Tram: 2 , 5 , 7 , 10 , 12
Bus: 26, 65, 66, 170, 172, 197
Rijksmuseum (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈrɛiksmyˌzeːjʏm]; English:
National Museum) is a Dutch national museum dedicated to arts and
history in Amsterdam. The museum is located at the Museum Square in
Amsterdam South, close to the Van Gogh Museum, the
Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, and the Concertgebouw.
Rijksmuseum was founded in
The Hague in 1800 and moved to
Amsterdam in 1808, where it was first located in the Royal Palace and
later in the Trippenhuis. The current main building was designed by
Pierre Cuypers and first opened its doors in 1885. On 13 April
2013, after a ten-year renovation which cost € 375 million, the main
building was reopened by Queen Beatrix. In 2013 and 2014,
it was the most visited museum in the
Netherlands with record numbers
of 2.2 million and 2.47 million visitors. It is also the
largest art museum in the country.
The museum has on display 8,000 objects of art and history, from their
total collection of 1 million objects from the years 1200–2000,
among which are some masterpieces by Rembrandt, Frans Hals, and
Johannes Vermeer. The museum also has a small Asian collection, which
is on display in the Asian pavilion.
1.1 18th century
1.2 19th century
1.3 20th century
1.4 21st century
1.5 List of directors
10 External links
Isaac Gogel (1765–1821)
In 1795, the
Batavian Republic was proclaimed. The Minister of Finance
Isaac Gogel argued that a national museum, following the French
example of The Louvre, would serve the national interest. On 19
November 1798, the government decided to found the museum.
On 31 May 1800, the National
Art Gallery (Dutch: Nationale
Kunst-Galerij), precursor of the Rijksmuseum, opened its doors in Huis
ten Bosch in The Hague. The museum exhibited around 200 paintings and
historic objects from the collections of the Dutch
In 1805, the National
Art Gallery moved within
The Hague to the
In 1806, the
Kingdom of Holland
Kingdom of Holland was established by Napoleon Bonaparte.
On the orders of king Louis Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon, the museum
Amsterdam in 1808. The paintings owned by that city, such as
The Night Watch
The Night Watch by Rembrandt, became part of the collection. In 1809,
the museum opened its doors in the Royal Palace in Amsterdam.
In 1817, the museum moved to the Trippenhuis. The
out to be unsuitable as a museum. In 1820, the historical objects were
moved to the
The Hague and in 1838, the 19th-century
paintings were moved to
Paviljoen Welgelegen in Haarlem.
"Did you know that a large, new building will take the place of the
Trippenhuis in Amsterdam? That’s fine with me; the
too small, and many paintings hang in such a way that one can’t see
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh in a letter to his brother Theo in
1873. Vincent himself would later become a painter and some of his
works would be hanging on the museum.
In 1863, there was a design contest for a new building for the
Rijksmuseum, but none of the submissions was considered to be of
Pierre Cuypers also participated in the contest
and his submission reached the second place.
In 1876, a new contest was held and this time
Pierre Cuypers won. The
design was a combination of gothic and renaissance elements. The
construction began on 1 October 1876. On both the inside and the
outside, the building was richly decorated with references to Dutch
art history. Another contest was held for these decorations. The
winners were B. van Hove and J.F. Vermeylen for the sculptures, G.
Sturm for the tile tableaus and painting and W.F. Dixon for the
stained glass. The museum was opened at its new location on 13 July
In 1890, a new building was added a short distance to the south-west
of the Rijksmuseum. As the building was made out of fragments of
demolished buildings, the building offers an overview of the history
of Dutch architecture and has come to be known informally as the
'fragment building'. It is also known as the 'south wing' and is
currently (in 2013) branded the
Dutch newsreel from 1959
In 1906, the hall for the Night Watch was rebuilt. In the interior
more changes were made between the 1920s and 1950s - most
multi-coloured wall decorations were painted over. In the 1960s
exposition rooms and several floors were built into the two
courtyards. The building had some minor renovations and restorations
in 1984, 1995–1996 and 2000.
A renovation of the south wing of the museum, also known as the
'fragment building' or '
Philips Wing', was completed in 1996, the same
year that the museum held its first major photography exhibition
featuring its extensive collection of 19th-century photos.
The atrium after the renovation in 2013
In December 2003, the main building of the museum closed for a major
renovation. During this renovation, about 400 objects from the
collection were on display in the 'fragment building', including
The Night Watch
The Night Watch and other 17th-century masterpieces.
The restoration and renovation of the
Rijksmuseum are based on a
design by Spanish architects Antonio Cruz and Antonio Ortiz. Many of
the old interior decorations were restored and the floors in the
courtyards were removed. The renovation would have initially taken
five years, but was delayed and eventually took almost ten years to
complete. The renovation cost € 375 million.
The reconstruction of the building was completed on 16 July 2012. In
March 2013, the museum's main pieces of art were moved back from the
'fragment building' (
Philips Wing) to the main building. The Night
Watch returned to the Night Watch Room, at the end of the Hall of
Fame. On 13 April 2013, the main building was reopened by Queen
Beatrix. On 1 November 2014, the
Philips Wing reopened with the
exhibition Modern Times: Photography in the 20th Century.
List of directors
Queen Beatrix and museum director
Wim Pijbes in 2013
Cornelis Sebille Roos
Cornelis Apostool (1808–1844)
Jan Willem Pieneman
Jan Willem Pieneman (1844–1847)
Johann Wilhelm Kaiser (1873–1883)
Frederik Daniël Otto Obreen (1883–1896)
Barthold Willem Floris van Riemsdijk (1897–1921)
Frederik Schmidt-Degener (1921–1941)
David Röell (1945–1959)
Arthur F.E. van Schendel (1959–1975)
Simon Levie (1975–1989)
Henk van Os (1989–1996)
Ronald de Leeuw (1996–2008)
Wim Pijbes (2008–2016)
Taco Dibbits (2016–present)
The building of the
Rijksmuseum was designed by
Pierre Cuypers and
opened in 1885. It consists of two squares with an atrium in each
centre. In the central axis is a tunnel with the entrances at ground
level and the Gallery of Honour at the first floor. The building also
contains a library. The fragment building, branded
contains building fragments that show the history of architecture in
the Netherlands. The
Rijksmuseum is a rijksmonument (national heritage
site) since 1970 and was listed in the Top 100 Dutch heritage
sites in 1990. The Asian pavilion was designed by
Cruz y Ortiz
Cruz y Ortiz and
opened in 2013.
According to Muriel Huisman, Project Architect for the Rijksmuseum's
Cruz y Ortiz
Cruz y Ortiz always like to look for a synergy between
old and new, and we try not to explain things with our
architecture.” With the Rijks, “there’s no cut between old and
new; we’ve tried to merge it. We did this by looking for materials
that were true to the original building, resulting in a kind of silent
Rijksmuseum was located in the
Trippenhuis between 1817 and 1885.
Drawing of the design by
Pierre Cuypers in 1876.
Front of Cuypers' building, circa 1895.
View of the facade by night.
Video of the
120 Paintings from the Rijksmuseum
120 Paintings from the Rijksmuseum and List of painters in
the collection of the Rijksmuseum
The collection of the
Rijksmuseum consists of 1 million objects and is
dedicated to arts, crafts, and history from the years 1200 to 2000.
Around 8000 objects are currently on display in the museum.
The collection contains more than 2,000 paintings from the Dutch
Golden Age by notable painters such as Jacob van Ruisdael, Frans Hals,
Johannes Vermeer, Jan Steen, Rembrandt, and Rembrandt's pupils.
The museum also has a small Asian collection which is on display in
the Asian pavilion.
It also displays the stern of HMS Royal Charles which was captured in
the Raid on the Medway, and the Hartog plate.
In 2012, the museum took the unusual step of making some 125,000
high-resolution images available for download via its Rijksstudio
webplatform, with plans to add another 40,000 images per year
until the entire collection of one million works is available,
according to Taco Dibbits, director of collections.
Portrait of a Young Couple (1622) by Frans Hals
Jeremiah Lamenting the Destruction of Jerusalem (1630) by Rembrandt
Meagre Company (1633–37) by
Frans Hals and Pieter Codde
The Night Watch
The Night Watch (1642) by Rembrandt
Banquet at the Crossbowmen’s Guild in Celebration of the Treaty of
Münster (1648) by Bartholomeus van der Helst
The Threatened Swan
The Threatened Swan (c. 1650) by Jan Asselijn
The Milkmaid (c. 1657–58) by Johannes Vermeer
The Jewish Bride
The Jewish Bride (c. 1667) by Rembrandt
Girl in a Blue Dress
Girl in a Blue Dress (1641) by Johannes Cornelisz Verspronck
Landscape with Waterfall
Landscape with Waterfall (1660s) by Jacob van Ruisdael
The 20th-century visitor record of 1,412,000 was reached in the year
In the 1990s and early 2000s, the
Rijksmuseum was annually visited by
0.9 to 1.3 million people. On 7 December 2003, the main building of
the museum was closed for a renovation until 13 April 2013. In the
following decade, the number of visitors slightly decreased to 0.8 to
1.1 million people. The museum says after the renovation, the museum's
capacity is 1.5 to 2.0 million visitors annually. Within eight
months since the reopening in 2013, the museum was visited by 2
The museum had 2.2 million visitors in 2013 and reached an all-time
record of 2.47 million visitors in 2014.
The museum was the most visited museum in the
Netherlands and the 19th
most visited art museum in the world in 2013 and 2014.
The library in the Rijksmuseum
Rijksmuseum Research Library
Rijksmuseum Research Library is part of the Rijksmuseum, and is
the best and the largest public art history research library in The
Rijks, stylized as RIJKS®, is a restaurant with 140 seats in the
Philips Wing. Joris Bijdendijk has been the chef de cuisine since
the opening in 2014. The restaurant was awarded a
Michelin star in
^ This includes the 16,777 visitors to the main building.
^ In 1993, the visitors number had decreased with 23% to 936,400, i.e.
there were approximately 1,216,103 visitors in 1992.
^ The main building was closed from 7 December 2003.
^ In 1995, the visitor number had decreased with 60,000 to 942,000,
i.e. there were approximately 1,002,000 visitors in 1994.
^ a b c d e f g h i
History of the Rijksmuseum, Rijksmuseum. Retrieved
4 April 2013.
^ a b Address and route, Rijksmuseum. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ a b c d e f g The renovation, Rijksmuseum. Retrieved on 4 April
^ a b (in Dutch) Jasper Piersma, "
Van Gogh Museum
Van Gogh Museum zit Rijks op de
hielen als populairste museum", Het Parool, 2016. Retrieved 2 January
^ a b Jaarverslag 2015 (in Dutch), Rijksmuseum. Retrieved 23 January
^ a b c d Jaarverslag 2014 (in Dutch), Rijksmuseum. Retrieved 23
^ a b (in Dutch) Claudia Kammer & Daan van Lent, "Musea trokken
dit jaar opnieuw meer bezoekers", NRC Handelsblad, 2014. Retrieved on
18 July 2015.
^ a b Top 100
Art Museum Attendance, The
Art Newspaper, 2015.
Retrieved on 18 July 2015.
^ a b Board of Directors, Rijksmuseum. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ "The beginning".
History of the Rijksmuseum. Rijksmuseum. Retrieved
2 February 2018.
Museumplein Archived 13 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine., I
Amsterdam. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ a b "
Rijksmuseum set for grand reopening in Amsterdam". BBC News. 4
April 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
^ a b "The
Rijksmuseum reopens: A new golden age". The Economist
(London). 13 April 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
^ "The Dutch Prize Their Pedal Power, but a Sea of Bikes Swamps Their
Capital". The New York Times. 20 June 2013.
^ a b c d Jaarverslag 2013 (in Dutch), Rijksmuseum. Retrieved 23
^ a b (in Dutch) Roelof van Gelder, Schatkamer met veel gezichten,
2000. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
^ "To Theo van Gogh. The Hague, Tuesday, 28 January 1873". Retrieved
24 March 2018.
^ a b c "Stadhouderskade 42.
Rijksmuseum (1876/85)". Monumenten en
Amsterdam (in Dutch). City of Amsterdam. Archived from
the original on 9 February 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2007.
^ "Stadhouderskade 42.
Rijksmuseum (1876/85). Interieur". Monumenten
en Archeologie in
Amsterdam (in Dutch). City of Amsterdam. Archived
from the original on 2 February 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2007.
^ A new art: photography in the 19th century. The photo collection of
the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, edited by curators Mattie Boom and Hans
Rooseboom, preface by Peter Schatborn and Ronald de Leeuw, essays by
Jan Piet Filedt Kok, Mattie Boom, Hans Rosenboom, Robbert van Venetie,
Hedi Hegeman, Andreas Blühm, Saskia Asser and Annet Zondervan,
Rijksmuseum & Van Gogh Museum, 1996, ISBN 9053491937
^ "Final Design The New Rijksmuseum". The New Rijksmuseum. Rijksmuseum
Amsterdam. Retrieved 1 April 2007.
^ Jan Willem Pieneman, Rijksmuseum. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
^ (in Dutch) Frederik Daniël Otto Obreen (1840-96) Archived 3
November 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Rijksmuseum. Retrieved 2 May
^ (in Dutch) Jonkheer Barthold Willem Floris van Riemsdijk
(1850-1942), Geheugen van Nederland. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
^ (in Dutch) A.A.M. de Jong, Schmidt Degener, Frederik (1881-1941),
Historici.nl, 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
^ (in Dutch) Th.J. Meijer, Röell, jhr. David Cornelis (1894-1961),
Historici.nl, 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
^ a b (in Dutch) Lucette ter Borg, "Gedonderjaag in het Rijksmuseum",
de Volkskrant, 2000. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 November 2013.
Retrieved 25 April 2013.
^ "CV Prof. Dr. (h. c.) Ronald de Leeuw" (PDf). Kunsthistorisches
Museum. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
^ Charlotte Higgins (5 April 2013)."
Rijksmuseum to reopen after
dazzling refurbishment and rethink".
The Guardian (London). Retrieved
25 April 2013.
^ (in Dutch) Monumentnummer: 5680, Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel
Erfgoed. Retrieved on 6 March 2014.
Rijksmuseum lanceert Rijksstudio". Creative Commons Nederland (in
Dutch). Retrieved 30 July 2015.
^ Rijkstudio promotes and enables the reuse of the Rijksmuseum
^ Nina Siegal (28 May 2013). "Masterworks for One and All". The New
York Times. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
^ Erik Boekesteijn (12 April 2013). TWIL #94: Peter Gorgels (Internet
Manager Rijksmuseum) (Video podcast). This Week In Libraries.
Amsterdam: Shanachiemedia. Retrieved 11 June 2013. [permanent
^ a b (in Dutch) Openingsjaar
Rijksmuseum breek alle records Archived
28 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Rijksmuseum, 2013. Retrieved
^ a b c (in Dutch) Jaarverslag 2001, Rijksmuseum, 2002. Retrieved 25
^ a b c d e f g (in Dutch) Jaarverslag 2011, Rijksmuseum, 2012.
Retrieved on 25 April 2013.
^ a b (in Dutch) "Museumbezoek in 1993 sterk gedaald", NRC
Handelsblad, 1994. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
^ a b c (in Dutch) Jaarverslag 2003, Rijksmuseum, 2004. Retrieved 25
^ a b Jaarverslag 2012 (in Dutch), Rijksmuseum. Retrieved 23 January
^ (in Dutch) "Nieuwe musea hadden in 1995 een goede start", de
Volkskrant, 1996. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
^ a b (in Dutch) "Grote musea trokken in 1995 minder bezoekers",
Trouw, 1996. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
^ a b c (in Dutch) Jaarverslag 2005, Rijksmuseum, 2006. Retrieved 25
^ (in Dutch)
Rijksmuseum en Kunsthal trekken veel bezoekers, de
Volkskrant, 1997. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
^ (in Dutch) Jaarverslag 1998, Rijksmuseum, 1999. Retrieved 25 April
^ a b (in Dutch) Jaarverslag 1999, Rijksmuseum, 2000. Retrieved 25
Rijksmuseum welcomes two millionth visitor (press release),
Rijksmuseum, 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
^ Top 100
Art Museum Attendance, The
Art Newspaper, 2014. Retrieved on
28 June 2014.
^ Brooke Bobb, "Go for the Art, Stay for the Food: The 7 Best Museum
Restaurants Around the World", Vogue, 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
^ "Joris Bijdendijk verantwoordelijk voor nieuwe restaurant
Rijksmuseum", Het Parool, 2014. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
^ "Michelinster voor Amsterdamse restaurants Rijks, Bolenius en Mos",
Het Parool, 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Rijksmuseum, official website
ISNI: 0000 0001 2196 1335
BNF: cb118670598 (data)