinces, with Roman Syria initially annexing Iturea and Trachonitis around 34 AD. Syrian province forces were directly engaged in the Great Jewish Revolt of 66–70 AD. In 66 AD, Cestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, brought the Syrian army, based on XII Fulminata, reinforced by auxiliary troops, to restore order in Judaea and quell the revolt. The legion, however, was ambushed and destroyed by Jewish rebels at the Battle of Beth Horon, a result that shocked the Roman leadership. The future emperor Vespasian
Vespasian
was then put in charge of subduing the Jewish revolt. In the summer of 69, Vespasian, with the Syrian units supporting him, launched his bid to become Roman emperor. He defeated his rival Vitellius
Vitellius
and ruled as emperor for ten years when he was succeeded by his son Titus. Based on an inscription recovered from Dor in 1948, Gargilius Antiquus was known to have been the governor of a province in the eastern part of the Empire, possibly Syria, between his consulate and governing Asia.[3] In November 2016, an inscription in Greek was recovered off the coast of Dor by Haifa University
Haifa University
underwater archaeologists, which attests that Antiquus was governor of the province of Judea between 120 and 130, possibly prior to the Bar Kokhba revolt.[4] Creation of Syria
Syria
Palæstina[edit] Main article: Syria
Syria
Palaestina Syria
Syria
Palæstina was established by the merger of Roman Syria
Syria
and Roman Jud(a)ea, following the defeat of the Bar Kokhba Revolt
Bar Kokhba Revolt
in 135. The Syria-based legion took part in the quelling of the revolt in 132-136, and in the aftermath, the emperor Hadrian
Hadrian
added the greatly depopulated province of Judea to the province of Syria
Syria
thus forming Syria-Palaestina. Aftermath[edit] Provincia Syria-Coele[edit]

Provincia Syria
Syria
Coele

Province of the Roman Empire

← 200–314 →

Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 210

Capital Antioch

History

 •  Established 200

 •  Disestablished 314

Today part of  Syria  Turkey

The governor of Syria
Syria
retained the civil administration of the whole large province undiminished, and held for long alone in all Asia a command of the first rank. It was only in the course of the second century that a diminution of his prerogatives occurred, when Hadrian took one of the four legions from the governor of Syria
Syria
and handed it over to the governor of Palestine. It was Severus who at length withdrew the first place in the Roman military hierarchy from the Syrian governor. After having subdued the province (which had wished at that time to make Niger emperor, as it had formerly done with its governor Vespasian) amidst resistance from the capital Antioch
Antioch
in particular, he ordained its partition into a northern and a southern half, and gave to the governor of the former, which was called Coele-Syria, two legions, to the governor of the latter, the province of Syro-Phoenicia, one legion.[5]

The 'Orient' in the time of Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
c.200 AD[6]

Syria Provincia Syria
Syria
Coele

Phoenicia Provincia Syria
Syria
Phoenice

Palaestina Provincia Syria
Syria
Palaestina

Arabia Provincia Arabia Petraea

Phoenice[edit] The emperor Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
divided up Roman Syria
Syria
in the fashion it would remain until the rule of the Tetrarchs. Under his reign it was divided into three parts, Coele Syria
Syria
in the north with Antioch
Antioch
as its provincial capital, Syria
Syria
Phoenice with Tyre as the provincial capital and in the south Syria
Syria
Palestina with Caesarea Maritima as the provincial capital. From the later 2nd century, the Roman Senate included several notable Syrians, including Claudius Pompeianus
Claudius Pompeianus
and Avidius Cassius. Syria
Syria
was of crucial strategic importance during the Crisis of the Third Century. In 244 AD, Rome was ruled by a native Syrian from Philippopolis (modern day Shahba) in the province of Arabia Petraea. The emperor was Marcus Iulius Philippus, more commonly known as Philip the Arab. Philip became the 33rd emperor of Rome upon its millennial celebration. Roman Syria
Syria
was invaded in 252/253 (the date is disputed) after a Roman field army was destroyed in the battle of Barbalissos by the King of Persia Shapur I
Shapur I
which left the Euphrates
Euphrates
river unguarded and the region was pillaged by the Persians. In 259/260 a similar event happened when Shapur I
Shapur I
again defeated a Roman field army and captured the Roman emperor, Valerian, alive at the battle of Edessa. Again Roman Syria
Syria
suffered as cities were captured, sacked and pillaged. From 268 to 273, Syria
Syria
was part of the breakaway Palmyrene Empire. Dominate reform[edit] Following the reforms of Diocletian, Syria
Syria
Coele became part of the Diocese of Oriens.[7] Sometime between 330 and 350 (likely c. 341), the province of Euphratensis
Euphratensis
was created out of the territory of Syria Coele along the western bank of the Euphrates
Euphrates
and the former realm of Commagene, with Hierapolis as its capital.[8] Syria
Syria
in the Byzantine Empire[edit]

20 square meter Byzantine era mosaic found in Maryamin, Syria, currently located in the Hama
Hama
museum

After c. 415 Syria
Syria
Coele was further subdivided into Syria
Syria
I (or Syria Prima), with the capital remaining at Antioch, and Syria
Syria
II (Syria Secunda) or Syria
Syria
Salutaris, with capital at Apamea on the Orontes. In 528, Justinian I
Justinian I
carved out the small coastal province Theodorias out of territory from both provinces.[7]

Church of Saint Simeon Stylites, one of the oldest surviving churches in the world

The region remained one of the most important provinces of the Byzantine Empire. It was occupied by the Sassanids
Sassanids
between 609 and 628, then recovered by the emperor Heraclius, but lost again to the advancing Muslims after the battle of Yarmouk and the fall of Antioch.[7] The city of Antioch
Antioch
was recovered by Nikephorus Phocas in 963 AD, along with other parts of the country, at that time under the Hamdanids, although still under the official suzerainty of the Abbasid caliphs and also claimed by the Fatimid
Fatimid
caliphs. After emperor John Kurkuas's failed to recover Syria
Syria
up to Jerusalem a Muslim "reconquest" of Syria
Syria
followed in the late 970s undertaken by the Fatimid
Fatimid
caliphate which resulted in the ouster of the Byzantines from most parts of Syria. However, Antioch
Antioch
and other northern parts of Syria
Syria
remained in the empire and other parts were under the protection of the emperors through their Hamdanid, Mirdasid, and Marwanid proxies, until the Seljuk arrival, who after three decades of incursions, capture Antioch
Antioch
in 1084. Antioch
Antioch
is recovered again during the 12th century by the revived armies of the Comnenii. However, by that time the city will be regarded as part of Asia Minor and not of Syria. (See History of the Byzantine Empire.) Episcopal sees[edit] Ancient episcopal sees of the late Roman province
Roman province
of Syria
Syria
Prima (I) listed in the Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
as titular sees:[9]

Anasartha
Anasartha
(Khanasir) Barcusus (Baquza or Banqusa) Beroea (Aleppo) Chalcis in Syria
Syria
(Qinnasrin) Gabala (Jableh) Gabula (at the marsh of Al-Jabbul) Gindarus
Gindarus
(Jandairis) Laodicea in Syria
Syria
(Latakia) Salamias
Salamias
(Salamiyah) Seleucia Pieria

Ancient episcopal sees of the late Roman province
Roman province
of Syria
Syria
Secunda (II) listed in the Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
as titular sees:[9]

Apamea in Syria, the Metropolitan Archdiocese Arethusa (Al-Rastan) Balanea
Balanea
(Baniyas) Epiphania in Syria
Syria
(Hama) Larissa in Syria
Syria
(Shaizar) Mariamme
Mariamme
(Krak des Chevaliers) Raphanea Seleucobelus (Seleucopolis)

See also[edit]

History of Syria Ottoman Syria Assyria
Assyria
(Roman province) List of governors of Roman Syria

References[edit]

^ Between Rome and Jerusalem: 300 years of Roman-Judaean relations By Martin Sicker. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 26 July 2012.  ^ Between Rome and Jerusalem: 300 years of Roman-Judaean relations By Martin Sicker. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 26 July 2012.  ^ Dov Gera and Hannah M. Cotton, "A Dedication from Dor to a Governor of Syria", Israel Exploration Journal, 41 (1991), pp. 258–66 ^ Divers Find Unexpected Roman Inscription From the Eve of Bar-Kochba Revolt Haaretz.com (Last accessed 6 June 2017) ^ Mommsen, Theodor (1886). The History of Rome. R. Bentley. pp. 117–118. The governor of Syria
Syria
retained the civil administration of the whole large province undiminished, and held for long alone in all Asia a command of the first rank. [...] It was only in the course of the second century that a diminution of his prerogatives occurred, when Hadrian
Hadrian
took one of the four legions from the governor of Syria
Syria
and handed it over to the governor of Palestine. It was Severus who at length withdrew the first place in the Roman military hierarchy from the Syrian governor. After having subdued the province —which had wished at that time to make Niger emperor, as it had formerly done with its governor Vespasian— amidst resistance from the capital Antioch
Antioch
in particular, he ordained its partition into a northern and a southern half, and gave to the governor of the former, which was called Coele-Syria, two legions, to the governor of the latter, the province of Syro-Phoenicia, one [legion]. (Image of p. 117 and p. 118 at Google Books)  ^ Cohen, Getzel M. (3 October 2006). The Hellenistic Settlements in Syria, the Red Sea Basin, and North Africa. University of California Press. p. 40, note 63. ISBN 978-0-520-93102-2. In 194 A.D. The emperor Septimus Severus divided the province of Syria
Syria
and made the northern part into a separate province called Coele Syria.  ^ a b c Kazhdan, Alexander (Ed.) (1991). Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. p. 1999. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Kazhdan, Alexander (Ed.) (1991). Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. p. 748. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), "Sedi titolari", pp. 819-1013

External links[edit]

Bagnall, R., J. Drinkwater, A. Esmonde-Cleary, W. Harris, R. Knapp, S. Mitchell, S. Parker, C. Wells, J. Wilkes, R. Talbert, M. E. Downs, M. Joann McDaniel, B. Z. Lund, T. Elliott, S. Gillies. "Places: 981550 (Syria)". Pleiades. Retrieved March 8, 2012. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

v t e

Ancient Syria
Syria
and Mesopotamia

Syria Northern Mesopotamia Southern Mesopotamia

c. 3500–2350 BCE Martu Subartu Sumerian city-states

c. 2350–2200 BCE Akkadian Empire

c. 2200–2100 BCE Gutians

c. 2100–2000 BCE Third Dynasty of Ur
Third Dynasty of Ur
(Sumerian Renaissance)

c. 2000–1800 BCE Mari and other Amorite
Amorite
city-states Old Assyrian Empire (Northern Akkadians) Isin/ Larsa
Larsa
and other Amorite
Amorite
city-states

c. 1800–1600 BCE Old Hittite Kingdom Old Babylonian Empire (Southern Akkadians)

c. 1600–1400 BCE Mitanni
Mitanni
(Hurrians) Karduniaš
Karduniaš
(Kassites)

c. 1400–1200 BCE New Hittite Kingdom

Middle Assyrian Empire

c. 1200–1150 BCE Bronze Age collapse ("Sea Peoples") Arameans

c. 1150–911 BCE Phoenicia Syro-Hittite states Aram- Damascus Arameans Middle Babylonia
Babylonia
( Isin
Isin
II) Chal de- ans

911–729 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire

729–609 BCE

626–539 BCE Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
(Chaldeans)

539–331 BCE Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
(Persians)

336–301 BCE Macedonian Empire (Ancient Greeks)

311–129 BCE Seleucid Empire

129–63 BCE Seleucid Empire Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
(Iranians)

63 BCE – 243 CE Roman Empire/ Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(Syria)

243–636 CE Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
(Persians)

v t e

History of the Roman- Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
by modern territory of nations and regions

Albania(Classical - Medieval) Algeria Armenia(Classical - Early Medieval) Azerbaijan Austria Balkans Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria(Classical - High Medieval) Britain(England) Crimea(Classical - Medieval) Croatia Cyprus(Classical - Medieval) Egypt(Classical ~ Early Medieval) France (Corsica(Classical - Early Medieval)) Georgia Germany Greece(Classical - Medieval) (Crete(Classical - Medieval)) Hungary Israel(Classical ~ Early Medieval) Italy (Classical - Medieval) (Sicily (Classical - Medieval), Sardinia (Classical - Early Medieval)) Lebanon(Classical ~ Early Medieval) Libya Liechtenstein Luxembourg Malta Monaco Montenegro Morocco The Netherlands North Africa Palestine(Classical ~ Early Medieval) Portugal Romania Scotland Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain(Classical - Early Medieval) Switzerland Syria(Classical ~ Early Medieval) Tunisia (Roman Carthage) Turkey(Classical - Medieval) (Thrace(Classical - Medieval)) Wales

v t e

Provinces of the early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(117 AD)

Achaea Aegyptus Africa proconsularis Alpes Cottiae Alpes Maritimae Alpes Poeninae Arabia Petraea Armenia Asia Assyria Bithynia and Pontus Britannia Cappadocia Cilicia Corsica and Sardinia Crete and Cyrenaica Cyprus Dacia Dalmatia Epirus Galatia Gallia Aquitania Gallia Belgica Gallia Lugdunensis Gallia Narbonensis Germania
Germania
Inferior Germania
Germania
Superior Hispania
Hispania
Baetica Hispania
Hispania
Tarraconensis Italia † Iudaea Lusitania Lycia et Pamphylia Macedonia Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Tingitana Mesopotamia Moesia
Moesia
Inferior Moesia
Moesia
Superior Noricum Pannonia Inferior Pannonia Superior Raetia Sicilia Syria Thracia

† Italy was never constituted as a province, instead retaining a special juridical status until Diocletian's reforms.

Coordinates: 36°12′N 36°09′E / 36.200°N 36.150°E / 36

.