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The Info List - Rohingya Conflict





Ongoing

Persecution
Persecution
of Muslims in Myanmar Ongoing humanitarian crisis with notable spikes in 1978, 1992, 2015, 2016 and 2017

Belligerents

 British Burma (1947–1948) Union of Burma (1948–1962)

Mujahideen (1947–1961) Supported by:   Pakistan
Pakistan
(until 1950)[1]

Military governments (1962–2011)

Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma (1962–1988) Union of Myanmar
Myanmar
(1988–2011)

RLA (1972–1974) RPF (1974–1982) RSO (1982–1998) ARIF (1986–1998)[2] ARNO (1998–2001)[2] Supported by: Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
(alleged)[3] Hezbi Islami Hizbul Mujahideen Jamaat-e-Islami

 Republic of the Union of Myanmar
Myanmar
(since 2011) ARSA (since 2016)

Commanders and leaders

Current commanders: Aung San Suu Kyi (State Counsellor of Myanmar) Min Aung Hlaing (Commander-in-Chief) Sein Win (Minister of Defence) Maung Maung Soe (Chief of the Western Command until November 2017)[5] Aung Myat Moe (Rakhine Chief of Police)[6] Sein Lwin (Rakhine Chief of Police
Chief of Police
until September 2017)[6]

Former commanders: Aung Gyi
Aung Gyi
(1947–1963) Tin Oo
Tin Oo
(1947–1976) Than Shwe (1992–2011) Thein Sein (2011–2016) Htin Kyaw
Htin Kyaw
(2016–2018)

Current commanders: Ataullah abu Ammar Jununi[7][8]

Former commanders: Mir Kassem (POW) (1947–1952) Abdul Latif (1947–1961) Annul Jauli (1947–1961) Zaffar Kawal (1961–1974) Muhammad Jafar Habib (1972–1982) Muhammad Yunus (1974–2001) Nurul Islam
Islam
(1974–2001)

Units involved

Tatmadaw

Army

Western Command

Air Force[9] Police Force

Border Guard Police

Rohingya National Army (1998–2001)[2][10]

Strength

~2,000[11] Previous totals: 1,100 (1947–1950)[12]

~200 (government estimate)[13][14] Previous totals: 2,000–5,000 (1947–1950)[12] 2,000 (1952)[12] 500[9][15]–600[16] (2016–2017)

Casualties and losses

2016–2018: 45 security personnel killed[a] 2016–2018: 475 killed[17][18] and 423 arrested[19][20]

2012–2018: 6,900+ civilians killed in total[b] 53,000 internally displaced[21][22] 950,000+ fled abroad[n 1]

a 14 soldiers, 30 policemen and 1 immigration officer.[17][18] b 2012: 168,[31][32] 2013: 50+,[33][34] 2016–18: 6,700+[35][36][37][38]

v t e

Internal conflict in Myanmar

Armed conflicts Ceasefires · Insurgent groups

2010–12 Myanmar
Myanmar
border clashes Campaign at the China–Burma border (1960–61) Communist insurgency Kachin conflict Karen conflict Kokang conflict

2009 2015

Rohingya conflict

1978 1991–92 2016–18

Bombings and attacks

1947 1983 1999 2003 2005 2010 2010 cyberattacks 2013 2018

Lashio Sittwe

Protests and government changes

1962 coup d'état 1962 protests 1974 crisis 1988 uprising 1990 election Roadmap to democracy Saffron Revolution 2010 election 2011–15 political reforms 2015 election

Anti-Muslim violence

2012 Rakhine State
Rakhine State
riots 2013 anti-Muslim riots Rohingya persecution

2016 2017

This article is part of a series on the

Ruáingga ရိုဟင်ဂျာ ﺭُﺍَࣺﻳﻨڠَ Rohingya people

History

Arakan Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate Kingdom of Mrauk U Arakan
Arakan
Division Mayu
Mayu
Frontier District Indo-Aryan peoples Islam
Islam
in Myanmar

Society

Culture Diaspora Homeland (Rohang) The people Rohingya language

Personalities

Abu Dhar Azzam Abul Khair Ataullah abu Ammar Jununi Chit Lwin Ebrahim Fazal Ahmed Gani Markan M. A. Gaffar Nur Ahmed Nurul Islam Shamsul Anwarul Huq Sultan Ahmed Sultan Mahmud Zura Begum

Conflict and Persecution

Background

Burmese nationality law Human rights in Myanmar Persecution
Persecution
of Muslims in Myanmar 2008 Constitution

Events

Arakan
Arakan
massacres in 1942 2012 Rakhine State
Rakhine State
riots 2013 anti-Muslim riots 2016–2017 crackdown/persecution

Gu Dar Pyin massacre Tula Toli massacre

Rohingya conflict

Northern Rakhine State
Rakhine State
clashes

Organisations

Arakan
Arakan
Rohingya National Organisation Arakan
Arakan
Rohingya Salvation Army National Democratic Party for Human Rights Rohingya National Council Rohingya Solidarity Organisation

Response

U.S. resolution International reactions to the 2016–18 Rohingya persecution

Portal
Portal
WikiProject Category Commons

v t e

The Rohingya conflict
Rohingya conflict
is a series of violent clashes in northern Rakhine State, Myanmar
Myanmar
(formerly known as Arakan, Burma). The conflict has been characterised by sectarian violence between the Rakhine Buddhist and Rohingya Muslim communities, attacks on Rohingya civilians by Myanmar's security forces,[39][40][41] and armed clashes between insurgents and security forces in the Buthidaung, Maungdaw, and Rathedaung
Rathedaung
Townships, which border Bangladesh. The conflict in the region arises chiefly from the religious and social differentiation between the Rakhine Buddhists and Rohingya Muslims. During World War II
World War II
in Burma (present-day Myanmar), Rohingya Muslims (allied with the British and promised a Muslim state in return) fought against local Rakhine Buddhists, who were allied with the Japanese. Following independence in 1948, the newly formed union government of the predominantly Buddhist country denied citizenship to the Rohingyas, subjecting them to extensive systematic discrimination in the country. This has widely been compared to apartheid[42][43][44][45] by many international academics, analysts and political figures, including Desmond Tutu, a famous South African anti-apartheid activist.[46] From 1947 to 1961, local Rohingya mujahideen fought government forces in an attempt to have the mostly Rohingya populated region around the Mayu
Mayu
peninsula in northern Arakan
Arakan
(present-day Rahkine State) gain autonomy or secede, so it could be annexed by East Pakistan (present-day Bangladesh).[47] During the late 1950s and early 1960s, the mujahideen lost most of its momentum and support, resulting in most of them surrendering to government forces.[48][49] In the 1970s Rohingya Islamist movements began to emerge from remnants of the mujahideen, and the fighting culminated with the Burmese government launching a massive military operation named Operation King Dragon in 1978.[50] In the 1990s, the well-armed Rohingya Solidarity Organisation (RSO) was the main perpetrator of attacks on Burmese authorities near the Bangladesh- Myanmar
Myanmar
border.[51] The Burmese government responded militarily with Operation Clean and Beautiful Nation, but failed to disarm the RSO.[52][53] In October 2016, clashes erupted on the Bangladesh- Myanmar
Myanmar
border between government security forces and a new insurgent group, Harakah al-Yaqin, resulting in the deaths of at least 40 people (excluding civilians).[54][55][56] It was the first major resurgence of the conflict since 2001.[2] In November 2016, violence erupted again, bringing the death toll to 134.[17] On the morning of 25 August 2017, the Arakan
Arakan
Rohingya Salvation Army (abbreviated ARSA; formerly Harakah al-Yaqin) launched coordinated attacks on 24 police posts and the 552nd Light Infantry Battalion army base in Rakhine State, leaving 71 dead (12 security personnel and 59 insurgents). It was the first major attack by the group since clashes in November 2016.[57][58][59]

Contents

1 Background 2 Mujahideen separatist movements (1947–1961)

2.1 Early separatist insurgency 2.2 Military operations against the mujahideen 2.3 Decline and fall of the mujahideen

3 Rohingya Islamist movements (1972–2001)

3.1 Islamist movements in the 1970s and 1980s 3.2 Military expansions in the 1990s

4 2016–18 northern Rakhine State
Rakhine State
clashes

4.1 Report by the OHCHR

5 Humanitarian crisis 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading

Background[edit] Further information: Rohingya people
Rohingya people
and Persecution
Persecution
of Muslims in Myanmar

A closed mosque in Sittwe, Rakhine State.

The Rohingya people
Rohingya people
are an ethnic minority that live mainly in the northern region of Rakhine State, Myanmar, and have been described as one of the world's most persecuted minorities.[60][61][62] They describe themselves as descendants of Arab traders who settled in the region many generations ago.[60] However, French scholar Jacques Leider has stated that "the forefathers of the overwhelming majority of Muslims in Rakhine have migrated from Bengal
Bengal
to Rakhine"; that "their descendants and the Muslims as whole had in fact been rather uncontroversially referred to as 'Bengalis' until the early 1990s"; and that they were also referred to as "Chittagonians" during the British colonial period.[63] Others such as Chris Lewa and Andrew Selth have identified the group known as Rohingya as ethnically related to the Bengalis of southern Bangladesh
Bangladesh
while anthropologist Christina Fink uses Rohingya not as an ethnic identifier but as a political one.[n 2] With the Japanese invasion and withdrawal of the British administration, tensions in Arakan
Arakan
before the war erupted. The war caused inter-communal conflicts between the Arakanese Muslims and Buddhists. Muslims fled from Japanese-controlled and Buddhist-majority regions to Muslim-dominated northern Arakan
Arakan
with many being killed. In return, a "reverse ethnic cleansing" was carried out. The Muslim attacks caused the Buddhists to flee to southern Arakan. Attacks by Muslim villagers on Buddhists also caused reprisals. With the consolidation of their position throughout northern Arakan, the Rohingyas retaliated against Japanese collaborators, particularly Buddhists. Though unofficial, specific undertaking were made to Arakanese Muslims after World War II. V Force officers like Andrew Irwin expressed enthusiasm to award Muslims for loyalty. Rohingya leaders believed that the British had promised them a "Muslim National Area" in Maungdaw
Maungdaw
region. They were also apprehensive of a future Buddhist-dominated government. In 1946, the leaders made calls for annexation of the territory by Pakistan. Some also called for an independent state. The requests to the British government were however ignored.[64][65][66] After the colonial period, the first mass exodus from what was then East Pakistan
Pakistan
took place to the 1970s.[67] In the 1950s, a "political and militant movement" rose to create "an autonomous Muslim zone", and the militants used Rohingya to describe themselves, marking the "modern origins" of the term.[68] The persecution of Rohingyas in Myanmar
Myanmar
dates back to the 1970s.[69] The term "Rohingya" has gained currency since 1990s after "the second exodus" of "a quarter million people from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to Rakhine" in the early 1990s.[70] The Rohingya were denied citizenship in 1982 by the government of Myanmar, which sees them as illegal immigrants from Bangladesh.[60] Since then, Rohingyas have regularly been made the target of persecution by the government and nationalist Buddhists.[71] Mujahideen separatist movements (1947–1961)[edit] Early separatist insurgency[edit] In May 1946, Muslim leaders from Arakan, Burma (present-day Rakhine State, Myanmar) met with Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, and asked for the formal annexation of two townships in the Mayu region, Buthidaung
Buthidaung
and Maungdaw, by East Pakistan
Pakistan
(present-day Bangladesh). Two months later, the North Arakan
Arakan
Muslim League was founded in Akyab (present-day Sittwe, capital of Rakhine State), which also asked Jinnah to annex the region.[72] Jinnah refused, saying he could not interfere with Burma's internal matters. After Jinnah's refusal, proposals were made by Muslims in Arakan
Arakan
to the newly formed post-independence government of Burma, asking for the concession of the two townships to Pakistan. The proposals were rejected by the Burmese parliament.[73] Local mujahideen were subsequently formed against the Burmese government,[74] and began targeting government soldiers stationed in the area. Led by Mir Kassem, the newly formed mujahideen movement began gaining territory, driving out local Rakhine communities from their villages, some of whom fled to East Pakistan.[75][better source needed] In November 1948, martial law was declared in the region, and the 5th Battalion of the Burma Rifles and the 2nd Chin Battalion were sent to liberate the area. By June 1949, the Burmese government's control over the region was reduced to the city of Akyab, whilst the mujahideen had possession of nearly all of northern Arakan. After several months of fighting, Burmese forces were able to push the mujahideen back into the jungles of the Mayu
Mayu
region, near the country's border with East Pakistan.[citation needed] In 1950, the Pakistani government warned its counterparts in Burma about their treatment of Muslims in Arakan. Burmese Prime Minister U Nu immediately sent a Muslim diplomat, Pe Khin, to negotiate a memorandum of understanding, so that Pakistan
Pakistan
would cease sending aid to the mujahideen. In 1954, Kassem was arrested by Pakistani authorities, and many of his followers surrendered to the government.[1] The post-independence government accused the mujahideen of encouraging the illegal immigration of thousands of Bengalis from East Pakistan into Arakan
Arakan
during their rule of the area, a claim that has been highly disputed over the decades, as it brings into question the legitimacy of the Rohingya as an ethnic group of Myanmar.[48] Military operations against the mujahideen[edit] Between 1950 and 1954, the Burma Army launched several military operations against the remaining mujahideen in northern Arakan.[76] The first military operation was launched in March 1950, followed by a second named Operation Mayu
Mayu
in October 1952. Several mujahideen leaders agreed to disarm and surrender to government forces following the successful operations.[72] In the latter half of 1954, the mujahideen again began to carry out attacks on local authorities and military units stationed around Maungdaw, Buthidaung
Buthidaung
and Rathedaung. In protest, hundreds of Rakhine Buddhist monks
Buddhist monks
began hunger strikes in Rangoon
Rangoon
(present-day Yangon),[48] and in response the government launched Operation Monsoon in October 1954.[72] The Tatmadaw
Tatmadaw
managed to capture the main strongholds of the mujahideen and managed to kill several of their leaders. The operation successfully reduced the mujahideen's influence and support in the region.[12] Decline and fall of the mujahideen[edit]

A Rohingya mujahid surrenders his weapon to Brigadier-General
Brigadier-General
Aung Gyi, 4 July 1961.

In 1957, 150 mujahideen, led by Shore Maluk and Zurah, surrendered to government forces. On 7 November 1957, 214 additional mujahideen under the leadership of al-Rashid disarmed and surrendered to government forces.[49] In the beginning of the 1960s, the mujahideen began to lose their momentum following the implementation of various policies by the Burmese government. The governments of Burma and Pakistan
Pakistan
(which Bangladesh
Bangladesh
was a part of at the time) began negotiating on how to deal with the insurgents at their border and on 1 May 1961, the Mayu Frontier District was established in Arakan
Arakan
for the Rohingya.[77] On 4 July 1961, 290 mujahideen in southern Maungdaw Township surrendered their arms in front of Brigadier-General
Brigadier-General
Aung Gyi, the then Deputy Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the Burmese Army.[78] On 15 November 1961, the few remaining mujahideen surrendered to Aung Gyi
Aung Gyi
in the eastern region of Buthidaung.[48] A few dozen insurgents remained under the command of Zaffar Kawal, another group of 40 insurgents were led by Abdul Latif, and a mujahideen faction of 80 insurgents were led by Annul Jauli. All these groups lacked local support and a unifying ideology, which lead them to become rice smugglers around the end of the 1960s.[49] Rohingya Islamist movements (1972–2001)[edit] Islamist movements in the 1970s and 1980s[edit] On 15 July 1972, former mujahideen leader Zaffar Kawal founded the Rohingya Liberation Party (RLP), after mobilising various former mujahideen factions under his command. Zaffar appointed himself Chairman of the party, Abdul Latif as vice-chairman and Minister of Military Affairs, and Muhammad Jafar Habib as the Secretary General, a graduate from Rangoon
Rangoon
University. Their strength increased from 200 fighters in the beginning to 500 by 1974. The RLP was largely based in the jungles of Buthidaung, and were armed with weapons smuggled from Bangladesh. After a massive military operation by the Tatmadaw ( Myanmar
Myanmar
Armed Forces) in July 1974, Zaffar and most of his men fled across the border into Bangladesh.[49][79] In 1974, Muhammad Jafar Habib, the former Secretary of the RLP, founded the Rohingya Patriotic Front
Rohingya Patriotic Front
(RPF) after the failure and dissolution of the RLP. The RPF had around 70 fighters,[49][2] Habib as self-appointed chairman, Nurul Islam, a Yangon-educated lawyer, as vice-chairman, and Muhammad Yunus, a medical doctor, as Secretary General.[49] In March 1978, government forces launched a massive military operation named Operation King Dragon in northern Arakan
Arakan
(Rakhine State), with the focus of expelling Rohingya insurgents in the area.[citation needed] As the operation extended farther northwest, hundreds of thousands of Rohingyas crossed the border seeking refuge in Bangladesh.[2][80][81] In 1982, more radical elements broke away from the Rohingya Patriotic Front (RPF), and formed the Rohingya Solidarity Organisation
Rohingya Solidarity Organisation
(RSO).[2] It was led by Muhammad Yunus, the former Secretary General of the RPF. The RSO became the most influential and extreme faction amongst Rohingya insurgent groups; by basing itself on religious grounds it gained support from various Islamist groups, such as Jamaat-e-Islami in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Pakistan, Hizb-e-Islami
Hizb-e-Islami
in Afghanistan, Hizb-ul-Mujahideen
Hizb-ul-Mujahideen
(HM) in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, and Angkatan Belia Islam
Islam
sa-Malaysia (ABIM) and the Islamic Youth Organisation of Malaysia in Malaysia.[2][81] On 15 October 1982, the Burmese Citizenship Law was introduced, and with the exception of the Kaman people, most Muslims in the country were denied an ethnic minority classification, and thus were denied Burmese citizenship.[82] A more moderate Rohingya insurgent group, the Arakan
Arakan
Rohingya Islamic Front (ARIF), was founded in 1986 by Nurul Islam, the former Vice-Chairman of the Rohingya Patriotic Front
Rohingya Patriotic Front
(RPF), after uniting remnants of the old RPF and a handful of defectors from the RSO.[2] Military expansions in the 1990s[edit] In the early 1990s, the military camps of the RSO were located in the Cox's Bazar District
Cox's Bazar District
in southern Bangladesh. RSO possessed a significant arsenal of light machine-guns, AK-47 assault rifles, RPG-2 rocket launchers, claymore mines and explosives, according to a field report conducted by correspondent Bertil Lintner in 1991.[51] The Arakan Rohingya Islamic Front (ARIF) was mostly armed with British manufactured 9mm Sterling L2A3 sub-machine guns, M-16 assault rifles and .303 rifles.[51] The military expansion of the RSO resulted in the government of Myanmar
Myanmar
launching a massive counter-offensive named Operation Clean and Beautiful Nation to expel RSO insurgents along the Bangladesh- Myanmar
Myanmar
border. In December 1991, Tatmadaw
Tatmadaw
soldiers crossed the border and accidentally attacked a Bangladeshi military outpost, causing a strain in Bangladeshi- Myanmar
Myanmar
relations. By April 1992, more than 250,000 Rohingya civilians had been forced out of northern Rakhine State
Rakhine State
(Arakan) as a result of the increased military operations in the area.[2] In April 1994, around 120 RSO insurgents entered Maungdaw Township in Myanmar
Myanmar
by crossing the Naf River
Naf River
which marks the border between Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Myanmar. On 28 April 1994, nine out of twelve bombs planted in different areas in Maungdaw
Maungdaw
by RSO insurgents exploded, damaging a fire engine and a few buildings, and seriously wounding four civilians.[83] On 28 October 1998, the Rohingya Solidarity Organisation
Rohingya Solidarity Organisation
merged with the Arakan Rohingya Islamic Front and formed the Arakan
Arakan
Rohingya National Organisation (ARNO), operating in-exile in Cox's Bazaar.[2] The Rohingya National Army (RNA) was established as its armed wing. One of the several dozen videotapes obtained by CNN
CNN
from Al-Qaeda's archives in Afghanistan in August 2002 allegedly showed fighters from Myanmar
Myanmar
training in Afghanistan.[3] Other videotapes were marked with "Myanmar" in Arabic, and it was assumed that the footage was shot in Myanmar, though this has not been validated.[2][81] According to intelligence sources in Asia,[who?] Rohingya recruits in the RSO were paid a 30,000 Bangladeshi taka ($525 USD) enlistment reward, and a salary of 10,000 taka ($175) per month. Families of fighters who were killed in action were offered 100,000 taka ($1,750) in compensation, a promise which lured many young Rohingya men, who were mostly very poor, to travel to Pakistan, where they would train and then perform suicide attacks in Afghanistan.[2][81] The Islamic extremist organisations Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami[84] and Harkat-ul-Ansar[85] also claimed to have branches in Myanmar. 2016–18 northern Rakhine State
Rakhine State
clashes[edit] Main article: Northern Rakhine State
Rakhine State
clashes

Members of the Myanmar
Myanmar
Police Force patrolling in Maungdaw
Maungdaw
in September 2017.

On 9 October 2016, hundreds of unidentified insurgents attacked three Burmese border posts along Myanmar's border with Bangladesh.[86] According to government officials in the mainly Rohingya border town of Maungdaw, the attackers brandished knives, machetes and homemade slingshots that fired metal bolts. Nine border officers were killed in the attack,[55] and 48 guns, 6,624 bullets, 47 bayonets and 164 bullet cartridges were looted by the insurgents.[87] On 11 October 2016, four soldiers were killed on the third day of fighting.[56] Following the attacks, reports emerged of several human rights violations allegedly perpetrated by Burmese security forces in their crackdown on suspected Rohingya insurgents.[88] Government officials in Rakhine State
Rakhine State
originally blamed the RSO, an Islamist insurgent group mainly active in the 1980s and 1990s, for the attacks;[89] however, on 17 October 2016, a group calling itself Harakah al-Yaqin
Harakah al-Yaqin
(Faith Movement in English) claimed responsibility.[90] In the following days, six other groups released statements, all citing the same leader.[91] The Myanmar
Myanmar
Army announced on 15 November 2016 that 69 Rohingya insurgents and 17 security forces (10 policemen, 7 soldiers) had been killed in recent clashes in northern Rakhine State, bringing the death toll to 134 (102 insurgents and 32 security forces). It was also announced that 234 people suspected of being connected to the attack were arrested.[17][92] Some of them will later be sentenced to death for their involvement in the 9 October's attacks[93]. Nearly two dozen prominent human rights activists, including Malala Yousafzai, Archbishop Desmond Tutu
Desmond Tutu
and Richard Branson, called on the United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council
to intervene and end the "ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity" being perpetrated in northern Rakhine State.[94] A police document obtained by Reuters
Reuters
in March 2017 listed 423 Rohingyas detained by the police since 9 October 2016, 13 of whom were children, the youngest being ten years old. Two police captains in Maungdaw
Maungdaw
verified the document and justified the arrests, with one of them saying, "We the police have to arrest those who collaborated with the attackers, children or not, but the court will decide if they are guilty; we are not the ones who decide." Myanmar
Myanmar
police also claimed that the children had confessed to their alleged crimes during interrogations, and that they were not beaten or pressured during questioning. The average age of those detained is 34, the youngest is 10, and the oldest is 75.[19][20] In early August 2017, the Burmese military resumed "clearance operations" in northern Rakhine State, worsening the humanitarian crisis in the country, according to a report by the U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights released on 11 October 2017. The report, titled the Mission report of OHCHR rapid response mission to Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, detailed the "systematic process" pursued by the Burmese military in driving out the Rohingya population from the country, as well as various human rights violations allegedly perpetrated by military personnel.[95][96] During the early hours of 25 August 2017, up to 150 insurgents launched coordinated attacks on 24 police posts and the 552nd Light Infantry Battalion army base in Rakhine State, leaving 71 dead (12 security personnel and 59 insurgents).[57][58][59] The Myanmar
Myanmar
Armed Forces (Tatmadaw) stated on 1 September 2017 that the death toll had risen to 370 insurgents, 13 security personnel, two government officials and 14 civilians.[18] A one-month unilateral ceasefire was declared by ARSA on 9 September 2017, in an attempt to allow aid groups and humanitarian workers safe access into northern Rakhine State.[97][98][99] In a statement, the group urged the government to lay down their arms and agree to their ceasefire, which would have been in effect from 10 September until 9 October (the one-year anniversary of the first attacks on Burmese security forces by ARSA). The government rejected the ceasefire, saying that they do not "negotiate with terrorists". Zaw Htay, the spokesperson for the State Counselor's office, stated "We have no policy to negotiate with terrorists."[100] At the end of October 2017, the UN estimated that over 600,000 Rohingya refugees had fled to Bangladesh
Bangladesh
since armed clashes resumed two months earlier.[101][102] The Bangladeshi ambassador to the UN described the situation as "untenable" for his country, which planned to sterilise Rohingya women in order to avoid a population explosion[103] and which also planned on seeking, in cooperation with the Burmese authorities, to repatriate some of the Rohingya refugees in Rakhine State.[104] However, much of the agricultural land abandoned by Rohingya refugees have been seized by the government,[105] and a vast majority of them do not have any official documents certifying that they have lived in the Rakhine State
Rakhine State
prior to the violence, due to their statelessness. Report by the OHCHR[edit] On 11 October 2017, the U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights released a report titled the Mission report of OHCHR rapid response mission to Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, which detailed the Burmese military's "systematic process" of driving away hundreds of thousands of Rohingyas from Myanmar. The report noted that prior to the attacks on 25 August 2017 and the military crackdown that ensued, the military pursed a strategy to:[95][96]

have male Rohingyas between the ages of 15–40 years arrested and/or arbitrarily detained have Rohingya political, cultural and religious figures arrested and/or arbitrarily detained ensure that access to food, livelihoods and other means of conducting daily activities and life be taken away from Rohingya villagers drive out Rohingya villagers en masse through repeated acts of humiliation and violence, such as [the] incitement of [sectarian] hatred, violence and killings instill deep and widespread fear and trauma (physical, emotional and psychological) in Rohingyas, through acts of brutality; namely killings, disappearances, torture, and rape (and other forms of sexual violence)

Humanitarian crisis[edit] Further information: Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh

Internally displaced Rohingyas in Rakhine State, 14 December 2012.

An estimated 655,000 to 700,000 Rohingya people
Rohingya people
reportedly fled to Bangladesh
Bangladesh
between 25 August 2017 and December 2017, to avoid ethnic and religious persecution by Myanmar's security forces in their "clearance operations" against insurgents.[106][107][108] There are an additional 300,000 Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh, who arrived after fleeing earlier waves communal violence and systematic persecution over the last three decades.[109] In the beginning of 2017, an estimated 53,000 Rohingyas remained internally displaced inside of Rakhine State.[22] See also[edit]

Islam
Islam
in Myanmar Moro conflict South Thailand insurgency

Notes[edit]

^ See [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30] ^ See (Leider 2013) for the academic opinion on the historical usage of the term by several academics and authors. (Leider 2013: 215–216): Lewa in 2002 wrote that "the Rohingya Muslims are ethnically and religiously related to the Chittagonians of southern Bangladesh." Selth in 2003: "These are Bengali Muslims who live in Arakan
Arakan
State... Most Rohingyas arrived with the British colonialists in the 19th and 20th centuries." (Leider 2013: 216) citing Christina Fink: "small armed group of Muslims generally known as Rohingya".

References[edit]

^ a b U Nu, U Nu: Saturday's Son, (New Haven and London: Yale University Press) 1975, p. 272. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m " Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Extremist Islamist Consolidation". by Bertil Lintner. Retrieved 21 October 2012.  ^ a b "Rohingyas trained in different Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
and Taliban camps in Afghanistan". By William Gomes. Retrieved 22 October 2012.  ^ Myint, Moe (24 October 2017). "Rakhine Crisis in Numbers". The Irrawaddy. Retrieved 27 October 2017.  ^ " Myanmar
Myanmar
military denies atrocities against Rohingya, replaces general". Reuters. 13 November 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ a b "New Rakhine Police Chief Appointed". www.irrawaddy.com. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.  ^ Millar, Paul (16 February 2017). "Sizing up the shadowy leader of the Rakhine State
Rakhine State
insurgency". Southeast Asia Globe Magazine. Retrieved 24 February 2017.  ^ J, Jacob (15 December 2016). "Rohingya militants in Rakhine have Saudi, Pakistan
Pakistan
links, think tank says".  ^ a b CNN, Katie Hunt. " Myanmar
Myanmar
Air Force helicopters fire on armed villagers in Rakhine state". CNN. Retrieved 15 November 2016.  ^ "PRESS RELEASE: Rohingya National Army (RNA) successfully raided a Burma Army Camp 30 miles from nort..." rohingya.org. 28 May 2001. Retrieved 21 October 2016.  ^ Lone, Wa (25 April 2017). "Command structure of the Myanmar
Myanmar
army's operation in Rakhine". Reuters. Retrieved 3 March 2018.  ^ a b c d Yegar, Moshe (2002). "Between integration and secession: The Muslim communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar". Lanham. Lexington Books. p. 37,38,44. ISBN 0739103563. Retrieved 21 October 2012.  ^ Olarn, Kocha; Griffiths, James (11 January 2018). " Myanmar
Myanmar
military admits role in killing Rohingya found in mass grave". CNN. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "'Beyond comprehension': Myanmar
Myanmar
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Further reading[edit]

Burma's Western Border as Reported by the Diplomatic Correspondence (1947–1975) by Aye Chan

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