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Richard Rush
Richard Rush
(August 29, 1780 – July 30, 1859) was the 8th United States Attorney General and the 8th United States
United States
Secretary of the Treasury. He also served as John Quincy Adams's running mate on the National Republican ticket in 1828. Born in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
to Benjamin Rush, a prominent physician and Founding Father, Richard Rush
Richard Rush
graduated from the College of New Jersey in 1797 and pursued a legal career. After gaining renown for his oratorical skills, he was appointed as Attorney General of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in 1811. Later that year, President James Madison appointed Rush to the position of Comptroller of the Treasury, and Rush became one of Madison's closest advisers during the War of 1812. Madison elevated Rush to the position of United States
United States
Attorney General in 1814. Rush remained in that position after James Monroe took office, and he also briefly served as the acting Secretary of State. In this capacity he concluded the Rush–Bagot Treaty, which limited naval armaments on the Great Lakes. After John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
returned to the United States
United States
to assume the position of Secretary of State, Rush was appointed as the ambassador to Britain. In 1825, Rush accepted Adams's offer to serve as Secretary of the Treasury. When Adams sought re-election in 1828, he chose Rush as his running mate, but Adams lost the presidential election to Andrew Jackson. After the election, Rush served as a diplomat for various groups, and he helped establish the Smithsonian Institution. During the presidency of James K. Polk, Rush served as the minister to France. He returned to the United States
United States
in 1849 and died in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in 1859.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Lawyer 3 Federal government service

3.1 Societies

4 References 5 Sources 6 External links

Early life and education[edit] Rush was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was the second son (and third child) of Benjamin Rush
Benjamin Rush
(one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence and a prominent physician) and Julia (Stockton) Rush, daughter of Richard Stockton (another signer of the Declaration of Independence) and Annis Boudinot Stockton. He entered the College of New Jersey (now known as Princeton University) at the age of 14, and graduated in 1797 as the youngest member of his class. He was admitted to the bar in 1800, when he was barely 20 years old. Rush married Catherine Eliza Murray on August 29, 1809. They were the parents of ten children, of whom three sons and two daughters survived him. Lawyer[edit] After his entering the bar in 1800, Rush quickly gaining statewide and then national attention as a public speaker and successful trial lawyer. In 1811 he was appointed Attorney General of Pennsylvania. Shortly before this he had declined an offer to run for congress. In November 1811, President James Madison
James Madison
appointed Rush Comptroller of the Treasury. Federal government service[edit] From the position as Comptroller of the treasury, albeit a subordinate position, Rush functioned as one of President Madison's closest friends and confidential advisors throughout the War of 1812. He was one of the War Hawks who advocated war with Britain. In 1814 Madison offered Rush the choice of Secretary of the Treasury or Attorney General of the United States, of which positions Rush chose the latter. With his appointment as Attorney General, Rush became the youngest person to serve in that office. Rush served as United States Attorney General from 1814 to 1817. At this time the attorney generalship was a part-time position, and so Rush also maintained his private law practice while in this office. On top of this he edited a codification of United States
United States
laws during this time.[1] He was acting Secretary of State from the start of James Monroe's term as president until the return of John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
from Europe. During this time Rush concluded the Rush-Bagot Convention, demilitarizing the Canadian boundary on the Great Lakes. In October 1817, Rush was appointed Minister to Britain to succeed John Quincy Adams, who had taken the position of Secretary of State upon his return. His "gentlemanly" attitude was appreciated by the British, and he remained there for nearly eight years, proving singularly effective in negotiating a number of important treaties, including the Anglo-American Treaty of 1818. He became surprisingly popular in England, despite his previous anti-British record. In 1823, Rush negotiated with Britain over British proposals that the two countries issue a joint declaration against French involvement in Spain's rebelling American colonies, but Britain would not agree to American demands for recognition of the newly independent republics, leading to the separate American declaration of the Monroe Doctrine. Richard Rush
Richard Rush
received one electoral vote as a Federalist for the office of U.S. Vice President
U.S. Vice President
in the 1820 election, even though the Federalist Party
Federalist Party
nominated no candidate for U.S. President
U.S. President
in that election. And then again in March–April 1824, Richard Rush
Richard Rush
was again honored with a single vote at the Democratic-Republican Party
Democratic-Republican Party
Caucus to be the party's candidate for the Office of U.S. Vice President
U.S. Vice President
for the upcoming 1824 election.

Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Bureau of Engraving and Printing
portrait of Rush as Secretary of the Treasury.

Upon the election of John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
in 1825, Rush (having made a study of Britain, and the British Navy in particular, while he was there) desired to become the Secretary of the Navy. Adams, however, immediately nominated him for the post of 8th Secretary of the Treasury, which he accepted. He served in this position with remarkable success during the entire Adams Administration from March 7, 1825 until March 5, 1829. Notably, he paid off nearly the whole public debt, and turned over to his successor a large treasury surplus. In 1828, he was a candidate for Vice President on the re-election ticket with John Quincy Adams, but was defeated. After leaving the Treasury Department, he was sent to England
England
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
by the cities of Georgetown and Alexandria to negotiate a large loan for the cities, a mission that met with prompt success. In 1836, President Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
sent him to England
England
as Commissioner to secure for the United States
United States
the legacy left the government by James Smithson. He was successful in this undertaking, bringing to this country the sum of $508,318.46, which would eventually be used to establish the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Rush later became one of the first regents of the institution.[2] After a short time with the Anti-Masonic Party, in the later 1830s Rush became a member of the Democratic Party.[3] In 1847, Richard Rush
Richard Rush
was appointed as Minister to France by President James K. Polk. When his negotiations were interrupted by the overthrow of King Louis-Philippe, he was among the first foreign diplomats to recognize the new French Second Republic. He remained in France until his recall by the new Whig administration in 1849, when he returned to the land of his birth, to retire in Philadelphia. He died there on July 30, 1859, and is buried at Laurel Hill Cemetery
Laurel Hill Cemetery
in Philadelphia. Prior to his death, Rush had been the last surviving member of the Madison and Monroe Cabinets. Societies[edit] Rush was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society
American Antiquarian Society
in 1814.[4] During the 1820s, Rush was a member of the prestigious society, Columbian Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences, who counted among their members former presidents Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
and John Quincy Adams and many prominent men of the day, including well-known representatives of the military, government service, medical and other professions.[5] References[edit]

^ Book Rags biography of Rush ^ Heather Ewing (2007). The Lost World of James Smithson: Science, Revolution, and the Birth of the Smithsonian. Bloomsbury USA. ^ G. G. van D., "Review of Richard Rush
Richard Rush
Diplomat" in The English Historical Review vol. 61, no. 239 (Jan. 1946) p. 120 ^ American Antiquarian Society
American Antiquarian Society
Members Directory ^ Rathbun, Richard. The Columbian institute for the promotion of arts and sciences: A Washington Society of 1816–1838. Bulletin of the United States
United States
National Museum, October 18, 1917. Retrieved 2010-06-20. 

Sources[edit] This article contains material from the U.S. Department of Justice Attorneys General of the United States, which, as a U.S. government publication, is in the public domain. External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of an 1879 American Cyclopædia
American Cyclopædia
article about Richard Rush.

Works by Richard Rush
Richard Rush
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Richard Rush
Richard Rush
at Internet Archive Richard Rush
Richard Rush
at Find a Grave

Legal offices

Preceded by William Pinkney U.S. Attorney General Served under: James Madison, James Monroe 1814–1817 Succeeded by William Wirt

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by John Quincy Adams United States
United States
Minister to the United Kingdom 1817–1825 Succeeded by Rufus King

Preceded by William King United States
United States
Minister to France 1847–1849 Succeeded by William Rives

Political offices

Preceded by William Crawford U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Served under: John Quincy Adams 1825–1829 Succeeded by Samuel Ingham

Party political offices

New political party National Republican nominee for Vice President of the United States 1828 Succeeded by John Sergeant

v t e

United States
United States
Attorneys General

18th century

Randolph Bradford Lee

19th century

Lincoln Breckinridge Rodney Pinkney Rush Wirt Berrien Taney Butler Grundy Gilpin Crittenden Legaré Nelson Mason Clifford Toucey Johnson Crittenden Cushing Black Stanton Bates Speed Stanbery Evarts Hoar Akerman Williams Pierrepont Taft Devens MacVeagh Brewster Garland Miller Olney Harmon McKenna Griggs

20th century

Knox Moody Bonaparte Wickersham McReynolds Gregory Palmer Daugherty Stone Sargent W. D. Mitchell Cummings Murphy Jackson Biddle T. C. Clark McGrath McGranery Brownell Rogers Kennedy Katzenbach R. Clark J. N. Mitchell Kleindienst Richardson Saxbe Levi Bell Civiletti Smith Meese Thornburgh Barr Reno

21st century

Ashcroft Gonzales Mukasey Holder Lynch Sessions

v t e

United States
United States
Secretaries of the Treasury

18th century

Hamilton Wolcott Dexter

19th century

Gallatin Campbell Dallas Crawford Rush Ingham McLane Duane Taney Woodbury Ewing Forward Spencer Bibb Walker Meredith Corwin Guthrie Cobb Thomas Dix Chase Fessenden McCulloch Boutwell Richardson Bristow Morrill Sherman Windom Folger Gresham McCulloch Manning Fairchild Windom Foster Carlisle Gage

20th century

Shaw Cortelyou MacVeagh McAdoo Glass Houston Mellon Mills Woodin Morgenthau Vinson Snyder Humphrey Anderson Dillon Fowler Barr Kennedy Connally Shultz Simon Blumenthal Miller Regan Baker Brady Bentsen Rubin Summers

21st century

O'Neill Snow Paulson Geithner Lew Mnuchin

v t e

Ambassadors of the United States
United States
of America to France

Envoys to France 1776–1779

Benjamin Franklin, Arthur Lee, Silas Deane
Silas Deane
(substituted by John Adams in 1778) (1776–1779)

Ministers Plenipotentiary to France 1778–1815

Franklin (1778–85) Jefferson (1785–89) Short (1790–92) Morris (1792–94) Monroe (1794–96) Pinckney (1796–97) Livingston (1801–04) Armstrong (1804–10) Russell (chargé d'affaires) (1811) Barlow (1811–12) Crawford (1813–15)

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to France 1816–1893

Gallatin (1816–23) Brown (1824–29) Rives (1829–32) Harris (chargé d'affaires) (1833) Livingston (1833–35) Barton (chargé d'affaires) (1835) Cass (1836–42) King (1844–46) Rush (1847–49) Rives (1849–53) Mason (1853–59) Faulkner (1860–61) Dayton (1861–64) Bigelow (1865–66) Dix (1866–69) Washburne (1869–77) Noyes (1877–81) Morton (1881–85) McLane (1885–89) Reid (1889–92) Coolidge (1892–93)

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to France 1893–present

Eustis (1893–97) Porter (1897–05) McCormick (1905–07) White (1907–09) Bacon (1909–12) Herrick (1912–14) Sharp (1914–1919) Wallace (1919–21) Herrick (1921–29) Edge (1929–33) Straus (1933–36) Bullitt (1936–40) Leahy (1941–42) Tuck (chargé d'affaires) (1942) Caffery (1944–49) Bruce (1949–52) Dunn (1952–53) Dillon (1953–57) Houghton (1957–61) Gavin (1961–62) Bohlen (1962–68) Shriver (1968–70) Watson (1970–72) Irwin (1973–74) Rush (1974–77) Hartman (1977–81) Galbraith (1981–85) Rodgers (1985–89) Curley (1989–93) Harriman (1993–97) Rohatyn (1997–2000) Leach (2001–05) Stapleton (2005–09) Rivkin (2009–2013) Hartley (2014–2017) McCourt (2017–present)

v t e

Ambassadors of the United States
United States
of America to the Court of St. James's

Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1785–1811

John Adams
John Adams
(1785–1788) Thomas Pinckney
Thomas Pinckney
(1792–1796) Rufus King
Rufus King
(1796–1803) James Monroe
James Monroe
(1803–1807) William Pinkney
William Pinkney
(1808–1811) Jonathan Russell
Jonathan Russell
(chargé d'affaires) (1811–1812)

Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1815–1893

John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
(1815–1817) Richard Rush
Richard Rush
(1818–1825) Rufus King
Rufus King
(1825–1826) Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
(1826–1827) James Barbour
James Barbour
(1828–1829) Louis McLane
Louis McLane
(1829–1831) Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
(1831–1832) Aaron Vail (chargé d'affaires) (1832–1836) Andrew Stevenson
Andrew Stevenson
(1836–1841) Edward Everett
Edward Everett
(1841–1845) Louis McLane
Louis McLane
(1845–1846) George Bancroft
George Bancroft
(1846–1849) Abbott Lawrence
Abbott Lawrence
(1849–1852) Joseph R. Ingersoll (1852–1853) James Buchanan
James Buchanan
(1853–1856) George M. Dallas
George M. Dallas
(1856–1861) Charles Adams Sr. (1861–1868) Reverdy Johnson
Reverdy Johnson
(1868–1869) John Lothrop Motley
John Lothrop Motley
(1869–1870) Robert C. Schenck
Robert C. Schenck
(1871–1876) Edwards Pierrepont
Edwards Pierrepont
(1876–1877) John Welsh (1877–1879) James Russell Lowell
James Russell Lowell
(1880–1885) Edward J. Phelps (1885–1889) Robert Todd Lincoln
Robert Todd Lincoln
(1889–1893)

Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1893–present

Thomas F. Bayard
Thomas F. Bayard
Sr. (1893–1897) John Hay
John Hay
(1897–1898) Joseph Choate (1899–1905) Whitelaw Reid
Whitelaw Reid
(1905–1912) Walter Page (1913-1918) John W. Davis
John W. Davis
(1918–1921) George Harvey (1921–1923) Frank B. Kellogg
Frank B. Kellogg
(1924–1925) Alanson B. Houghton
Alanson B. Houghton
(1925–1929) Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes
(1929–1931) Andrew W. Mellon
Andrew W. Mellon
(1932–1933) Robert Bingham (1933–1937) Joseph P. Kennedy (1938–1940) John G. Winant (1941–1946) W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
(1946) Lewis W. Douglas (1947–1950) Walter S. Gifford (1950–1953) Winthrop W. Aldrich
Winthrop W. Aldrich
(1953–1957) John Hay
John Hay
Whitney (1957–1961) David K. E. Bruce (1961–1969) Walter H. Annenberg (1969–1974) Elliot L. Richardson (1975–1976) Anne Armstrong (1976–1977) Kingman Brewster Jr. (1977–1981) John J. Louis Jr. (1981–1983) Charles H. Price II
Charles H. Price II
(1983–1989) Henry E. Catto Jr. (1989–1991) Raymond G. H. Seitz (1991–1994) William J. Crowe
William J. Crowe
(1994–1997) Philip Lader
Philip Lader
(1997–2001) William Stamps Farish III
William Stamps Farish III
(2001–2004) Robert H. Tuttle
Robert H. Tuttle
(2005–2009) Louis Susman
Louis Susman
(2009–2013) Matthew Barzun
Matthew Barzun
(2013–2017) Woody Johnson
Woody Johnson
(2017– )

v t e

Cabinet of President James Madison
James Madison
(1809–17)

Secretary of State

Robert Smith (1809–11) James Monroe
James Monroe
(1811–14, 1815–17)

Secretary of the Treasury

Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
(1809–14) George W. Campbell
George W. Campbell
(1814) Alexander J. Dallas (1814–16) William H. Crawford
William H. Crawford
(1816–17)

Secretary of War

William Eustis
William Eustis
(1809–13) John Armstrong Jr.
John Armstrong Jr.
(1813–14) James Monroe
James Monroe
(1814–15) William H. Crawford
William H. Crawford
(1815–16) George Graham (1816–1817)

Attorney General

Caesar A. Rodney (1809–11) William Pinkney
William Pinkney
(1811–14) Richard Rush
Richard Rush
(1814–17)

Postmaster General

Gideon Granger (1809–14) Return J. Meigs Jr.
Return J. Meigs Jr.
(1814–17)

Secretary of the Navy

Paul Hamilton (1809–13) William Jones (1813–14) Benjamin W. Crowninshield (1814–17)

v t e

Cabinet of President James Monroe
James Monroe
(1817–25)

Secretary of State

John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
(1817–25)

Secretary of the Treasury

William H. Crawford
William H. Crawford
(1817–25)

Secretary of War

George Graham (1817) John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun
(1817–25)

Attorney General

Richard Rush
Richard Rush
(1817) William Wirt (1817–25)

Postmaster General

Return J. Meigs Jr.
Return J. Meigs Jr.
(1817–23) John McLean
John McLean
(1823–25)

Secretary of the Navy

Benjamin W. Crowninshield (1817–18) Smith Thompson
Smith Thompson
(1819–23) Samuel L. Southard
Samuel L. Southard
(1823–25)

v t e

Cabinet of President John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
(1825–29)

Secretary of State

Henry Clay
Henry Clay
(1825–29)

Secretary of the Treasury

Richard Rush
Richard Rush
(1825–29)

Secretary of War

James Barbour
James Barbour
(1825–28) Peter B. Porter (1828–29)

Attorney General

William Wirt (1825–29)

Postmaster General

John McLean
John McLean
(1825–29)

Secretary of the Navy

Samuel L. Southard
Samuel L. Southard
(1825–29)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 17595732 LCCN: n85137020 ISNI: 0000 0000 8097 2336 GND: 1081824

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