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The Revolutions of 1917–1923
Revolutions of 1917–1923
were a period of political unrest and revolts around the world inspired by the success of the Russian Revolution
Revolution
and the disorder created by the aftermath of World War I. The uprisings were mainly socialist or anti-colonial in nature and were mostly short-lived, failing to have a long-term impact.[1] Out of all the revolutionary activity of the era, the revolutionary wave of 1917–1923 mainly refers to the unrest caused by World War I
World War I
in Europe.[2]

Contents

1 Communist revolutions in Europe

1.1 Russia 1.2 Western Europe

2 Non-Communist revolutions

2.1 Ireland 2.2 Mexico 2.3 Malta 2.4 Egypt

3 See also

3.1 Communist revolutions that started 1917–24 3.2 Left-wing uprisings against the USSR 3.3 Counter-revolutions against USSR that started 1917-1921 3.4 Soviet counter-counter-revolutions that started 1918–1919 3.5 Other

4 References 5 Related links

Communist revolutions in Europe[edit] Russia[edit]

Political divisions of Europe
Europe
in 1919 after the treaties of Brest-Litovsk and Versailles but before the treaties of Trianon, Lausanne, and Riga and the creation of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Turkish Republic

Main articles: Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
and Russian Civil War In war-torn Imperial Russia, the liberal February Revolution
February Revolution
toppled the monarchy. It was unstable and the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
seized power in the October Revolution. The ascendant communist party soon surrendered to Imperial Germany. It then battled its political rivals in the Russian Civil War, including invading forces from the Allied Powers. In response to Lenin, the Bolshevik Party and the emerging Soviet Union, anti-communists from a broad assortment of ideological factions fought against them, particularly through the counter-revolutionary White movement and the peasant Green Army, the various nationalist movements in Ukraine after the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
and other would-be new states like those in Soviet Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
and Soviet Central Asia, through the anarchist-inspired Third Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
and Tambov Rebellion.[3] By 1921, exhaustion, the collapse of transportation and markets, and threats of starvation, even dissident elements of the Red Army
Red Army
itself were in revolt against the communist state, as shown by the Kronstadt rebellion. However the multiple anti-Bolshevik forces were uncoordinated and disorganized, and in every case operated on the periphery. The red Army, operating at the center, defeated them one by one and regain control in the Caucasian region. The complete failure of Comintern-inspired revolutions was a sobering experience in Moscow, As it moved from world revolution to the theme of socialism in one country—that is, Russia. Lenin moved to open trade relations with Britain, Germany, and other major countries. Most dramatically, Lenin in 1921, introduced a sort of small-scale capitalism with his New Economic Policy (or NEP). In this process of revolution and counter-revolution the Union of Soviet Socialist
Socialist
Republics (USSR) was officially born in 1922.[4] Western Europe[edit] Main articles: German Revolution
Revolution
of 1918–19, Revolutions and interventions in Hungary (1918–20), and Biennio Rosso

Statue of a revolutionary soldier; memorial to the German Revolution in Berlin

The Leninist
Leninist
victories also inspired a surge by the world Communist movement: the larger German Revolution
Revolution
and its offspring, like the Bavarian Soviet Republic, as well as the neighboring Hungarian Revolution, and the Biennio Rosso
Biennio Rosso
in Italy in addition to various smaller uprisings, protests and strikes, all proved abortive. The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
sought to coordinate this new wave of revolution in the Soviet-led Communist International, while new communist parties separated from their former socialist organizations and the older, more moderate Second International. Despite ambitions for world revolution, the far-flung Comintern movement had more setbacks than successes through the next generation, and it was abolished in 1943.[5] After the Second World War when the Red Army
Red Army
occupied most of Eastern Europe, Communists would come to power in the Baltic states, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, and East Germany.[6] Non-Communist revolutions[edit] Ireland[edit] In Ireland, then part of the United Kingdom, the nationalist Easter Rising of 1916 anticipated the Irish War of Independence
Irish War of Independence
(1919–1921) within the same historical period as this first wave of communist revolution. The Irish republican movement of the time was predominantly nationalist and populist, and although it had left-wing positions and included socialists and communists, it was not Communist. The Irish and Soviet Russian Republics nevertheless found common ground in their opposition to British interests, and established a trading relationship. Mexico[edit] The same was true of the Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
(1910–1920), which had broken out in 1910 but had devolved into factional fighting among the rebels by 1915, as the more radical forces of Emiliano Zapata
Emiliano Zapata
and Pancho Villa
Pancho Villa
lost ground to the more conservative "Sonoran oligarchy" and its Constitutional Army. The Felicistas, the last major group of counterrevolutionaries, abandoned their armed campaign in 1920, and the internecine power struggles abated for a time after revolutionary General Álvaro Obregón
Álvaro Obregón
had bribed or slain his former allies and rivals alike, but the following decade witnessed the assassination of Obregon and several others, abortive military coup attempts and a massive right-wing uprising, the Cristero War, due to religious persecution of Roman Catholics. Malta[edit] The Sette Giugno
Sette Giugno
of 1919 was a characterised by a series of riots and protests by the Maltese population, initially as a reaction to the rise in the cost of living in the aftermath of World War I, and the sacking of hundreds of workers from the dockyard. This coincided with popular demands for self-government, which resulted in a National Assembly being formed in Valletta at the same time of the riots. This dramatically boosted the uprising, as many people headed to Valletta to show their support for the Assembly. This led to the British forces firing into the crowd, killing four local men. The cost of living increased dramatically after the war. Imports were limited, and as food became scarce prices rose; this made the fortune of farmers and merchants with surpluses to trade. Egypt[edit] The Egyptian Revolution of 1919
Egyptian Revolution of 1919
was a countrywide revolution against the British occupation of Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan. It was carried out by Egyptians
Egyptians
and Sudanese from different walks of life in the wake of the British-ordered exile of revolutionary leader Saad Zaghloul, and other members of the Wafd Party
Wafd Party
in 1919. The revolution led to Britain's recognition of Egyptian independence in 1922, and the implementation of a new constitution in 1923. Britain, however, continued in control of what was renamed the Kingdom of Egypt. British guided the king and retained control of the Canal Zone, Sudan
Sudan
and Egypt's external and military affairs. King Fuad died in 1936 and Farouk inherited the throne at the age of sixteen. Alarmed by the Second Italo-Abyssinian War when Italy invaded Ethiopia, he signed the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, requiring Britain to withdraw all troops from Egypt
Egypt
by 1949, except at the Suez Canal. During World War II, British troops used Egypt
Egypt
as a major base for its operations throughout the region. British troops were withdrawn to the Suez Canal area in 1947, but nationalist, anti-British feelings continued to grow after the war.[7] See also[edit]

Diplomatic history of World War I International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) International relations (1919–1939)

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Methods

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Causes

Authoritarianism Autocracy Capitalism Collaborationism Colonialism Cronyism Despotism Dictatorship Discrimination Economic depression Economic inequality Electoral fraud Famine Fascism Feudalism Imperialism Military occupation Monarchy Natural disaster Nepotism Persecution Political corruption Political repression Poverty Totalitarianism Unemployment

Examples

Commercial Revolution Industrial Revolution English Revolution Atlantic Revolutions American Revolution French Revolution Haitian Revolution Serbian Revolution Revolutions of 1820 Revolutions of 1830 Belgian Revolution Texas Revolution Revolutions of 1848 Hungarian Revolution
Revolution
of 1848 Philippine Revolution Persian Constitutional Revolution Young Turk Revolution Mexican Revolution Xinhai Revolution Revolutions of 1917–23 Russian Revolution German Revolution
Revolution
of 1918–19 Spanish Revolution
Revolution
of 1936 Guatemalan Revolution Chinese Communist Revolution Hungarian Revolution
Revolution
of 1956 Cuban Revolution Rwandan Revolution Cultural Revolution Nicaraguan Revolution Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution People Power Revolution Carnation Revolution Revolutions of 1989 Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Singing Revolution Bolivarian Revolution Bulldozer Revolution Rose Revolution Orange Revolution Tulip Revolution Kyrgyz Revolution
Revolution
of 2010 Arab Spring Tunisian Revolution Yemeni Revolution Euromaidan

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Communist revolutions that started 1917–24[edit]

Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
(1917) Free Territory
Free Territory
(1918) Aster Revolution
Revolution
(1918) Red Week (Netherlands)
Red Week (Netherlands)
(1918) Political violence in Germany (1918–33)

German Revolution
Revolution
(1918–1919)

People's State of Bavaria
People's State of Bavaria
(1918–1919) Bavarian Council Republic
Bavarian Council Republic
(1919)

Ruhr Uprising
Ruhr Uprising
(1920) March Action
March Action
(1921) Hamburg Uprising
Hamburg Uprising
(1923)

Revolutions and interventions in Hungary (1918–1920)

Slovak Soviet Republic
Slovak Soviet Republic
(1919)

Fascist and anti-Fascist violence in Italy (1919–1926)

Biennio Rosso
Biennio Rosso
(1919–20) Labin Republic (1921)

Canadian Labour Revolt (1919)[8] Georgian coup attempt (1920) Mongolian Revolution
Revolution
of 1921 Rand Rebellion
Rebellion
(1921–22) September Uprising
September Uprising
(Bulgaria) (1923) August Uprising
August Uprising
(Georgia) (1924) Tatarbunary uprising
Tatarbunary uprising
(1924) Estonian coup d'état attempt ("Tallinn Uprising") (1924) Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(1927–1936/1950)

Left-wing uprisings against the USSR[edit]

Left SR uprising (1918) Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
(1918–1922) Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine
Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine
(1918–1922) Tambov Rebellion
Tambov Rebellion
(1920–1921) Kronstadt Rebellion
Rebellion
(1921)

Counter-revolutions against USSR that started 1917-1921[edit]

White movement
White movement
(1917–1923) Kuban People's Republic
Kuban People's Republic
(1918–1920) Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus
Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus
(1917–1920) First Republic of Armenia
First Republic of Armenia
(1918–1920) Democratic Republic of Georgia
Democratic Republic of Georgia
(1918–1921) Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
(1918–1920) Bulgarian coup d'état (1923)

Soviet counter-counter-revolutions that started 1918–1919[edit]

Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
(1917–1923) Red Terror
Red Terror
(1918) Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
(1919–1921) Tuvan coup d'état (1929)

Other[edit]

Finnish Civil War
Finnish Civil War
(1918) Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19) Sejny Uprising
Sejny Uprising
(1919) Silesian Uprisings
Silesian Uprisings
(1919–1921) Turkish War of Independence
Turkish War of Independence
(1919–1922) Iraqi revolt against the British (1920) Uprising in West Hungary (1921)

References[edit]

^ Motadel, David (April 4, 2011). "Waves of Revolution". History Today. Retrieved May 5, 2015.  ^ Schmitt, Hans. "Neutral Europe
Europe
Between War and Revolution, 1917-23". Retrieved May 5, 2016.  ^ Abraham Ascher, //The Russian Revolution: A Beginner's Guide (Oneworld Publications, 2014) ^ Rex A. Wade, "The Revolution
Revolution
at One Hundred: Issues and Trends in the English Language Historiography of the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
of 1917." Journal of Modern Russian History and Historiography 9.1 (2016): 9-38. ^ Kevin McDermott and Jeremy Agnew, The Comintern: A History of International Communism from Lenin to Stalin (Macmillan, 1996). ^ Robert Service, Comrades!: A History of World Communism (2010). ^ P.J. Vatikiotis, The History of Modern Egypt
Egypt
(4th ed., 1992). ^ Kealey, Gregory (1984). "1919: The Canadian Labour Revolt". Journal of Canadian Labour Studies. Archived from the original on October 22, 2017. 

Related links[edit]

Maps of Europe
Europe
showing the Revolutions of 1917–23
Revolutions of 1917–23
at omniatlas.com

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Revolutionary waves

19th century

Atlantic Revolutions Revolutions of 1820 Revolutions of 1830 Revolutions of 1848

20th century

Revolutions of 1917–1923 Protests of 1968 Central American crisis Revolutions of 1989

21st century

Colour revolutions Arab Spring Arab Winter Occupy movement

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Revolutions of 1917–23

Revolts

Russian Revolution Finnish Civil War Greater Poland Uprising German Revolution
Revolution
of 1918–19 Aster Revolution Egyptian Revolution
Revolution
of 1919 Revolutions and interventions in Hungary Iraqi revolt against the British Biennio Rosso Mongolian Revolution
Revolution
of 1921 Ruhr uprising March Action September Uprising Hamburg Uprising

Protests

French Army Mutinies Red Week 1919 Southampton mutiny Battle of George Square Seattle General Strike May Fourth Movement 1923 Kraków riot

Territories

Soviet Republic of Naissaar Donetsk–Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic Bavarian Soviet Republic Slovak Soviet Republic Albona Republic

Reactions

First Red Scare Russian Civil War

Related

World communis

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