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Rita Levi-Montalcini, OMRI, OMCA (Italian pronunciation: [ˈriːta ˈlɛːvi montalˈtʃiːni]; 22 April 1909 – 30 December 2012) was an Italian Nobel laureate, honored for her work in neurobiology. She was awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology or Medicine jointly with colleague Stanley Cohen for the discovery of nerve growth factor (NGF).[3] From 2001 until her death, she also served in the Italian Senate
Italian Senate
as a Senator for Life.[4] On 22 April 2009, she became the first Nobel laureate ever to reach the age of 100,[5] and the event was feted with a party at Rome's City Hall.[6][7] At the time of her death, she was the oldest living Nobel laureate.[8]

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Career and research 3 Political career 4 Personal life 5 Awards and honors 6 Bibliography

6.1 Publications

7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Early life and education[edit] Levi-Montalcini was born on 22 April 1909 in Turin,[9][10] to a Sephardic Jewish family.[11][12] She and her twin sister Paola were the youngest of four children. Her parents were Adele Montalcini, a painter, and Adamo Levi, an electrical engineer and mathematician, whose families had moved from Asti
Asti
and Casale Monferrato, respectively, to Turin
Turin
at the turn of the twentieth century.[9][13] In her teenage years, she considered becoming a writer and admired Swedish writer Selma Lagerlöf,[14] but after seeing a close family friend die of stomach cancer she decided to attend the University of Turin
Turin
Medical School.[15] Her father discouraged his daughters from attending college, as he feared it would disrupt their potential lives as wives and mothers, but eventually he supported Levi-Montalcini's aspirations to become a doctor.[9] While at the University of Turin, the neurohistologist Giuseppe Levi sparked her interest in the developing nervous system.[5] After graduating summa cum laude M.D. in 1936 she remained at the university as Levi's assistant, but her academic career was cut short by Benito Mussolini's 1938 Manifesto of Race and the subsequent introduction of laws barring Jews from academic and professional careers.[16] Career and research[edit] Levi-Montalcini lost her assistant position in the anatomy department after a 1938 law barring Jews from university positions was passed.[17] During World War II she set up a laboratory in her bedroom and studied the growth of nerve fibers in chicken embryos, which laid the groundwork for much of her later research. She described this experience decades later in the science documentary film Death by Design/The Life and Times of Life and Times (1997).[18] The film also features her fraternal twin sister Paola, who became a respected artist. When the Germans invaded Italy
Italy
in September 1943, her family fled south to Florence, where they survived the Holocaust, under false identities, protected by some non-Jewish friends.[19] In her hiding place, she set up a laboratory in a corner of their shared living space. After the liberation of Florence in August 1944, she volunteered her medical expertise for the Allied health service. Her family returned to Turin
Turin
in 1945. In September 1946, Levi-Montalcini was granted a one-semester research fellowship in the laboratory of Professor Viktor Hamburger at Washington University in St. Louis. After she duplicated the results of her home laboratory experiments, Hamburger offered her a research associate position, which she held for 30 years. It was there that, in 1952, she did her most important work: isolating nerve growth factor (NGF) from observations of certain cancerous tissues that cause extremely rapid growth of nerve cells.[16] By transferring pieces of tumors to chick embryos, Montalcini established a mass of cells that was full of nerve fibers. The discovery of nerves growing everywhere like a halo around the tumor cells was surprising. When describing it, Montalcini said it is: "like rivulets of water flowing steadily over a bed of stones." [20] The nerve growth produced by the tumor was unlike anything she had seen before – the nerves took over areas that would become other tissues and even entered veins in the embryo. But nerves did not grow into the arteries, which would flow from the embryo back to the tumor. This suggested to Montalcini that the tumor itself was releasing a substance that was stimulating the growth of nerves. She was made a full professor in 1958. In 1962, she established a second laboratory in Rome
Rome
and divided her time between there and St. Louis. From 1961 to 1969, she directed the Research Center of Neurobiology of the CNR (Rome), and from 1969 to 1978, the Laboratory of Cellular Biology.[16] After she retired in 1977, she was appointed as director of the Institute of Cell Biology of the Italian National Council of Research in Rome. She later retired from that position in 1979, however continued to be involved as a guest professor.[21] Levi-Montalcini founded the European Brain
Brain
Research Institute in 2002, and then served as its president.[22][23] Her role in this institute was at the center of some criticism from some parts of the scientific community in 2010.[24] Controversies were raised about the cooperation of Levi-Montalcini with the Italian pharmaceutical industry Fidia
Fidia
. While working for Fidia, she improved the understanding of gangliosides. Beginning in 1975, the scientist supported the drug Cronassial (a particular ganglioside) produced by Fidia
Fidia
from bovine brain tissue. Independent studies showed that the drug actually could be successful in treatment of intended diseases (periphrastic nervous system neuropathies).[25][26] Years later, some patients under treatment with Cronassial reported a severe neurological syndrome (Guillain–Barré syndrome). As per the normal cautionary routine, Germany banned Cronassial in 1983, followed by other countries. Italy
Italy
prohibited the drug only in 1993; at the same time, an investigation revealed that Fidia
Fidia
paid the Italian Ministry of Health for a quick approval of Cronassial and later paid for pushing use of the drug in treatment of diseases where it had not been tested.[27][28][29] Levi-Montalcini's relationship with the company was revealed during the investigation, and she was criticized publicly.[30] In the 1990s, she was one of the first scientists pointing out the importance of the mast cell in human pathology.[31] In the same period (1993), she identified the endogenous compound palmitoylethanolamide as an important modulator of this cell.[32] Political career[edit] On 1 August 2001, she was appointed as Senator for Life by the President of Italy, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi.[10] On 28–29 April 2006, Levi-Montalcini, aged 97, attended the opening assembly of the newly elected Senate, at which the President of the Senate was elected. She declared her preference for the centre-left candidate Franco Marini. Due to her support of the government of Romano Prodi, she was often criticized by some right-wing senators, who accused her of "saving" the government when the government's exiguous majority in the Senate was at risk. Her old age was mocked by far-right politician Francesco Storace.[33][34] Personal life[edit]

Rita Levi-Montalcini
Rita Levi-Montalcini
in 2009

Levi-Montalcini had an older brother Gino, who died after a heart attack in 1974. He was one of the most well known Italian architects and a professor at the University of Turin. She had two sisters: Anna, five years older than Rita, and Paola, her twin sister, a popular artist who died on 29 September 2000, age 91. Levi-Montalcini never married and had no children. In a 2006 interview she said: "I never had any hesitation or regrets in this sense... My life has been enriched by excellent human relations, work and interests. I have never felt lonely."[35] She died in her home in Rome on 30 December 2012 at the age of 103.[36] Upon her death, the Mayor of Rome, Gianni Alemanno, stated it was a great loss "for all of humanity." He praised her as someone who represented "civic conscience, culture and the spirit of research of our time." Italian astrophysicist Margherita Hack
Margherita Hack
told Sky TG24 TV in a tribute to her fellow scientist, "She is really someone to be admired." Italy's premier, Mario Monti, paid tribute to Levi-Montalcini's "charismatic and tenacious" character and for her lifelong endeavor to "defend the battles in which she believed." Vatican spokesman Federico Lombardi
Federico Lombardi
praised Levi-Montalcini's civil and moral efforts, saying she was an "inspiring" example for Italy
Italy
and the world.[37] Awards and honors[edit] In 1966, she was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[38] In 1968, she became the tenth woman[39] elected to the United States National Academy of Sciences.[40] She was elected an EMBO Member in 1974.[1] In 1974, although a professed atheist,[12] she became a member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences[41] In 1983, she was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University.[42] In 1986, Levi-Montalcini and collaborator Stanley Cohen received the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Medicine,[16] as well as the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research.[43] This made her the fourth Nobel Prize winner to come from Italy's small (less than 50,000 people) but very old Jewish community, after Emilio Segrè, Salvador Luria
Salvador Luria
(a university colleague and friend) and Franco Modigliani. In 1987, she received the National Medal of Science, the highest American scientific honor.[40] In 1991, she received the Laurea Honoris Causa in Medicine from the University of Trieste, Italy. On that occasion, she expressed her desire to formulate a Carta of Human Duties as necessary counterpart of the too much neglected Declaration of Human Rights. The vision of Rita Levi-Montalcini
Rita Levi-Montalcini
came true with the issuing of the Trieste Declaration of Human Duties and the foundation in 1993 of the International Council of Human Duties, International Council of Human Duties (ICHD), at the University of Trieste.[44] She was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(ForMemRS) in 1995.[2] In 1999, Levi-Montalcini was nominated Goodwill Ambassador of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) by FAO Director-General Jacques Diouf.[45] In 2001, she was nominated Senator-for-life by the Italian President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi.[46] In 2006, Levi-Montalcini received the degree Honoris Causa in Biomedical Engineering from the Polytechnic University of Turin, in her native city. In 2008, she received the PhD Honoris Causa from the Complutense University of Madrid, Spain. In 2009, she received the Leonardo da Vinci Award from European Academy of Sciences. She was a founding member of Città della Scienza.[47] and Accademician of Studium, Accademia di Casale e del Monferrato, Italy. Bibliography[edit]

Levi-Montalcini, Rita, In Praise of Imperfection: My Life and Work.(Elogio dell'imperfezione) Basic Books, New York, 1988. Yount, Lisa (1996). Twentieth Century Women Scientists. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-3173-8. Muhm, Myriam : Vage Hoffnung für Parkinson-Kranke – Überlegungen der Medizin-Nobelpreisträgerin Rita Levi-Montalcini, Süddeutsche Zeitung
Süddeutsche Zeitung
#293, p. 22. December 1986 "L'Archivio "medicina – medicine"". Larchivio.org. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 

Publications[edit]

Origine ed Evoluzione del nucleo accessorio del Nervo abducente nell'embrione di pollo, Roma, Tip. Cuggiani, 1942. Il messaggio nervoso, con Pietro Angeletti e Giuseppe Moruzzi, Milano, Rizzoli, 1975. New developments in neurobiological research, in "Commentarii", vol. III, n. 15, Pontificia Academia Scientiarum, 1976. Elogio dell'imperfezione, Milano, Garzanti, 1987. ISBN 88-11-59390-5. (1999 nuova edizione accresciuta). NGF. Apertura di una nuova frontiera nella neurobiologia, Roma-Napoli, Theoria, 1989. ISBN 88-241-0162-3. Sclerosi multipla in Italia. Aspetti e problemi, con Mario Alberto Battaglia, Genova, AISM, 1989. ISBN 88-7148-001-5. Presentazione di Max Perutz, È necessaria la scienza?, Milano, Garzanti, 1989. ISBN 88-11-59415-4. Prefazione a Carlo Levi, Poesie inedite. 1934–1946, Roma, Mancosu, 1990. Prefazione a Gianni Bonadonna, Donne in medicina, Milano, Rizzoli, 1991. ISBN 88-17-84077-7. Presentazione di Gilberto Salmoni, Memoria: un telaio infinito Dialogo su un mondo tutto da scoprire, Genova, Costa & Nolan, 1993. Prefazione a Giacomo Scotti (a cura di), Non si trova cioccolata. Lettere di bambini jugoslavi nell'orrore della guerra, Napoli, Pironti, 1993. ISBN 88-7937-095-2. Reti. Scienza, cultura, economia, con Guido Cimino e Lauro Galzigna, Ancona, Transeuropa, 1993. ISBN 88-7828-101-8. Vito Volterra. Il suo percorso, in Scienza, tecnologia e istituzioni in Europa. Vito Volterra e l'origine del CNR, Roma-Bari, Laterza, 1993. ISBN 88-420-4147-5. Il tuo futuro, Milano, Garzanti, 1993. ISBN 88-11-73837-7. Per i settanta anni della Enciclopedia italiana, 1925–1995, in 1925–1995: la Treccani compie 70 anni. Mostra storico-documentaria, Roma, Treccani, Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 1995. Prefazione an American Medical Association, L'uso degli animali nella ricerca scientifica. Libro bianco, Bologna, Esculapio, 1995. Senz'olio contro vento, Milano, Baldini & Castoldi, 1996. ISBN 88-8089-198-7. L'asso nella manica a brandelli, Milano, Baldini & Castoldi, 1998. ISBN 88-8089-429-3. La galassia mente, Milano, Baldini & Castoldi, 1999. ISBN 88-8089-636-9. Presentazione di Nicola Canal, Angelo Ghezzi e Mauro Zaffaroni, Sclerosi multipla. Attualità e prospettive, Milano, Masson, 1999. ISBN 88-214-2467-7. Intervista in Serena Zoli, Storie di ordinaria resurrezione (e non). Fuori dalla depressione e altri mali oscuri, Milano, Rizzoli, 1999. ISBN 88-17-86072-7. L'Università delle tre culture. Conferenza della professoressa Rita Levi-Montalcini, Sondrio, Banca Popolare di Sondrio, 1999. Cantico di una vita, Milano, Cortina, 2000. ISBN 88-7078-666-8. Un universo inquieto. Vita e opere di Paola Levi Montalcini, Milano, Baldini & Castoldi, 2001. ISBN 88-8490-111-1. Tempo di mutamenti, Milano, Baldini & Castoldi, 2002. ISBN 88-8490-140-5. Tempo di azione, Milano, Baldini Castoldi Dalai, 2004. ISBN 88-8490-429-3. Abbi il coraggio di conoscere, Milano, Rizzoli, 2004. ISBN 88-17-00199-6. Lungo le vie della conoscenza. Un viaggio per sentieri inesplorati con Rita Levi-Montalcini, con Giuseppina Tripodi, Brescia, Serra Tarantola, 2005. ISBN 88-88507-56-6. Eva era africana, Roma, Gallucci, 2005. ISBN 88-88716-35-1. I nuovi magellani nell'er@ digitale, con Giuseppina Tripodi, Milano, Rizzoli, 2006. ISBN 88-17-00823-0. Tempo di revisione, con Giuseppina Tripodi, Milano, Baldini Castoldi Dalai, 2006. ISBN 88-8490-983-X. La vita intellettuale, in La vita intellettuale. Professioni, arti, impresa in Italia e nel pianeta. Atti del forum internazionale, 13 e 14 febbraio 2007, Bologna, Salone del podesta di Palazzo Re Enzo, Piazza del Nettuno, Bologna, Proctor, 2007. ISBN 978-88-95499-00-0. Rita Levi-Montalcini
Rita Levi-Montalcini
racconta la scuola ai ragazziRita Levi-Montalcini con Giuseppina Tripodi racconta la scuola ai ragazzi, Milano, Fabbri, 2007. ISBN 978-88-451-4308-3. Le tue antenate. Donne pioniere nella società e nella scienza dall'antichità ai giorni nostri, con Giuseppina Tripodi, Roma, Gallucci, 2008. ISBN 978-88-6145-033-2. La clessidra della vita di Rita Levi-Montalcini, con Giuseppina Tripodi, Milano, Baldini Castoldi Dalai, 2008. ISBN 978-88-6073-444-0. Ritmi d'arte, Serra Tarantola, 2008 ISBN 88-95839-05-6 Cronologia di una scoperta, Milano, Baldini Castoldi Dalai, 2009. ISBN 978-88-6073-557-7. L'altra parte del mondo, con Giuseppina Tripodi, Milano, Rizzoli, 2009. ISBN 978-88-17-01529-5.

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References[edit]

^ a b Anon (2012). " Rita Levi-Montalcini
Rita Levi-Montalcini
EMBO profile". people.embo.org. Heidelberg: European Molecular Biology Organization.  ^ a b Anon (2015). "Fellowship of the Royal Society
Royal Society
1660-2015". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015.  ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1986". The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 1 January 2013.  ^ Bradshaw RA (2013). " Rita Levi-Montalcini
Rita Levi-Montalcini
(1909-2012) Nobel prizewinning neurobiologist and eminent advocate for science". Nature. London. 493 (7432): 306. doi:10.1038/493306a. PMID 23325208.  ^ a b Abbott, A. (2009). "Neuroscience: One hundred years of Rita". Nature. 458 (7238): 564–567. doi:10.1038/458564a. PMID 19340056.  ^ "The Doyenne of Neuroscience celebrates her 100th birthday". IBRO. Retrieved 31 December 2012. [permanent dead link] ^ Owen, Richard (30 April 2009). "Secret of Longevity: No Food, No Husband, No Regrets". Excelle. Retrieved 31 December 2012.  ^ "Oldest living Nobel winner Rita Levi Montalcini dies". The Telegraph. 30 December 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2016.  ^ a b c Carey, Benedict (30 December 2012). "Dr. Rita Levi-Montalcini, Nobel Winner, Dies at 103". The New York Times.  ^ a b "Scheda di attività – Rita LEVI-MONTALCINI". Retrieved 1 January 2013.  ^ https://www.economist.com/news/obituary/21569019-rita-levi-montalcini-biologist-died-december-30th-aged-103-rita-levi-montalcini Rita Levi-Montalcini ^ a b Costantino Ceoldo (2012-12-31). "Homage to Rita Levi Montalcini". Retrieved 20 July 2013. Born and raised in a Sephardic Jewish family in which culture and love of learning were categorical imperatives, she abandoned religion and embraced atheism.  ^ Levi-Montalcini, Rita (1988-04-18). In Praise of Imperfection: My Life and Work. p. 28. Mother and Father both came from Sephardic families which had moved respectively from Asti
Asti
and Casale Monferrato, two towns of some importance in Piedmont, to settle in Turin
Turin
at the turn of the century.  ^ Krause-Jackson, Flavia; Martinuzzi, Elisa (30 December 2012). "Levi-Montalcini, Italian Nobel Laureate, Dies at 103". Bloomberg.  ^ Siegel, Judy (4 March 2008). "Oldest living Nobel laureate arrives today on solidarity visit. 98- year-old Italian neurologist Rita Levi-Montalcini triumphed over Mussolini's anti-Jewish edicts". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 30 December 2012.  ^ a b c d "Nobel-winning scientist Levi-Montalcini dies in Rome
Rome
at 103, biologist studied growth factor". Fox News Channel. 30 December 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2012.  ^ Yount, Lisa, Twentieth-Century Women Scientists, Facts on File, Inc., 1996, p. 29, ISBN 0-8160-3173-8 ^ "Death by Design: Where Parallel Worlds Meet". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 31 December 2012.  ^ "Rita Levi Montalcini", Treccani.it. ^ Yount, Lisa (2009). Rita Levi-Montalcini: Discoverer of Nerve Growth Factor. Chelsea House.  ^ Wasserman, Elga R. (2000). The door in the dream : conversations with eminent women in science. Joseph Henry Press. p. 41. ISBN 0-309-06568-2.  ^ "Rita Levi-Montalcini". Washington University. Retrieved 31 December 2012.  ^ "The European Brain
Brain
Research Institute in Rome". Network of European Neuroscience Institutes. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2012.  ^ "Self-inflicted damage.The autocratic actions of an institute's founder could destroy a centre of excellence for brain research". Nature. 463 (7279): 270. 21 January 2010. doi:10.1038/463270a. PMID 20090705.  ^ Horowitz SH (1984). "Ganglioside (Cronassial) therapy in diabetic neuropathy". Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 174: 593–600. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-1200-0_50. ISBN 978-1-4684-1202-4. PMID 6377852.  ^ Staughton RC, Good J (1990). "Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of a mixture of gangliosides ('Cronassial') in post-herpetic neuralgia". Current Medical Research and Opinion. 12 (3): 169–76. doi:10.1185/03007999009111498. PMID 2272191.  ^ "Qualità Intellettuale". UNIPG. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ "Fallimenti storici". Dica33. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ "Rita Levi Montalcini e la vicenda Cronossial". Politica Molecolare. November 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ "Nobel comprato? Non ne so nulla". Retrieved 6 June 2010.  ^ Leon A, Buriani A, Dal Toso R, et al. (April 1994). "Mast cells synthesize, store, and release nerve growth factor". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 91 (9): 3739–43. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.9.3739. PMC 43657 . PMID 8170980.  ^ Aloe L, Leon A, Levi-Montalcini R (1993). "A proposed autacoid mechanism controlling mastocyte behaviour". Agents and Actions. 39 Spec No: C145–7. PMID 7505999.  ^ "Mastella: sì al procedimento su Storace". Repubblica. 17 October 2007. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ "Dispetto alla Montalcini al seggio". La Repubblica. 14 April 2008. Retrieved 16 March 2011.  ^ "Rita Levi-Montalcini, pioneering Italian biologist, dies at 103". The Guardian. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2016.  ^ "Addio al premio Nobel Rita Levi Montalcini". ANSA. 30 December 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2012.  ^ D'Emilio, Frances (30 December 2012). "Nobel-winning biologist Rita Levi-Montalcini dies at 103". NBC News. Associated Press. Retrieved 31 December 2012.  ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter L" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved July 24, 2014.  ^ Wasserman, Elga (2000). The Door in the Dream: Conversations With Eminent Women in Science. Joseph Henry Press. p. 61. ISBN 0309086191. Retrieved 30 December 2012.  ^ a b Yount, Lisa (2007). A to Z of Women in Science and Math. Infobase Publishing. p. 174. ISBN 1438107951. Retrieved 30 December 2012.  ^ "Rita Levi-Montalcini". The Pontifical Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 31 December 2012.  ^ " Rita Levi-Montalcini
Rita Levi-Montalcini
– The Embryo Project Encyclopedia". ASU. Retrieved 30 December 2012.  ^ "Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award: 1986 Winners". Lasker Foundation. Retrieved 31 December 2012.  ^ "International Council of Human Duties". Archived from the original on 11 June 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2013.  ^ "Meet the Goodwill Ambassadors". FAO. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2012.  ^ Ghieth, Sheyam (13 April 2006). "Prodi May Need Elderly Senators to Keep Government". Bloomberg. Retrieved 30 December 2012.  ^ "E' scomparsa Rita Levi Montalcini, premio Nobel per la medicina, tra i soci fondatori di Città della Scienza". Città della Scienza. Retrieved 1 January 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

Sandrone, Stefano (2013). " Rita Levi-Montalcini
Rita Levi-Montalcini
(1909–2012)". Journal of Neurology. 260 (3): 940–941. doi:10.1007/s00415-013-6864-8.  Navis, Adam (2007), "Rita Levi-Montalcini.", Embryo Project Encyclopedia.  Aloe, L. (2004). "Rita Levi-Montalcini: The discovery of nerve growth factor and modern neurobiology". Trends in Cell Biology. 14 (7): 395–399. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2004.05.011. PMID 15246433.  Shampo, M. A.; Kyle, R. A. (2003). "Stamp vignette on medical science. Rita Levi-Montalcini-- Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for work in neurology". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 78 (12): 1448. doi:10.4065/78.12.1448. PMID 14661672.  Aloe, L. (2003). " Rita Levi-Montalcini
Rita Levi-Montalcini
and the discovery of nerve growth factor: Past and present studies". Archives italiennes de biologie. 141 (2–3): 65–83. PMID 12825318.  Cowan, W. M. (2001). " Viktor Hamburger Andrita Levi-Montalcini: The Path to the Discovery of Nerve Growth Factor". Annual Review of Neuroscience. 24: 551–600. doi:10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.551. PMID 11283321.  Provine, R. R. (2001). "In the trenches with Viktor Hamburger and Rita Levi-Montalcini (1965-1974): One student's perspective". International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience. 19 (2): 143–149. doi:10.1016/S0736-5748(00)00081-2. PMID 11255028.  Levi-Montalcini, R. (2000). "From a home-made laboratory to the Nobel Prize: An interview with Rita Levi-Montalcini". The International journal of developmental biology. 44 (6): 563–566. PMID 11061418.  Raju, T. N. (2000). "Stanley Cohen". Lancet. 355 (9202): 506. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)82069-3. PMID 10841166.  Aloe, L. (1999). "Rita Levi-Montalcini: A brief biographic view of past and present studies on nerve growth factor". Microscopy Research and Technique. 45 (4–5): 207–209. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0029(19990515/01)45:4/5<207::AID-JEMT3>3.0.CO;2-E. PMID 10383112.  Bendiner, E. (1992). " Rita Levi-Montalcini
Rita Levi-Montalcini
and the unveiling of growth factors". Hospital practice (Office ed.). 27 (4A): 135–145. PMID 1560084.  Pécsi, T. (1987). " Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for medicine, 1986 (Rita Levi-Montalcini)". Orvosi hetilap. 128 (20): 1047–1048. PMID 3295669.  Weltman, J. K. (1987). "Stanley Cohen". New England and regional allergy proceedings. 8 (1): 47–48. doi:10.2500/108854187779045385. PMID 3302667.  Holloway, Marguerite (January 1993). "Finding the Good in the Bad". Scientific American. 268: 32–36. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rita Levi-Montalcini.

Autobiography at the Nobel e-Museum Interview with Rita Levi-Montalcini
Rita Levi-Montalcini
(dated 26 November 2008) Biography of Rita Levi-Montalcini
Rita Levi-Montalcini
at Embryo Project Encyclopedia Article in German The Official Site of Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize AFP Biography (dated 22 April 2009) celebrating Rita Levi-Montalcini's 100th Birthday Is this the secret of eternal life? (Independent article on R L-M) Italians rally to condemn Nobel 'bribe' allegation: Professor rejects claim by civil servant that a pharmaceuticals firm 'bought' her 1986 prize for medicine An Annual Reviews Conversations Interview with Rita Levi-Montalcini (video) 1979 article in Scientific American
Scientific American
describing the discovery of nerve growth factor

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology or Medicine

1901–1925

1901 Emil Behring 1902 Ronald Ross 1903 Niels Finsen 1904 Ivan Pavlov 1905 Robert Koch 1906 Camillo Golgi
Camillo Golgi
/ Santiago Ramón y Cajal 1907 Alphonse Laveran 1908 Élie Metchnikoff
Élie Metchnikoff
/ Paul Ehrlich 1909 Emil Kocher 1910 Albrecht Kossel 1911 Allvar Gullstrand 1912 Alexis Carrel 1913 Charles Richet 1914 Róbert Bárány 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 Jules Bordet 1920 August Krogh 1921 1922 Archibald Hill
Archibald Hill
/ Otto Meyerhof 1923 Frederick Banting
Frederick Banting
/ John Macleod 1924 Willem Einthoven 1925

1926–1950

1926 Johannes Fibiger 1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg 1928 Charles Nicolle 1929 Christiaan Eijkman
Christiaan Eijkman
/ Frederick Gowland Hopkins 1930 Karl Landsteiner 1931 Otto Warburg 1932 Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Scott Sherrington
/ Edgar Adrian 1933 Thomas Morgan 1934 George Whipple
George Whipple
/ George Minot
George Minot
/ William Murphy 1935 Hans Spemann 1936 Henry Dale / Otto Loewi 1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi 1938 Corneille Heymans 1939 Gerhard Domagk 1940 1941 1942 1943 Henrik Dam
Henrik Dam
/ Edward Doisy 1944 Joseph Erlanger
Joseph Erlanger
/ Herbert Gasser 1945 Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming
/ Ernst Chain
Ernst Chain
/ Howard Florey 1946 Hermann Muller 1947 Carl Cori / Gerty Cori
Gerty Cori
/ Bernardo Houssay 1948 Paul Müller 1949 Walter Hess / António Egas Moniz 1950 Edward Kendall / Tadeusz Reichstein
Tadeusz Reichstein
/ Philip Hench

1951–1975

1951 Max Theiler 1952 Selman Waksman 1953 Hans Krebs / Fritz Lipmann 1954 John Enders / Thomas Weller / Frederick Robbins 1955 Hugo Theorell 1956 André Cournand / Werner Forssmann
Werner Forssmann
/ Dickinson W. Richards 1957 Daniel Bovet 1958 George Beadle / Edward Tatum
Edward Tatum
/ Joshua Lederberg 1959 Severo Ochoa
Severo Ochoa
/ Arthur Kornberg 1960 Frank Burnet / Peter Medawar 1961 Georg von Békésy 1962 Francis Crick
Francis Crick
/ James Watson
James Watson
/ Maurice Wilkins 1963 John Eccles / Alan Hodgkin / Andrew Huxley 1964 Konrad Bloch / Feodor Lynen 1965 François Jacob
François Jacob
/ André Lwoff / Jacques Monod 1966 Francis Rous / Charles B. Huggins 1967 Ragnar Granit
Ragnar Granit
/ Haldan Hartline / George Wald 1968 Robert W. Holley
Robert W. Holley
/ Har Khorana / Marshall Nirenberg 1969 Max Delbrück
Max Delbrück
/ Alfred Hershey
Alfred Hershey
/ Salvador Luria 1970 Bernard Katz / Ulf von Euler
Ulf von Euler
/ Julius Axelrod 1971 Earl Sutherland Jr. 1972 Gerald Edelman
Gerald Edelman
/ Rodney Porter 1973 Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
/ Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
/ Nikolaas Tinbergen 1974 Albert Claude
Albert Claude
/ Christian de Duve
Christian de Duve
/ George Palade 1975 David Baltimore
David Baltimore
/ Renato Dulbecco
Renato Dulbecco
/ Howard Temin

1976–2000

1976 Baruch Blumberg / Daniel Gajdusek 1977 Roger Guillemin / Andrew Schally
Andrew Schally
/ Rosalyn Yalow 1978 Werner Arber
Werner Arber
/ Daniel Nathans
Daniel Nathans
/ Hamilton O. Smith 1979 Allan Cormack / Godfrey Hounsfield 1980 Baruj Benacerraf / Jean Dausset
Jean Dausset
/ George Snell 1981 Roger Sperry / David H. Hubel
David H. Hubel
/ Torsten Wiesel 1982 Sune Bergström
Sune Bergström
/ Bengt I. Samuelsson / John Vane 1983 Barbara McClintock 1984 Niels Jerne / Georges Köhler / César Milstein 1985 Michael Brown / Joseph L. Goldstein 1986 Stanley Cohen / Rita Levi-Montalcini 1987 Susumu Tonegawa 1988 James W. Black / Gertrude B. Elion
Gertrude B. Elion
/ George H. Hitchings 1989 J. Michael Bishop
J. Michael Bishop
/ Harold E. Varmus 1990 Joseph Murray
Joseph Murray
/ E. Donnall Thomas 1991 Erwin Neher
Erwin Neher
/ Bert Sakmann 1992 Edmond Fischer / Edwin G. Krebs 1993 Richard J. Roberts
Richard J. Roberts
/ Phillip Sharp 1994 Alfred G. Gilman
Alfred G. Gilman
/ Martin Rodbell 1995 Edward B. Lewis
Edward B. Lewis
/ Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
/ Eric F. Wieschaus 1996 Peter C. Doherty
Peter C. Doherty
/ Rolf M. Zinkernagel 1997 Stanley B. Prusiner 1998 Robert F. Furchgott
Robert F. Furchgott
/ Louis Ignarro
Louis Ignarro
/ Ferid Murad 1999 Günter Blobel 2000 Arvid Carlsson
Arvid Carlsson
/ Paul Greengard
Paul Greengard
/ Eric Kandel

2001–present

2001 Leland H. Hartwell / Tim Hunt
Tim Hunt
/ Paul Nurse 2002 Sydney Brenner
Sydney Brenner
/ H. Robert Horvitz / John E. Sulston 2003 Paul Lauterbur
Paul Lauterbur
/ Peter Mansfield 2004 Richard Axel
Richard Axel
/ Linda B. Buck 2005 Barry Marshall
Barry Marshall
/ Robin Warren 2006 Andrew Fire / Craig Mello 2007 Mario Capecchi
Mario Capecchi
/ Martin Evans
Martin Evans
/ Oliver Smithies 2008 Harald zur Hausen
Harald zur Hausen
/ Luc Montagnier
Luc Montagnier
/ Françoise Barré-Sinoussi 2009 Elizabeth Blackburn
Elizabeth Blackburn
/ Carol W. Greider
Carol W. Greider
/ Jack W. Szostak 2010 Robert G. Edwards 2011 Bruce Beutler
Bruce Beutler
/ Jules A. Hoffmann / Ralph M. Steinman (posthumously) 2012 John B. Gurdon
John B. Gurdon
/ Shinya Yamanaka 2013 James Rothman
James Rothman
/ Randy Schekman
Randy Schekman
/ Thomas C. Südhof 2014 John O'Keefe / May-Britt Moser
May-Britt Moser
/ Edvard Moser 2015 William C. Campbell / Satoshi Ōmura
Satoshi Ōmura
/ Tu Youyou 2016 Yoshinori Ohsumi 2017 Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, Michael W. Young

v t e

United States National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
laureates

Behavioral and social science

1960s

1964: Roger Adams Othmar H. Ammann Theodosius Dobzhansky Neal Elgar Miller

1980s

1986: Herbert A. Simon 1987: Anne Anastasi George J. Stigler 1988: Milton Friedman

1990s

1990: Leonid Hurwicz Patrick Suppes 1991: Robert W. Kates George A. Miller 1992: Eleanor J. Gibson 1994: Robert K. Merton 1995: Roger N. Shepard 1996: Paul Samuelson 1997: William K. Estes 1998: William Julius Wilson 1999: Robert M. Solow

2000s

2000: Gary Becker 2001: George Bass 2003: R. Duncan Luce 2004: Kenneth Arrow 2005: Gordon H. Bower 2008: Michael I. Posner 2009: Mortimer Mishkin

2010s

2011: Anne Treisman 2014: Robert Axelrod 2015: Albert Bandura

Biological sciences

1960s

1963: C. B. van Niel 1964: Marshall W. Nirenberg 1965: Francis P. Rous George G. Simpson Donald D. Van Slyke 1966: Edward F. Knipling Fritz Albert Lipmann William C. Rose Sewall Wright 1967: Kenneth S. Cole Harry F. Harlow Michael Heidelberger Alfred H. Sturtevant 1968: Horace Barker Bernard B. Brodie Detlev W. Bronk Jay Lush Burrhus Frederic Skinner 1969: Robert Huebner Ernst Mayr

1970s

1970: Barbara McClintock Albert B. Sabin 1973: Daniel I. Arnon Earl W. Sutherland Jr. 1974: Britton Chance Erwin Chargaff James V. Neel James Augustine Shannon 1975: Hallowell Davis Paul Gyorgy Sterling B. Hendricks Orville Alvin Vogel 1976: Roger Guillemin Keith Roberts Porter Efraim Racker E. O. Wilson 1979: Robert H. Burris Elizabeth C. Crosby Arthur Kornberg Severo Ochoa Earl Reece Stadtman George Ledyard Stebbins Paul Alfred Weiss

1980s

1981: Philip Handler 1982: Seymour Benzer Glenn W. Burton Mildred Cohn 1983: Howard L. Bachrach Paul Berg Wendell L. Roelofs Berta Scharrer 1986: Stanley Cohen Donald A. Henderson Vernon B. Mountcastle George Emil Palade Joan A. Steitz 1987: Michael E. DeBakey Theodor O. Diener Harry Eagle Har Gobind Khorana Rita Levi-Montalcini 1988: Michael S. Brown Stanley Norman Cohen Joseph L. Goldstein Maurice R. Hilleman Eric R. Kandel Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 1989: Katherine Esau Viktor Hamburger Philip Leder Joshua Lederberg Roger W. Sperry Harland G. Wood

1990s

1990: Baruj Benacerraf Herbert W. Boyer Daniel E. Koshland Jr. Edward B. Lewis David G. Nathan E. Donnall Thomas 1991: Mary Ellen Avery G. Evelyn Hutchinson Elvin A. Kabat Salvador Luria Paul A. Marks Folke K. Skoog Paul C. Zamecnik 1992: Maxine Singer Howard Martin Temin 1993: Daniel Nathans Salome G. Waelsch 1994: Thomas Eisner Elizabeth F. Neufeld 1995: Alexander Rich 1996: Ruth Patrick 1997: James Watson Robert A. Weinberg 1998: Bruce Ames Janet Rowley 1999: David Baltimore Jared Diamond Lynn Margulis

2000s

2000: Nancy C. Andreasen Peter H. Raven Carl Woese 2001: Francisco J. Ayala Mario R. Capecchi Ann Graybiel Gene E. Likens Victor A. McKusick Harold Varmus 2002: James E. Darnell Evelyn M. Witkin 2003: J. Michael Bishop Solomon H. Snyder Charles Yanofsky 2004: Norman E. Borlaug Phillip A. Sharp Thomas E. Starzl 2005: Anthony S. Fauci Torsten N. Wiesel 2006: Rita R. Colwell Nina Fedoroff Lubert Stryer 2007: Robert J. Lefkowitz Bert W. O'Malley 2008: Francis S. Collins Elaine Fuchs J. Craig Venter 2009: Susan L. Lindquist Stanley B. Prusiner

2010s

2010: Ralph L. Brinster Shu Chien Rudolf Jaenisch 2011: Lucy Shapiro Leroy Hood Sallie Chisholm 2014: May Berenbaum Bruce Alberts 2015: Stanley Falkow Rakesh K. Jain Mary-Claire King Simon Levin

Chemistry

1980s

1982: F. Albert Cotton Gilbert Stork 1983: Roald Hoffmann George C. Pimentel Richard N. Zare 1986: Harry B. Gray Yuan Tseh Lee Carl S. Marvel Frank H. Westheimer 1987: William S. Johnson Walter H. Stockmayer Max Tishler 1988: William O. Baker Konrad E. Bloch Elias J. Corey 1989: Richard B. Bernstein Melvin Calvin Rudolph A. Marcus Harden M. McConnell

1990s

1990: Elkan Blout Karl Folkers John D. Roberts 1991: Ronald Breslow Gertrude B. Elion Dudley R. Herschbach Glenn T. Seaborg 1992: Howard E. Simmons Jr. 1993: Donald J. Cram Norman Hackerman 1994: George S. Hammond 1995: Thomas Cech Isabella L. Karle 1996: Norman Davidson 1997: Darleane C. Hoffman Harold S. Johnston 1998: John W. Cahn George M. Whitesides 1999: Stuart A. Rice John Ross Susan Solomon

2000s

2000: John D. Baldeschwieler Ralph F. Hirschmann 2001: Ernest R. Davidson Gábor A. Somorjai 2002: John I. Brauman 2004: Stephen J. Lippard 2006: Marvin H. Caruthers Peter B. Dervan 2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed 2008: Joanna Fowler JoAnne Stubbe 2009: Stephen J. Benkovic Marye Anne Fox

2010s

2010: Jacqueline K. Barton Peter J. Stang 2011: Allen J. Bard M. Frederick Hawthorne 2014: Judith P. Klinman Jerrold Meinwald 2015: A. Paul Alivisatos Geraldine L. Richmond

Engineering sciences

1960s

1962: Theodore von Kármán 1963: Vannevar Bush John Robinson Pierce 1964: Charles S. Draper 1965: Hugh L. Dryden Clarence L. Johnson Warren K. Lewis 1966: Claude E. Shannon 1967: Edwin H. Land Igor I. Sikorsky 1968: J. Presper Eckert Nathan M. Newmark 1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby

1970s

1970: George E. Mueller 1973: Harold E. Edgerton Richard T. Whitcomb 1974: Rudolf Kompfner Ralph Brazelton Peck Abel Wolman 1975: Manson Benedict William Hayward Pickering Frederick E. Terman Wernher von Braun 1976: Morris Cohen Peter C. Goldmark Erwin Wilhelm Müller 1979: Emmett N. Leith Raymond D. Mindlin Robert N. Noyce Earl R. Parker Simon Ramo

1980s

1982: Edward H. Heinemann Donald L. Katz 1983: William Redington Hewlett George M. Low John G. Trump 1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann T. Y. Lin Bernard M. Oliver 1987: R. Byron Bird H. Bolton Seed Ernst Weber 1988: Daniel C. Drucker Willis M. Hawkins George W. Housner 1989: Harry George Drickamer Herbert E. Grier

1990s

1990: Mildred Dresselhaus Nick Holonyak Jr. 1991: George H. Heilmeier Luna B. Leopold H. Guyford Stever 1992: Calvin F. Quate John Roy Whinnery 1993: Alfred Y. Cho 1994: Ray W. Clough 1995: Hermann A. Haus 1996: James L. Flanagan C. Kumar N. Patel 1998: Eli Ruckenstein 1999: Kenneth N. Stevens

2000s

2000: Yuan-Cheng B. Fung 2001: Andreas Acrivos 2002: Leo Beranek 2003: John M. Prausnitz 2004: Edwin N. Lightfoot 2005: Jan D. Achenbach Tobin J. Marks 2006: Robert S. Langer 2007: David J. Wineland 2008: Rudolf E. Kálmán 2009: Amnon Yariv

2010s

2010: Shu Chien 2011: John B. Goodenough 2014: Thomas Kailath

Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences

1960s

1963: Norbert Wiener 1964: Solomon Lefschetz H. Marston Morse 1965: Oscar Zariski 1966: John Milnor 1967: Paul Cohen 1968: Jerzy Neyman 1969: William Feller

1970s

1970: Richard Brauer 1973: John Tukey 1974: Kurt Gödel 1975: John W. Backus Shiing-Shen Chern George Dantzig 1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs Hassler Whitney 1979: Joseph L. Doob Donald E. Knuth

1980s

1982: Marshall Harvey Stone 1983: Herman Goldstine Isadore Singer 1986: Peter Lax Antoni Zygmund 1987: Raoul Bott Michael Freedman 1988: Ralph E. Gomory Joseph B. Keller 1989: Samuel Karlin Saunders Mac Lane Donald C. Spencer

1990s

1990: George F. Carrier Stephen Cole Kleene John McCarthy 1991: Alberto Calderón 1992: Allen Newell 1993: Martin David Kruskal 1994: John Cocke 1995: Louis Nirenberg 1996: Richard Karp Stephen Smale 1997: Shing-Tung Yau 1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz 1999: Felix Browder Ronald R. Coifman

2000s

2000: John Griggs Thompson Karen K. Uhlenbeck 2001: Calyampudi R. Rao Elias M. Stein 2002: James G. Glimm 2003: Carl R. de Boor 2004: Dennis P. Sullivan 2005: Bradley Efron 2006: Hyman Bass 2007: Leonard Kleinrock Andrew J. Viterbi 2009: David B. Mumford

2010s

2010: Richard A. Tapia S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan 2011: Solomon W. Golomb Barry Mazur 2014: Alexandre Chorin David Blackwell 2015: Michael Artin

Physical sciences

1960s

1963: Luis W. Alvarez 1964: Julian Schwinger Harold Clayton Urey Robert Burns Woodward 1965: John Bardeen Peter Debye Leon M. Lederman William Rubey 1966: Jacob Bjerknes Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Henry Eyring John H. Van Vleck Vladimir K. Zworykin 1967: Jesse Beams Francis Birch Gregory Breit Louis Hammett George Kistiakowsky 1968: Paul Bartlett Herbert Friedman Lars Onsager Eugene Wigner 1969: Herbert C. Brown Wolfgang Panofsky

1970s

1970: Robert H. Dicke Allan R. Sandage John C. Slater John A. Wheeler Saul Winstein 1973: Carl Djerassi Maurice Ewing Arie Jan Haagen-Smit Vladimir Haensel Frederick Seitz Robert Rathbun Wilson 1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen Paul Flory William Alfred Fowler Linus Carl Pauling Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer 1975: Hans A. Bethe Joseph O. Hirschfelder Lewis Sarett Edgar Bright Wilson Chien-Shiung Wu 1976: Samuel Goudsmit Herbert S. Gutowsky Frederick Rossini Verner Suomi Henry Taube George Uhlenbeck 1979: Richard P. Feynman Herman Mark Edward M. Purcell John Sinfelt Lyman Spitzer Victor F. Weisskopf

1980s

1982: Philip W. Anderson Yoichiro Nambu Edward Teller Charles H. Townes 1983: E. Margaret Burbidge Maurice Goldhaber Helmut Landsberg Walter Munk Frederick Reines Bruno B. Rossi J. Robert Schrieffer 1986: Solomon J. Buchsbaum H. Richard Crane Herman Feshbach Robert Hofstadter Chen-Ning Yang 1987: Philip Abelson Walter Elsasser Paul C. Lauterbur George Pake James A. Van Allen 1988: D. Allan Bromley Paul Ching-Wu Chu Walter Kohn Norman F. Ramsey Jack Steinberger 1989: Arnold O. Beckman Eugene Parker Robert Sharp Henry Stommel

1990s

1990: Allan M. Cormack Edwin M. McMillan Robert Pound Roger Revelle 1991: Arthur L. Schawlow Ed Stone Steven Weinberg 1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker 1993: Val Fitch Vera Rubin 1994: Albert Overhauser Frank Press 1995: Hans Dehmelt Peter Goldreich 1996: Wallace S. Broecker 1997: Marshall Rosenbluth Martin Schwarzschild George Wetherill 1998: Don L. Anderson John N. Bahcall 1999: James Cronin Leo Kadanoff

2000s

2000: Willis E. Lamb Jeremiah P. Ostriker Gilbert F. White 2001: Marvin L. Cohen Raymond Davis Jr. Charles Keeling 2002: Richard Garwin W. Jason Morgan Edward Witten 2003: G. Brent Dalrymple Riccardo Giacconi 2004: Robert N. Clayton 2005: Ralph A. Alpher Lonnie Thompson 2006: Daniel Kleppner 2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove Charles P. Slichter 2008: Berni Alder James E. Gunn 2009: Yakir Aharonov Esther M. Conwell Warren M. Washington

2010s

2011: Sidney Drell Sandra Faber Sylvester James Gates 2014: Burton Richter Sean C. Solomon 2015: Shirley Ann Jackson

v t e

Fellows of the Royal Society
Royal Society
elected in 1995

Fellows

 Martin A. Bennett  Iain Campbell  Johnson Cann  Keith Chater  Ed Corrigan  E. Brian Davies  Graham Dixon-Lewis  Richard Ellis  Graham Farquhar  Jeffrey Harborne  Julia Higgins  Jonathan Charles Howard  Antony Jameson  Jack Henri Kaplan  Gurdev Khush  Anthony Ledwith   Frank Matthews Leslie  Robin Marshall  Christopher John Marshall  Paul Mason  David Miller  Richard Alan North  Tim Pedley  Geoffrey James Pert  Keith Peters  Jeremy David Pickett-Heaps  Richard J. Roberts  Joseph Rotblat  Jeremy Sanders  Robert Malcolm Simmons  Ian William Murison Smith  Peter Sneath  Laszlo Solymar  Roger Tayler  Richard Taylor  Shirley M. Tilghman  John E. Walker  Stephen C. West  Colin Windsor  Andrew Wyllie

Foreign

 Ugo Fano  Gertrude B. Elion  Salome Gluecksohn-Waelsch  Rita Levi-Montalcini  Calvin Quate  John Archibald Wheeler

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 85738872 LCCN: n82055420 ISNI: 0000 0001 1030 4487 GND: 119002396 SUDOC: 035669772 BNF: cb121197974 (data) BIBSYS: 90075246 NDL: 00470402 NKC: xx0067228 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV57574 BNE: XX1004359 CiNii

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