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Robert Hofstadter
Robert Hofstadter
(February 5, 1915 – November 17, 1990) was an American physicist. He was the joint winner of the 1961 Nobel Prize in Physics
Physics
(together with Rudolf Mössbauer) "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his consequent discoveries concerning the structure of nucleons".[1][2]

Contents

1 Biography 2 Opus

2.1 Thallium-activated sodium iodide gamma ray detector 2.2 Coining of the fermi (unit) and 1961 Nobel Lecture 2.3 Compton Gamma Ray Observatory
Compton Gamma Ray Observatory
and EGRET Telescope

3 Awards and honors 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 Publication list 8 External links

Biography[edit] Hofstadter was born into a Jewish family[3][4] in New York City on February 5, 1915, to Polish immigrants, Louis Hofstadter, a salesman, and the former Henrietta Koenigsberg.[5] He attended elementary and high schools in New York City and entered City College of New York, graduating with a B.S. degree magna cum laude in 1935 at the age of 20, and was awarded the Kenyon Prize in Mathematics and Physics. He also received a Charles A. Coffin Foundation Fellowship from the General Electric Company, which enabled him to attend graduate school at Princeton University, where he earned his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees at the age of 23.[6] He did his post-doctoral research at the University of Pennsylvania and was an assistant professor at Princeton before joining Stanford University. Hofstadter taught at Stanford from 1950 to 1985. In 1942 he married Nancy Givan (1920–2007), a native of Baltimore.[7] They had three children: Laura, Molly - who was disabled and not able to communicate,[8] and Pulitzer Prize-winner Douglas Hofstadter.[9] Opus[edit] Thallium-activated sodium iodide gamma ray detector[edit] In 1948 Hofstadter filed a patent on this for the detection of ionizing radiation by this crystal.[10][11] These detectors are widely used for gamma ray detection to this day Coining of the fermi (unit) and 1961 Nobel Lecture[edit] Robert Hofstadter
Robert Hofstadter
coined the term fermi, symbol fm,[12] in honor of the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi
Enrico Fermi
(1901–1954), one of the founders of nuclear physics, in Hofstadter's 1956 paper published in the Reviews of Modern Physics
Physics
journal, "Electron Scattering and Nuclear Structure".[13] The term is widely used by nuclear and particle physicists. When Hofstadter was awarded the 1961 Nobel Prize in Physics, it subsequently appears in the text of his 1961 Nobel Lecture, "The electron-scattering method and its application to the structure of nuclei and nucleons" (December 11, 1961).[14] Compton Gamma Ray Observatory
Compton Gamma Ray Observatory
and EGRET Telescope[edit] In his last few years, Hofstadter became interested in astrophysics and applied his knowledge of scintillators to the design of the EGRET gamma-ray telescope of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory
Compton Gamma Ray Observatory
named for fellow Nobel Laureate in Physics
Physics
(1927), Arthur Holly Compton. Stanford University's Department of Physics
Physics
credits Hofstadter with being "one of the principal scientists who developed the Compton Observatory."[15] Awards and honors[edit]

1961 Nobel Prize in Physics, joint winner with Rudolf Mössbauer, "for his [Hofstadter's] pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his consequent discoveries concerning the structure of nucleons."[16][17] Stanford University
Stanford University
has an annual lecture series named after Hofstadter, the Robert Hofstadter
Robert Hofstadter
Memorial Lectures, which consists of two lectures each year, one oriented toward the general public and the other oriented toward scientists.

See also[edit]

Fermi (unit) The Big Bang Theory
The Big Bang Theory
popular TV sitcom supposedly named one of its main characters, Leonard Hofstadter, after Hofstadter.

References[edit]

^ R. W. McAllister & Robert Hofstadter, "Elastic Scattering of 188 MeV Electrons from Proton and the Alpha Particle," Physical Review, V102, p. 851 (1956). ^ Robert Hofstadter, "The Electron Scattering Method & its Application to the Structure of Nuclei and Nucleons," Nobel Lectures, Physics
Physics
1942-1962, pp. 560-581, Elsevier Pub. Co., Amsterdam-London-New York (Dec 1961). ^ "Dr. Robert Hofstadter, U.S. Jewish Scientist, Wins 1961 Nobel Prize". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. November 3, 1961. Retrieved 20 October 2013.  ^ " Robert Hofstadter
Robert Hofstadter
biography". NNDB. Retrieved 20 October 2013.  ^ "Guide to the Robert Hofstadter
Robert Hofstadter
Papers". Retrieved 5 November 2014.  ^ " Robert Hofstadter
Robert Hofstadter
biography". Retrieved 5 November 2014.  ^ Obituary to Nancy Givan from Stanford University, 2007. ^ Doug Hofstadter's dedication to 'I am a strange loop'. ^ National Academy of Sciences biography ^ US patent 2585551, Robert Hofstadter, "Means for detecting ionizing radiations"  ^ "Robert Hofstadter" Biographical Memoirs National Academy of Sciences ^ "American National Standard for Metric Practice". IEEE Standards Library. IEEE/ASTM SI 10-2010 (Revision of IEEE/ASTM SI 10-2002). IEEE: 78. 11 April 2011. doi:10.1109/IEEESTD.2011.5750142. ISBN 978-0-7381-6533-2. Retrieved 18 February 2014.  ^ Hofstadter, Robert, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California, "Electron Scattering and Nuclear Structure", Rev. Mod. Phys. 28, 214–254 (1956) © 1956 The American Physical Society ^ Hofstadter, Robert "The electron-scattering method and its application to the structure of nuclei and nucleons", Nobel Lecture (December 11, 1961) ^ "The Hofstadter Memorial Lectures". Stanford University. Retrieved 7 December 2013.  ^ R. W. McAllister & Robert Hofstadter, "Elastic Scattering of 188 MeV Electrons from Proton and the Alpha Particle," Physical Review, V102, p. 851 (1956). ^ Robert Hofstadter
Robert Hofstadter
"The Electron Scattering Method & its Application to the Structure of Nuclei and Nucleons", Nobel Lectures, Physics
Physics
1942-1962, pp. 560-581, Elsevier Pub. Co., Amsterdam-London-New York (Dec 1961).

Further reading[edit]

Hofstadter, Robert, "The electron-scattering method and its application to the structure of nuclei and nucleons", Nobel Lecture (December 11, 1961) Hofstadter, Robert, "Robert Hofstadter's speech at the Nobel Banquet", The Nobel Foundation, Stockholm, December 10, 1961. Flint, Peter B., "Obituary: Dr. Robert Hofstadter
Robert Hofstadter
Dies at 75; Won Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
in '61", The New York Times, November 19, 1990.

Publication list[edit] Technical reports:

Hofstadter, R. "Detection of Neutrons with Scintillation Counters", Brookhaven National Laboratory, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (November 1948). Hahn, B., Ravenhall, D. G. and R. Hofstadter. "High-energy Electron Scattering and the Charge Distributions of Selected Nuclei," Stanford University, United States Department of Energy
United States Department of Energy
(through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), Office of Naval Research
Office of Naval Research
and United States Air Force, (October 1955). Chambers, E.E. and R. Hofstadter. "The Structure of the Proton", Stanford University, United States Department of Energy
United States Department of Energy
(through predecessor agency the Energy Research and Development Administration), Office of Naval Research
Office of Naval Research
and United States Air Force (April 1956). Hofstadter, R. "Structure in the Proton and the Neutron", Stanford University, United States Department of Energy
United States Department of Energy
(through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (June 1958). Collard, H., Hofstadter, R., Hughes, E. B., Johansson, A., Yearian, M. R., Day, R. B. and R. T. Wagner. "Elastic Electron Scattering from Tritium and Helium-3", Stanford University, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Office of Naval Research, Air Force Research Laboratory, (October 1964). Hofstadter, R. "K-edge Subtraction Angiography with Synchrotron X-Rays: Final Technical Report, (February 1, 1984 to January 31, 1987)", Stanford University, United States Department of Energy, (September 1987).

External links[edit]

Biography and Bibliographic Resources, from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, United States Department of Energy Robert Hofstadter
Robert Hofstadter
Memorial Lectures, annually presented at the Stanford University
Stanford University
School of Humanities and Sciences, Department of Physics
Physics
and as of March 2011 listed under individual years' calendars in the Department's official pages at the Stanford University
Stanford University
website National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir[permanent dead link]

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physics

1901–1925

1901 Röntgen 1902 Lorentz / Zeeman 1903 Becquerel / P. Curie / M. Curie 1904 Rayleigh 1905 Lenard 1906 J. J. Thomson 1907 Michelson 1908 Lippmann 1909 Marconi / Braun 1910 Van der Waals 1911 Wien 1912 Dalén 1913 Kamerlingh Onnes 1914 Laue 1915 W. L. Bragg / W. H. Bragg 1916 1917 Barkla 1918 Planck 1919 Stark 1920 Guillaume 1921 Einstein 1922 N. Bohr 1923 Millikan 1924 M. Siegbahn 1925 Franck / Hertz

1926–1950

1926 Perrin 1927 Compton / C. Wilson 1928 O. Richardson 1929 De Broglie 1930 Raman 1931 1932 Heisenberg 1933 Schrödinger / Dirac 1934 1935 Chadwick 1936 Hess / C. D. Anderson 1937 Davisson / G. P. Thomson 1938 Fermi 1939 Lawrence 1940 1941 1942 1943 Stern 1944 Rabi 1945 Pauli 1946 Bridgman 1947 Appleton 1948 Blackett 1949 Yukawa 1950 Powell

1951–1975

1951 Cockcroft / Walton 1952 Bloch / Purcell 1953 Zernike 1954 Born / Bothe 1955 Lamb / Kusch 1956 Shockley / Bardeen / Brattain 1957 C. N. Yang / T. D. Lee 1958 Cherenkov / Frank / Tamm 1959 Segrè / Chamberlain 1960 Glaser 1961 Hofstadter / Mössbauer 1962 Landau 1963 Wigner / Goeppert-Mayer / Jensen 1964 Townes / Basov / Prokhorov 1965 Tomonaga / Schwinger / Feynman 1966 Kastler 1967 Bethe 1968 Alvarez 1969 Gell-Mann 1970 Alfvén / Néel 1971 Gabor 1972 Bardeen / Cooper / Schrieffer 1973 Esaki / Giaever / Josephson 1974 Ryle / Hewish 1975 A. Bohr / Mottelson / Rainwater

1976–2000

1976 Richter / Ting 1977 P. W. Anderson / Mott / Van Vleck 1978 Kapitsa / Penzias / R. Wilson 1979 Glashow / Salam / Weinberg 1980 Cronin / Fitch 1981 Bloembergen / Schawlow / K. Siegbahn 1982 K. Wilson 1983 Chandrasekhar / Fowler 1984 Rubbia / Van der Meer 1985 von Klitzing 1986 Ruska / Binnig / Rohrer 1987 Bednorz / Müller 1988 Lederman / Schwartz / Steinberger 1989 Ramsey / Dehmelt / Paul 1990 Friedman / Kendall / R. Taylor 1991 de Gennes 1992 Charpak 1993 Hulse / J. Taylor 1994 Brockhouse / Shull 1995 Perl / Reines 1996 D. Lee / Osheroff / R. Richardson 1997 Chu / Cohen-Tannoudji / Phillips 1998 Laughlin / Störmer / Tsui 1999 't Hooft / Veltman 2000 Alferov / Kroemer / Kilby

2001– present

2001 Cornell / Ketterle / Wieman 2002 Davis / Koshiba / Giacconi 2003 Abrikosov / Ginzburg / Leggett 2004 Gross / Politzer / Wilczek 2005 Glauber / Hall / Hänsch 2006 Mather / Smoot 2007 Fert / Grünberg 2008 Nambu / Kobayashi / Maskawa 2009 Kao / Boyle / Smith 2010 Geim / Novoselov 2011 Perlmutter / Riess / Schmidt 2012 Wineland / Haroche 2013 Englert / Higgs 2014 Akasaki / Amano / Nakamura 2015 Kajita / McDonald 2016 Thouless / Haldane / Kosterlitz 2017 Weiss / Barish / Thorne

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 94666765 LCCN: n83826433 ISNI: 0000 0001 1477 876X GND: 172141168 SELIBR: 233221 SUDOC: 03259223X BNF: cb12359261x (data) MGP: 145

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