Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila
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The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila ( lat, Archidioecesis Manilensis; fil, Arkidiyosesis ng Maynilà; es, Arquidiócesis de Manila) is the
archdiocese In church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted ...
of the
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of the
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Catholic Church
in
Metro Manila Metropolitan Manila (often shortened as Metro Manila; fil, Kalakhang Maynila), officially the National Capital Region (NCR; fil, Pambansang Punong Rehiyon), is the seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Poli ...

Metro Manila
,
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republik ...
, encompassing the cities of
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila ), is the capital city, capital of the Philippines, and its second most populous city. It is Cities of the Philippines#Independent cities, highly urbanized ...

Manila
,
Makati ( ), officially the ( tl, Lungsod ng ), is a Cities of the Philippines#Legal classification, in the of the . Makati is the financial center of the Philippines; it has the highest concentration of multinational and local corporations in th ...
,
San JuanSan Juan , Spanish for Saint John (disambiguation), Saint John, may refer to: Places Argentina * San Juan Province, Argentina * San Juan, Argentina, the capital of that province * San Juan (Iruya), a small village in the Iruya Department of the ...
,
Mandaluyong , officially the ( tl, Lungsod ng ), is a in the of the . According to the , it has a population of people. Located directly east of Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila ), i ...
, and
Pasay , officially the ( tl, Lungsod ng ), is a Cities of the Philippines#Legal classification, in the of the . According to the , it has a population of people. Due to its location just south of the City of Manila, Pasay quickly became an urb ...
. The
cathedral church A cathedral is a church (building), church that contains the ''cathedra'' () of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, Annual Conference, conference, or episcopate. Churches with the function of "cathedral" are usually spec ...

cathedral church
is a
minor basilica In the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worl ...
located in
Intramuros Intramuros (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

Intramuros
, which comprises the old city of Manila. The
Blessed Virgin Mary According to the gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message, but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out; in this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrat ...

Blessed Virgin Mary
, under the title
Immaculate Conception The Immaculate Conception is a doctrine of the Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Ro ...

Immaculate Conception
, is the principal patroness. The Archdiocese of Manila is the oldest diocese in the Philippines, created in 1579 as a diocese and elevated as a metropolitan archdiocese in 1595. Since its last territorial changes in 2003, the Archdiocese of Manila is the
metropolitan see Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form of local government district in England * Metropolitan county, a type ...
of the ecclesiastical province of the same name, which also include five dioceses encompassing most of the National Capital Region (
Novaliches Quezon City (, ; tl, Lungsod Quezon ; also known as the City of Quezon, QC, and Kyusi) is a and the most populous city in the Philippines. It was founded by and named after Manuel L. Quezon, the 2nd President of the Philippines The ...
, Roman Catholic Diocese of Parañaque, Parañaque, Roman Catholic Diocese of Cubao, Cubao, Roman Catholic Diocese of Caloocan, Kalookan, and Roman Catholic Diocese of Pasig, Pasig) and four dioceses of its surrounding provinces of Cavite (Roman Catholic Diocese of Imus, Diocese of Imus), Rizal and Marikina City (Roman Catholic Diocese of Antipolo, Diocese of Antipolo), Bulacan and Valenzuela City (Roman Catholic Diocese of Malolos, Diocese of Malolos), and Laguna (province), Laguna (Roman Catholic Diocese of San Pablo, Diocese of San Pablo). In addition, the Archdiocese also serves as the ''de facto'' overseer of the Military Ordinariate of the Philippines, as well as the Apostolic Vicariates of Roman Catholic Apostolic Vicariate of Puerto Princesa, Puerto Princesa and Apostolic Vicariate of Taytay, Taytay in Palawan, all Diocese of Rome#Other exempt (directly subject) sees, exempt dioceses of the Holy See (with the vicariates under the jurisdiction of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples). The archdiocese also owns and manages the following institutions located outside its own territorial jurisdiction: Mount Peace Retreat House (in Baguio City), Saint Michael Retreat House (in Antipolo City, Rizal), DZRV-AM, DZRV Radio Veritas 846 kHz (in Barangay Philam, Quezon City), EDSA Shrine or the Shrine of Mary, Queen of Peace (in Barangay Ugong Norte, Quezon City) and Redemptoris Mater Missionary Seminary - Manila in Parañaque. The archdiocese, under the name "Roman Catholic Archbishop of Manila," is a shareholder in the Bank of the Philippine Islands with 327,904,251 shares or 7.3 percent as of December 31, 2020. Since June 24, 2021, the metropolitan archdiocese is led by metropolitan archbishop Jose Advincula, Jose Cardinal Advincula.


History

Per the efforts of conquistador Martin de Goiti, Martín de Goiti – who founded the City of Manila by uniting the dominions of Rajah Sulayman, Sulayman III of Kingdom of Namayan, Namayan, Sabag, Rajah Matanda, Rajah Ache ''Matanda'' of Kingdom of Maynila, Maynila who was a vassal to the Sultan of Brunei, and Lakandula, Lakan Dula of Kingdom of Tondo, Tondo who was a tributary to Ming Dynasty China – the Diocese of Manila was established on February 6, 1579, through the Papal bull ''Illius Fulti Præsidio'' by Pope Gregory XIII, encompassing all New Spain, Spanish colonies in Asia as a Suffragan diocese, suffragan of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mexico, Archdiocese of Mexico. Fray Domingo de Salazar, a Dominican Order, Dominican from the Convent of San Sebastian in Salamanca, Spain, was selected by King Philip II of Spain to be bishop of the new diocese and was presented to the pope."History – the First Cathedral 1581–1583
Manila Metropolitan Cathedral-Basilica Official Website. Retrieved on 2013-03-22.
Over the course of history and growth of Catholicism in the Philippines, the diocese was elevated and new dioceses had been carved from its territory. On August 14, 1595, Pope Clement VIII raised the diocese to the status of an archdiocese with Bishop Ignacio Santibáñez its first archbishop. Three new dioceses were created as suffragans to Manila: Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Caceres, Nueva Cáceres, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Nueva Segovia, Nueva Segovia, and Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cebu, Cebu. With the creation of these new dioceses, the territory of the archdiocese was reduced to the city of Manila and the adjoining Provinces of the Philippines, civil provinces in proximity including Mindoro Island. It was bounded to the north by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Nueva Segovia, Diocese of Nueva Segovia, to the south by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cebu, Diocese of Cebu, and to the southeast by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Caceres, Diocese of Nueva Cáceres. During the Hispanic period, the archdiocese was ruled by a succession of Spaniard, Spanish and Latin Americans, Latino archbishops. The British occupation of Manila during the Seven Years' War saw the temporary conversion of Sultan Azim ud-Din I of Sulu to Catholicism, the massive looting and destruction of ecclesiastical treasures, as well as the burning of churches by Kingdom of Great Britain, British soldiers, Sepoy mercenaries, and rebellious Chinese residents in Binondo. This episode was particularly damaging to Philippine scholarship due to the fact that the monasteries holding the archives and artifacts about the pre-colonial Philippine Rajahnates, Kedatuans, Sultanates, Lakanates, and Wangdoms and their conversion to Catholicism were either burnt, lost, or looted by the British. An example would be the Boxer Codex, whose earliest owner Giles Fox-Strangways, 6th Earl of Ilchester, Lord Giles of Ilchester had inherited it from an ancestor who stole it from Manila during the British Occupation.. Nevertheless, peace was subsequently restored after the Protestant British occupation. In the time after this, the Catholic religious orders (with the exception of the Jesuits who were temporarily suppressed by the Spaniards due to their role in anti-imperialist movements in Latin America) became the powerful driving force in the Archdiocese of Manila. The local diocesan clergy resented the foreign religious orders due to their near monopoly of ecclesiastical positions. The opposition of the religious orders against an autonomous diocesan clergy independent of them lead to the martyrdom of priests Mariano Gomez (priest), Mariano Gomez, José Burgos, Jacinto Zamora collectively known as Gomburza. This inspired the Ateneo de Manila, Jesuit educated Jose Rizal to form the La Liga Filipina, to ask for reforms from Spain and recognition of local clergy. Rizal was executed and the La Liga Filipina dissolved. The 1896 Philippine revolution was triggered when the Spanish discovered the anti-colonial secret organisation Katipunan, leading to the end of Spanish rule. The United States took the Philippines from Spain in the 1898 Spanish–American War; this developed into fighting between the Philippine revolutionaries and the U.S. in the 1899–1902 Philippine–American War, followed by victory for the U.S. and disestablishment of the Roman Catholic Church as the state church of the Philippines. In the period after the war, Philippine churches were restored in the Art-Deco architectural motif. There was a looming threat of apostasy and schism with the rise of anti-clerical Freemasonry in the Philippines, Philippine Freemasonry and the establishment of the Philippine Independent Church due to Filipino anger against Spanish ecclesiastical corruption. In response, the Vatican supported Philippine independence and applied a policy of reinforcing orthodoxy and reconciliation which resulted in the majority of the Filipinos remaining faithful to the Roman Catholic Church and having a good number of those separated from the Church grafted back. The province of Mindoro was established as an independent diocese on April 10, 1910, by virtue of a ''Decretum Consistoriale'' signed by Pope Pius X, implementing the Papal bull, Bull ''Quae Mari Sinico'' of Pope Leo XIII. On the same date, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lipa, Diocese of Lipa was created, with jurisdiction over the provinces of Batangas, Quezon, Tayabas, Marinduque, and some parts of Masbate. In May 1928, Pope Pius XI established the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lingayen-Dagupan, Diocese of Lingayen, carved from Manila and Nueva Segovia. In this creation, 26 parishes were separated from Manila. He also named Our Lady of Guadalupe as a patroness of the Filipinos, Filipino people in 1938. December 8, 1941, marked the beginning of the Japanese occupation of the Philippines. Members of the secretive Black Dragon Society had infiltrated all facets of Philippine life and had greatly guided the invading Japanese forces. World War II marked a period of irreplaceable loss to the Archdiocese of Manila. The combination of violent theft and arson done by the Japanese and indiscriminate carpet bombing by the Americans during the Battle of Manila (1945) lead to the permanent loss of many of the ancient Gothic, Art-Deco, and Earthquake Baroque churches found in the Archdiocese of Manila. In the aftermath of the war, in September 1942, Pope Pius XII declared Our Lady of Immaculate Conception as the ''Principal Patroness'' of the Philippines by virtue of the Papal Bull, ''Impositi Nobis'', along with Saints Pudentiana and Rose of Lima as secondary patrons. Due to the heavy damages resulting from World War II, the Manila Cathedral underwent major rebuilding from 1946 to 1958. The Parish of San Miguel Church (Manila), San Miguel served as ''pro-cathedral'' or temporary cathedral of the local church until the Manila Cathedral was reopened and consecrated in 1958. On December 11, 1948, the Apostolic Constitution ''Probe Noscitur'' further divided the Archdiocese of Manila by placing the northern part of the local church in the new Roman Catholic Archdiocese of San Fernando, Diocese of San Fernando. On November 25, 1961, the Archdiocese of Manila was again partitioned with the creation of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Malolos, Diocese of Malolos for the province of Bulacan in the north and the Roman Catholic Diocese of Imus, Diocese of Imus for the province of Cavite in the South. Pope John Paul II declared the Manila Cathedral a Basilicas in the Catholic Church, minor basilica in 1981 through the ''motu proprio Quod ipsum'', issued as a papal bull. In 1983, the province of Rizal, together with the city of Marikina and the northeastern part of Pasig, was placed under the new Roman Catholic Diocese of Antipolo, Diocese of Antipolo. The archdiocese witnessed many grace-filled church events such as the Second Synod of Manila (1911), the Third Synod of Manila (1925), the 33rd International Eucharistic Congress (1937), the First Plenary Council of the Philippines (1953), the papal visit of Pope Paul VI (1970), the Fourth Synod of Manila (1979), the papal visits of Pope John Paul II (the first in 1981 and the second in 1995), the National Marian Year (1985), the National Eucharistic Year (1987), the Second Plenary Council of the Philippines (1991), the Second Provincial Council of Manila (1996), the 4th World Meeting of Families (2003), and the papal visit of Pope Francis (2015). In 2002, two more dioceses were carved out of the Archdiocese: the Roman Catholic Diocese of Novaliches, Diocese of Novaliches and the Roman Catholic Diocese of Parañaque, Diocese of Parañaque. In 2003, three more dioceses were erected: Roman Catholic Diocese of Cubao, Cubao, Roman Catholic Diocese of Caloocan, Kalookan, and Roman Catholic Diocese of Pasig, Pasig.


Coat of arms

The arms of the metropolitan see of Manila is an adaptation of the Seal of Manila, arms granted by Philip II of Spain, Philip II of Spain to the "insigne y siempre leal (distinguished and ever loyal)" city of
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila ), is the capital city, capital of the Philippines, and its second most populous city. It is Cities of the Philippines#Independent cities, highly urbanized ...

Manila
in 1596. The silver crescent represents the
Immaculate Conception The Immaculate Conception is a doctrine of the Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Ro ...

Immaculate Conception
, patroness of the Manila Cathedral and of the entire Philippines. The tower represents God in Christianity, God himself whom the psalmist calls in Psalms 60 ''turris fortis contra inimicum'' (''turris fortitudinis a facie inimici'' in the Gallician psalter). The three windows make the tower represent the Trinity, Blessed Trinity: God the Father, Father, God the Son, Son and Holy Spirit in Christianity, Holy Ghost, three Persons in one God. The Sea-lion, sea lion represents the Philippines, then-an overseas territory of Spain, and the Crosses in heraldry#Unequal limbs, pilgrim's cross which may be easily fixed on the ground symbolizes both the faith of the Filipino people and their missionary role in spreading that faith.


Archbishop

The cathedra, seat of the Archbishop is Manila Cathedral which is under the patronage of the Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception. After having been served by a single diocesan bishop, nineteen archbishops were later appointed from Spain. In 1903, the archdiocese received its first American Colonial Period (Philippines), American archbishop as appointed by the Holy See. Following the tenure of Archbishop Jeremiah James Harty from St. Louis, Missouri, the Ireland, Irishman Michael J. O'Doherty was appointed and received on September 6, 1916. O'Doherty would lead the church during the period when Filipinos were petitioning for sovereignty from the United States and during the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines during World War II. When O'Doherty died after Philippine independence in 1946, Most Rev. Gabriel M. Reyes, already serving as coadjutor archbishop, became the first native Filipino chosen for the position. Reyes' successor, Archbishop Rufino Jiao Santos, became the first Filipino to become a Cardinal (Catholicism), cardinal in 1960. After Santos' death in 1973, Auxiliary Bishop Artemio Casas was named in the capacity of ''vicar-capitular'' (presently termed as Apostolic administration, Apostolic Administrator) to oversee the archdiocese until a bishop was officially named. On January 21, 1974, Pope Paul VI appointed then-Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Jaro, Archbishop of Jaro Jaime Sin as the 30th Archbishop of Manila. Archbishop Sin was named cardinal in 1976. In 2003, after undergoing juridical changes, the archdiocese received Gaudencio Rosales, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lipa, Archbishop of Lipa, as successor to Cardinal Sin. Pope Benedict XVI later elevated Rosales to the cardinalate on March 24, 2006. On October 13, 2011, Luis Antonio Gokim Tagle, then Roman Catholic Diocese of Imus, Bishop of Imus, was named archbishop and was later made a cardinal by Benedict XVI on November 24, 2012. On December 8, 2019, he was appointed by Pope Francis to be the prefect of Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. In March 2020, Philippine President Duterte said the Pope had removed Tagle from his post in Manila for channeling church funds to the President's political opponents. The Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) and many individual Philippine prelates denounced Duterte's charge. On May 1, 2020, the former archbishop of Manila was promoted to the rank of Cardinal-Bishop by Pope Francis

Pope Francis appointed Auxilliary Bishop Broderick S. Pabillo as the Apostolic Administrator of the Archdiocese. He led the Archdiocese through the COVID-19 pandemic and has been a father figure for the lay people. His stint as the Apostolic Administrator last from 15 months, ending on the installation of its new Archbishop Jose F. Cardinal Advincula of the Diocese of Capiz. On March 25, 2021, Pope Francis named Tagle's successor, the then-Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Capiz, Archbishop of Capiz, Jose Advincula, José Fuerte Cardinal Advíncula.


List of Archbishops of Manila


Coadjutor Archbishops

*Romualdo J. Ballesteros, O.P. (1845–1846), did not succeed to see; appointed Bishop of Cebu *Gabriel M. Reyes (1949–1952)


Auxiliary Bishops

*Ginés Barrientos, Order of Preachers, O.P. (1680–1698) *Jose Maria Segui Molas, O.S.A. (1829–1830), appointed 21st Archbishop of Manila *William Finnemann, S.V.D. (1929–1936), appointed Prefect of Mindoro *Cesar Maria Guerrero y Gutierrez (1937–1949), appointed Bishop of San Fernando *Rufino Jiao Santos (1947–1953), appointed as 29th Archbishop; made Cardinal by John XXIII in 1960 *Vicente Posada Reyes (1950–1961), appointed Bishop of Borongan *Hernando Izquierdo Antiporda (1954–1975) *Pedro Bantigue y Natividad (1961–1967), appointed Bishop of San Pablo *Bienvenido M. Lopez (1966–1995) *Artemio G. Casas (1968–1974), appointed Archbishop of Jaro *Amado Paulino y Hernandez (1969–1985) *Gaudencio Borbon Rosales (1974–1982), appointed Coadjutor Bishop of Malaybalay; later appointed as 31st Archbishop; made Cardinal by Benedict XVI in 2005 *Oscar V. Cruz, Oscar Valero Cruz (1976–1978), appointed Archbishop of San Fernando *Protacio G. Gungon (1977–1983), appointed Bishop of Antipolo *Leonardo Legaspi, Order of Preachers, O.P. (1977–1984), appointed Archbishop of Caceres (Nueva Caceres) *Manuel C. Sobreviñas (1979–1993), appointed Bishop of Imus *Gabriel V. Reyes (1981–1992), appointed Bishop of Kalibo *Teodoro J. Buhain, Jr. (1983–2003) *Teodoro Bacani (1984–2002) appointed Bishop of Novaliches *Leoncio L. Lat (1985–1992) *Ramon Arguelles (1993–1995), appointed Military Ordinary of the Philippines *Crisostomo A. Yalung (1994–2001), appointed Bishop of Antipolo *Rolando Joven Tria Tirona, Secular Order of Discalced Carmelites, O.C.D. (1994–1996), appointed Bishop of Malolos *Jesse E. Mercado (1997–2002), appointed Bishop of Parañaque *Socrates B. Villegas (2001–2004), appointed Bishop of Balanga *Bernardino C. Cortez (2004–2014), appointed Prelate of Infanta *Broderick Pabillo, Broderick S. Pabillo (2006–2021) appointed Vicar Apostolic of Taytay


Other priests of this diocese who became bishops

*Francisco Sales Reyes y Alicante, appointed Bishop of now Archdiocese of Caceres in 1925 *Artemio Gabriel Casas, appointed Bishop of Imus in 1961; later returned to the archdiocese as auxiliary bishop *Antonio Realubin Tobias, appointed auxiliary bishop of Zamboanga in 1982, then bishop of the Diocese of Pagadian, Diocese of San Fernando in La Union, and finally Diocese of Novaliches until retirement in 2019 *Francisco Capiral San Diego, appointed Coadjutor Vicar Apostolic of Palawan in 1983, then became Apostolic Vicar of Apostolic Vicariate of Puerto Princesa, 2nd bishop of the Diocese of San Pablo, Laguna and later 1st bishop of the Diocese of Pasig. *Mylo Hubert Claudio Vergara (priest here, 1990-2003), appointed Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of San Jose (Nueva Ecija), Diocese of San Jose in Nueva Ecija in 2005 and later appointed as current bishop of the Diocese of Pasig *Francisco Mendoza de Leon, Auxiliary Bishop of the Diocese of Antipolo (September 1, 2007–November 21, 2015), Coadjutor Bishop of Antipolo (November 22, 2015–September 10, 2016) and 5th Bishop of the Diocese of Antipolo (September 10, 2016–present). *Ruperto Santos, Ruperto Cruz Santos, 4th Bishop of the Diocese of Balanga (July 8, 2010–present) *Roberto Orendain Gaa, 3rd Bishop of the Diocese of Novaliches (August 24, 2019–present) *Jose Alan Verdejo Dialogo, 5th Bishop of the Diocese of Sorsogon (October 15, 2019–present) *Socrates Villegas, 3rd Bishop of the Diocese of Balanga (July 3, 2004–November 4, 2009) and 5th Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Lingayen-Dagupan (November 4, 2009–present)


Demographics

As of 2004, the archdiocese has registered a total of 2,719,781 baptized faithful. They are served by 475 diocesan and religious priests – with a ratio of 5,725 faithful per priest, under 85 parishes. The archdiocese also houses 369 male religious and 1,730 female Religious sister (Catholic), religious engaged in various social, pastoral and missionary works in various areas of the archdiocese.


Formation of priests

The archdiocese administers San Carlos Seminary, the archdiocesan major seminary which caters to the formation of future priests for the archdiocese and for its suffragan dioceses. Located in Makati, Guadalupe Viejo, Makati, it has a pre-college program (senior high school and formation year), a college program (A.B., philosophy), and a graduate school (master's program in theology or pastoral ministry), as well as a formation houses for future priests committed to serve the Filipino-Chinese communities in the country (Lorenzo Ruiz Mission Society) and a center for adult vocations (Holy Apostles Senior Seminary). The archdiocese also operates Our Lady of Guadalupe Minor Seminary for young men at the secondary school level. It is located a few blocks from San Carlos Seminary.


Schools

The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Manila Educational System (RCAMES) comprises 27 archdiocesan and parochial schools. The archbishop of Manila exercises authority in each member school and appoints a superintendent for the entire system to implement decisions and resolve issues. The member schools are:


See also

* List of Catholic dioceses in the Philippines * Roman Catholicism in the Philippines * San Carlos Seminary, The Royal and Conciliar San Carlos Seminary


References

;Sources *Population of the Archdiocese of Manila https://www.ucanews.com/directory/statistics/philippines-manila/431 * * *Gregory XIII, Pope, 1502–1585
"Bull for erection of the Diocese and Cathedral Church of Manila."
In ''The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898''. Cleveland, Ohio: A.H. Clark Company, 1903–9. Vol. 4, 1576–82. Pp. 119–124. * 5 Seminaries under the Archdiocese of Manila https://rcam.org/cofor/


External links

* Wikipedia:SPS, {{authority control Roman Catholic dioceses in the Philippines, Manila Roman Catholic Ecclesiastical Province of Manila, Archdiocese Manila Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila,