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Robert Michael "Bob"[2] Gates (born September 25, 1943) is an American statesman, scholar, and university president who served as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense
United States Secretary of Defense
from 2006 to 2011. He was originally appointed by President George W. Bush, but was retained for service by President Barack Obama. Gates began his career serving as an officer in the United States
United States
Air Force but was quickly recruited by the CIA.[3] Gates served for 26 years in the Central Intelligence Agency and the National Security Council, and was Director of Central Intelligence under President George H. W. Bush. After leaving the CIA, Gates became president of Texas A&M University and was a member of several corporate boards. Gates served as a member of the Iraq
Iraq
Study Group, the bipartisan commission co-chaired by James A. Baker III
James A. Baker III
and Lee H. Hamilton, that studied the lessons of the Iraq
Iraq
War. Gates was nominated by Republican President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
as Secretary of Defense after the 2006 election, replacing Donald Rumsfeld.[4] He was confirmed with bipartisan support.[5] In a 2007 profile written by former National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, Time named Gates one of the year's most influential people.[5] In 2008, Gates was named one of America's Best Leaders by U.S. News & World Report.[6] He continued to serve as Secretary of Defense in President Barack Obama's administration.[7] He retired in 2011. "He'll be remembered for making us aware of the danger of over-reliance on military intervention as an instrument of American foreign policy," said former Senator David L. Boren.[8] Gates was presented the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian award, by President Obama during his retirement ceremony.[9] Since leaving the Obama Administration, Gates has been elected President of the Boy Scouts of America, served as Chancellor of the College of William & Mary, and served as a member on several corporate boards.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Intelligence career

2.1 Positions 2.2 Director of Central Intelligence 2.3 Level of involvement in the Iran-Contra scandal

3 Career after leaving the CIA

3.1 1993–1999 3.2 Texas A&M 3.3 Corporate boards 3.4 Public service 3.5 Declined appointment as Director of National Intelligence

4 Secretary of Defense

4.1 Bush Administration

4.1.1 Walter Reed Medical Center scandal 4.1.2 Controversy over Joint Chiefs 4.1.3 Misshipments of nuclear weapons

4.2 Obama Administration

4.2.1 Fiscal restraint 4.2.2 NATO
NATO
comments

5 Post–Obama administration 6 Criticism 7 Awards and decorations 8 Notes 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 Further reading 12 External links

Early life and education[edit] Gates was born in Wichita, Kansas, the son of Isabel V. (née Goss) and Melville A. "Mel" Gates.[10] Gates attained the rank of Eagle Scout in the Boy Scouts of America
Boy Scouts of America
(BSA) and received the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award
Distinguished Eagle Scout Award
from the BSA as an adult.[11][12] He graduated from Wichita High School East
Wichita High School East
in 1961.[13] Gates is also a Vigil Honor member within the Order of the Arrow, BSA's National Honor Society. Gates then received a scholarship to attend the College of William and Mary, graduating in 1965 with a B.A. in history. At William & Mary, Gates was an active member and president of the Alpha Phi Omega (national service fraternity) chapter and the Young Republicans; he was also the business manager for the William and Mary Review, a literary and art magazine.[14] At his William & Mary graduation ceremony, Gates received the Algernon Sydney Sullivan Award naming him the graduate who "has made the greatest contribution to his fellow man".[14] Gates then received an M.A. in history from Indiana University
Indiana University
in 1966. He completed his Ph.D. in Russian and Soviet history at Georgetown University
Georgetown University
in 1974. The title of his Georgetown doctoral dissertation is "Soviet Sinology: An Untapped Source for Kremlin Views and Disputes Relating to Contemporary Events in China"[15] and is available from University Microfilms International as document number 7421652. He received an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from William & Mary (1998), the University of Oklahoma
University of Oklahoma
(2011),[16][17] Georgetown University
Georgetown University
(2014)[18] and an honorary doctorate award from Kansas
Kansas
State University (2012). He married his wife Becky on January 7, 1967.[19] They have two children. Intelligence career[edit] Positions[edit] While at Indiana University, Gates was recruited by the Central Intelligence Agency and joined in 1966.[20] On January 4, 1967, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the United States
United States
Air Force after attending Officer Training School under CIA sponsorship.[19][20] From 1967 to 1969, he was assigned to the Strategic Air Command
Strategic Air Command
as an intelligence officer, which included a year at Whiteman Air Force Base in Missouri, where he delivered intelligence briefings to Intercontinental Ballistic Missile
Intercontinental Ballistic Missile
crews.[21] After fulfilling his military obligation, he rejoined the CIA as an intelligence analyst.[22] Gates left the CIA in 1974 to serve on the staff of the National Security Council. He returned to the CIA in late 1979, serving briefly as the director of the Strategic Evaluation Center, Office of Strategic Research. He was named the Director of the DCI/DDCI Executive Staff in 1981, Deputy Director for Intelligence in 1982, and Deputy Director of Central Intelligence
Director of Central Intelligence
from April 18, 1986, to March 20, 1989. Director of Central Intelligence[edit]

Gates while Director of Central Intelligence.

Gates was Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs from March until August 1989, and was Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Adviser from August 1989 until November 1991. Gates was nominated to become the Director of Central Intelligence (head of the CIA) in early 1987. He withdrew his name after it became clear the Senate would reject the nomination due to controversy about his role in the Iran-Contra affair. Gates was nominated, for the second time, for the position of Director of Central Intelligence by President George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
on May 14, 1991, confirmed by the Senate on November 5, and sworn in on November 6. During a Senate committee hearing on his nomination, former division chief Melvin Goodman
Melvin Goodman
testified that the agency was the most corrupt and slanted during the tenure of William Casey
William Casey
with Gates serving as Deputy. According to Goodman, Gates was part of an agency leadership that proliferated false information and ignored 'reality'. National Intelligence Council chairman Harold P. Ford testified that during his tenure, Gates had transgressed professional boundaries.[23] Deputy Directors during his tenure were Richard J. Kerr (from November 6, 1991, until March 2, 1992) and Adm. William O. Studeman
William O. Studeman
(from April 9, 1992, through the remainder of Gates' tenure). He served until 1993. Level of involvement in the Iran-Contra scandal[edit] Because of his senior status in the CIA, Gates was close to many figures who played significant roles in the Iran-Contra Affair
Iran-Contra Affair
and was in a position to have known of their activities. In 1984, as deputy director of CIA, Gates advocated that the U.S. initiate a bombing campaign against Nicaragua and that the U.S. do everything in its power short of direct military invasion of the country to remove the Sandinista
Sandinista
government.[24] The evidence developed by Independent Counsel did not warrant indictment of Gates for his Iran-Contra activities or his responses to official inquiries.[citation needed] Gates was an early subject of Independent Counsel's investigation, but the investigation of Gates intensified in the spring of 1991 as part of a larger inquiry into the Iran/contra activities of CIA officials. This investigation received an additional impetus in May 1991, when President George H.W. Bush
George H.W. Bush
nominated Gates to be Director of Central Intelligence (DCI). The chairman and vice chairman of the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI) requested, in a letter to the Independent Counsel on May 15, 1991, any information that would "significantly bear on the fitness" of Gates for the CIA post. Gates consistently testified that he first heard on October 1, 1986, from Charles E. Allen, the national intelligence officer who was closest to the Iran initiative, that proceeds from the Iran arms sales may have been diverted to support the Contras. Other evidence proves, however, that Gates received a report on the diversion during the summer of 1986 from DDI Richard Kerr.[25] The issue was whether the Independent Counsel could prove beyond a reasonable doubt that Gates was deliberately not telling the truth when he later claimed not to have remembered any reference to the diversion before meeting with Allen in October.

President Bush meets with Robert Gates, General
General
Colin Powell, Secretary Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
and others about the situation in the Persian Gulf and Operation Desert Shield, 15 January 1991

Grand jury
Grand jury
secrecy rules hampered Independent Counsel's response. Nevertheless, in order to answer questions about Gates' prior testimony, Independent Counsel accelerated his investigation of Gates in the summer of 1991. This investigation was substantially completed by September 3, 1991, at which time Independent Counsel determined that Gates' Iran-Contra activities and testimony did not warrant prosecution. Independent Counsel made this decision subject to developments that could have warranted reopening his inquiry, including testimony by Clair E. George, the CIA's former deputy director for operations. At the time Independent Counsel reached this decision, the possibility remained that George could have provided information warranting reconsideration of Gates' status in the investigation. George refused to cooperate with Independent Counsel and was indicted on September 19, 1991. George subpoenaed Gates to testify as a defense witness at George's first trial in the summer of 1994, but Gates was never called. The final report of the Independent Counsel for Iran-Contra Scandal, issued on August 4, 1993, said that Gates "was close to many figures who played significant roles in the Iran/contra affair and was in a position to have known of their activities. The evidence developed by Independent Counsel did not warrant indictment..."[26] Career after leaving the CIA[edit] 1993–1999[edit] After retiring from the CIA in 1993, Gates worked as an academic and lecturer. He evaluated student theses for the International Studies Program of the University of Washington. He lectured at Harvard, Yale, Johns Hopkins, Vanderbilt, Georgetown, Indiana, Louisiana State, Oklahoma, and the College of William and Mary. Gates served as a member of the Board of Visitors of the University of Oklahoma International Programs Center and a trustee of the endowment fund for the College of William and Mary, his alma mater, which in 1998 conferred upon him honorary degree of Doctor of Humane Letters.[27] In 1996, Gates' autobiography, From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider's Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War, was published. Gates has also written numerous articles on government and foreign policy and has been a frequent contributor to the op-ed page of The New York Times.[28] Texas A&M[edit]

Gates at Texas A&M

Gates was the interim Dean of the Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M University from 1999 to 2001. On August 1, 2002, he became the 22nd President of Texas A&M. As the university president, Gates made progress in four key areas of the university's "Vision 2020" plan, a plan to become one of the top 10 public universities by the year 2020. The four key areas include improving student diversity, increasing the size of the faculty, building new academic facilities, and enriching the undergraduate and graduate education experience.[29] During his tenure, Gates encouraged the addition of 440 new faculty positions and a $300 million campus construction program, and saw increases in minority enrollment. On February 2, 2007, Gates was conferred the title of President Emeritus by unanimous vote of the Texas A&M University System Board of Regents. Gates and his wife Becky received honorary doctoral degrees from Texas A&M on August 10, 2007.[30] Gates left the presidency of Texas A&M University on December 16, 2006,[31] and was sworn in two days later as Secretary of Defense. He returned on April 21, 2009, as the speaker for the annual Aggie Muster ceremony. He is one of only 6 speakers not to be a graduate of Texas A&M University since Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
spoke in 1946.[32] In his affiliation with A&M, Gates has served on the National Security Higher Education Advisory Board.[33] Corporate boards[edit] Gates has been a member of the board of trustees of Fidelity Investments, and on the board of directors of NACCO Industries, Inc., Brinker International, Inc., Parker Drilling Company, Science Applications International Corporation, and VoteHere, a technology company which sought to provide cryptography and computer software security for the electronic election industry.[34] Following his nomination, a White House
White House
spokeswoman said that Gates planned to sell all the stock he owns in individual companies and sever all ties with them if confirmed by the Senate.[35] Public service[edit] Gates is a former president of the National Eagle Scout Association.[36] In January 2004, Gates co-chaired a Council on Foreign Relations
Council on Foreign Relations
task force on U.S. relations towards Iran. Among the task force's primary recommendation was to directly engage Iran on a diplomatic level regarding Iranian nuclear technology. Key points included a negotiated position that would allow Iran to develop its nuclear program in exchange for a commitment from Iran to use the program only for peaceful means.[37] At the time of his nomination by President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
to the position of Secretary of Defense, Gates was also a member of the Iraq Study Group, also called the Baker Commission, which was expected to issue its report in November 2006, following the mid-term election on November 7. He was replaced by former Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger. Declined appointment as Director of National Intelligence[edit] In February 2005, Gates wrote in a message posted on his school's website that "there seems to be a growing number of rumors in the media and around campus that I am leaving Texas A&M to become the new director of national intelligence in Washington, D.C." The message said that "To put the rumors to rest, I was indeed asked to take the position, wrestled with perhaps the most difficult—and close—decision of my life, and last week declined the position."[38] Gates committed to remain as President of Texas A&M University through the summer of 2008; President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
offered the position of United States
United States
Director of National Intelligence (DNI) to John Negroponte, who accepted.[39] Gates said in a 2005 discussion with the university's Academy for Future International Leaders that he had tentatively decided to accept the DNI position out of a sense of duty and had written an email that would be sent to students during the press conference to announce his decision, explaining that he was leaving to serve the U.S. once again. Gates, however, took the weekend to consider what his final decision should be, and ultimately decided that he was unwilling to return to Washington, D.C., in any capacity simply because he "had nothing to look forward to in D.C. and plenty to look forward to at A&M".[40] Secretary of Defense[edit]

Gates boards a UH-60 Blackhawk, Camp Monteith, Kosovo

Bush Administration[edit]

Gates being sworn in as Defense Secretary on December 18, 2006.

On November 8, 2006, after the 2006 midterm election, President George W. Bush announced his intent to nominate Gates to succeed the resigning Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld
as U.S. Secretary of Defense.[41][42] Gates was unanimously confirmed by the United States
United States
Senate Armed Services Committee on December 5, 2006. During his confirmation hearing on December 5, 2006, Gates replied to a question that in his opinion the United States
United States
was neither winning nor losing the war in Iraq.[43] The next day, Gates was confirmed by the full Senate by a margin of 95–2, with Republican Senators Rick Santorum
Rick Santorum
and Jim Bunning casting the two dissenting votes and senators Elizabeth Dole, Evan Bayh, and Joe Biden
Joe Biden
not voting.[44] On December 18, 2006, Gates was sworn in as Secretary of Defense by White House
White House
Chief of Staff Josh Bolten
Josh Bolten
at a private White House
White House
ceremony and then by Vice President Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
at the Pentagon.[45]

Gates with Japan Minister of Defense Shigeru Ishiba
Shigeru Ishiba
at Japan in November 2007.

Under the Bush administration, Gates directed the war in Iraq's troop surge, a marked change in tactics from his predecessor. With violence on the decline in Iraq, in 2008, Gates also began the troop withdrawal of Iraq, a policy continued into the Obama administration.

US Secretary of Defense
US Secretary of Defense
Robert Gates
Robert Gates
gives a gig 'em with a group of Aggie Marines at Camp Fallujah, Iraq

Walter Reed Medical Center scandal[edit] Several months after his appointment, The Washington Post
The Washington Post
published a series of articles beginning February 18, 2007 that brought to the spotlight the Walter Reed Army Medical Center neglect scandal.[46] As a result of the fallout from the incident, Gates announced the removal of Secretary of the Army Francis J. Harvey, and later, he approved the removal of Army Surgeon General
General
Kevin C. Kiley.[47] Controversy over Joint Chiefs[edit] On June 8, 2007, Gates announced that he would not recommend the renomination of Peter Pace, the Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff, due to anticipated difficulties with the confirmation process. Instead, Gates recommended Mike Mullen, the Chief of Naval Operations
Chief of Naval Operations
at the time, to fill the position. Gates stated: "I am no stranger to contentious confirmations, and I do not shrink from them. However, I have decided that at this moment in our history, the nation, our men and women in uniform, and General
General
Pace himself would not be well-served by a divisive ordeal in selecting the next chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff." Gates referred to Pace as a friend and praised his service as a Marine.[48] Misshipments of nuclear weapons[edit] On June 5, 2008, in response to the findings on Air Force misshipments of nuclear weapons and nuclear weapons components, Gates announced the resignations of Secretary of the Air Force Michael Wynne
Michael Wynne
and Air Force Chief of Staff Michael Moseley.[49] Gates would later write that the USAF was "one of my biggest headaches" during his time in the office.[50] Obama Administration[edit]

Gates with Israeli Minister of Defense Ehud Barak
Ehud Barak
at the Pentagon in 2009.

On December 1, 2008, President-elect Obama announced that Robert Gates would remain in his position as Secretary of Defense during his administration,[7] reportedly for at least the first year of Obama's presidency.[51] Gates was the fourteenth Cabinet member in history to serve under two Presidents of different parties, and the first to do so as Secretary of Defense. One of the first priorities under President Barack Obama's administration for Gates was a review of U.S. policy and strategy in Afghanistan.[52] Gates, sixth in the presidential line of succession, was selected as designated survivor during Obama's inauguration.[53] On March 1, 2009, he told David Gregory on Meet the Press
Meet the Press
that he would not commit to how long he would serve as Secretary of Defense but implied that he would not serve the entire first term.[54] While Gates continued the troop withdrawals in Iraq, which already had begun in the Bush administration, he also implemented a rapid, limited surge of troops in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 2009.[55] Robert Gates
Robert Gates
removed General
General
David D. McKiernan
David D. McKiernan
from command in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
on May 6, 2009[56][57] and replaced him with General
General
Stanley A. McChrystal. The Washington Post
Washington Post
called it "a rare decision to remove a wartime commander". The Washington Post
The Washington Post
described the replacement as one of several replacements of Generals who represented the "traditional Army" with Generals "who have pressed for the use of counter-insurgency tactics".[56] In December 2009 Gates visited Afghanistan
Afghanistan
following President Barack Obama's announcement of the deployment of 30,000 additional personnel against the Taliban
Taliban
insurgency.[58]

Gates with Afghan president Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
in March 2011

Time magazine notes that Gates and U.S. Secretary of State
U.S. Secretary of State
Hillary Clinton have "forged a formidable partnership", speaking frequently, "comparing notes before they go to the White House", meeting with each other weekly and having lunch once a month at either the Pentagon or the State Department.[59] In a March 2010 speech to a NATO
NATO
conference in Washington, Secretary Gates said that "The demilitarization of Europe—where large swaths of the general public and political class are averse to military force and the risks that go with it—has gone from a blessing in the 20th century to an impediment to achieving real security and lasting peace in the 21st".[60] Gates announced in February 2010 that the department would lift its ban on women serving on submarines.[61] Gates also prepared the armed forces for the repeal of the don't ask, don't tell policy. Since the repeal in 2010, homosexuals are able to serve in the military openly.[62] In service of that goal, he announced in late March 2010 the approval of new regulations that would make it more difficult to kick gays out of the military. Gates called the guideline changes, which went into effect immediately, a matter of "common sense and common decency" that would be "an important improvement" allowing the Pentagon to apply current law in "a fairer and more appropriate" manner. The Pentagon's legal counsel, Jeh Johnson, said the new regulations are by no means a moratorium on the current law and stressed that cases would move forward under the new standards.[63]

Gates sitting with Obama, Biden, and the U.S. national security team gathered in the Situation Room to monitor the progress of Operation Neptune Spear.

Gates was photographed in the White House
White House
Situation Room photograph taken on May 1, 2011 by Pete Souza. In August 2010, speaking to Foreign Policy magazine Secretary Gates said that he would remain as Secretary of Defense until 2011 and then retire. "I think that it would be a mistake to wait until January 2012," he said. "This is not the kind of job you want to fill in the spring of an election year."[64][65] Gates officially retired as Secretary of Defense on July 1, 2011 and was presented the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian award, by President Obama during his retirement ceremony.[9] Fiscal restraint[edit] Gates' tenure with the Obama administration included a huge shift in military spending. In April 2009, Gates proposed a large shift in budget priorities in the U.S. Department of Defense 2010 budget. The budget cuts included many programs geared toward conventional warfare, such as the end of new orders of the F-22 Raptor, and further development of Future Combat Systems
Future Combat Systems
manned vehicles. However, these cuts were counterbalanced by increases in funding for programs like the special forces.[66] Gates called this the "nation's first truly 21st century defense budget."[67] In late April 2010, he suggested the Navy cease funding development of a new multibillion-dollar ballistic missile submarine program on the grounds of cost and relevancy.[68] He has suggested the hundreds of billions of dollars would be better spent on a new generation of vessels tailored to the threats and tactics more likely to be faced, noting, "Mark my words, the Navy and Marine Corps must be willing to re-examine and question basic assumptions in light of evolving technologies, new threats and budget realities."[69] In a speech made on May 8, 2010, Gates stated that he would make politically unpopular cuts to the Pentagon bureaucracy in his future budgets.[70][71]

The attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, opened a gusher of defense spending that nearly doubled the base budget over the last decade. . . Military spending on things large and small can and should expect closer, harsher scrutiny. The gusher has been turned off, and will stay off for a good period of time.[70][71]

Gates speaks to Navy SEAL trainees, NAB Coronado, California, 2010

It was announced in August 2010 that Gates was trying to find $100 billion in Defense savings through to 2015, in order to in-still a "culture of savings and restraint" in the military. Secretary Gates said that "It is important that we do not repeat the mistakes of the past, where tough economic times or the winding down of a military campaign leads to steep and unwise reductions in defense,". Gates said "As a matter of principle and political reality, the Department of Defense cannot expect America's elected representatives to approve budget increases each year unless we are doing a good job, indeed everything possible, to make every dollar count".[72] These cuts included the closing of the Joint Forces Command, the redundancy of fifty general and admirals, and the removal of 150 senior civilian positions. NATO
NATO
comments[edit] On January 16, 2008, Gates was quoted in the Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
as saying NATO
NATO
forces in southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
do not know how to properly combat a guerrilla insurgency and that could be contributing to rising violence in the country.[73] The Netherlands[74] and United Kingdom[75] protested. In a June 10, 2011 speech in Brussels,[76] before NATO, Gates again stated that other NATO
NATO
members must do more as the United States tackles its budget deficit. He said bluntly that[77]

In the past, I've worried openly about NATO
NATO
turning into a two-tiered alliance: Between members who specialize in "soft" humanitarian, development, peacekeeping and talking tasks, and those conducting the "hard" combat missions. Between those willing and able to pay the price and bear the burdens of alliance commitments, and those who enjoy the benefits of NATO
NATO
membership—be they security guarantees or headquarters billets—but don't want to share the risks and the costs. This is no longer a hypothetical worry. We are there today. And it is unacceptable. The blunt reality is that there will be dwindling appetite and patience in the U.S. Congress—and in the American body politic writ large—to expend increasingly precious funds on behalf of nations that are apparently unwilling to devote the necessary resources or make the necessary changes to be serious and capable partners in their own defense. Nations apparently willing and eager for American taxpayers to assume the growing security burden left by reductions in European defense budgets. Indeed, if current trends in the decline of European defense capabilities are not halted and reversed, future U.S. political leaders—those for whom the Cold War was not the formative experience that it was for me—may not consider the return on America's investment in NATO
NATO
worth the cost.

Post–Obama administration[edit]

Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel
Chuck Hagel
speaks with Robert Gates
Robert Gates
and Leon Panetta, November 2013

Gates at the LBJ Library
LBJ Library
in 2016

Gates is a Principal, along with Condoleezza Rice, Stephen Hadley
Stephen Hadley
and Anja Manuel, in RiceHadleyGates LLC, a strategic consulting firm.[78] On September 6, 2011, it was announced that Gates had accepted the position of chancellor at the College of William & Mary, succeeding Sandra Day O'Connor. He took the office of the chancellor on February 3, 2012. On May 2, 2012, Starbucks Corporation announced that Gates had been elected to the Starbucks board of directors. He will serve on the board's nominating and corporate governance committee.[79] On October 30, 2013, the Boy Scouts of America
Boy Scouts of America
announced that Gates had been elected to the National executive board. While on this board, he will serve as the national president-elect. In May 2014, he began a two-year-long term as the BSA national president. Randall Stephenson, chairman and chief executive officer of AT&T Inc. serves under Gates as the president-elect. Gates has succeeded Wayne Perry as the national president.[80] On May 21, 2015, Gates stated that the "status quo [ban on gay adult leaders] in [the BSA] movement's membership standards cannot be sustained" and that he would no longer seek to revoke the charters of scout units that accept gay adult leaders.[81] In his memoir, Duty: Memoirs of a Secretary at War, Gates alternately criticized and praised Obama's military leadership, writing, "I never doubted [his] support for the troops, only his support for their mission [in Afghanistan]", and "I was very proud to work for a president who had made one of the most courageous decisions I had ever witnessed in the White House
White House
[by authorizing the raid against Osama bin Laden]."[82][83] In the wake of the 2014 Crimean crisis
2014 Crimean crisis
on 25 March 2014, Gates wrote an op-ed piece on Vladimir Putin, Russian expansionism, the nascent sanctions regime, the US military budget, and the need for bold leadership.[84] Criticism[edit]

Gates responds to a question during the Senate Armed Services Committee hearing on December 5, 2006

As deputy director and director of America's leading intelligence agency for many years, Gates and his CIA staff have been faulted for failing to accurately gauge the decline and disintegration of the Soviet Union. More particularly, Gates has been criticized for allegedly concocting evidence to show that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was stronger than it actually was.[85] George Shultz said that, while Secretary of State, he felt the CIA under Gates was trying to "manipulate" him, that the agency was "a big powerful machine not under good control. I distrust what comes out of it."[86] Schultz also told Gates at the time that his CIA was "usually wrong" about Moscow, having dismissed Gorbachev's policies as "just another Soviet attempt to deceive us."[87] In 1991, Stansfield Turner, former Director of Central Intelligence, described the "enormity of this failure to forecast the magnitude of the Soviet crisis. … I never heard a suggestion from the CIA … that numerous Soviets recognized a growing systemic economic problem."[88] Turner said this failure was a consequence of deliberate distortion by those in the upper echelon of the CIA who were helping to sell the Reagan administration's defense buildup, a view backed by former CIA analyst Melvin Goodman
Melvin Goodman
at Gates' 1991 confirmation hearings: "[William] Casey seized on every opportunity to exaggerate the Soviet threat … [while] Gates' role in this activity was to corrupt the process and the ethics of intelligence."[89] Reviewing the third instalment of Gates' memoirs in 2016, Goodman said, "In my 24 years at the CIA, there was never the kind of toxic atmosphere that existed when Gates served as deputy director for intelligence, deputy director of CIA, and finally director of CIA."[90] Also, according to Newsweek, Gates, as deputy director of CIA, allegedly vouched for the comprehensiveness of a CIA study presented to the Senate and President Reagan alleging that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
played a role in the 1981 shooting of Pope John Paul II. A CIA internal review later denounced the report as being skewed,[85] but that Gates did not try to influence the report's conclusions.[91] Shortly after his retirement from his tenure as Defense Secretary in summer 2011, during a meeting of the National Security Council Principals Committee, Gates highlighted many of the measures taken by the U.S. to advance Israel's security during the Obama Administration, including providing access to state of the art weaponry, assisting with the development of missile-defense systems, and sharing high-level intelligence, before expressing his view that the U.S. has received nothing in return from the Israeli government with regards to the peace process. According to senior U.S. administration sources, other officials present offered no rebuttal to Gates' analysis. This was not the first time Gates publicly expressed frustration with the Netanyahu government, with which he had worked hard to provide wide-scale and deep military cooperation.[92] The Likud
Likud
party of Israel
Israel
responded to Gates' description of Benjamin Netanyahu
Benjamin Netanyahu
as a danger to Israel's future by claiming that most Israelis support the prime minister.[93] Awards and decorations[edit] Gates' awards and decorations include:

Government awards

Presidential Medal of Freedom[94] Presidential Citizens Medal National Security Medal National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal
National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal
(2 awards) Distinguished Intelligence Medal (3 awards)

Other awards

Eagle Scout Distinguished Eagle Scout Award Silver Buffalo Award Vigil Honor, Order of the Arrow Distinguished Service Award (DSA), Order of the Arrow, August 4, 2015 Honorary Doctorate of Philosophy
Doctorate of Philosophy
from Kansas
Kansas
State University[95] Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from College of William and Mary Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Georgetown University Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Indiana University[96] Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from The University of Oklahoma Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Yale University Honorary Doctorate of Laws
Doctorate of Laws
from the University of Notre Dame Honorary Doctorate of Public Administration
Doctorate of Public Administration
from The University of South Carolina[97] College of William and Mary
College of William and Mary
– Algernon Sydney Sullivan Award College of William and Mary
College of William and Mary
Alumni Association – Alumni Medallion Corps of Cadets Hall of Honor (First and only Non-Corps Honoree) – Texas A&M University Arthur S. Flemming Award of 1978 George Bush Award (2007) – George Bush Presidential Library Foundation Aviation Week & Space Technology Magazine: Person of the Year 2008[98] MTV University Man of the Year 2010[99][100] Foreign Policy's list of top global thinkers for "being America's last bipartisan figure"[101] Sylvanus Thayer Award ( United States
United States
Military Academy)[102] Robert C. Vance Distinguished Lecturer, Central Connecticut State University, 2011[103] Order of Bahrain, 1st Degree[104] Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun, 2017

Notes[edit]

^ "Gates: Military looks to accelerate Iraq
Iraq
pullout". Associated Press. Associated Press. December 1, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2009. Gates also cleared up confusion about his political affiliation. During his tenure at the CIA, he said, he thought he should be apolitical so he did not register with a political party. But, he added, "I consider myself a Republican."  ^ Schultheis, Emily (15 May 2016). "Bob Gates on how Trump stands out from past presidents". Face the Nation. CBS News. Retrieved 22 September 2016.  ^ Robert Gates, From The Shadows, 1996 (pp. 20–21 of Simon & Schuster 2006 paperback edition) ^ "Robert M. Gates – George W. Bush
George W. Bush
/ Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.  ^ a b Robert Gates
Robert Gates
By Zbigniew Brzezinski. Time. ^ "America's Best Leaders: Robert Gates, U.S. Secretary of Defense". Retrieved November 25, 2008.  ^ a b "Key members of Obama-Biden national security team announced". Newsroom. Office of the President-elect. December 1, 2008. Archived from the original (Press release) on December 1, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2008.  ^ Looking Back, Gates Says He’s Grown Wary of ‘Wars of Choice’, NY Times, June 18, 2011 ^ a b "Obama Awards Gates Presidential Medal of Freedom". American Forces Press Service via Defense.gov. June 30, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2011.  ^ "robert gates". ancestry.com.  ^ "Distinguished Eagle Scouts" (PDF). Scouting.org. Retrieved November 4, 2010.  ^ Townley, Alvin (2007) [December 26, 2006]. Legacy of Honor: The Values and Influence of America's Eagle Scouts. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 217–218. ISBN 0-312-36653-1. Retrieved December 29, 2006.  ^ Shane, Scott (November 19, 2006). "Pentagon Pick Returns to City He Gladly Left". New York Times. p. front. Retrieved September 25, 2006.  ^ a b Whitson, Brian (December 8, 2006). "Senate confirms Gates ('65) as U.S. Secretary of Defense". W&M News. College of William & Mary Office of University Relations. Front. Retrieved November 9, 2006.  ^ "Soviet Sinology: An Untapped Source for Kremlin Views and Disputes Relating to Contemporary Events in China". University Microfilms International document number 7421652. ^ Straszheim, Deborah (February 6, 1998). "W&m Charter Day To Honor Gilmore". Daily Press. Retrieved February 11, 2013.  ^ "Five Outstanding Individuals to Receive Honorary Degrees at OU Commencement". Public Affairs University of Oklahoma. Retrieved February 11, 2013.  ^ "Georgetown Announces Speakers for 2014 Commencement". Georgetown University. May 1, 2014. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2014.  ^ a b Gates, Robert (April 21, 2008). "Secretary Gates Remarks at Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base, Montgomery Alabama" (transcript). DefenseLink News. U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved December 23, 2008.  ^ a b "DefenseLink Biography: Robert M. Gates". U.S. Dept. of Defense. July 2007. Retrieved April 21, 2008.  ^ Powers, Thomas (June 20, 1996). "Who Won the Cold War?". New York Review of Books. 43 (11). Archived from the original on September 13, 2005.  ^ "AllGov – Officials". allgov.com.  ^ "Ex-Aide Calls CIA Under Casey and Gates Corrupt and Slanted", Paul Horvitz. New York Times. October 2, 1991. Accessed June 8, 2011 ^ "Los Angeles Times, November 25, 2006, free archived version at commondreams.org, lase visited November 26, 2006". Archived from the original on June 22, 2007.  ^ GlobalSecurity.org. Iran-Contra Report, Chapter 16. ^ Lawrence E. Walsh, Final report of the independent counsel for Iran/Contra matters, August 4, 1993, and in particular Chapter 16, "Robert M. Gates" ^ " Honorary degree
Honorary degree
recipients". wm.edu. Retrieved April 23, 2014.  ^ Texas A&M press release Archived March 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., July 1999. ^ "Texas A&M Academic Convocation 2005 Archived July 23, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.". President Robert M. Gates. ^ "Aggies Wrap First Week of Fall Camp with Pair of Workouts". Texas A&M University Athletic Department. August 11, 2007. Archived from the original on August 13, 2007. Retrieved August 15, 2007.  ^ " History
History
of the Office". Texas A&M University. Archived from the original on May 8, 2014. Retrieved May 7, 2014.  ^ "Speaker". tamu.edu.  ^ "FBI Director Appoints National Security Higher Education Advisory Board". FBI.  ^ Lewellen-Biddle, Mark (December 11, 2003). "Voting Machines Gone Wild!". In These Times. Retrieved September 25, 2007.  ^ Theimer, Sharon (December 6, 2006). "Gates' Assets Include Defense Stock". Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved September 25, 2007.  ^ "NESA Mourns Loss of Eagles in Operation Iraqi Freedom". Boy Scouts of America. 2008. Retrieved July 7, 2008.  ^ Iran: Time for a New Approach Archived December 3, 2006, at the Wayback Machine., final report of an independent task force, July 2004, Council of Foreign Relations Press ^ "Gates Turns Down Bush Administration Position". KBTX.com. February 1, 2005. Archived from the original on January 18, 2014. Retrieved July 14, 2012.  ^ "Bush names Negroponte intelligence chief". CNN.com. February 18, 2005. Archived from the original on September 22, 2006. Retrieved November 8, 2006.  ^ Esterbrook, John (November 8, 2006). "A Closer Look At Robert Gates". CBS News. Retrieved February 3, 2009.  ^ "Bush replaces Rumsfeld to get 'fresh perspective'". CNN.com. November 8, 2006. Retrieved November 8, 2006.  ^ Sheryl Gay Stolberg and Jim Rutenberg (November 8, 2006). "Rumsfeld Resigns as Defense Secretary After Big Election Gains for Democrats". New York Times. Retrieved November 8, 2006.  ^ Jim Garamone (December 6, 2006). "Senate Confirms Gates as 22nd Defense Secretary". American Forces Press Service. Retrieved December 6, 2006.  ^ " Robert Gates
Robert Gates
confirmed as secretary of defense". Associated Press. December 6, 2006. Retrieved December 6, 2006.  ^ "New US defence secretary sworn in". BBC News. December 18, 2006. Retrieved December 18, 2006.  ^ [1] ^ [2] Archived October 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ [3] Archived July 14, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "DoD News Briefing with Secretary Gates from the Pentagon". U.S. Department of Defense. June 5, 2008. Archived from the original on June 6, 2008. Retrieved June 5, 2008.  ^ "Gates Versus the Air Force". www.airforcemag.com. Air Force Association. 5 February 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.  ^ "Gates Cabinet Appointment 'A Done Deal'" (Blog). Political Radar. ABC News. November 25, 2008. Retrieved November 25, 2008.  ^ Fireman, Ken; Capaccio, Tony (December 2, 2008). "Gates Says Review of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Policy Will Be 'High Priority'" (Article). Worldwide News. Bloomberg. Retrieved December 2, 2008.  ^ CNN (January 20, 2009). "Defense Secretary Gates to be 'designated successor' Tuesday" (News article). CNN. CNN. Retrieved January 20, 2009.  ^ Rueb, Emily S. (March 2, 2009). "Gates Defends Iraq
Iraq
Withdrawal Plan". The New York Times. Retrieved March 27, 2010.  ^ "Gates against further surge of US troops in Afghanistan". The Times of India. May 4, 2009.  ^ a b Ann Scott Tyson (May 12, 2009). "Top U.S. Commander in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Is Fired". Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 4, 2011.  ^ Yochi J. Dreazen, Peter Spiegel (May 12, 2009). "U.S. Fires Afghan War Chief: Four-Star General
General
Replaced by Counterinsurgency Expert as Campaign Stumbles". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on May 17, 2009.  ^ "Karzai Delays Naming Cabinet as Pentagon Chief Lands for Talks". bloomberg.com.  ^ "TIME". time.com.  ^ Dempsey, Judy (March 3, 2010). "Shaping Policy by Playing Safe" – via NYTimes.com.  ^ The Associated Press
Associated Press
(April 30, 2010). "Women Allowed on Submarines" – via NYTimes.com.  ^ "Gates: Pentagon preparing repeal of 'don't ask, don't tell' policy". CNN. February 2, 2010. Retrieved May 22, 2010.  ^ "Gates approves new regs on gays in military". TheHill.  ^ "Secretary of defense Robert Gates
Robert Gates
looking to retire in 2011". New York. [dead link] ^ "The Transformer". Foreign Policy.  ^ "Gates Announces Major Pentagon Priority Shifts." CNN, April 9, 2009. Retrieved: April 14, 2009. ^ " United States
United States
Department of Defense". www.defenselink.mil. Archived from the original on July 20, 2009.  ^ "Gates confronts cost of new subs". POLITICO.  ^ "DailyTech – Officials Question the Need For Expensive U.S. Navy Ships". dailytech.com.  ^ a b Shanker, Thom (May 8, 2010). "Gates Takes Aim at Pentagon Spending". New York Times. Retrieved May 9, 2010.  ^ a b Jaffe, Greg (May 9, 2010). "Gates: Cuts in Pentagon bureaucracy needed to help maintain military force". Washington Post. Retrieved May 9, 2010.  ^ "Gates announces major job cuts as Pentagon looks to cut spending". TheHill.  ^ Spiegel, Peter (January 16, 2008). "Gates says NATO
NATO
force unable to fight guerrillas". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on February 6, 2008. Retrieved May 22, 2010.  ^ "U.S. envoy quizzed on Gates' remarks". Los Angeles Times. January 17, 2008. Retrieved May 22, 2010. [dead link] ^ Evans, Michael (January 17, 2008). "Outrage as US accuses Britain of inexperience in Taleban conflict". The Times. London. Retrieved March 27, 2010.  ^ "Speech View". defense.gov.  ^ Shanker, Thom (June 10, 2011). "Defense Secretary Warns NATO
NATO
of 'Dim' Future". The New York Times. U.S. Retrieved June 10, 2011.  ^ "The RiceHadleyGates Team". Rice Hadley Gates LLC.  ^ [4] Archived May 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Chief's Corner – Scouting Wire". Scouting Wire.  ^ "Robert Gates: Boy Scouts' ban on gay troop leaders not sustainable". Yahoo News. May 21, 2015. Retrieved May 21, 2015.  ^ "Pentagon ex-head Gates criticises Obama's Afghan tactics". BBC News. Retrieved 8 January 2013.  ^ Cloud, David S. (7 January 2014). "Ex-Defense Secretary Robert Gates has harsh words for Obama and Biden". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 9 January 2014.  ^ Robert M. Gates (March 25, 2014). "Robert Gates: Putin's Challenge to the West – WSJ". WSJ.  ^ a b "Old Names, Old Scandals". Newsweek. November 8, 2006. Archived from the original on November 18, 2006.  ^ Schultz, George P. (1996). Turmoil and Triumph: Diplomacy, Power, and the Victory of the American Deal. New York, NY: Scriber. 1924–5.  ^ Bettie M. Smolansky and Oles M. Smolansky, eds. (2001). The Lost Equilibrium: International Relations in the Post-Soviet Era. p. 28. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Moynihan, Daniel P.; Combest, Larry (1997). Secrecy: Report of the Commission on Protecting and Reducing Government Secrecy. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. p. A74.  ^ Diamond, John M. (2008). The CIA and the Culture of Failure: U.S. Intelligence from the End of the Cold War
Cold War
to the Invasion of Iraq. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-804-75601-3.  ^ Goodman, Melvin A. (4 February 2016). "The Reality of Robert Gates". consortiumnews.com. Retrieved 10 February 2016.  ^ "In Rebuttal to Senate Panel, C.I.A. Nominee Seems Truthful but Incomplete". The New York Times. October 13, 1991.  ^ Jeffrey Goldberg (September 5, 2011). " Robert Gates
Robert Gates
Says Israel
Israel
Is an Ungrateful Ally". Bloomberg.com.  ^ " Likud
Likud
defends Netanyahu after report Gates called him 'ungrateful'." Haaretz Newspaper, September 6, 2011. ^ Associated Press
Associated Press
(June 30, 2011). "On final day as defense secretary, Obama honors Gates with Presidential Medal of Freedom". Washington Post. Retrieved June 30, 2011.  ^ " Kansas
Kansas
State University: Honorary Degrees".  ^ Troyer, Rebecca M. (December 19, 2009). "IU WINTER COMMENCEMENT 2009: Robert Gates
Robert Gates
to IU grads: 'America needs the best and brightest'". Herald Times Online. Bloomington, Indiana. Retrieved July 22, 2017.  ^ "12 Distinguished Figures to Join Gates as Honorary Degree Recipients".  ^ AW & ST, January 14, 2013 issue, p. 47 ^ "MAN OF THE YEAR: Secretary of Defense Robert Gates". mtvU. Viacom. December 29, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2011.  ^ Martinez, Luis (December 23, 2010). "mtvU: Defense Secretary is a Rock Star". ABC News.com. Retrieved December 4, 2011.  ^ "The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers". Foreign Policy. The Washington Post Company. November 28, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2011.  ^ "Gates named recipient of 2011 Sylvanus Thayer Award". Retrieved March 8, 2012.  ^ Newberg, Liz. (2011, November 11). Gates speaks at CCSU; Students protest. Newington Town Crier, p. 16. Retrieved on 2013-5-29. ^ Morrison, Tech. Sgt. Jerry (Dec 12, 2008). Welcome Gift (Photo). DoD. Archived from the original (.jpg) on July 14, 2015. Retrieved Jan 10, 2015. U.S. Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates receives Bahrain's Order of the First Class Award from His Majesty King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa at the Safriya Palace in Manama, Bahrain, Dec. 12, 2008 

References[edit]

"Biography, Robert M. Gates, President, Texas A&M University". Texas A&M University. 2003. Archived from the original on September 20, 2006.  Clark, J. Ransom. "Directors of Central Intelligence: Robert Michael Gates (1943- ), DCI, Nov 6. 1991-Jan. 20 1993". The Literature of Intelligence: A Bibliography of Materials, with Essays, Reviews, and Comments. Archived from the original on November 25, 2005.  Gates, Robert M. (1997). From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider's Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-83497-9.  Nauman, Brett (February 1, 2005). "Gates passes on intelligence czar post". The Bryan-College Station Eagle. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.  "Robert Michael Gates". Directors & Deputy Directors of Central Intelligence. Center for the Study of Intelligence, CIA. 2004. Archived from the original on August 3, 2006. 

Bibliography[edit]

Robert Gates, From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider's Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War. Simon & Schuster; Reprint edition (May 7, 1997). ISBN 978-0684810812 Robert Gates, Duty: Memoirs of a Secretary at War. Alfred A. Knopf; (January 14, 2014). ISBN 978-0307959478 Robert Gates, A Passion for Leadership: Lessons on Change and Reform from Fifty Years of Public Service. (January 16, 2016). ISBN 978-0307959492

Further reading[edit]

Paul Burka, "Agent of Change", Texas Monthly (November 2006) Robert Gates, US Intelligence and the End of the Cold War, 1999, CIA Robert Gates, Frontline The Gulf War: An Oral History: Interview with Robert Gates, Deputy National Security Advisor, 2001, PBS.org Robert Gates, A Balanced Strategy: Reprogramming the Pentagon for a New Age, Foreign Affairs (January/February 2009)

External links[edit]

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Biography at the United States
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in libraries ( WorldCat
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discusses his book "From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider's Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War." October 13, 1996. Gates on relations with China: Nov. 2007 visit, June 1, 2007[permanent dead link] The Reinvention of Robert Gates
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by Michael Crowley, The New Republic, November 9, 2009 Interview with Charlie Rose Robert Gates, former secretary of defense discusses his book "DUTY: Memoirs of a Secretary at War." January 14, 2014. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (October 24, 1991). Nomination of Robert M. Gates to be Director of Central Intelligence. Washington, D.C.: United States
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Government Printing Office. Exec. Rept. 102-19. 

Government offices

Preceded by Harry Rowen Chair of the National Intelligence Council 1983–1986 Succeeded by Frank Horton III

Preceded by John McMahon Deputy Director of Central Intelligence 1986–1989 Succeeded by Dick Kerr

Preceded by William Webster Director of Central Intelligence 1991–1993 Succeeded by James Woolsey

Political offices

Preceded by John Negroponte Deputy National Security Advisor 1989–1991 Succeeded by Jonathan Howe

Preceded by Donald Rumsfeld United States
United States
Secretary of Defense 2006–2011 Succeeded by Leon Panetta

Academic offices

Preceded by Ray Bowen President of Texas A&M University 2002–2006 Succeeded by Ed J. Davis Acting

Preceded by Sandra Day O'Connor Chancellor of the College of William and Mary 2012–present Incumbent

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Directors of Central Intelligence and the Central Intelligence Agency

Central Intelligence

Souers Vandenberg Hillenkoetter Smith Dulles McCone Raborn Helms Schlesinger Colby Bush Turner Casey Webster Gates Woolsey Deutch Tenet Goss

Central Intelligence Agency

Goss Hayden Panetta Petraeus Brennan Pompeo

v t e

Deputy Directors of Central Intelligence and the Central Intelligence Agency

Central Intelligence

Kingman Douglass Edwin Kennedy Wright William Harding Jackson Allen Dulles Charles P. Cabell Marshall Carter Richard Helms Rufus Taylor Robert E. Cushman Jr. Vernon A. Walters E. Henry Knoche John F. Blake Frank Carlucci Bobby Ray Inman John N. McMahon Robert Gates Richard James Kerr Bill Studeman George Tenet John A. Gordon John E. McLaughlin

Central Intelligence Agency

Albert Calland Stephen Kappes Michael Morell Avril Haines David S. Cohen Gina Haspel

United States
United States
Secretaries of Defense

Forrestal Johnson Marshall Lovett Wilson McElroy T. Gates McNamara Clifford Laird Richardson Schlesinger Rumsfeld Brown Weinberger Carlucci Cheney Aspin Perry Cohen Rumsfeld R. Gates Panetta Hagel Carter Mattis

v t e

Cabinet of President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2009–2017)

Cabinet

Secretary of State

Hillary Clinton
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Secretary of the Treasury

Timothy Geithner
Timothy Geithner
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Secretary of Defense

Robert Gates
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Leon Panetta
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Ash Carter
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Attorney General

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Secretary of the Interior

Ken Salazar
Ken Salazar
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Sally Jewell
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Secretary of Agriculture

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Secretary of Commerce

Gary Locke
Gary Locke
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Secretary of Labor

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Secretary of Health and Human Services

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Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

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Secretary of Transportation

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Secretary of Energy

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Secretary of Veterans Affairs

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Cabinet-level

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Joe Biden
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Director of the Office of Management and Budget

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Trade Representative

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Ambassador to the United Nations

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Susan Rice
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Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers

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Christina Romer
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Austan Goolsbee
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Alan Krueger
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Jason Furman
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Administrator of the Small Business
Business
Administration

Karen Mills
Karen Mills
(2012–2013)** Maria Contreras-Sweet
Maria Contreras-Sweet
(2014–2017)

* Acting ** took office in 2009, raised to cabinet-rank in 2012 See also: Confirmations of Barack Obama's Cabinet

v t e

Cabinet of President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2001–09)

Cabinet

Secretary of State

Colin Powell
Colin Powell
(2001–05) Condoleezza Rice
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Secretary of the Treasury

Paul H. O'Neill
Paul H. O'Neill
(2001–02) John W. Snow
John W. Snow
(2003–06) Henry Paulson
Henry Paulson
(2006–09)

Secretary of Defense

Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld
(2001–06) Robert Gates
Robert Gates
(2006–09)

Attorney General

John Ashcroft
John Ashcroft
(2001–05) Alberto Gonzales
Alberto Gonzales
(2005–07) Michael Mukasey
Michael Mukasey
(2007–09)

Secretary of the Interior

Gale Norton
Gale Norton
(2001–06) Dirk Kempthorne
Dirk Kempthorne
(2006–09)

Secretary of Agriculture

Ann Veneman
Ann Veneman
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Mike Johanns
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Ed Schafer
(2008–09)

Secretary of Commerce

Donald Evans
Donald Evans
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Carlos Gutierrez
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Secretary of Labor

Elaine Chao
Elaine Chao
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Secretary of Health and Human Services

Tommy Thompson
Tommy Thompson
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Mike Leavitt
(2005–09)

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

Mel Martinez
Mel Martinez
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Alphonso Jackson
(2003–08) Steve Preston
Steve Preston
(2008–09)

Secretary of Transportation

Norman Mineta
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Secretary of Energy

Spencer Abraham
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Samuel Bodman
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Secretary of Education

Rod Paige
Rod Paige
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Margaret Spellings
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Secretary of Veterans Affairs

Anthony Principi
Anthony Principi
(2001–05) Jim Nicholson (2005–07) James Peake
James Peake
(2007–09)

Secretary of Homeland Security

Tom Ridge
Tom Ridge
(2003–05) Michael Chertoff
Michael Chertoff
(2005–09)

Cabinet-level

Vice President

Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
(2001–09)

White House
White House
Chief of Staff

Andrew Card
Andrew Card
(2001–06) Joshua Bolten
Joshua Bolten
(2006–09)

Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency

Christine Todd Whitman
Christine Todd Whitman
(2001–03) Mike Leavitt
Mike Leavitt
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Stephen L. Johnson
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Director of the Office of Management and Budget

Mitch Daniels
Mitch Daniels
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Joshua Bolten
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Rob Portman
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Jim Nussle
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Director of National Drug Control Policy

John P. Walters
John P. Walters
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Trade Representative

Robert Zoellick
Robert Zoellick
(2001–05) Rob Portman
Rob Portman
(2005–06) Susan Schwab
Susan Schwab
(2006–09)

v t e

Members of the Iraq
Iraq
Study Group

Chairs

James Baker
James Baker
(Co-chair) Lee Hamilton (Co-chair)

Members

Vernon Jordan, Jr. Edwin Meese Sandra Day O'Connor Leon Panetta William Perry Chuck Robb Alan Simpson Lawrence Eagleburger

Resigned prior to final report

Robert Gates Rudy Giuliani

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

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War on Terror

War in Afghanistan Iraq
Iraq
War War in North-West Pakistan Symbolism of terrorism

Participants

Operational

ISAF Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
participants Afghanistan Northern Alliance Iraq
Iraq
(Iraqi Armed Forces) NATO Pakistan United Kingdom United States European Union Philippines Ethiopia

Targets

al-Qaeda Osama bin Laden al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Abu Sayyaf Anwar al-Awlaki Al-Shabaab Boko Haram Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami Hizbul Mujahideen Islamic Courts Union Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant Jaish-e-Mohammed Jemaah Islamiyah Lashkar-e-Taiba Taliban Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan

Conflicts

Operation Enduring Freedom

War in Afghanistan OEF – Philippines Georgia Train and Equip Program Georgia Sustainment and Stability OEF – Horn of Africa OEF – Trans Sahara Drone strikes in Pakistan

Other

Operation Active Endeavour Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present) Insurgency in the North Caucasus Moro conflict
Moro conflict
in the Philippines Iraq
Iraq
War Iraqi insurgency Operation Linda Nchi Terrorism in Saudi Arabia War in North-West Pakistan War in Somalia (2006–09) 2007 Lebanon conflict al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen Korean conflict

See also

Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse Axis of evil Black sites Bush Doctrine Clash of Civilizations Cold War Combatant Status Review Tribunal Criticism of the War on Terror Death of Osama bin Laden Enhanced interrogation techniques Torture Memos Extrajudicial prisoners Extraordinary rendition Guantanamo Bay detention camp Iranian Revolution Islamic terrorism Islamism Military Commissions Act of 2006 North Korea and weapons of mass destruction Terrorist Surveillance Program Operation Noble Eagle Operation Eagle Assist Pakistan's role Patriot Act President's Surveillance Program Protect America Act of 2007 September 11 attacks State Sponsors of Terrorism Targeted killing Targeted Killing in International Law Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World Unitary executive theory Unlawful combatant Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan CAGE

Terrorism portal War portal

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National Football Foundation Gold Medal winners

1958: Dwight D. Eisenhower 1959: Douglas MacArthur 1960: Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
& Amos Alonzo Stagg 1961: John F. Kennedy 1962: Byron "Whizzer" White 1963: Roger Q. Blough 1964: Donold B. Lourie 1965: Juan T. Trippe 1966: Earl H. "Red" Blaik 1967: Frederick L. Hovde 1968: Chester J. LaRoche 1969: Richard Nixon 1970: Thomas J. Hamilton 1971: Ronald Reagan 1972: Gerald Ford 1973: John Wayne 1974: Gerald B. Zornow 1975: David Packard 1976: Edgar B. Speer 1977: Louis H. Wilson 1978: Vincent dePaul Draddy 1979: William P. Lawrence 1980: Walter J. Zable 1981: Justin W. Dart 1982: Silver Anniversary Awards (NCAA) - All Honored Jim Brown, Willie Davis, Jack Kemp, Ron Kramer, Jim Swink 1983: Jack Kemp 1984: John F. McGillicuddy 1985: William I. Spencer 1986: William H. Morton 1987: Charles R. Meyer 1988: Clinton E. Frank 1989: Paul Brown 1990: Thomas H. Moorer 1991: George H. W. Bush 1992: Donald R. Keough 1993: Norman Schwarzkopf 1994: Thomas S. Murphy 1995: Harold Alfond 1996: Gene Corrigan 1997: Jackie Robinson 1998: John H. McConnell 1999: Keith Jackson 2000: Fred M. Kirby II 2001: Billy Joe "Red" McCombs 2002: George Steinbrenner 2003: Tommy Franks 2004: William V. Campbell 2005: Jon F. Hanson 2006: Joe Paterno
Joe Paterno
& Bobby Bowden 2007: Pete Dawkins
Pete Dawkins
& Roger Staubach 2008: John Glenn 2009: Phil Knight
Phil Knight
& Bill Bowerman 2010: Bill Cosby 2011: Robert Gates 2012: Roscoe Brown 2013: National Football League
National Football League
& Roger Goodell 2014: Tom Catena
Tom Catena
& George Weiss 2015: Condoleezza Rice 2016: Archie Manning

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Presidents of Texas A&M University

James Earl Rudder
James Earl Rudder
(1959–1970) Alvin Luedecke
Alvin Luedecke
# (1970) Jack Kenny Williams (1970–1977) Jarvis E. Miller (1977–1980) Charles H. Samson # (1980–1981) Frank Vandiver (1981–1988) William H. Mobley (1988–1993) E. Dean Gage # (1993–1994) Ray Bowen (1994–2002) Robert Gates
Robert Gates
(2002–2006) Ed J. Davis # (2006–2008) Elsa Murano
Elsa Murano
(2008–2009) R. Bowen Loftin† (2009–2014) Mark A. Hussey # (2014–2015) Michael K. Young (2015– )

# denotes interim president — † served as interim before serving in the permanent capacity

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Chancellors of the College of William & Mary

Henry Compton (1693–1700) Thomas Tenison
Thomas Tenison
(1700–1707) Henry Compton (1707–1713) John Robinson (1714–1721) William Wake
William Wake
(1721–1729) Edmund Gibson
Edmund Gibson
(1729–1736) William Wake
William Wake
(1736–1737) Edmund Gibson
Edmund Gibson
(1737–1748) Thomas Sherlock
Thomas Sherlock
(1749–1761) Thomas Hayter (1762) Charles Wyndham (1762–1763) Philip Yorke (1764) Richard Terrick
Richard Terrick
(1764–1776) George Washington
George Washington
(1788–1799) Vacant (1800–1858) John Tyler
John Tyler
(1859–1862) Vacant (1863–1870) Hugh Blair Grigsby
Hugh Blair Grigsby
(1871–1881) Vacant (1882–1941) John Stewart Bryan
John Stewart Bryan
(1942–1944) Vacant (1945) Colgate Darden
Colgate Darden
(1946–1947) Vacant (1948–1961) Alvin Duke Chandler
Alvin Duke Chandler
(1962–1974) Vacant (1975–1985) Warren E. Burger
Warren E. Burger
(1986–1993) Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
(1993–2000) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
(2000–2005) Sandra Day O'Connor
Sandra Day O'Connor
(2005–2012) Robert Gates
Robert Gates
(2012–)

Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 8873151 LCCN: n86130550 ISNI: 0000 0000 8195 9264 GND: 136320015 SELIBR: 370673 SUDOC: 072318147 BNF: cb15985912r (data) NDL: 001221

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