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The River Trent
River Trent
is the third-longest river in the United Kingdom. Its source is in Staffordshire
Staffordshire
on the southern edge of Biddulph Moor. It flows through and drains most of the metropolitan central and northern Midlands south and east of its source north of Stoke-on-Trent. The river is known for dramatic flooding after storms and spring snowmelt, which in past times often caused the river to change course. The river passes through Stoke-on-Trent, Burton upon Trent
Burton upon Trent
and Nottingham
Nottingham
before joining the River Ouse at Trent Falls
Trent Falls
to form the Humber
Humber
Estuary, which empties into the North Sea
North Sea
between Hull in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Immingham
Immingham
in Lincolnshire. The course of the river has often been described as the boundary between the Midlands and the north of England.[5][6]

Contents

1 Name 2 Course

2.1 Migration of course in historic times 2.2 Prehistory

3 Catchment 4 Geology 5 Hydrology

5.1 Rainfall 5.2 Discharge 5.3 Sediment

6 Floods 7 History of navigation

7.1 The lower river 7.2 Competition 7.3 Modernisation 7.4 Navigation today

8 Trent Aegir 9 The literal North/South divide 10 Pollution history 11 Wildlife and ecology 12 Fishing 13 Places along the Trent 14 Crossing the Trent 15 Power stations 16 Recreation on the Trent 17 Tributaries

17.1 List of tributaries

18 See also 19 Bibliography 20 Notes

20.1 References

21 External links

Name[edit] The name "Trent" is from a Celtic word possibly meaning "strongly flooding". More specifically, the name may be a contraction of two Celtic words, tros ("over") and hynt ("way").[7] This may indeed indicate a river that is prone to flooding. However, a more likely explanation may be that it was considered to be a river that could be crossed principally by means of fords, i.e. the river flowed over major road routes. This may explain the presence of the Celtic element rid (c.f. Welsh rhyd, "ford") in various place names along the Trent, such as Hill Ridware, as well as the Old English‐derived ford. Another translation is given as "the trespasser", referring to the waters flooding over the land.[8] According to Koch at the University of Wales,[9] the name Trent derives from the Romano-British Trisantona, a Romano-British
Romano-British
reflex of the combined Proto-Celtic elements *tri-sent(o)-on-ā- (through-path-augmentative-feminine-) ‘great thoroughfare’.[9] A traditional but almost certainly wrong opinion is that of Izaak Walton, who states in The Compleat Angler (1653) that the Trent is "... so called from thirty kind of fishes that are found in it, or for that it receiveth thirty lesser rivers."[10] Course[edit] The Trent rises on the Staffordshire
Staffordshire
moorlands near the village of Biddulph Moor, from a number of sources including the Trent Head Well. It is then joined by other small streams to form the Head of Trent, which flows south, to the only reservoir along its course at Knypersley. Downstream of the reservoir it passes through Stoke-on-Trent
Stoke-on-Trent
and merges with the Lyme, Fowlea and other brooks that drain the 'six towns' of the Staffordshire
Staffordshire
Potteries to become the River Trent. On the southern fringes of Stoke, it passes through the landscaped parkland of Trentham Gardens.[11]

Swarkestone
Swarkestone
Bridge

The river then continues south through the market town of Stone, and after passing the village of Salt, it reaches Great Haywood, where it is spanned by the 16th-century Essex Bridge near Shugborough Hall. At this point the River Sow
River Sow
joins it from Stafford. The Trent now flows south-east past the town of Rugeley
Rugeley
until it reaches Kings Bromley where it meets the Blithe. After the confluence with the Swarbourn, it passes Alrewas
Alrewas
and reaches Wychnor, where it is crossed by the A38 dual carriageway, which follows the route of the Roman Ryknild Street. The river turns north-east where it is joined by its largest tributary, the Tame (which is at this point actually the larger, though its earlier length shorter) and immediately afterwards by the Mease, creating a larger river that now flows through a broad floodplain. The river continues north-east, passing the village of Walton-on-Trent until it reaches the large town of Burton upon Trent. The river in Burton is crossed by a number of bridges including the ornate 19th-century Ferry Bridge that links Stapenhill
Stapenhill
to the town.[11] To the north-east of Burton the river is joined by the River Dove at Newton Solney
Newton Solney
and enters Derbyshire, before passing between the villages of Willington and Repton
Repton
where it turns directly east to reach Swarkestone
Swarkestone
Bridge. Shortly afterwards, the river becomes the Derbyshire- Leicestershire
Leicestershire
border, passing the traditional crossing point of King's Mill, Castle Donington, Weston-on-Trent
Weston-on-Trent
and Aston-on-Trent.[11] At Shardlow, where the Trent and Mersey Canal
Trent and Mersey Canal
begins, the river also meets the Derwent at Derwent Mouth. After this confluence, the river turns north-east and is joined by the Soar before reaching the outskirts of Nottingham, where it is joined by the Erewash
Erewash
near the Attenborough nature reserve and enters Nottinghamshire. As it enters the city, it passes the suburbs of Beeston, Clifton and Wilford; where it is joined by the Leen. On reaching West Bridgford
West Bridgford
it flows beneath Trent Bridge
Trent Bridge
near the cricket ground of the same name, and beside The City Ground, home of Nottingham
Nottingham
Forest, until it reaches Holme Sluices.[11]

Newark Castle

Downstream of Nottingham
Nottingham
it passes Radcliffe on Trent, Stoke Bardolph and Burton Joyce
Burton Joyce
before reaching Gunthorpe with its bridge, lock and weir. The river now flows north-east below the Toot and Trent Hills before reaching Hazelford Ferry, Fiskerton and Farndon. To the north of Farndon, beside the Staythorpe Power Station
Staythorpe Power Station
the river splits, with one arm passing Averham
Averham
and Kelham, and the other arm, which is navigable, being joined by the Devon before passing through the market town of Newark-on-Trent
Newark-on-Trent
and beneath the town's castle walls. The two arms recombine at Crankley Point beyond the town, where the river turns due north to pass North Muskham
North Muskham
and Holme to reach Cromwell Weir, below which the Trent becomes tidal.[11] The now tidal river meanders across a wide floodplain, at the edge of which are located riverside villages such as Carlton and Sutton on Trent, Besthorpe and Girton. After passing the site of High Marnham power station, it becomes the approximate boundary between Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
and Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
and reaches the only toll bridge along its course at Dunham on Trent. Downstream of Dunham the river passes Church Laneham
Church Laneham
and reaches Torksey, where it meets the Foss Dyke navigation which connects the Trent to Lincoln and the River Witham. Further north at Littleborough is the site of the Roman town of Segelocum, where a Roman road once crossed the river.[11][12] It then reaches the town of Gainsborough with its own Trent Bridge. The river frontage in the town is lined with warehouses, that were once used when the town was an inland port, many of which have been renovated for modern use. Downstream of the town the villages are often named in pairs, representing the fact that they were once linked by a river ferry between the two settlements. These villages include West Stockwith
West Stockwith
and East Stockwith, Owston Ferry
Owston Ferry
and East Ferry, and West Butterwick
West Butterwick
and East Butterwick.[13][14][15] At West Stockwith
West Stockwith
the Trent is joined by the Chesterfield Canal
Chesterfield Canal
and the River Idle
River Idle
and soon after enters Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
fully, passing to the west of Scunthorpe. The last bridge over the river is at Keadby
Keadby
where it is joined by both the Stainforth and Keadby
Keadby
Canal and the River Torne.[11] Downstream of Keadby
Keadby
the river progressively widens, passing Amcotts and Flixborough
Flixborough
to reach Burton upon Stather
Burton upon Stather
and finally Trent Falls. At this point, between Alkborough
Alkborough
and Faxfleet
Faxfleet
the river reaches the boundary with Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and joins the River Ouse to form the Humber which flows into the North Sea.[11] Migration of course in historic times[edit] Unusually for an English river, the channel altered significantly during historic times, and has been described as being similar to the Mississippi in this respect, especially in its middle reaches, where there are numerous old meanders and cut-off loops.[16] An abandoned channel at Repton
Repton
is described on an old map as 'Old Trent Water', records show that this was once the main navigable route, with the river having switched to a more northerly course in the 18th century.[17] Further downstream at Hemington, archaeologists have found the remains of a medieval bridge across another abandoned channel.[18][19] Researchers using aerial photographs and historical maps have identified many of these palaeochannel features, a well-documented example being the meander cutoff at Sawley.[20][21] The river's propensity to change course is referred to in Shakespeare's play Henry IV, Part 1:

Methinks my moiety, north from Burton here, In quantity equals not one of yours: See how this river comes me cranking in, And cuts me from the best of all my land A huge half-moon, a monstrous cantle out. I'll have the current in this place damm'd up; And here the smug and silver Trent shall run In a new channel, fair and evenly; It shall not wind with such a deep indent, To rob me of so rich a bottom here.[22][23]

Henry Hotspur's speech complaining about the river has been linked to the meanders near West Burton,[24] however, given the wider context of the scene, in which conspirators propose to divide England
England
into three after a revolt, it is thought that Hotspur’s intentions were of a grander design, diverting the river east towards the Wash such that he would benefit from a much larger share of the divided Kingdom. Downstream of Burton upon Trent, the river increasingly trends northwards, cutting off a portion of Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
and nearly all of Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
from his share, north of the Trent.[25][26] The idea for this scene, may have been based on the disagreement regarding a mill weir near Shelford Manor, between local landowners Gilbert Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, and Sir Thomas Stanhope which culminated with a long diversion channel being dug to bypass the mill.[27] This took place in 1593 so would have been a contemporary topic in the Shakespearian period.[25] Prehistory[edit] During the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch (1.7 million years ago), the River Trent rose in the Welsh hills and flowed almost east from Nottingham
Nottingham
through the present Vale of Belvoir to cut a gap through the limestone ridge at Ancaster and thence to the North Sea.[28] At the end of the Wolstonian Stage (c. 130,000 years ago) a mass of stagnant ice left in the Vale of Belvoir caused the river to divert north along the old Lincoln river, through the Lincoln gap, along what is now the course of the Witham. During a following glaciation (Devensian, 70,000 BC) the ice held back vast areas of water – called Glacial Lake
Lake
Humber
Humber
– in the current lower Trent basin. When this retreated, the Trent adopted its current course into the Humber.[29] Catchment[edit]

River Trent
River Trent
within England

The Trent basin covers a large part of the Midlands, and includes the majority of the counties of Staffordshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
and the West Midlands; but also includes parts of Lincolnshire, South Yorkshire, Warwickshire
Warwickshire
and Rutland. The catchment is located between the drainage basins of the Severn and its tributary the Avon to the south and west, the Weaver to the north-west, the tributaries of the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Ouse to the North and the basins of the Welland, Witham and Ancholme to the east.[30][31] A distinctive feature of the catchment is the marked variation in the topography and character of the landscape, which varies from the upland moorland headwaters of the Dark Peak, where the highest point of the catchment is the Kinder Scout
Kinder Scout
plateau at 634 metres (2,080 ft); through to the intensively farmed and drained flat fenland areas that exist alongside the lower tidal reaches, where ground levels can equal sea level. These lower reaches are protected from tidal flooding by a series of floodbanks and defences.[32][33][34] Elsewhere there is a distinct contrast between the open limestone areas of the White Peak
White Peak
in the Dove catchment, and the large woodland areas, including Sherwood Forest
Sherwood Forest
in the Dukeries area of the Idle catchment, the upland Charnwood Forest, and the National Forest in the Soar and Mease drainage basins respectively.[30]

Land use[35]

48% Arable 28% Pasture 17% Urban 4% Woodland 2% Natural grassland 1% Wetlands
Wetlands
& lakes

Land use is predominantly rural, with some three-quarters of the Trent catchment given over to agriculture. This ranges from moorland grazing of sheep in the upland areas, through to improved pasture and mixed farms in the middle reaches, where dairy farming is important. Intensive arable farming of cereals and root vegetables, chiefly potatoes and sugar beet occurs in the lowland areas, such as the Vale of Belvoir and the lower reaches of the Trent, Torne and Idle.[35] Water level management is important in these lowland areas, and the local watercourses are usually maintained by internal drainage boards and their successors, with improved drainage being assisted by the use of pumping stations to lift water into embanked carrier rivers, which subsequently discharge into the Trent.[30]:29[36] The less populous rural areas are offset by a number of large urbanised areas including the conurbations of Stoke-on-Trent, Birmingham
Birmingham
and the surrounding Black Country
Black Country
in the West Midlands; and in the East Midlands the major university cities and historical county seats of Leicester, Derby
Derby
and Nottingham. Together these contain the majority of the 6 million people who live in the catchment.[30] What is notable is that the majority of these urban areas are in the upper reaches of either the Trent itself, as is the case with Stoke, or the tributaries. For example, Birmingham
Birmingham
lies at the upper end of the Tame, and Leicester
Leicester
is located towards the head of the Soar. Whilst this is not unique for an English river, it does mean that there is an ongoing legacy of issues relating to urban runoff, pollution incidents, and effluent dilution from sewage treatment, industry and coal mining. Historically, these issues resulted in a considerable deterioration in the water quality of both the Trent, and its tributaries, especially the Tame.[35] To bring clean water to the West Midlands, Birmingham
Birmingham
Corporation created a large reservoir chain and aqueduct system to bring water from the Elan Valley. Geology[edit] Underlying the upper reaches of the Trent, are formations of Millstone Grit and Carboniferous
Carboniferous
Coal Measures
Coal Measures
which include layers of sandstones, marls and coal seams. The river crosses a band of Triassic Sherwood sandstone at Sandon, and it meets the same sandstone again as it flows beside Cannock Chase, between Great Haywood
Great Haywood
and Armitage, there is also another outcrop between Weston-on-Trent
Weston-on-Trent
and King's Mill.[37][38]

Mercia Mudstone formation at Gunthorpe[39]

Downstream of Armitage
Armitage
the solid geology is primarily Mercia Mudstones, the course of the river following the arc of these mudstones as they pass through the Midlands all the way to the Humber. The mudstones are not exposed by the bed of the river, as there is a layer of gravels and then alluvium above the bedrock. In places, however the mudstones do form river cliffs, most notably at Gunthorpe and Stoke Lock near Radcliffe on Trent, the village being named after the distinctive red coloured strata.[38][40] The low range of hills, which have been formed into a steep set of cliffs overlooking the Trent between Scunthorpe
Scunthorpe
and Alkborough
Alkborough
are also made up of mudstones, but are of the younger Rhaetic Penarth Group.[37][38] In the wider catchment the geology is more varied, ranging from the Precambrian
Precambrian
rocks of the Charnwood Forest, through to the Jurassic limestone that forms the Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
Edge and the eastern watershed of the Trent. The most important in terms of the river are the extensive sandstone and limestone aquifers that underlie many of the tributary catchments. These include the Sherwood sandstones that occur beneath much of eastern Nottinghamshire, the Permian
Permian
Lower Magnesian limestone and the carboniferous limestone in Derbyshire. Not only do these provide baseflows to the major tributaries, the groundwater is an important source for public water supply.[38]

Gravel Terraces of the River Trent[41]

Name Age thousand yrs BP Stage

Eagle Moor > 400 Anglian

Etwall
Etwall
/ Whisby Farm 297 Early Wolstonian

Egginton
Egginton
/ Balderton 195 Late Wolstonian

Beeston / Scarle 80 Devensian

Holme Pierrepont 26 Devensian

Hemington 10 Flandrian

Sand, gravels and alluvium deposits that overlie the mudstone bedrock occur almost along the entire length of the river, and are an important feature of the middle and lower reaches, with the alluvial river silt producing fertile soils that are used for intensive agriculture in the Trent valley. Beneath the alluvium are widespread deposits of sand and gravel, which also occur as gravel terraces considerably above the height of the current river level. There is thought to be a complex succession of at least six separate gravel terrace systems along the river, deposited when a much larger Trent flowed through the existing valley, and along its ancestral routes through the water gaps at Lincoln and Ancaster.[42][43] This ‘staircase’ of flat topped terraces was created as a result of successive periods of deposition and subsequent down cutting by the river, a product of the meltwater and glacially eroded material produced from ice sheets at the end of glacial periods through the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch between 450,000 and 12,000 years BP. Contained within these terraces is evidence of the mega fauna that once lived along the river, the bones and teeth of animals such as the woolly mammoth, bison and wolves that existed during colder periods have all been identified.[44] Another notable find in a related terrace system near Derby
Derby
from a warmer interglacial period, was the Allenton hippopotamus.[42]

Gravel extraction at Besthorpe

The lower sequences of these terraces have been widely quarried for sand and gravel, and the extraction of these minerals continues to be an important industry in the Trent Valley, with some three million tonnes of aggregates being produced each year.[41] Once worked out, the remaining gravel pits which are usually flooded by the relatively high water table have been reused for a wide variety of purposes. These include recreational water activities, and once rehabilitated, as nature reserves and wetlands.[45] During the end of the last Devensian
Devensian
glacial period the formation of Lake
Lake
Humber
Humber
in the lowest reaches of the river, meant that substantial lake bed clays and silts were laid down to create the flat landscape of the Humberhead Levels. These levels extend across the Trent valley, and include the lower reaches of the Eau, Torne and Idle. In some areas, successive layers of peat were built up above the lacustrine deposits during the Holocene period, which created lowland mires such as the Thorne and Hatfield Moors.[46] Hydrology[edit] The topography, geology and land use of the Trent catchment, all have a direct influence on the hydrology of the river. The variation in these factors is also reflected in the contrasting runoff characteristics and subsequent inflows of the principal tributaries. The largest of these is the River Tame, which contributes nearly a quarter of the total flow for the Trent, with the other significant tributaries being the Derwent at 18%, Soar 17%, the Dove 13%, and the Sow 8%.[47]:36–47 Four of these main tributaries, including the Dove and Derwent which drain the upland Peak District, all join within the middle reaches, giving rise to a comparatively energetic river system for the UK.[48]

Rainfall in the Trent valley

Rainfall[edit] Rainfall in the catchment generally follows topography[49] with the highest annual rainfall of 1,450 mm (57 in) and above occurring over the high moorland uplands of the Derwent headwaters to the north and west, with the lowest of 580 mm (23 in), in the lowland areas to the north and east.[50] Rainfall totals in the Tame are not as high as would be expected from the moderate relief, due to the rain shadow effect of the Welsh mountains to the west, reducing amounts to an average of 691 mm (27.2 in) for the tributary basin.[49][51] The average for the whole Trent catchment is 720 mm (28 in) which is significantly lower than the average for United Kingdom
United Kingdom
at 1,101 mm (43.3 in) and lower than that for England
England
at 828 mm (32.6 in).[52][53][54] Like other large lowland British rivers, the Trent is vulnerable to long periods of rainfall caused by sluggish low pressure weather systems repeatedly crossing the basin from the Atlantic, especially during the autumn and winter when evaporation is at its lowest. This combination can produce a water-logged catchment that can respond rapidly in terms of runoff, to any additional rainfall. Such conditions occurred in February 1977, with widespread flooding in the lower reaches of the Trent when heavy rain produced a peak flow of nearly 1,000 m3/s (35,000 cu ft/s) at Nottingham. In 2000 similar conditions occurred again, with above average rainfall in the autumn being followed by further rainfall, producing flood conditions in November of that year.[55][56][57] Another meteorological risk, although one that occurs less often, is that related to the rapid melting of snow lying in the catchment. This can be a result of a sudden rise in temperature after a prolonged cold period, or when combined with extensive rainfall. Many of the largest historical floods were caused by snowmelt, but the last such episode occurred when the bitter winter of 1946-7 was followed by a rapid thaw due to rain in March 1947 and caused severe flooding all along the Trent valley.[55][58] At the other extreme, extended periods of low rainfall can also cause problems. The lowest flows for the river were recorded during the drought of 1976, following the dry winter of 1975/6. Flows measured at Nottingham
Nottingham
were exceptionally low by the end of August, and were given a drought return period of greater than one hundred years.[59] Discharge[edit]

Discharge of the River Trent
River Trent
at various locations

Gauging Station County Discharge (average) Discharge (maximum) Catchment Area

m3/s cfs m3/s cfs km2 mi2

Stoke on Trent  Staffs 0.6 21 55 1,900 53 20 [60][61]

Great Haywood  Staffs 4.4 160 98 3,500 325 125 [60][62]

Yoxall  Staffs 12.8 450 206 7,300 1,229 475 [60][63]

Drakelow  Staffs 36.1 1,270 385 13,600 3,072 1,186 [60][64]

Shardlow  Derbys 51.6 1,820 480 17,000 4,400 1,700 [60][65]

Colwick  Notts 83.8 2,960 1,018 36,000 7,486 2,890 [56][60]

North Muskham  Notts 88.4 3,120 1,000 35,000 8,231 3,178 [60][66]

The river's flow is measured at several points along its course, at a number of gauging stations. At Stoke-on-Trent
Stoke-on-Trent
in the upper reaches, the average flow is only 0.6 m3/s (21 cu ft/s), which increases considerably to 4.4 m3/s (160 cu ft/s), at Great Haywood, as it includes the flow of the upper tributaries draining the Potteries conurbation. At Yoxall, the flow increases to 12.8 m3/s (450 cu ft/s) due to the input of larger tributaries including the Sow and Blithe. At Drakelow
Drakelow
upstream of Burton the flow increases nearly three-fold to 36.1 m3/s (1,270 cu ft/s), due to the additional inflow from the largest tributary the Tame. At Colwick
Colwick
near Nottingham, the average flow rises to 83.8 m3/s (2,960 cu ft/s), due to the combined inputs of the other major tributaries namely the Dove, Derwent and Soar. The last point of measurement is North Muskham
North Muskham
here the average flow is 88.4 m3/s (3,120 cu ft/s), a relatively small increase due to the input of the Devon, and other smaller Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
tributaries.[60][67] The Trent has marked variations in discharge, with long term average monthly flows at Colwick
Colwick
fluctuating from 45 m3/s (1,600 cu ft/s) in July during the summer, and increasing to 151 m3/s (5,300 cu ft/s) in January.[68][69] During lower flows the Trent and its tributaries are heavily influenced by effluent returns from sewage works, especially the Tame where summer flows can be made up of 90% effluent. For the Trent this proportion is lower, but with nearly half of low flows being made up of these effluent inflows, it is still significant. There are also baseflow contributions from the major aquifers in the catchment.[70][71][72]

Average monthly flows of Trent in cubic metres per second measured at Colwick
Colwick
(Nottingham).[69]

Sediment[edit] In the lower tidal reaches the Trent has a high sediment load, this fine silt which is also known as ‘warp', was used to improve the soil by a process known as warping, whereby river water was allowed to flood into adjacent fields through a series of warping drains, enabling the silt to settle out across the land. Up to 0.3 metres (1 ft) of deposition could occur in a single season, and depths of 1.5 metres (5 ft) have been accumulated over time at some locations. A number of the smaller Trent tributaries are still named as warping drains, such as Morton warping drain, near Gainsborough.[73] Warp was also used as a commercial product, after being collected from the river banks at low tide, it was transported along the Chesterfield Canal to Walkeringham where it was dried out and refined to be eventually sold as a silver polish for cutlery manufacturers.[74][75] Floods[edit]

Largest floods on the River Trent
River Trent
at Nottingham[76]

Rank Date Level at Trent Bridge Peak Flow

m ft m3/s cfs

1 February 1795 24.55 80.5 1,416 50,000

2 October 1875 24.38 80.0 1,274 45,000

3 March 1947 24.30 79.7 1,107 39,100

4 November 1852 24.26 79.6 1,082 38,200

5 November 2000 23.80 78.1 1,019 36,000

Normal / Avg flow 20.7 68 84 3,000

The Trent is widely known for its tendency to cause significant flooding along its course, and there is a well documented flood history extending back for some 900 years. In Nottingham
Nottingham
the heights of significant historic floods from 1852 have been carved into a bridge abutment next to Trent Bridge, with flood marks being transferred from the medieval Hethbeth bridge that pre-dated the existing 19th-century crossing. Historic flood levels have also been recorded at Girton and on the churchyard wall at Collingham.[24][76][77]

Trent Bridge
Trent Bridge
flood marks

One of the earliest recorded floods along the Trent was in 1141, and like many other large historical events was caused by the melting of snow following heavy rainfall, it also caused a breach in the outer floodbank at Spalford. Some of the earliest floods can be assessed by using Spalford
Spalford
bank as a substitute measure for the size of a particular flood, as it has been estimated that the bank only failed when flows were greater than 1,000 m3/s (35,000 cu ft/s), the bank was also breached in 1403 and 1795.[78] Early bridges were vulnerable to floods, and in 1309 many bridges were washed away or damaged by severe winter floods, including Hethbeth Bridge. In 1683 the same bridge was partially destroyed by a flood that also meant the loss of the bridge at Newark. Historical archives often record details of the bridge repairs that followed floods, as the cost of these repairs or pontage had to be raised by borrowing money and charging a local toll.[24][78] The largest known flood was the Candlemas
Candlemas
flood of February 1795, which followed an eight-week period of harsh winter weather, rivers froze which that meant mills were unable to grind corn, and then followed a rapid thaw. Due to the size of the flood and the ice entrained in the flow, nearly every bridge along the Trent was badly damaged or washed away. The bridges at Wolseley, Wychnor and the main span at Swarkestone
Swarkestone
were all destroyed.[79][80] In Nottingham, residents of Narrow Marsh were trapped by the floodwaters in their first floor rooms, boats were used to take supplies to those stranded. Livestock was badly affected, 72 sheep drowned in Wilford
Wilford
and ten cows were lost in Bridgford.[81] The vulnerable flood bank at Spalford
Spalford
was breached again, floodwaters spreading out across the low-lying land, even reaching the River Witham
River Witham
and flooding Lincoln. Some 20,000 acres (81 km2; 31 sq mi) were flooded for a period of over three weeks.[24][82][83]

Flood marks at Girton showing the height of the 1795 flood and others

A description of the breach was given as follows:

The bank is formed upon a plain of sandy nature, and when it was broken in 1795, the water forced an immense breach, the size of which may be judged from the fact that eighty loads of faggots and upwards of four hundred tons of earth were required to fill up the hole, an operation which took several weeks to complete.

The flood bank was subsequently strengthened and repaired, following further floods during 1824 and 1852.[82] The principal flood of the 19th century and the second largest recorded, was in October 1875. In Nottingham
Nottingham
a cart overturned in the floodwaters near the Wilford
Wilford
Road and six people drowned, dwellings nearby were flooded to a depth of 6 feet (1.8 m). Although not quite as large as 1795 this flood devastated many places along the river, at Burton upon Trent
Burton upon Trent
much of the town was inundated, with flooded streets and houses, and dead animals floating past in the flood. Food was scarce, "in one day 10,000 loaves had to be sent into the town and distributed gratuitously to save people from famine".[84] In Newark the water was deep enough to allow four grammar school boys to row across the countryside to Kelham. The flood marks at Girton show that this flood was only 4 inches (100 mm) lower than that of 1795, when the village was flooded to a depth of 3 feet (0.91 m).[24]

West Bridgford
West Bridgford
in the floods of March 1947

On 17–18 March 1947 the Trent which had been rising ever higher, overtopped its banks in Nottingham. Large parts of the city and surrounding areas were flooded with 9,000 properties and nearly a hundred industrial premises affected some to first floor height. The suburbs of Long Eaton, West Bridgford
West Bridgford
and Beeston all suffered particularly badly.[58][85][86] Two days later, in the lower tidal reaches of the river, the peak of the flood combined with a high spring tide to flood villages and 2,000 properties in Gainsborough. River levels dropped when the floodbank at Morton breached, resulting in the flooding of some 78 sq mi (200 km2; 50,000 acres) of farmland in the Trent valley.[34][86] Flooding on the Trent can also be caused by the effects of storm surges independently of fluvial flows, a series of which occurred during October and November 1954, resulting in the worse tidal flooding experienced along the lower reaches. These floods revealed the need for a tidal protection scheme, which would cope with the flows experienced in 1947 and the tidal levels from 1954, and subsequently the floodbanks and defences along the lower river were improved to this standard with the works being completed in 1965.[34][87] In December 2013, the largest storm surge since the 1950s occurred on the Trent, when a high spring tide combined with strong winds and a low pressure weather system, produced elevated tidal river levels in the lower reaches. The resulting surge overtopped the flood defences in the area near Keadby
Keadby
and Burringham, flooding 50 properties.[88]

Holme Sluices: part of the Nottingham
Nottingham
flood defences

The fifth largest flood recorded at Nottingham
Nottingham
occurred in November 2000, with widespread flooding of low-lying land along the Trent valley, including many roads and railways. The flood defences around Nottingham
Nottingham
and Burton constructed during the 1950s, following the 1947 event, stopped any major urban flooding, but problems did occur in undefended areas such as Willington and Gunthorpe, and again at Girton where 19 houses were flooded.[57] The flood defences in Nottingham that protect 16,000 homes and those in Burton where they prevent 7,000 properties from flooding were reassessed after this flood, and were subsequently improved between 2006 and 2012.[85][89]

History of navigation[edit]

[

v t e

]

River Trent

Legend

River Ouse and Humber
Humber
Estuary

The Island Sand

Stainforth and Keadby
Keadby
Canal

A18 Keadby
Keadby
Bridge (shares bridge with rly)

Doncaster - Scunthorpe
Scunthorpe
Railway

M180 motorway
M180 motorway
bridge

River Idle
River Idle
(moveable sluice)

Chesterfield
Chesterfield
Canal, West Stockwith

A631 Trent Bridge, Gainsborough

Sheffield to Lincoln Railway

Fossdyke Navigation, Torksey
Torksey
Lock

A57 Dunham Toll Bridge

former Chesterfield-Lincoln Rly

Cromwell Lock
Cromwell Lock
and weir

A1 Winthorpe Bridge

East Coast Main Line
East Coast Main Line
bridge

Newark Nether Lock

Nottingham
Nottingham
- Lincoln Railway

A46 Newark Bypass Bridge

Newark Town Lock

A616 Bridge

A617 Bridge

Marina

A46 Newark Bypass Bridge

Nottingham
Nottingham
- Lincoln Railway

Averham
Averham
Weir

River Devon

Hazelford lock and weirs

Gunthorpe lock and weir

A6097 Gunthorpe Bridge

Stoke lock and weir

Rectory Junction Viaduct

Holme lock, National Watersports Centre

Grantham Canal

Meadow Lane Lock

Castle Lock

Nottingham

Nottingham
Nottingham
Canal

Beeston Lock

Beeston Weir

Cranfleet Lock

Thrumpton Weir

Trent Viaducts

Flood Lock

Erewash Canal
Erewash Canal
and River Soar

Railway bridges

Sawley Locks

Flood Lock

Sawley Weir

M1 motorway
M1 motorway
bridge

River Derwent

Trent and Mersey Canal

Cavendish Bridge
Cavendish Bridge
(limit of navigation)

A50 Bridge

Railway bridge

King's Mills (site of mill and lock)

Disused railway bridge

A514/ Swarkestone
Swarkestone
Bridge

B5008 Willington Bridge

River Dove

Burton Mill (site of disused mills and lock)

weir

A511 Burton Bridge

Bond End Branch

(formerly leading to Trent and Mersey Canal)

A5189 St Peters Bridge

to source

Nottingham
Nottingham
seems to have been the ancient head of navigation until the Restoration, due partly to the difficult navigation of the Trent Bridge. Navigation was then extended to Wilden Ferry, near to the more recent Cavendish Bridge, as a result of the efforts of the Fosbrooke family of Shardlow. Later, in 1699, the baron William Paget (Lord Paget), who owned coal mines and land in the area, obtained an Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
to extend navigation up to Fleetstones Bridge, Burton, despite opposition from the people of Nottingham. Lord Paget seems to have funded the work privately, building locks at King's Mill and Burton Mills and several cuts and basins. The Act gave him absolute control over the building of any wharves and warehouses above Nottingham
Nottingham
Bridge. Lord Paget leased the navigation and the wharf at Burton to George Hayne, while the wharf and warehouses at Wilden were leased by Leonard Fosbrooke, who held the ferry rights and was a business partner of Hayne. The two men refused to allow any cargo to be landed which was not carried in their own boats, and so created a monopoly.[90] In 1748, merchants from Nottingham
Nottingham
attempted to end this monopoly by landing goods on the banks and into carts, but Fosbrooke used his ferry rope to block the river, and then created a bridge by mooring boats across the channel, and employing men to defend them. Hayne subsequently scuppered a barge in King's Lock, and for the next eight years goods had to be transhipped around it. Despite a Chancery injunction against them, the two men continued with their action. Hayne's lease expired in 1762, and Lord Paget's son, the Earl of Uxbridge, gave the new lease to the Burton Boat Company.[90] The Trent and Mersey Canal
Trent and Mersey Canal
was authorised by Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
in 1766, and construction from Shardlow
Shardlow
to Preston Brook, where it joined the Bridgewater Canal, was completed by 1777.[91] The canal ran parallel to the upper river to Burton upon Trent, where new wharfs and warehouses at Horninglow served the town, and the Burton Boat Company were unable to repair the damaged reputation of the river created by their predecessors.[92] Eventually in 1805, they reached an agreement with Henshall & Co., the leading canal carriers, for the closure of the river above Wilden Ferry. Though the river is no doubt legally still navigable above Shardlow, it is probable that the agreement marks the end of the use of that stretch of the river as a commercial navigation.[93] The lower river[edit] The first improvement of the lower river was at Newark, where the channel splits into two. The residents of the town wanted to increase the use of the branch nearest to them, and so an Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
was obtained in 1772 to authorise the work. Newark Navigation Commissioners were created, with powers to borrow money to fund the construction of two locks, and to charge tolls for boats using them. The work was completed by October 1773, and the separate tolls remained in force until 1783, when they were replaced by a one-shilling (5p) toll whichever channel the boats used.[92] Users of the Trent and Mersey Canal, the Loughborough Canal and the Erewash Canal
Erewash Canal
next demanded major improvements to the river down to Gainsborough, including new cuts, locks, dredging and a towing path suitable for horses. The Dadfords, who were engineers on the Trent and Mersey Canal, estimated the cost at £20,000, but the proposal was opposed by landowners and merchants on the river, while the Navigator, published in 1788, estimated that around 500 men who were employed to bow-haul boats would have lost their jobs. Agreement could not be reached, and so William Jessop
William Jessop
was asked to re-assess the situation. He suggested that dredging, deepening, and restricting the width of the channel could make significant improvements to the navigable depth, although cuts would be required at Wilford, Nottingham
Nottingham
bridge and Holme. This proposal formed the basis for an Act of Parliament obtained in 1783, which also allowed a horse towing path to be built. The work was completed by September 1787, and dividends of 5 per cent were paid on the capital during 1786 and 1787, increasing to 7 per cent, the maximum allowed by the Act, after that. Jessop carried out a survey for a side cut and lock at Sawley in 1789, and it was built by 1793.[92] At the beginning of the 1790s, the Navigation faced calls for a bypass of the river at Nottingham, where the passage past Trent Bridge
Trent Bridge
was dangerous, and the threat of a canal running parallel to the river, which was proposed by the Erewash
Erewash
and the Trent and Mersey Canal companies. In order to retain control of the whole river, they supported the inclusion of the Beeston Cut in the bill for the Nottingham
Nottingham
Canal, which prevented the Erewash Canal
Erewash Canal
company from getting permission to build it, and then had the proposal removed from the Nottingham
Nottingham
Canal company's bill in return for their support of the main bill. The parallel canal was thwarted in May 1793, when they negotiated the withdrawal of the canal bill by proposing a thorough survey of the river which would result in their own legislation being put before parliament. William Jessop
William Jessop
performed the survey, assisted by Robert Whitworth, and they published their report on 8 July 1793. The major proposals included a cut and lock at Cranfleet, where the River Soar
River Soar
joins the Trent, a cut, locks and weirs at Beeston, which would connect with the Nottingham
Nottingham
Canal at Lenton, and a cut and lock at Holme Pierrepont. An Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
was obtained in 1794, and the existing proprietors subscribed the whole of the authorised capital of £13,000 (equivalent to £1,370,000 in 2016),[94] themselves.[95] The aim of the improvements was to increase the minimum depth from 2 feet (0.6 m) to 3 feet (0.9 m). By early 1796, the Beeston cut was operational, with the Cranfleet cut following in 1797, and the Holme cut in 1800, with the whole works being finished by 1 September 1801. The cost exceeded the authorised capital by a large margin, with the extra being borrowed, but the company continued to pay a 7 per cent dividend on the original shares and on those created to finance the new work. In 1823 and again in 1831, the Newark Navigation Commissioners proposed improvements to the river, so that larger vessels could be accommodated, but the Trent Navigation Company were making a good profit, and did not see the need for such work.[95] Competition[edit] The arrival of the railways resulted in significant change for the Company. Tolls were reduced to retain the traffic, wages were increased to retain the workforce, and they sought amalgamation with a railway company. The Nottingham
Nottingham
and Gainsborough Railway offered £100 per share during 1845, but this was rejected. Tolls decreased from £11,344 (equivalent to £920,000 in 2016),[94] during 1839 to £3,111 (equivalent to £270,000 in 2016),[94] in 1855. Many of the connecting waterways were bought by railway companies, and gradually fell into disrepair. In an attempt to improve the situation, the Company toyed with the idea of cable-hauled steam tugs, but instead purchased a conventional steam dredger and some steam tugs. The cost of improvements was too great for the old company, and so an Act of Parliament was obtained in 1884 to restructure the company and raise additional capital. Failure to raise much of the capital resulted in another Act being obtained in 1887, with similar aims and similar results. A third Act of 1892 reverted the name to the Trent Navigation Company, and this time, some improvements were performed.[96]

Newark Town Lock

With traffic still between 350,000 and 400,000 tonnes per year, Frank Rayner became the engineer in 1896, and the company were persuaded that major work was necessary if the navigation was to survive. The engineer for the Manchester Ship Canal, Sir Edward Leader Williams, was commissioned to survey the river, while negotiations with the North Staffordshire
Staffordshire
Railway, who owned the Trent and Mersey Canal
Trent and Mersey Canal
and had maintained its viability, ensured that some of the clauses from previous Acts of Parliament did not prevent progress. A plan to build six locks between Cromwell and Holme, and to dredge this section to ensure it was 60 feet (18 m) wide and 5 feet (1.5 m) deep was authorised by an Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
obtained in 1906. Raising finance was difficult, but some was subscribed by the chairman and vice-chairman, and construction of Cromwell Lock
Cromwell Lock
began in 1908. The Newark Navigation Commissioners financed improvements to Newark Town lock at the same time, and dredging of the channel was largely funded by selling the 400,000 tonnes of gravel removed from the river bed. At 188 by 30 feet (57.3 by 9.1 m), Cromwell lock could hold a tug and three barges, and was opened on 22 May 1911. The transport of petroleum provided a welcome increase to trade on the river, but little more work was performed before the beginning of the First World War.[96] Modernisation[edit] Increased running costs after the First World War
First World War
could not be met by increasing the tolls, as the company had no statutory powers to do so, and so suggested that the Ministry of Transport should take over the navigation, which they did from 24 September 1920. Tolls were increased, and a committee recommended improvements to the river. Nottingham
Nottingham
Corporation invested some £450,000 on building the locks authorised by the 1906 Act, starting with Holme lock on 28 September 1921, and finishing with Hazelford lock, which was formally opened by Neville Chamberlain
Neville Chamberlain
on 25 June 1926. A loan from Nottingham Corporation and a grant from the Unemployment Grants Committee enabled the Company to rebuild Newark Nether lock, which was opened on 12 April 1926.[96] During the early 1930s, the Company considered enlarging the navigation above Nottingham, in conjunction with improvements to the River Soar
River Soar
Navigation, between Trent Lock
Trent Lock
and Leicester. There were also negotiations with the London and North Eastern Railway, who were responsible for the Nottingham
Nottingham
Canal between Trent Lock
Trent Lock
and Lenton. Plans for new larger locks at Beeston and Wilford
Wilford
were abandoned when the Trent Catchment Board opposed them. The Grand Union refused to improve the Soar Navigation, because the Trent Navigation Company could not guarantee 135,000 tons of additional traffic. The Company also considered a plan to reopen the river to Burton, which would have involved the rebuilding of Kings Mills lock, and the construction of four new locks. An extra set of gates were added to Cromwell lock in 1935, effectively creating a second lock, while the Lenton to Trent Lock section was leased from the LNER in 1936, and ultimately purchased in 1946.[96]

Barges near Hoveringham in 1954

Frank Rayner, who had been with the Company since 1887, and had served as its engineer and later general manager since 1896, died in December 1945. Sir Ernest Jardine, who as vice-chairman had partly funded the first lock at Cromwell in 1908, died in 1947, and the company ceased to exist in 1948, when the waterways were nationalised. The last act of the directors was to pay a 7.5 per cent dividend on the shares in 1950. Having taken over responsibility for the waterway, the Transport Commission enlarged Newark Town lock in 1952, and the flood lock at Holme was removed to reduce the risk of flooding in Nottingham. More improvements followed between 1957 and 1960. The two locks at Cromwell became one, capable of holding eight Trent barges, dredging equipment was updated, and several of the locks were mechanised. Traffic increased from 620,000 tonnes during 1951 to 1,017,356 tonnes during 1964, but all of this was below Nottingham. Commercial carrying above Nottingham
Nottingham
ceased during the 1950s, to be replaced by pleasure cruising.[96] Although commercial use of the river has declined, the lower river between Cromwell and Nottingham
Nottingham
can still take large motor barges up to around 150 feet (46 m) in length[91] with a capacity of approx 300 tonnes.[97] Barges still transport gravel from pits at Girton and Besthorpe to Goole and Hull.[98] Navigation today[edit]

The aggregate carrier Tinno passing Keadby
Keadby
in 2002

The river is legally navigable for some 117 miles (188 km) below Burton upon Trent. However, for practical purposes, navigation above the southern terminus of the Trent and Mersey Canal
Trent and Mersey Canal
(at Shardlow) is conducted on the canal, rather than on the river itself. The canal connects the Trent to the Potteries and on to Runcorn
Runcorn
and the Bridgewater Canal.[99][100] Down river of Shardlow, the non-tidal river is navigable as far as the Cromwell Lock
Cromwell Lock
near Newark, except in Nottingham
Nottingham
(Beeston Cut & Nottingham
Nottingham
Canal) and just west of Nottingham, where there are two lengths of canal, Sawley and Cranfleet cuts. Below Cromwell lock, the Trent is tidal, and therefore only navigable by experienced, well-equipped boaters. Navigation lights and a proper anchor and cable are compulsory. Associated British Ports, the navigation authority for the river from Gainsborough to Trent Falls, insist that anyone in charge of a boat must be experienced at navigating in tidal waters.[91] Between Trent Falls
Trent Falls
and Keadby, coastal vessels that have navigated through the Humber
Humber
still deliver cargoes to the wharves of Grove Port, Neap House, Keadby, Gunness and Flixborough. Restrictions on size mean that the largest vessels that can be accommodated are 100 m (330 ft) long and 4,500 tonnes.[101][102] The use of a maritime pilot on the Trent is not compulsory for commercial craft, but is suggested for those without any experience of the river. Navigation can be difficult, and there have been a number of incidents with ships running aground and in one case, striking Keadby
Keadby
Bridge. The most recent occurrence involved the Celtic Endeavour being aground near Gunness for ten days, finally being lifted off by a high tide.[103][104][105] Trent Aegir[edit] Main article: Trent Aegir

The Trent Aegir
Trent Aegir
seen from West Stockwith, Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
20 September 2005

At certain times of the year, the lower tidal reaches of the Trent experience a moderately large tidal bore (up to 5 feet [1.5 m] high), commonly known as the Trent Aegir
Trent Aegir
(named after the Norse sea god). The Aegir occurs when a high spring tide meets the downstream flow of the river.[106] The funnel shape of the river mouth exaggerates this effect, causing a large wave to travel upstream as far as Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, and sometimes beyond. The Aegir cannot travel much beyond Gainsborough as the shape of the river reduces the Aegir to little more than a ripple, and weirs north of Newark-on-Trent, Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
stop its path completely. The literal North/South divide[edit] Main article: North–South divide (England) The Trent historically marked the boundary between Northern England and Southern England. For example, the administration of Royal Forests was subject to a different Justice in Eyre north and south of the river, and the jurisdiction of the medieval Council of the North started at the Trent.[107] In addition to this, the University of Oxford was formerly divided into a northern nation and a southern nation, the former consisting of English people
English people
north of the River Trent and the Scots and the latter consisting of English people
English people
south of the Trent, the Irish, and the Welsh.[108][109] Some traces of the former division remain: the Trent marks the boundary between the provinces of two English Kings of Arms, Norroy and Clarenceux.[110][111] This divide was also described in Michael Drayton's epic topographical poem, Poly-Olbion, The Sixe and Twentieth Song, 1622:

And of the British floods, though but the third I be, Yet Thames and Severne both in this come short of me, For that I am the mere of England, that divides The north part from the south, on my so either sides, that reckoning how these tracts in compasse be extent, Men bound them on the north, or on the south of Trent[112]

Pollution history[edit] It is not clear when pollution first became an issue for the River Trent, but in the late 1880s, it had a thriving salmon fishery, with the river producing an annual catch of some 3,000 fish, a decade later, this had fallen to 100.[113] The collapse of the fishery was due to the rapid population increase of the towns that developed following the Industrial Revolution. The tipping point being the introduction of piped water and a basic sewer network, which meant that effluent, which was previously stored in cesspits, was carried away through drains into the nearest brook.[113][114]

...the polluted state of the Trent is a terror to Trentham.

Duke of Sutherland, describing the river in his injunction of 1902.[115]

This was a particular problem in Stoke-on-Trent
Stoke-on-Trent
and the growing towns of the Potteries. Due to the relatively small size of the Trent and its tributaries such as the Fowlea Brook, which drained these towns, the river and brooks were unable to dilute the inflow of domestic sewage and soon became overwhelmed and badly polluted.[116] At the downstream end of the Potteries was Trentham Hall, here pollution became so bad that the owner, the Duke of Sutherland, made a claim against the local Fenton council in 1902. He also took out an injunction against the council to prevent the ongoing contamination causing a "most foul and offensive stench", the river not even being suitable to water grazing cattle on the estate.[115]

Fowlea Brook
Fowlea Brook
- once a very heavily polluted tributary of the Trent

Although he provided land for a sewage works nearby at Strongford, the problems continued such that in 1905 the Levenson-Gower family left Trentham altogether and moved to their other properties, including Dunrobin Castle
Dunrobin Castle
in Scotland.[117] Until the outbreak of the Second World War, the main source of pollution continued to be the Potteries, although there was contamination from the Tame and other lower tributaries it was not as prominent. During the 1950s, however, the same problem of effluent dilution that occurred in Stoke began to become significant in Birmingham
Birmingham
and the Black Country. Domestic effluent and polluting discharges from the metal working industries in the upper reaches, combined to affect the whole length of the tributary River Tame.[116] The Tame pollution also reached the Trent as well, with one of the worse effected reaches being that downstream of the confluence with the Tame through Burton, this being exacerbated by its late introduction of sewage treatment, and the substantial wastewater arising from the breweries in the town.[118] Angling clubs in Burton used the Dove or local lakes for fishing, as the Trent through the town was absent of any fish. Downstream, the inflow of cleaner water from the Dove and then the Derwent meant that conditions improved enough to allow recreational coarse fishing in the lower reaches.[116][119] The pollution of the "Trent catchment was probably at its worst in the late 1950s",[116] this being the result of the ongoing industrialisation of the urban areas, combined with the interruption and under investment caused by two world wars, which lead to only piecemeal improvements of the sewerage treatment infrastructure taking place. One effect of this pollution was that the upper and middle reaches were completely devoid of any fish life.[116]

I received this morning a letter from the secretary of a Burton rowing club. Last Thursday, its senior eight were out rowing when members of the crew were seized with pains in the chest. This was caused by fumes rising from the river.

John Jennings MP for Burton-upon-Trent, 1956.[120]

John Jennings, the local MP for Burton highlighted these problems in a speech to the House when he stated in 1956, that as in previous years the river had been declared unsafe for swimming on advice from the medical officer, and how its unhealthy condition affected a local rowing club.[120] From the 1960s onwards, there were gradual but steady improvements to the inadequate sewage works and sewers built during the Victorian era in the urban areas, but this was expensive, and took time to complete. The changes were helped by the introduction of more stringent pollution control legislation, which required industrial waste to be discharged to sewers, and the formation of the Trent River Authority, which had new duties relating to managing water quality issues. Other changes, such as the replacement of town gas with natural gas, saw the end of the polluting and toxic coal tar emissions to rivers in 1963.[121][122] In 1970, Mr Jennings again raised the issue of pollution through Burton, the River Tame continuing to be a source of the problem, and further improvements were promised.[123] The responsibility for sewage treatment works still belonged primarily to local authorities, which often meant an uncoordinated approach and a proliferation of small works. In 1974, these works were transferred to the regional water authorities, with the Severn Trent Water Authority
Severn Trent Water Authority
taking over the role for the Trent catchment. This led to increased investment, the closure of older and smaller works, with sewage treatment being combined at larger modern works such as Strongford and Minworth.[116] The economic recession in the 1970s meant that there was a considerable contraction of heavy industrial sectors, reducing pollution loadings from factories and foundries. Later improvements such as the series of purification lakes that were constructed on the Tame in the 1980s, which allowed contaminated sediment to settle out from the river, also reduced pollution levels, and lessened the impact of first flush runoff events in the lower Tame and the middle Trent.[116][124]

Caddisfly
Caddisfly
larva, intolerant of pollution, are used as an indicator species in the Trent Biotic index

The improvements in water quality along the Trent were recorded through the chemical monitoring of the river from the 1950s. Polluting substances such as ammonia showed a reduction, as did the biochemical oxygen demand, an indicator of the contamination present in the river. There were corresponding increases in dissolved oxygen, an indicator of a healthy river environment. The programme of monitoring also extended to taking biological samples, and one of the first biotic indices used for assessing the ecological rather than the chemical quality of rivers was developed by the local river board in the 1960s. Using invertebrates as an indicator of pollution levels, it was appropriately named the Trent Biotic index.[113][125] By 2004, it was reported that the Trent was cleaner than it had been in the last 70–80 years, and that episodic incidents of pollution had also reduced considerably since the 1970s.[126] The river remains vulnerable to these pollution events, such as the one that occurred in October 2009 when an accidental release of cyanide from a factory into the sewer system in Stoke-on-Trent, affected the treatment works at Strongford. This resulted in the release of raw sewage and the chemical into the river, killing thousands of fish, and posing a health risk to river users as far south as Burton.[127][128] Although now considered cleaner, there are still problems with diffuse pollution from agricultural runoff and urban areas, as well as point source contamination from sewage works.[129] The improvements that have taken place mean that the Trent can be used for public water consumption. Riverside lakes near Shardlow
Shardlow
act as a reserve water source for Nottingham
Nottingham
and Derby, and water is also abstracted at Torksey
Torksey
and Newton-on-Trent for supplies in Lincolnshire.[126][130] Wildlife and ecology[edit] Artificial changes along the Trent, due to navigation, farming, mineral extraction and drainage works, mean that much of the riparian landscape has been altered, reducing the amount of natural habitat. The river channel links the remaining, but fragmented wetland areas and nature reserves, providing a refuge for native and migrant species.[131][132][133] These include wildfowl and wading birds that use the Trent Valley as a migration corridor, with the river also being used as a wildlife route by mammals such as otters and non-native American mink.[133][134]

Grey heron
Grey heron
fishing in the Trent

Additional nature conservation areas were created beside the river in the 20th century, when a number of disused gravel pits, were rehabilitated as nature reserves.[133][135] One of the most important of these is Attenborough Nature Reserve, a 226-hectare (560-acre) Site of Special
Special
Scientific Interest (SSSI) which is visited by wildfowl such as wigeon, teal and the red-breasted merganser. Wading birds such as oystercatcher and bittern have also been observed at the reserve; as have kingfishers, reed warblers and water rails.[136][137] Other managed wetland sites along the river include Beckingham Marshes, Croxall Lakes, Drakelow, and Willington Gravel Pits. At Besthorpe near Newark, breeding pairs of little egrets and grey herons have been observed.[138][139][140][141] The Trent valley also links together other SSSI and local nature reserves, which have varying habitats not only for birds, but also mammals, insects and fish, a good example is the tributary River Mease where the entire watercourse has been designated both as a SSSI and a European special area of conservation.[142] One of the more unusual ecological sites is Pasturefields nature reserve near Hixon, an inland saltmarsh, which is a rare habitat for the UK. A vestige of the saline marshes created by the brine springs that seep from the groundwater of the Mercia mudstones, the reserve contains salt tolerant species normally found on the coast, such as sea plantain, arrowgrass and milkwort.[143] Improvements in water quality and subsequent fish stocks, in combination with the ban on the use of certain persistent pesticides have meant that otters have now returned to the Trent system, having been absent as recently as the 1980s. A survey in 2003 showed a doubling in the number of sites where evidence, such as spraints and footprints of these elusive animals were found. They have also now been sighted at locations such as Wolseley, Willington, and Attenborough.[126][144][145][146] Seals have been reported up to near the head of the tidal section at Newark.[147] Fishing[edit]

Fishing on the Trent near Ingleby by George Turner, 1850

Evidence of fishing along the Trent can be traced back to the Neolithic period, with the possible remnants of a fish weir discovered in the abandoned river channels at Hemington.[48][148] More definitive finds from the medieval period were also found at this site and near Colwick. These consisted of V shaped alignments of stakes; wattle panels and a large wicker trap and demonstrate that passive fishing techniques were in use on the river.[149] The Domesday catalogue showed that there were many successful mills and fisheries along the Trent. Mills were important locations for fish and eel traps, the eels being caught during ‘quill time’ between mid-August and early September.[119] Written records show that in the 12th century landlords were paid in salmon, in lieu of rent at Burton upon Trent.[119] In the 17th century Izaak Walton
Izaak Walton
described the River Trent
River Trent
as 'One of the finest rivers in the world and the most abounding with excellent salmon and all sorts of delicate fish.'[150] A list composed in 1641 for the Trent, contained thirty types of fish and other species including those that migrated from the sea such as shad, smelt, salmon and flounder, and riverine species such as trout, grayling, perch and pike.[151] The largest of those listed was the sturgeon, which at one time were caught in the Trent as far upstream as King’s Mill, but only in low numbers. Particular examples included one of 8 feet (2.4 m) taken near Donington castle in 1255, and another at King's Mill of 7 feet (2.1 m) in 1791.[152] The last known catch was in 1902 near Holme, the fish was 8 1⁄2 feet (2.6 m) and weighed 250 pounds (110 kg).[153] The effluent and industrial pollution of the early 20th century, led to a rapid decline in fish stocks, large stretches of the river became fishless and species such as salmon almost disappeared. As water quality improved from the 1960s onwards, fish numbers recovered, and recreational coarse fishing became more popular.[154]

Fishing on the Trent near Hazelford Ferry, 2009

By the 1970s the Trent was regarded as 'one of the most productive rivers in the British Isles'.[154] by anglers, who would travel from South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and other surrounding areas, to fish the Trent as their local rivers still remained badly polluted and were absent of fish.[155] Analysis of catch returns from 1969 to 1985, showed that the fish caught most often by anglers were barbel, bream, bleak, carp, chub, dace, eel, gudgeon, perch, and roach. Over the study period the returns revealed that there was a variation in the species caught, with a shift from roach and dace based catches, to one of chub and bream, a change that was perceived by anglers to represent a ‘serious detriment’ to the fishery.[154] This led to comments that the river had become ‘too clean for its fish’, and its popularity, especially for match fishing, declined from the mid 1980s.[156] Competition from other fisheries such as well stocked ponds and lakes with better amenities and more consistent catches of fish also meant a reduction in the appeal of fishing the Trent.[157] Recreational fishing is still popular, although anglers no longer line the banks as they once did. There are many fishing clubs that use the river, with catches including barbel, bream, carp, chub, dace, pike, and roach.[158] Salmon, a species that became virtually extinct due to historic pollution, have been progressively reintroduced on the tributaries since 1998, with thousands of salmon parr being released into the Dove and its tributary the Churnet each year.[159] Returning adult salmon have been seen leaping over weirs on the river[159] and in 2011 a large salmon weighing over 10 pounds (4.5 kg) was caught at an undisclosed location, and was 'thought to be the biggest caught on the Trent in the last thirty years'.[160] Places along the Trent[edit]

Nottingham

Gainsborough

Burton upon Trent

Stone

Stoke

Newark

Rugeley

Map showing riverside towns and cities along the course of the Trent

Cities and towns on or close to the river include:

Stoke-on-Trent Stone Rugeley Burton upon Trent Castle Donington Long Eaton Beeston Nottingham Newark-on-Trent Gainsborough

Crossing the Trent[edit] Prior to the mid-18th century there were few permanent crossings of the river with only four bridges downstream of the Tame confluence: the old medieval bridges at Burton, Swarkestone, Nottingham
Nottingham
(known as Hethbeth Bridge) and Newark, all first built by 1204. There were, however, over thirty ferries that operated along its course, and numerous fords, where passage was possible, their locations indicated by the suffix ‘ford’ in many riverside place-names such as Hanford, Bridgford, and Wilford.[117][161]

Barton Ferry in 1949

Glover noted in 1829 that all three types of crossing were still in use on the Derbyshire
Derbyshire
section of the Trent, but that the fords were derelict and dangerous. These fording points only allowed passage across the river when water levels were low; when the river was in flood a long detour could be required. He reported that they could be treacherous to the unwary, since there were few gauges to show if the river had become too deep to cross, and that they were rarely used except by locals who knew them well.[162] One of the earliest known fords was the crossing at Littleborough, constructed by the Romans it was paved with flagstones, and supported by substantial timber pilings.[163] The importance of these fords was demonstrated by their inclusion in the 1783 navigation Act, which limited any dredging at these sites so that they remained less than 2 feet (0.61 m) deep.[164]

Farndon ferry in 1907 showing the white frontage of the Britannia Inn

Ferries often replaced these earlier fording points, and were essential where the water was too deep, such as the tidal section of the lower river. As they were a source of income, they were recorded in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
at a number of locations including Weston on Trent and Fiskerton, both of which were still in operation in the middle of the 20th century. The ferry boats used along the Trent ranged in size from small rowing boats, to flat decked craft that could carry livestock, horses, and in some case their associated carts or wagons.[117][165] Bridges over the river were created in Saxon times at Nottingham
Nottingham
at least (and for a time just north of Newark at Cromwell, although it is not known how long that bridge site lasted), and formed major centres of trade and military importance.[166] King Edward fortified the Nottingham
Nottingham
bridge in 920, while a notable battle took place at Burton's bridge in 1322, and another in 1643. The medieval bridges of Burton and Nottingham
Nottingham
survived relatively intact until the 1860s, when both were replaced and demolished. The central arches of the medieval Swarkestone
Swarkestone
bridge were knocked out by the great flood of 1795 and rebuilt, but the bridge’s more rural location allowed large portions of the medieval bridge to survive and remain in use today. Crossing a wide flood plain, the bridge is almost one mile (1.6 km) long, a laborious project to allow flood waters to pass under it. At Newark, the last bridge on the Trent until modern times, the bridge was rebuilt in 1775. At least one other medieval attempt was made to bridge the Trent near Wilden at Hemington, but this was gone long before the end of the Middle Ages. The complex of three bridges provides evidence of attempts to keep a crossing open over slightly more than two hundred years from 1097, with three bridges constructed on the same site but felled by scouring, floods and course migration of the river to the south eroding the bridgehead.[167] The bridge was probably gone by around 1311 when nearby Wilden ferry, near Shardlow was first recorded, and the site thereafter went without a bridge until Cavendish Bridge
Cavendish Bridge
opened around 1760. As no archive sources record that the Hemington bridge existed, there may have been other medieval bridge projects now forgotten. (Until the late 18th century, a long period of stagnation for economic and technical reasons limited the number of bridges over the Trent; it has been noted that relatively few bridges were constructed in England
England
on new sites anywhere between around 1250–1300 and 1750.[168][169]) Cavendish Bridge was itself damaged beyond repair by a flood in March 1947, requiring a temporary Bailey bridge
Bailey bridge
to be used until a new concrete span was constructed in 1957.[78][170] When bridge construction resumed, toll bridges were often constructed on the site of ferry routes. Such was the case at Willington, Gunthorpe and Gainsborough.[117][171]

Ferry Bridge built in 1889, crosses the river between Stapenhill
Stapenhill
and Burton

At Stapenhill
Stapenhill
near Burton, there were similar calls for a new bridge, a tally of usage showed that the foot ferry was being used 700 times per day. The new Ferry Bridge was opened in 1889, although it needed the financial support of the brewer and philanthropist Michael Bass to pay for the construction, and later in 1898 to purchase the existing ferry rights so that it became free of tolls.[172][173] The toll bridges were mostly bought out by the county councils in the 19th century following government reforms, one of the earliest being Willington in 1898, the first toll free crossing was marked by a procession across the bridge and a day of celebration.[174][175] The only toll bridge that remains across the Trent is at Dunham, although it is free to cross on Christmas and Boxing Day.[176] Power stations[edit] Main article: Megawatt Valley

Cottam Power Station

The tall chimneys and concave shaped cooling towers of the many power stations are a dominant and familiar presence within the open landscape of the Trent valley, which has been widely used for power generation since the 1940s.[177] The primary reason for locating so many generating stations beside the Trent was the availability of sufficient amounts of cooling water from the river. This combined with the nearby supplies of fuel in the form of coal from the Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
coalfields, and the existing railway infrastructure meant that a string of twelve large power stations were originally constructed along its banks.[178] At one time these sites provided a quarter of the electricity needs of the UK, giving rise to the epithet 'Megawatt Valley'.[177] Once these early stations reached the end of their functional life, they were usually demolished, although in some cases the sites have been retained and redeveloped as gas fired power stations.[177] In downstream order, the power stations that continue to use, or have used the river as their source of cooling water are: Meaford, Rugeley, Drakelow, Willington, Castle Donington, Ratcliffe-on-Soar, Wilford, Staythorpe, High Marnham, Cottam, West Burton and Keadby.[177][179] The three largest remaining coal-fired stations at Ratcliffe, Cottam and West Burton still use domestic coal supplies, although this is now being replaced by imported coal brought by ship from abroad.[180][181] There is one hydroelectric power station on the river, Beeston Hydro at Beeston Weir.[182] Recreation on the Trent[edit]

Holme Pierrepont
Holme Pierrepont
National Watersports Centre in Nottingham
Nottingham
next to the River Trent

Along with other major rivers in the Midlands, the Trent is widely used for recreational activities, both on the water and along its riverbanks. The National Watersports Centre at Holme Pierrepont, near Nottingham
Nottingham
combines facilities for many of these sports, including rowing, sailing and whitewater canoeing.[183][184] The Trent Valley Way
Trent Valley Way
created in 1998 as a long distance footpath, enables walkers to enjoy the combined attractions of ‘the river’s rich natural heritage and its history as an inland navigation’. Extended in 2012, the route now runs from Trent Lock
Trent Lock
in the south through to Alkborough
Alkborough
where the river meets the Humber. It combines riverside and towpath sections, with other paths to villages and places of interest in the wider valley.[185][186][187][188] Historically swimming in the river was popular, in 1770 at Nottingham there were two bathing areas on opposite banks at Trent Bridge
Trent Bridge
which were improved in 1857 with changing sheds and an assistant. Similar facilities were present in 1870 on the water meadows at Burton-on-Trent, which also had its own swimming club. Open water swimming still takes place at locations including Colwick
Colwick
Park Lake adjacent to the river, with its own voluntary lifeguards.[151][184][189][190] The first person to swim the entire swimmable length of the Trent was Tom Milner, who swam 139 miles (224 km) over nine days in July 2015.[191][192] Rowing clubs have existed at Burton, Newark and Nottingham
Nottingham
since the mid-1800s, with various regattas taking place between them, both on the river and on the rowing course at the national watersports centre.[193][194][195]

Trent Valley Sailing Club near Trent Lock

Both whitewater and flat water canoeing is possible on the Trent, with published guides and touring routes being listed for the river. There is a canoe slalom course at Stone, a purpose built 700 m (2,300 ft) artificial course at Holme Pierrepont, and various weirs including those at Newark and Sawley are all used for whitewater paddling. Various canoe and kayak clubs paddle on the river including those at Stone, Burton, and Nottingham. [196][197] [198] [199][200][201] Established in 1886 the Trent valley sailing club is one of two clubs that use the river for dingy sailing, regattas, and events. There are also a number of clubs that sail on the open water that has been created as a result of flooded gravel workings which include Hoveringham, Girton, and Attenborough.[202] Organised trips on cruise boats have long been a feature of the Trent, at one time steam launches took passengers from Trent Bridge
Trent Bridge
to Colwick
Colwick
Park, similar trips run today but in reverse, starting from Colwick
Colwick
and passing through Nottingham
Nottingham
they use boats known as the Trent Princess and Trent Lady. Others trips run from Newark castle, and two converted barges; the Newark Crusader and Nottingham
Nottingham
Crusader, provide river cruises for disabled people via the St John Ambulance Waterwing scheme.[203] [204] Tributaries[edit] Although Spenser endowed 'The beauteous Trent' with 'thirty different streams'[d] the river is joined by more than twice that number of different tributaries,[206] of which the largest in terms of flow is the Tame which drains most of the West Midlands, including Birmingham and the Black Country. The second and third largest are the Derwent and the Dove respectively; together these two rivers drain the majority of Derbyshire
Derbyshire
and Staffordshire, including the upland areas of the Peak District.[60] The River Soar
River Soar
which drains the majority of the county of Leicestershire, could also be considered as the second largest tributary, as it has a larger catchment area than the Dove or Derwent, but its discharge is significantly less than the Derwent, and lower than the Dove.[60] In terms of rainfall the Derwent receives the highest annual average rainfall, whereas the Devon, which has the lowest average rainfall is the driest catchment of those tabulated.[60]

Statistics of the Trent’s largest tributaries

Name County [e] Length Catchment Area Discharge Rainfall [f] Max. Altitude Refs

km mi km2 mi2 m3/s cfs mm in m ft

Blithe  Staffs 47 29 167 64 1.16 41 782 30.8 281 922 [g][60][206]

Devon  Notts 47 29 377 146 1.57 55 591 23.3 170 560 [h][60][206]

Derwent  Derbys 118 73 1,204 465 18.58 656 982 38.7 634 2,080 [i][60][206]

Dove  Derbys 96 60 1,020 390 13.91 491 935 36.8 546 1,791 [j][60][206]

Erewash  Derbys 46 29 194 75 1.87 66 708 27.9 194 636 [k][60][206]

Greet  Notts 18 11 66 25 0.30 11 655 25.8 153 502 [l][60][206]

Idle  Notts 55 34 896 346 2.35 83 650 26 205 673 [m][60][206]

Leen  Notts 39 24 124 48 0.67 24 686 27.0 185 607 [n][60][206]

Soar  Leics 95 59 1,386 535 11.73 414 641 25.2 272 892 [o][60][206]

Sow  Staffs 38 24 601 232 6.33 224 714 28.1 234 768 [p][60][206]

Tame  West Mids 95 59 1,500 580 27.84 983 691 27.2 291 955 [q][60][206]

Torne  Lincs 44 27 361 139 0.89 31 615 24.2 145 476 [r][60][206]

List of tributaries[edit]

Tributaries of the Trent

Alphabetical listing of tributaries, extracted from the Water Framework Directive list of water bodies for the River Trent:[206]

Tributary[s] River Order[t] Joins Trent at Bank

Adlingfleet
Adlingfleet
Drain 1 Adlingfleet Left

Amerton Brook 60 Shirleywich Left

River Blithe 55 Nethertown Left

Bottesford Beck 8 East Butterwick Right

Bourne Brook 54 Kings Bromley Right

Catchwater Drain 16 West Burton Left

Causeley Brook 68 Hanley Left

Causeway Dyke 31 Bleasby Left

Chitlings Brook 66 Hanford Left

Cuttle Brook 42 Swarkestone Left

Cocker Beck 33 Gunthorpe Left

Darklands Brook 48 Drakelow Right

River Devon 27 Newark Right

River Derwent, Derby 40 Shardlow Left

River Dove 47 Newton Solney Left

Dover Beck 32 Caythorpe Left

River Eau 9 Barlings, Scotter Right

River Erewash 38 Attenborough Left

Eggington Brook 46 Willington Left

Fairham Brook 37 Clifton Bridge Right

Ferry Drain 11 Owston Ferry Left

Fledborough Beck 22 Fledborough Left

Folly Drain 6 Althorpe Left

Ford Green Brook 69 Milton Right

Fowlea Brook 67 Stoke Right

Gayton Brook 61 Weston Left

Grassthorpe Beck (Goosemoor Dyke) 24 Grassthorpe Left

River Greet 29 Fiskerton Left

Healeys Drain 7 Burringham Right

Holme Dyke (Bleasby) 30 Bleasby Left

River Idle, Nottinghamshire 13 West Stockwith Left

Laughton Drain 10 East Ferry Right

River Leen 36 Wilford Left

Longton Brook 63 Trentham Left

Lyme Brook 65 Hanford Right

Marton Drain 18 Marton Right

River Mease 50 Croxall Right

Milton Brook 43 Ingleby Right

Moreton Brook 57 Rugeley Left

Morton Warping Drain 14 Gainsborough Right

North Beck 20 Church Laneham Left

Old Trent (High Marnham) 23 High Marnham Left

Ouse Dyke 34 Stoke Bardolph Left

Park Brook 64 Trentham Right

Pauper's Drain 3 Amcotts Left

Polser Brook 35 Radcliffe on Trent Right

Pyford Brook 52 Alrewas Right

Ramsley Brook 41 King's Newton Right

Repton
Repton
Brook 45 Repton Right

Rising Brook 58 Rugeley Right

Rundell Dyke 28 Averham Left

Scotch Brook 62 Stone Left

Sewer Drain 19 Torksey Right

Sewer Dyke (North Clifton) 21 North Clifton Right

Seymour Drain 17 Cottam Left

Shropshire Brook 56 Longdon / Armitage Left

River Soar, Leicester 39 Trentlock Right

River Sow 59 Great Haywood Right

River Swarbourn 53 Wychnor Left

River Tame 51 Alrewas Right

Tatenhill Brook 49 Branston Left

The Beck (Carlton on Trent) 26 Carlton on Trent Left

The Fleet 25 Girton Right

River Torne 5 Keadby Left

Twyford Brook 44 Twyford Left

Warping Drain (Keadby) 4 Keadby Left

Warping Drain (Owston Ferry) 12 Owston Ferry Left

Wheatley Beck 15 West Burton Left

Winterton Beck 2 Bole Ings Right

See also[edit]

List of rivers of Great Britain Trent River Authority Trent Valley Line Trent Valley Way List of fish in the River Trent Trent River (Ontario)

Bibliography[edit]

Barber, Charles (1993). The English Language: a historical introduction. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-78570-9.  Cumberlidge, Jane (1998). Inland Waterways of Great Britain (7th Ed.). Imray Laurie Norie and Wilson. ISBN 978-0-85288-355-6.  Fort, Tom (2008). Downstream. Century. ISBN 978-1-84605-169-2.  Glover, Stephen (1829). Noble, Thomas, ed. The History of the County of Derby. Mozley.  Hadfield, Charles (1970). The Canals of the East Midlands. David and Charles. ISBN 978-0-7153-4871-0.  Hadfield, Charles (1985). The Canals of the West Midlands. David and Charles. ISBN 978-0-7153-8644-6.  Koch, J.T. (15 March 2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-440-0.  Large, Andrew; Petts, Geoffrey (1996). "Historical channel-floodplain dynamics along the River Trent" (PDF). Applied Geography. Elsevier Science. 16 (3): 191–209. doi:10.1016/0143-6228(96)00004-5.  Lord, Peter (1972). Portrait of the River Trent
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Committee. ISBN 978-0-902668-00-3.  Nicholson (2006). Nicholson Guides Vol 6: Nottingham
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York and the North East. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-721114-2.  Owen, C.C. (1978). Burton on Trent: the development of industry. Chichester: Phillimore. ISBN 978-0-85033-218-6.  Stone, Richard (2005). The River Trent. Phillimore. ISBN 978-1-86077-356-3. 

Notes[edit]

^ Also listed as 10,452 km2.[2] ^ Recorded at 1230hrs on 8 November 2000 – highest discharge since 1 September 1958. ^ Recorded 23–24 August 1976. ^ In the epic poem The Faerie Queene[205] ^ Indicative county shown ^ Rainfall is Annual Average 1961–90 for the catchment to the Gauging Station ^ Blithe measured at Hamstall Ridware ^ Devon measured at Cotham – Altitude from Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Map ^ Blithe measured at Church Wilne ^ Dove measured at Marston on Dove ^ Erewash
Erewash
measured at Sandiacre ^ Greet measured at Southwell ^ Idle measured at Mattersey ^ Leen measured at Triumph Road, Lenton ^ Soar measured at Kegworth ^ Sow measured at Milford ^ Tame measured at Hopwas ^ Torne measured at Auckley ^ Tributary names from Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
maps added where list amalgamated river reaches ^ River Order – 1 being closest to Trent Falls

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Photographs along the Trent in Nottingham
Nottingham
from Nottingham21 Catchment Tributaries of the River Trent
River Trent
English Heritage
English Heritage
and University of Birmingham
Birmingham
research project. Predictive Modelling of Multi-Period Geoarchaeological Resources at a River Confluence English Heritage, University of Birmingham
Birmingham
and University of Exeter
University of Exeter
research project. Trent Valley GeoArchaeology River Trent
River Trent
through Nottingham. Pictures & slide show.

v t e

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Major settlements

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Rivers

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