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Robert Alphonso Taft
Alphonso Taft
Sr. (September 8, 1889 – July 31, 1953) was an American conservative politician, lawyer, and scion of the Taft family. A member of the Republican Party, he represented Ohio
Ohio
in the United States Senate
United States Senate
and briefly served as Senate Majority Leader. The elder son of William Howard Taft, the 27th President of the United States, Robert Taft was born in Cincinnati, Ohio. He pursued a legal career in Cincinnati
Cincinnati
after graduating from Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School
in 1913. Along with his brother, Charles Phelps Taft
Charles Phelps Taft
II, he co-founded the law partnership of Taft Stettinius & Hollister. Taft served in the Ohio
Ohio
House of Representatives from 1921 to 1931 and in the Ohio
Ohio
Senate from 1931 to 1933. Though he lost re-election in 1932, he remained a powerful force in state and local politics. Taft won election to the United States Senate
United States Senate
in 1938, defeating incumbent Democrat Robert J. Bulkley. He became a leader of the conservative coalition of Republicans and conservative Democrats who successfully opposed expansion of the New Deal
New Deal
after 1938. He also emerged as a prominent non-interventionist and opposed U.S. involvement into World War II
World War II
prior to the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor. After the war, he opposed the creation of NATO
NATO
and criticized President Harry Truman's handling of the Korean War. He also cosponsored the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947, which banned closed shops and other labor practices. After winning election to the Senate, Taft repeatedly sought the Republican presidential nomination, often battling for control of the party with the moderate faction of Republicans led by Thomas E. Dewey. Taft's non-interventionist stances damaged his 1940 candidacy, and the 1940 Republican National Convention
1940 Republican National Convention
nominated Wendell Willkie. Taft sought the presidency again in 1948, but he lost to Dewey at the 1948 Republican National Convention. Taft sought the presidential nomination a third time in 1952 and was widely viewed as the frontrunner. However, Dewey and other moderates convinced General Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
to enter the race, and Eisenhower narrowly prevailed at the 1952 Republican National Convention
1952 Republican National Convention
and went on to win the 1952 presidential election. Taft was elected Senate Majority Leader in 1953 but died of pancreatic cancer later that year. A 1957 Senate committee named Taft as one of America's five greatest senators, along with Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, and Robert M. La Follette, Sr.[1]

Contents

1 Family and education 2 Early public career 3 US Senator

3.1 Opposition to New Deal 3.2 Opposition to World War II 3.3 1944 re-election 3.4 Education 3.5 Condemnation of Nuremberg Trials 3.6 1947 Taft–Hartley Labor Act 3.7 Second term 3.8 1950 re-election

4 Presidential ambitions

4.1 Distrust by Old Right 4.2 1940 and 1944 4.3 1948 and 1952

5 Senate Majority Leader 6 Death and legacy

6.1 Memorial

7 In popular culture 8 Electoral history 9 See also 10 Footnotes 11 Further reading

11.1 Primary sources

12 External links

Family and education[edit] Taft was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, a product of one of America's most prominent political families. He was a grandson of Attorney General and Secretary of War Alphonso Taft, and the elder son of President and Chief Justice William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
and Helen Louise "Nellie" Herron. His younger brother, Charles Phelps Taft
Charles Phelps Taft
II, served as the Mayor
Mayor
of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
and was the unsuccessful Republican candidate for Ohio Governor in 1952. As a boy he spent four years in the Philippines, where his father was governor. He was first in his class at the Taft School (run by his uncle), at Yale College
Yale College
(1910), and at Harvard Law School (1913). He was a member of Psi Upsilon, his father's fraternity[2] and Skull and Bones,[3] and edited the Harvard Law Review. In 1913, Taft scored the highest in the state on the Ohio
Ohio
bar exam. He then practiced for four years with the firm of Maxwell and Ramsey (now Graydon Head & Ritchey LLP) in Cincinnati, his family's ancestral city. After a two-year stint in Washington working for the Food and Drug Administration, he returned to Cincinnati
Cincinnati
and opened his own law office. In 1924 he and his brother, Charles, helped form the law partnership Taft, Stettinius, and Hollister with which he continued to be associated until his death and continues to carry his name today. On October 17, 1914, he married Martha Wheaton Bowers (1889–1958),[4] daughter of Lloyd Wheaton Bowers and Louisa Bennett Wilson. Taft himself appeared taciturn and coldly intellectual, characteristics that were offset by his gregarious wife, who served the same role his mother had for his father, as a confidante and powerful asset to her husband's political career. In May 1950, Martha suffered a severe stroke that left her an invalid, leaving her confined to a wheelchair, unable to take care of herself, and reliant upon her husband, children, and nurses for support.[5] A biographer called his wife's stroke "the deepest personal blow of [Taft's] life...there was no denying that he suffered."[6] Following her stroke, Taft faithfully assisted his wife, called her every night when he was away on business, read stories to her at night when he was at home, "pushed her about in her wheelchair, lifted her in and out of cars...tenderly did his best to make her feel comfortable and happy, and helped feed and take care of her at public functions" - facts which, his admirers noted, belied his public image as a cold and uncaring person.[7] They had four sons: William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
III (1915–1991), who became ambassador to Ireland; Robert Alphonso Taft Jr. (1917–1993), who was also elected to the U.S. Senate; Lloyd Bowers Taft (1923–1985),[8] who worked as an investment banker in Cincinnati,[9] and Horace Dwight Taft (1925–1983), who became a professor of physics and dean at Yale.[10] Two of Robert and Martha's grandsons are Robert Alphonso "Bob" Taft III (born 1942), Governor of Ohio
Ohio
from 1999 to 2007, and William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
IV (born 1945), Deputy Secretary of Defense from 1984 to 1989. In 1917, Taft and his wife bought a 46-acre (190,000 m2) farm in Indian Hill, a well-to-do suburb of Cincinnati. Called Sky Farm, it would serve as Taft's primary residence for the rest of his life. The Tafts gradually made extensive renovations that turned the small farmhouse into a sixteen-room mansion. On the farm Taft enjoyed growing strawberries, asparagus, and potatoes for profit. During the summer, Taft often vacationed with his wife and children at the Taft family's summer home at Murray Bay, in Quebec, Canada.[11] Although he was nominally a member of the Episcopal church, his biographer James Patterson noted that Taft's "religious inclinations were weak" and that he was a "Sunday morning golfer, not a church-going Episcopalian."[12] When reporters asked his wife Martha what church he attended, she jokingly replied, "I'd have to say the Burning Tree", an exclusive country club and golf course in suburban Washington.[13] Early public career[edit]

Official portrait of Senator Robert A. Taft

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v t e

When the United States entered World War I
World War I
in April 1917, Taft attempted to join the army but was rejected due to his poor eyesight. Instead, he joined the legal staff of the Food and Drug Administration where he met Herbert Hoover, who became his idol. In 1918 and 1919, he was in Paris
Paris
as legal adviser for the American Relief Administration, Hoover's agency to distribute food to wartorn Europe. He came to distrust governmental bureaucracy as inefficient and detrimental to the rights of the individual, a principle he promoted throughout his career. He urged membership in the League of Nations[14] but generally distrusted European politicians. He endorsed the idea of a powerful world court to enforce international law, but no such idealized court ever existed during his lifetime. He returned to Cincinnati
Cincinnati
in late 1919, promoted Hoover for president in 1920, and opened a law firm with his brother, Charles Taft. In 1920 he was elected to the Ohio House of Representatives, where he served as Speaker of the House in 1926. In 1930, he was elected to the Ohio
Ohio
Senate, but was defeated for re-election in 1932; it would be the only general election defeat of his career. He was an outspoken opponent of the Ku Klux Klan, and he did not support prohibition. In 1925 he voted against a bill, sponsored by Ohio
Ohio
state representatives who were members of the Ku Klux Klan, to outlaw dancing on Sundays, and he led the fight against a Klan-sponsored bill requiring all Ohio
Ohio
public school teachers to read at least ten verses of the Bible each day in class.[15] In his speech opposing the bill, Taft stated that religion should be taught in churches, not public schools, and while the Bible was great literature, "in it religion overshadows all else." The bill passed the legislature over the opposition of Taft and his allies, but it was later vetoed by Ohio's governor.[15] Taft's period of service in the Ohio
Ohio
state legislature was most notable for his efforts to reform and modernize the state's antiquated tax laws.[16] Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, Taft was a powerful figure in local and state political and legal circles, and he was known as a loyal Republican who never threatened to bolt the party. He confessed in 1922 that "while I have no difficulty talking, I don't know how to do any of the eloquence business which makes for enthusiasm or applause."[17] A lackluster speaker who did not mix well or glad-hand supporters, Taft was still a tireless worker with a broad range of policy and political interests. His total grasp of the complex details of every issue impressed reporters and politicians. (Democrats joked, "Taft has the best mind in Washington, until he makes it up.") Taft's loyalty to the conservative politicians who controlled Ohio's Republican Party had a price, as it often caused conflict with his younger brother, Charles, who as a local politician in Cincinnati
Cincinnati
had gained a reputation as a party maverick and liberal. However, despite their occasional policy disagreements, Charles loyally supported all three of his brother's presidential bids. US Senator[edit] Taft was elected to the first of his three terms as US Senator in 1938. He first defeated Ohio
Ohio
Supreme Court justice Arthur H. Day
Arthur H. Day
in the Republican primary, and then defeated the Democratic incumbent, Robert Bulkley, in the general election.[18] Taft engaged Bulkley in several debates and was generally regarded as the winner.[19] He struggled in the earlier debates but later came out on top through assistance from his wife, Martha,[19] who would be regarded as the most valuable asset in his campaign.[20] As a result, Taft gained the upper hand against Bulkley, who had earlier been regarded as the frontrunner in the race,[19] and won the election by nearly 171,000 votes, or 53.6% of the total vote.[21] During his first two years as a Senator, the Tafts rented a home in Washington, but in 1941 they purchased a brick Victorian home, built in the 1880s, in the city's Georgetown neighborhood.[22] The home – despite lacking "the grace and amenities of Sky Farm", their home in Ohio – remained their Washington residence until Taft's death in 1953.[22] Opposition to New Deal[edit] Co-operating with Conservative Democrats, he led the Conservative Coalition that opposed the New Deal. The Republican gains in the 1938 elections, combined with the creation of the Conservative Coalition, had stopped the expansion of the New Deal. However, Taft saw his mission as not only stopping the growth of the New Deal
New Deal
but also eliminating many of its government programs. During his first term in the Senate, Taft criticized what he believed was the inefficiency and waste of many New Deal
New Deal
programs and of the need to let private enterprise and businesses restore the nation's economy instead of relying upon government programs to end the Great Depression. He condemned the New Deal
New Deal
as socialist and attacked deficit spending, high farm subsidies, governmental bureaucracy, the National Labor Relations Board, and nationalized health insurance. However, he did not always follow conservative ideology; for instance, after investigating the lack of adequate housing in the nation, he supported public housing programs.[23] He also supported federal aid to the states to fund public schools.[24] Taft set forward a conservative domestic program that promoted limited government spending, a balanced federal budget, low taxes, pro-business policies to spur economic growth, a limited number of social welfare programs (such as Social Security, a minimum wage, public housing and federal aid to public education), and an adequate national defense focused on strengthening the Navy
Navy
and Air Force.[25] In foreign policy, he advocated noninvolvement in European wars and military alliances.[26] He also strongly opposed the military draft on the principle that it limited a young man's freedom of choice.[27] Various historians have described Taft, in terms of political philosophy, as a libertarian; he opposed nearly all forms of governmental interference in both the national economy and in the private lives of citizens.[28] Opposition to World War II[edit] Taft's greatest prominence during his first term came not from his fight against the New Deal
New Deal
but rather from his vigorous opposition to US involvement in the Second World War. A staunch non-interventionist, Taft believed that America should avoid any involvement in European or Asian wars and concentrate instead on solving its domestic problems. He believed that a strong military, combined with the natural geographic protection of the Atlantic
Atlantic
and Pacific
Pacific
Oceans, would be adequate to protect America even if Germany overran all of Europe. Between the outbreak of war in September, 1939 and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 Taft opposed nearly all attempts to aid countries fighting Germany. That brought him strong criticism from many liberal Republicans, such as Wendell Willkie, who felt that America could best protect itself by supporting the British and their allies. Although Taft fully supported the American war effort after Pearl Harbor, he continued to harbor a deep suspicion of American involvement in postwar military alliances, including the North Atlantic
Atlantic
Treaty Organization. Taft was the representative to speak in opposition to Japanese-American internment.[29] 1944 re-election[edit] In 1944 Taft was nearly defeated in his bid for a second term in the Senate. His Democratic opponent, William G. Pickrel, received major support from Ohio's labor unions and internationalists, and lost by fewer than 18,000 votes out of nearly three million cast, or a margin of less than one percent.[30] Taft lost Cleveland, the state's largest city, by 96,000 votes, and he trailed in most of Ohio's largest urban areas, but he ran strong in the state's rural regions and small towns, carried 71 of Ohio's 88 counties, and so avoided defeat.[30] His near-defeat in 1944 "was ever to confound Taft's insistence that he was a potent vote getter", and played a role in his failure to win the Republican presidential nomination in 1948.[31] Following his re-election, Taft became chairman of the Senate Republican Conference in 1944. Education[edit] In March 1946, Taft joined Senators Lister Hill and Elbert Thomas
Elbert Thomas
in introducing a version of the Hill-Thomas Federal Aid to Education bill.[32] Condemnation of Nuremberg Trials[edit] Taft condemned the postwar Nuremberg Trials
Nuremberg Trials
as victor's justice under ex post facto laws, in which the people who won the war were the prosecutors, the judges, and the alleged victims, all at the same time. Taft condemned the trials as a violation of the most basic principles of American justice and internationally accepted standards in favor of a politicized version of justice in which court proceedings became an excuse for vengeance against the defeated.[33]

I question whether the hanging of those, who, however despicable, were the leaders of the German people, will ever discourage the making of aggressive war, for no one makes aggressive war unless he expects to win. About this whole judgment there is the spirit of vengeance, and vengeance is seldom justice. The hanging of the eleven men convicted will be a blot on the American record, which we shall long regret.[34]

His opposition to the trials was strongly criticized by Republicans and Democrats alike, and it is sometimes given as the main reason for his failure to secure the Republican nomination for president. Other observers, such as Senator John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(in Profiles in Courage), applauded Taft's principled stand even in the face of great bipartisan criticism. 1947 Taft–Hartley Labor Act[edit] When the Republicans took control of Congress in 1947, he focused on labor-management relations as Chair of the Senate Labor Committee. Decrying the effect of the Wagner Act
Wagner Act
in tilting the balance toward labor unions, he wrote the 1947 Taft–Hartley Act, which remains the basic labor law. It bans "unfair" union practices, outlaws closed shops, and authorizes the President to seek federal court injunctions to impose an 80-day cooling-off period if a strike threatened the national interest. Taft displayed all of his parliamentary skills in getting the bill through Congress. When President Harry Truman
Harry Truman
vetoed it, Taft then convinced both houses of Congress to override the veto. Second term[edit] From 1947 to 1949, when the Republicans controlled the Senate, Taft was his party's leading voice in domestic policy. He was reluctant to support farm subsidies, a position that hurt the party in rural areas (especially in the Midwest) in the 1948 elections. Taft engineered the passage of the Housing Act of 1949, which funded slum clearance and the construction of 810,000 units of low-income housing over a period of six years. It was one of the few Fair Deal proposals of Truman that he liked.[35] In foreign policy, he was non-interventionist and did not see Stalin's Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as a major threat. However, he called David Lilienthal "soft on the subject of Communism."[36] The true danger, he believed, was big government and runaway spending. He supported the Truman Doctrine and reluctantly approved the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
but opposed NATO, as unnecessary and provocative to the Soviets. He took the lead among Republicans in condemning Truman's handling of the Korean War
Korean War
and questioning the constitutionality of the war itself: "My conclusion, therefore, is that in the case of Korea, where a war was already under way, we had no right to send troops to a nation, with whom we had no treaty, to defend it against attack by another nation, no matter how unprincipled that aggression might be, unless the whole matter was submitted to Congress and a declaration of war or some other direct authority obtained."[37] Taft was a supporter of the new state of Israel, called for an end to the arms embargo to the Middle East, and supported arms shipments and other military aid to the new country.[38] 1950 re-election[edit] In 1950, Taft ran a more effective campaign for re-election to the Senate. Wooing factory workers, he visited 334 industrial plants and gave 873 speeches.[39] He won a third term by 431,184 votes, the second largest victory margin in Ohio
Ohio
Senate election history until then.[40] He benefited from a weak Democratic opponent – one observer reportedly said of "Jumping Joe" Ferguson, the State Auditor, "If the Democrats want to win, they should send Ferguson on a mission abroad," but more importantly, Ohio's unions failed to use the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947, which they denounced as a "slave labor law," against him. Additionally, Democratic Governor Frank Lausche
Frank Lausche
did not endorse Ferguson and, according to journalist Sidney Lubell, almost openly supported Taft. In a post-election survey of voters, Lubell found that the overly aggressive, labor-backed anti-Taft campaign angered some Democrats. Even many union members reportedly voted Republican to express their opposition to local union leaders, to support Taft-Hartley's ban on the closed shop, or to prevent, as one told Lubell, "the Socialists from taking over the Democratic party."[41] By the start of his third Senate term, Taft had been given the nickname "Mr. Republican."[37] He was the chief congressional ideologue and spokesman for the conservatism of the Republican Party and the acknowledged national leader of its conservative faction.[42] In a January 6, 1951 address, Taft criticized the Truman administration for plans to defend Western Europe.[43] On January 31, 1953, Taft indicated the Eisenhower administration would allow the death of price controls on April 30 and voiced his opposition to the "legal recognition to the principle of controls".[44] Presidential ambitions[edit] Distrust by Old Right[edit] Further information: Old Right (United States) While outsiders thought Taft was the epitome of conservative Republicanism, inside the party, he was repeatedly criticized by hardliners alarmed by his sponsorship of New Deal-like programs, especially federal housing for the poor. The real estate lobby was especially fearful about public housing. Senator Kenneth S. Wherry discerned a "touch of socialism" in Taft, and his Ohio
Ohio
colleague, Senator John Bricker, speculated that perhaps the "socialists have gotten to Bob Taft." The distrust on the right hurt Taft's 1948 presidential ambitions.[45] 1940 and 1944[edit] Taft first sought the Republican presidential nomination in 1940 but lost to Wendell Willkie. Taft was regarded as a strong contender, but his outspoken support of a non-interventionist foreign policy, and his opposition to the New Deal
New Deal
in domestic policy led many liberal Republicans to reject his candidacy. At the 1940 Republican Convention, Willkie, once a Democrat, and a corporate executive who had never run for political office, came from behind to beat Taft and several other candidates for the nomination. That year, Taft first clashed with Thomas E. Dewey, then a New York District Attorney, who had become nationally famous for successfully prosecuting several prominent organized-crime figures, especially New York mob boss "Lucky" Luciano. Taft felt that Dewey was not conservative or consistent enough in his principles for the Republican Party: "Tom Dewey has no real courage to stand up against the crowd that wants to smear any Republican who takes a forthright position against the New Deal... there is only one way to beat the New Deal, and that is head on. You can't outdeal them."[46] In other letters, Taft described Dewey as "very arrogant and bossy" and worried that "advisers will talk Dewey into too much internationalism...he comes from New York and sees the group opinions there as a lot more important than they are."[47] In the 1944 presidential campaign Taft was not a candidate. He supported Governor John W. Bricker
John W. Bricker
of Ohio, a fellow conservative, for the nomination. However, Bricker was defeated by Dewey, who had become the Governor of New York in 1943. Dewey named Bricker as his running mate; the ticket would go on to lose to Roosevelt in the general election. 1948 and 1952[edit] In 1948, Taft made a second try for the nomination but again was defeated by his archrival, Dewey, who led the GOP's moderate/liberal wing. In the 1948 presidential election, Dewey was defeated by the Democratic presidential candidate, Harry S. Truman. Taft sought to reach out to southern Democratic voters in his 1952 campaign. It was his third and final try for the nomination; it also proved to be his strongest effort. At the Republican State Convention in Little Rock, he declared:

I believe a Republican could carry a number of southern states if he conducts the right kind of campaign.... Whether we win or lose in the South, we cannot afford to ignore public opinion in the southern states, because it influences national public opinion, and that opinion finally decides the election.... It is said that southern Democrats will not vote for a Republican candidate. They have frequently done so. They did so in Little Rock last November [1951] when they elected Pratt Remmel mayor. I refuse to admit that if the issues are clearly presented, the southern voters will not vote on the basis of principle....[48]

Taft had the solid backing of the party's conservative wing. Former US Representative Howard Buffett
Howard Buffett
of Nebraska
Nebraska
(father of billionaire Warren Buffett) served as one of his campaign managers.[49] With Dewey no longer an active candidate, many political pundits regarded Taft as the frontrunner. However, the race changed when Dewey and other moderates were able to convince Dwight D. Eisenhower, the most popular general of World War II, to run for the nomination. Eisenhower ran because of his fear that Taft's non-interventionist views in foreign policy, especially his opposition to NATO, might benefit the Soviet Union in the Cold War.[50] The fight between Taft and Eisenhower for the nomination was one of the closest and most bitter in American political history. When the Republican Convention opened in Chicago in July 1952, Taft and Eisenhower were neck-and-neck in delegate votes. On the convention's first day, Eisenhower's managers complained that Taft's forces had unfairly denied Eisenhower supporters delegate slots in several Southern states, including Texas, where the state chairman, Orville Bullington, was committed to Taft. The Eisenhower partisans proposed to remove pro-Taft delegates in these states and replace them with pro-Eisenhower delegates; they called their proposal "Fair Play." Although Taft angrily denied having stolen any delegate votes, the convention voted to support Fair Play 658 to 548, and the Texans voted 33–5 for Eisenhower as a result. In addition, several uncommitted state delegations, such as Michigan and Pennsylvania, agreed to support Eisenhower. The addition of the uncommitted state delegations, combined with Taft's loss of many Southern delegates by the Fair Play proposal, decided the nomination in Eisenhower's favor. Despite his bitterness at his narrow defeat and his belief that he had been unfairly ambushed by the Eisenhower forces (including Dewey), Taft issued a brief statement after the convention conveying his congratulations and support to Eisenhower. Thereafter, however, he brooded in silence at his summer home in Quebec, complaining, "Every Republican candidate for President since 1936 has been nominated by the Chase National Bank."[51] As the weeks passed, Eisenhower's aides worried that Taft and his supporters would sit on their hands during the campaign and that as a result Eisenhower might lose the election. In September 1952, Taft finally agreed to meet with Eisenhower, at Morningside Heights in New York City. There, to gain Taft's support, Eisenhower promised that he would take no reprisals against Taft partisans, would cut federal spending, and would fight "creeping socialism in every domestic field." In fact, Eisenhower and Taft agreed on most domestic issues; their disagreements were primarily in foreign policy. Eisenhower firmly believed in NATO
NATO
and was committed to the US support of anticommunism in the Cold War. Senate Majority Leader[edit] Following Eisenhower's election and the Republican takeover of Congress, Taft served as Senate Majority Leader
Senate Majority Leader
in 1953, and he strongly supported Eisenhower's domestic proposals. He worked hard to assist the inexperienced new officials of the administration. He even tried, with little success, to curb the excesses of red-baiting US Senator Joseph McCarthy. By April, Eisenhower and Taft were friends and golfing companions, and Taft was praising his former adversary. Defeat in 1952, it seemed, had softened Taft. No longer burdened by presidential ambitions, he had become less partisan, less abrasive, and more conciliatory; he was now widely regarded as the most powerful man in Congress. On May 26, 1953, Taft delivered his final speech, in which he presciently warned of the dangers of America's emerging Cold War foreign policy, specifically against US military involvement in Southeast Asia, which would later become the Vietnam War:

“ I have never felt that we should send American soldiers to the Continent of Asia, which, of course, included China
China
proper and Indo-China, simply because we are so outnumbered in fighting a land war on the Continent of Asia
Asia
that it would bring about complete exhaustion even if we were able to win.... So today, as since 1947 in Europe and 1950 in Asia, we are really trying to arm the world against Communist Russia, or at least furnish all the assistance which can be of use to them in opposing Communism. Is this policy of uniting the free world against Communism
Communism
in time of peace going to be a practical long-term policy? I have always been a skeptic on the subject of the military practicability of NATO.... I have always felt that we should not attempt to fight Russia on the ground on the Continent of Europe any more than we should attempt to fight China
China
on the Continent of Asia.[52]

Death and legacy[edit] In early 1953, Taft began to feel pain in his hips, and after a painful golf outing with President Eisenhower in April 1953 he entered Walter Reed Hospital
Walter Reed Hospital
for initial tests which led physicians to suspect a tumor or arthritis.[53] On May 26 he entered Holmes Hospital in Cincinnati
Cincinnati
for more extensive tests.[54] The physicians there discovered nodules on his forehead and abdomen, and after doing biopsies of samples of the nodules, found that they were malignant.[55] On June 7, he entered New York Hospital
New York Hospital
for more tests and treatment; to keep the news that he might have cancer a secret he registered under the assumed name "Howard Roberts, Jr.".[56] His physicians there agreed with the diagnosis of cancer, but disagreed as to the source of the primary tumor and method of treatment. Some of his doctors advocated exploratory surgery to keep the malignancy from spreading, while other physicians thought the tumors had spread too far, were inoperable, and recommended x-ray therapy to keep him comfortable.[57] After his death, an autopsy determined that Taft had been stricken with pancreatic cancer, which had quickly reached metastasis and spread throughout his body.[58] On June 10, 1953, Taft held a press conference in which he transferred his duties as Senate Majority Leader to Senator William F. Knowland
William F. Knowland
of California. He did not resign his Senate seat and told reporters that he expected to recover and return to work.[57] However, his condition rapidly worsened, and Taft returned to New York Hospital
New York Hospital
for surgery on July 4 during a Senate recess. The surgery "did not take long, for the doctors discovered cancer everywhere...there was no longer any doubt" that his condition was terminal.[59] He died at New York Hospital
New York Hospital
on July 31, following a final brain hemorrhage just hours after his wife's final visit.[58][60] His body lay in state in the Rotunda of the United States Capitol, where thousands of mourners offered their respects at his coffin.[61] On August 3, 1953, a memorial service was held in the rotunda; in addition to his family the service was attended by Eisenhower, Vice-President Nixon, the cabinet, members of the Supreme Court, and Taft's congressional colleagues. Following the service his body was flown to Cincinnati, where he was buried in a private ceremony at Indian Hill Episcopal Church Cemetery.[61] In 1957, a committee led by Senator John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
selected Taft as one of five great senators whose portraits would adorn the President's Room off the Senate floor. Kennedy would feature him in Profiles in Courage, and Taft continues to be regarded by historians as one of the most powerful senators of the 20th century.[62] Memorial[edit] Main article: Robert A. Taft
Robert A. Taft
Memorial The Robert A. Taft
Robert A. Taft
Memorial, featuring a 10-foot (3.0 m) statue by the sculptor Wheeler Williams
Wheeler Williams
and a bell tower, is located north of the Capitol on Constitution Avenue. The inscription on the tower face behind him reads:

"This Memorial to Robert A. Taft, presented by the people to the Congress of the United States, stands as a tribute to the honesty, indomitable courage, and high principles of free government symbolized by his life."[63]

In popular culture[edit] Taft is mentioned in the 2015 novel The Madagaskar Plan, an alternative history in which the United States remains isolationist allowing Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
to conquer Europe and Africa. In the novel Taft wins the 1952 Presidential Election. Without a European war, Dwight Eisenhower does not become a revered general and thus is not there to defeat Taft for nomination.[64] Electoral history[edit] Main article: Electoral history of Robert Taft

See also[edit]

List of United States Congress members who died in office (1950–99)

Footnotes[edit]

^ "The "Famous Five"". Retrieved August 17, 2017.  ^ General Catalogue of the Psi Upsilon
Psi Upsilon
Fraternity, 12th edition, May 1917, p. 194. ^ "Taft's son elected to Skull and Bones". New York Times. May 28, 1909.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Myrootsplace". myrootsplace.com. [dead link] ^ (Patterson, p. 450) ^ (Patterson, p. 451) ^ (p. 451) ^ "Myrootsplace". myrootsplace.com.  ^ "Lloyd B. Taft Obituary". The New York Times. October 23, 1985. Retrieved April 25, 2012.  ^ Adair, Robert K.; Sandweiss, Jack; Pless, Irwin A. (August 1983). "Obituary: Horace Dwight Taft". Physics Today. 36 (8): 77. doi:10.1063/1.2915814. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ (Patterson, pp. 112–16) ^ (Patterson, p. 399) ^ (Patterson, p. 332) ^ Taft, Foreign Policy for Americans p. 37. ^ a b (Patterson, pp. 100–01) ^ (Patterson, p. 103) ^ Taft Papers 1:271 ^ (Patterson, pp. 160–179) ^ a b c "Campaigns: 39760". Time. November 7, 1938. Retrieved August 17, 2017.  ^ Wunderlin, Clarence (2005). Robert A. Taft: ideas, tradition, and party in U.S. foreign policy. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-7425-4490-1.  ^ (Patterson, p. 178) ^ a b (Patterson, pp. 253–254) ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 7. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.  ^ Clarence E. Wunderlin (2005). Robert A. Taft: Ideas, Tradition, and Party in U.S. Foreign Policy. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 116–17.  ^ (Patterson, pp. 315–34) ^ (Patterson, pp. 285–98) ^ (Patterson, pp. 392–93) ^ (Patterson, pp. 332–33) ^ Eric Foner (1999). The Story of American Freedom. W.W. Norton. p. 241.  ^ a b (Patterson, p. 278) ^ (Patterson, p. 280) ^ "Federal Aid To Education Seen On Way". Times Daily. April 2, 1946.  ^ Ruch, Walter (1946-10-06). "Taft Condemns Hanging for Nazis as Unjust Verdict". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved 2008-01-30.  ^ "Robert Taft on the Nuremberg Trials". Jfklibrary.org. Retrieved March 14, 2015.  ^ Charles C. Brown, "Robert A. Taft, Champion of Public Housing and National Aid to Schools," Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Historical Society Bulletin, 1968, Vol. 26 Issue 3, pp. 219–53. ^ Truman by David McCullough ^ a b Woods, Thomas (2005-07-07) Presidential War Powers, LewRockwell.com ^ "Taft calls for Military Aid to protect New Israel State". Milwaukee Sentinel. May 17, 1948.  ^ (Patterson, p. 465) ^ (Patterson, p. 469) ^ Lubell, Samuel (1956). The Future of American Politics (2nd ed.). Anchor Press. pp. 201–06.  ^ Patterson, p. 335. ^ "Douglas Asks $80 Million Budget". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. January 7, 1951.  ^ "Taft Hints Controls To Die April 30". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. February 1, 1953.  ^ David W. Reinhard, The Republican Right since 1945, (University Press of Kentucky, 1983) pp. 28, 39–40 ^ (Patterson, p. 269) ^ (Patterson, p. 271) ^ Osro Cobb, Osro Cobb of Arkansas: Memoirs of Historical Significance, Carol Griffee, ed. (Little Rock, Arkansas: Rose Publishing Company, 1989), p. 106 ^ Dionne, E.J., Why Americans Hate Politics, p. 265. ^ (Ambrose, p. 498) ^ Nichols, John (December 21, 2011) Why Do GOP Bosses Fear Ron Paul?, The Nation ^ Rothbard, Murray. Swan Song of the Old Right, LewRockwell.com ^ (Patterson, p. 601) ^ (Patterson, pp. 601–04) ^ (Patterson, p. 604) ^ (Patterson, p. 605) ^ a b (Patterson, p. 606) ^ a b Wead, Doug (2004). All the Presidents' Children: Triumph and Tragedy in the Lives of America's First Families. Simon and Schuster. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-7434-4633-4.  ^ (Patterson, p. 611) ^ "Taft's Cancer Originated in Pancreas, Doctor says". Chicago Tribune. October 3, 1953. p. 7.  ^ a b (Patterson, p. 612) ^ (Patterson, p. 617) ^ "The Robert A. Taft Memorial
Robert A. Taft Memorial
and Carillon". Retrieved October 13, 2007.  ^ John Gizzi, "Madagaskar Plan" Thriller Spells What Might Have Been In Nazi Conquered Africa
Africa
Newsmax.com

Further reading[edit]

Ambrose, Stephen E. Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect (1983). Armstrong John P. "The Enigma of Senator Taft and American Foreign Policy." Review of Politics 17:2 (1955): 206–31. in JSTOR Berger Henry W. ""Bipartisanship, Senator Taft, and the Truman Administration," Political Science Quarterly (1975) 90:221–37 Berger Henry. "A Conservative Critique of Containment: Senator Taft on the Early Cold War
Cold War
Program." In David Horowitz, ed., Containment and Revolution. (1967), pp. 132–39 Berger, Henry. "Senator Robert A. Taft
Robert A. Taft
Dissents from Military Escalation." In Thomas G. Paterson, ed., Cold War
Cold War
Critics: Alternatives to American Foreign Policy in the Truman Years. (1971) Bowen, Michael. The Roots of Modern Conservatism: Dewey, Taft, and the Battle for the Soul of the Republican Party (2011) Doenecke, Justus D. Not to the Swift: The Old Isolationists in the Cold War
Cold War
Era (1979), by a conservative historian Farber, David. The Rise and Fall of Modern American Conservatism: A Short History (2010) pp. 9–38 Hayes, Michael T. The Republican Road Not Taken: The Foreign-Policy Vision of Robert A. Taft, Independent Review Kirk, Russell, and James McClellan. The Political Principles of Robert A. Taft (1967), by a leading conservative Liggio, Leonard (2008). "Taft, Robert A. (1889–1953)". In Hamowy, Ronald. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; Cato Institute. p. 499. doi:10.4135/9781412965811.n305. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024.  Malsberger, John W. From Obstruction to Moderation: The Transformation of Senate Conservatism, 1938–1952 (2000) Matthews, Geoffrey. "Robert A. Taft, the Constitution, and American Foreign Policy, 1939–53," Journal of Contemporary History, (1982), 17:507–22 in JSTOR Moore, John Robert. "The Conservative Coalition in the United States Senate, 1942–45." Journal of Southern History 1967 33(3): 369–376. uses roll calls in JSTOR Moser, John E. "Principles Without Program: Senator Robert A. Taft
Robert A. Taft
and American Foreign Policy," Ohio
Ohio
History (1999) 108#2 pp. 177–92 online edition, by a conservative historian Patterson, James T. "A Conservative Coalition Forms in Congress, 1933–1939," The Journal of American History, Vol. 52, No. 4. (Mar., 1966), pp. 757–72. in JSTOR Patterson, James T. Congressional Conservatism
Conservatism
and the New Deal: The Growth of the Conservative Coalition in Congress, 1933–39 (1967) Patterson, James T. "Robert Alphonso Taft". Dictionary of American Biography, Supplement 5: 1951–1955. American Council of Learned Societies, 1977. Patterson, James T. Mr. Republican: A Biography of Robert A. Taft (1972), standard scholarly biography Radosh. Ronald. Prophets on the right: Profiles of conservative critics of American globalism (1978) Reinhard, David W. The Republican Right Since 1945 (1983) online edition Rosen, Elliot A. The Republican Party in the Age of Roosevelt: Sources of Anti-Government Conservatism
Conservatism
in the United States. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2014. Van Dyke, Vernon, and Edward Lane Davis. "Senator Taft and American Security." Journal of Politics 14 (1952): 177–202. in JSTOR White; William S. The Taft Story (1954). Pulitzer prize online edition Wunderlin, Clarence E. Robert A Taft: Ideas, Tradition, And Party In U.S. Foreign Policy (2005).

Primary sources[edit]

Kirk, Russell and James McClellan, eds. The Political Principles of Robert A. Taft
Robert A. Taft
(1967). Wunderlin, Clarence E. Jr., et al. eds. The Papers of Robert A. Taft vol 1, 1889–1939 (1998); vol 2, 1940–1944 (2001); vol 3, 1945–1948 (2003); vol 4, 1949–1953 (2006). Robert A. Taft, A Foreign Policy for Americans Finding Aid for Robert A. Taft
Robert A. Taft
papers, Archives and Rare Books Library, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio

External links[edit]

Robert Alphonso Taft, Sr at Find a Grave Newspaper clippings about Robert A. Taft
Robert A. Taft
in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
German National Library of Economics
(ZBW).

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Robert A. Taft

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Robert A. Taft.

Offices and distinctions

Party political offices

Preceded by Gilbert Bettman Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Ohio (Class 3) 1938, 1944, 1950 Succeeded by George H. Bender

New office Chair of the Senate Republican Policy Committee 1944–1953 Succeeded by William F. Knowland

Preceded by Styles Bridges Senate Republican Leader 1953

U.S. Senate

Preceded by Robert J. Bulkley U.S. Senator (Class 3) from Ohio 1939–1953 Served alongside: A. Victor Donahey, Harold H. Burton, James W. Huffman, Kingsley A. Taft, John W. Bricker Succeeded by Thomas A. Burke

New office Chair of the Joint Economic Report Committee 1946–1949 Succeeded by Joseph C. O'Mahoney

Preceded by James E. Murray Chair of the Senate Labor Committee 1947–1949 Succeeded by Elbert D. Thomas

Preceded by Ernest McFarland Senate Minority Leader 1953 Succeeded by William F. Knowland

Honorary titles

Preceded by John J. Pershing Persons who have lain in state or honor in the United States Capitol rotunda 1953 Succeeded by Unknown Soldiers of World War II
World War II
and the Korean War

Articles and topics related to Robert Taft

v t e

United States Senators from Ohio

Class 1

Smith Meigs Worthington Kerr Ruggles Morris Tappan Corwin Ewing Wade Thurman Sherman Hanna Dick Pomerene Fess Donahey H. Burton Huffman K. Taft Bricker Young R. Taft, Jr. Metzenbaum DeWine S. Brown

Class 3

Worthington Tiffin Griswold Campbell Morrow Trimble E. Brown Harrison Burnet Ewing Allen Chase Pugh Chase Sherman Matthews Pendleton Payne Brice Foraker T. Burton Harding Willis Locher T. Burton McCulloch Bulkley R. Taft, Sr. Burke Bender Lausche Saxbe Metzenbaum Glenn Voinovich Portman

v t e

United States Senate
United States Senate
Majority Leaders

Lodge Curtis Watson Robinson Barkley White Lucas McFarland Taft Knowland Johnson Mansfield Byrd Baker Stevens (Acting) Baker Dole Byrd Mitchell Dole Lott Daschle Lott Daschle Frist Reid McConnell

v t e

Republican Party Leaders in the United States Senate

Lodge Curtis Watson McNary Austin McNary White Wherry Bridges Taft Knowland Dirksen Scott Baker Dole Lott Frist McConnell

v t e

Chairmen of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions

Education/Education and Labor (1869–1947)

Harlan Drake Sawyer Flanagan Ferry Patterson Burnside Bailey Blair Carey Kyle Shoup Kyle McComas Penrose Dolliver Borah H. Smith Kenyon Borah Phipps Couzens Metcalf Walsh Black Thomas Murray

Labor and Public Welfare (1947–1977)

Taft Thomas Murray A. Smith Hill Yarborough Williams

Labor and Human Resources (1977–1999)

Williams Hatch Kennedy Kassebaum Jeffords

Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions (1999–)

Jeffords Kennedy Jeffords Kennedy Gregg Enzi Kennedy Harkin Alexander

v t e

(1936 ←) United States presidential election, 1940
United States presidential election, 1940
(→ 1944)

Democratic Party Convention

Nominee

Franklin D. Roosevelt

VP nominee

Henry A. Wallace

Candidates

James Farley John Nance Garner Cordell Hull Millard Tydings

Republican Party Convention

Nominee

Wendell Willkie

VP nominee

Charles L. McNary

Candidates

Styles Bridges Thomas Dewey Frank Gannett Arthur James Robert Taft Arthur H. Vandenberg

Third party and independent candidates

Prohibition
Prohibition
Party

Nominee

Roger Babson

Socialist Party

Nominee

Norman Thomas

VP nominee

Maynard C. Krueger

Socialist Labor Party

Nominee

John W. Aiken

VP nominee

Aaron M. Orange

Independents and other candidates

Gracie Allen

Other 1940 elections: House Senate

v t e

(1940 ←) United States presidential election, 1944
United States presidential election, 1944
(→ 1948)

Democratic Party Convention

Nominee

Franklin D. Roosevelt

VP nominee

Harry Truman

Candidates

Harry F. Byrd James Farley

Republican Party Convention

Nominee

Thomas E. Dewey

VP nominee

John W. Bricker

Candidates

Riley A. Bender Everett Dirksen Douglas MacArthur Harold Stassen Robert Taft Wendell Willkie

Third party and independent candidates

America First Party

Nominee

Gerald L. K. Smith

Prohibition
Prohibition
Party

Nominee

Claude A. Watson

Socialist Party

Nominee

Norman Thomas

VP nominee

Darlington Hoopes

Other 1944 elections: House Senate

v t e

(1944 ←) United States presidential election, 1948
United States presidential election, 1948
(→ 1952)

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Harry Truman

VP nominee

Alben W. Barkley

Candidates

Harley M. Kilgore Richard Russell Jr. Henry A. Wallace

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Thomas Dewey

VP nominee

Earl Warren

Candidates

Riley A. Bender Herbert E. Hitchcock Douglas MacArthur Joseph William Martin Jr. Edward Martin Leverett Saltonstall Harold Stassen Arthur H. Vandenberg Robert Taft

State's Rights Democratic Party

Nominee

Strom Thurmond

VP nominee

Fielding L. Wright

Other third party and independent candidates

Prohibition
Prohibition
Party

Nominee

Claude A. Watson

VP nominee

Dale H. Learn

Progressive Party

Nominee

Henry A. Wallace

VP nominee

Glen H. Taylor

Socialist Party

Nominee

Norman Thomas

VP nominee

Tucker P. Smith

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee

Farrell Dobbs

VP nominee

Grace Carlson

Independents and other candidates

Gerald L. K. Smith

Other 1948 elections: House Senate

v t e

(1948 ←) United States presidential election, 1952
United States presidential election, 1952
(→ 1956)

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Dwight D. Eisenhower

VP nominee

Richard Nixon

Candidates

Riley A. Bender George Theodore Mickelson Harold Stassen Robert Taft Earl Warren

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Adlai Stevenson

VP nominee

John Sparkman

Candidates

Alben W. Barkley Paul A. Dever W. Averell Harriman Hubert Humphrey Estes Kefauver Robert S. Kerr Richard Russell Jr.

Third party and independent candidates

Prohibition
Prohibition
Party

Nominee

Stuart Hamblen

VP nominee

Enoch A. Holtwick

Progressive Party

Nominee

Vincent Hallinan

VP nominee

Charlotta Bass

Socialist Labor Party

Nominee

Eric Hass

Socialist Party

Nominee

Darlington Hoopes

VP nominee

Samuel H. Friedman

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee

Farrell Dobbs

VP nominee

Myra Tanner Weiss

Independents and other candidates

Edward Longstreet Bodin Henry B. Krajewski

Other 1952 elections: House Senate

v t e

William Howard Taft

10th Chief Justice of the United States
Chief Justice of the United States
(1921–1930) 27th President of the United States
President of the United States
(1909–1913) 3rd Provisional Governor of Cuba (1904) 42nd United States Secretary of War
United States Secretary of War
(1904–1908) Governor-General of the Philippines
Philippines
(1901-1904) 6th Solicitor General of the United States
Solicitor General of the United States
(1890–1892)

Presidency

1909 inauguration Dollar diplomacy Income Tax amendment Payne–Aldrich Tariff Act Mann–Elkins Act Defense Secrets Act of 1911 Commission on Economy and Efficiency U.S. occupation of Nicaragua United States Chamber of Commerce Ceremonial first pitch State of the Union Address 1912 Cabinet Judicial appointments

Supreme Court

First Oval Office

Chief Justice, Supreme Court

Supreme Court career Judiciary Act of 1925 Creation of the Supreme Court Building Taft Court cases

Other actions

Taft Commission

Insular Government of the Philippine Islands Philippines
Philippines
Civil Governor, 1901–1904

Taft–Katsura agreement 1906–1909 Occupation of Cuba League to Enforce Peace National War Labor Board

Life and legacy

Early life Birthplace, home, and historic site Woodbury Point Taft Bridge Bibliography U.S. Postage stamps

Elections

1908 Republican National Convention 1908 U.S. presidential election 1912 Republican National Convention 1912 U.S. presidential election

Family

Helen Herron Taft
Helen Herron Taft
(wife) Robert Taft (son) Helen Taft Manning
Helen Taft Manning
(daughter) Charles Phelps Taft II
Charles Phelps Taft II
(son) Robert Taft Jr. (grandson) William Howard Taft III
William Howard Taft III
(grandson) Seth Taft (grandson) Alphonso Taft
Alphonso Taft
(father) Louise Taft (mother) Charles Phelps Taft
Charles Phelps Taft
(brother) Henry Waters Taft
Henry Waters Taft
(brother) Horace Dutton Taft (brother) Peter Rawson Taft
Peter Rawson Taft
(paternal grandfather)

Related

Progressive Era

← Theodore Roosevelt Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson

Category

v t e

Conservatism
Conservatism
in the United States

Schools

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Fusionism
(Libertarian Traditionalist Social conservatism) Neoconservatism Paleoconservatism

Core principles

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History

Article Timeline

People

Elliott Abrams Spiro Agnew Roger Ailes Nelson Aldrich Samuel Alito William B. Allison Justin Amash John Ashcroft Lee Atwater Irving Babbitt Michele Bachmann Chuck Baldwin Howard Baker James Baker Gary Bauer Glenn Beck William Bennett Morton Blackwell John Boehner Eric Bolling John R. Bolton Robert Bork Brent Bozell Nicholas F. Brady Andrew Breitbart John W. Bricker Arthur C. Brooks Sam Brownback Phil Bryant Pat Buchanan William F. Buckley Jr. Warren Burger Richard Burr Barbara Bush George H. W. Bush George W. Bush Jeb Bush Laura Bush Pierce Butler Herman Cain Tucker Carlson Ben Carson Joseph Gurney Cannon Darrell Castle Whittaker Chambers Elaine Chao Dick Cheney David Clarke Grover Cleveland Steven Crowder Tom Coburn Kellyanne Conway Calvin Coolidge John Cornyn Bob Corker Tom Cotton Ann Coulter Ed Crane Steven Crowder Ted Cruz Charles Curtis Charles G. Dawes Jim DeMint Betsy DeVos Everett Dirksen Lou Dobbs James Dobson Terry Dolan Bob Dole Dinesh D'Souza John Foster Dulles Dwight D. Eisenhower Larry Elder Erick Erickson Jerry Falwell Jerry Falwell
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Variants & movements

Christian right Conservative Democrat New Right Old Right Patriot movement Radical Right Tea Party movement

Historical factions

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See also

Bibliography Black conservatism LGBT conservatism Women in conservatism

Conservatism
Conservatism
portal Libertarianism portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 13103857 LCCN: n83125299 ISNI: 0000 0001 2276 6371 GND: 11880118X SUDOC: 068994621 BNF: cb155159389 (data) BIBSYS: 6093020 US Congress: T000009 SN

.