Reuters (/ˈrɔɪtərz/) is an international news
organization. It is a division of
Thomson Reuters and has
nearly 200 locations around the world. Until 2008, the
agency formed part of an independent company,
Reuters Group plc, which
was also a provider of financial market data. Since the acquisition of
Reuters Group by the
Thomson Corporation in 2008, the
agency has been a part of Thomson Reuters, making up the media
Reuters transmits news in English, French, German, Italian,
Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Urdu, Arabic, Japanese, Korean, and
Chinese. It was established in 1851.
1.1 Nineteenth century
1.2 20th Century
1.3 21st Century
3 Criticism and controversy
3.1 Policy of objective language
3.2 Climate change reporting
3.3 Photograph controversies
3.4 Accusations of pro-
Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Fernando Henrique Cardoso bias
4 See also
6 Further reading
7 External links
Paul Julius Reuter
Paul Julius Reuter worked at a book-publishing firm in
Berlin and was
involved in distributing radical pamphlets at the beginning of the
Revolutions in 1848. These publications brought much attention to
Reuter, who in 1850 developed a prototype news service in
homing pigeons and electric telegraphy from 1851 on in order to
transmit messages between
Brussels and Aachen, in what
today is Aachen's
Reuter moved to
London in 1851, and established a news wire agency at
London Royal Exchange. Headquartered in London, Reuter's company
initially covered commercial news, serving banks, brokerage houses,
and business firms. The first newspaper client to subscribe
Morning Advertiser in 1858.
Afterwards more newspapers signed up, with Britannica Encyclopedia
writing that "the value of
Reuters to newspapers lay not only in the
financial news it provided but in its ability to be the first to
report on stories of international importance." Reuter's
agency built a reputation in Europe and the rest of the world as the
first to report news scoops from abroad. It was the first
to report Abraham Lincoln's assassination in Europe, for instance, in
In 1865, Reuter incorporated his private business, under the name
Reuter's Telegram Company Limited; Reuter was appointed managing
director of the company.
In 1872, Reuter's expanded into the far east, followed by South
America in 1874. Both expansions were made possible by advances in
overland telegraphs and undersea cables. In 1878, Reuter
retired as managing director. In 1883, Reuter's began
transmitting messages electrically to
The company returned to private ownership in 1916, with all shares
purchased by Roderick Jones and Mark Napier; they renamed the company
Reuters Limited", dropping the apostrophe. In 1923,
Reuters began using radio to transmit news internationally, a
pioneering act. In 1925,
The Press Association
The Press Association (PA) of
Great Britain acquired a majority interest in Reuters, and full
ownership some years later. During the world wars, The
Guardian reported that
Reuters "came under pressure from the British
government to serve national interests. In 1941
Reuters deflected the
pressure by restructuring itself as a private company." The new owners
Reuters Trust. In 1941, the PA sold half of
Reuters to the Newspaper Proprietors' Association, and co-ownership
was expanded in 1947 to associations that represented daily newspapers
New Zealand and Australia. The
Reuters Trust Principles
were put in place to maintain the company's independence.
At that point,
Reuters had become "one of the world's major news
agencies, supplying both text and images to newspapers, other news
agencies, and radio and television broadcasters." Also at
that point, it directly or through national news agencies provided
service "to most countries, reaching virtually all the world's leading
newspapers and many thousands of smaller ones," according to
Reuters scooped news of the erection of the Berlin
Reuters was one of the first news agencies to
transmit financial data over oceans via computers in the
1960s. In 1973,
Reuters "began making computer-terminal
displays of foreign-exchange rates available to clients."
Reuters began making electronic transactions on its computer
network and afterwards developed a number of electronic brokerage and
Reuters was floated as a public company
in 1984, when
Reuters Trust was listed on the stock
exchanges such as the
London Stock Exchange (LSE) and
Reuters later published the first story of the
Berlin Wall being breached in 1989.
The share price grew during the dotcom boom, then fell after the
banking troubles in 2001. In 2002, Britannica wrote that
most news throughout the world came from three major agencies: the
Associated Press, Reuters, and Agence France-Presse.
Reuters merged with
Thomson Corporation in Canada in 2008, forming
Thomson Reuters. In 2009,
Thomson Reuters withdrew from the
LSE and the NASDAQ, instead listing its shares on the
Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange. The last
surviving member of the
Reuters family founders, Marguerite, Baroness
de Reuter, died at age 96 on 25 January 2009. The parent
Thomson Reuters is headquartered in Toronto, and provides
financial information to clients while also maintaining its
traditional news-agency business.
Thomson Reuters appointed Jim Smith as CEO. Almost
every major news outlet in the world subscribed to
Reuters as of 2014.
Reuters operated in more than 200 cities in 94 countries in about 20
languages as of 2014. In July 2016, Thomson
Reuters agreed to sell its intellectual property and science operation
for $3.55 billion to private equity firms. In October
Thomson Reuters announced expansions and relocations to
Toronto. As part of cuts and restructuring, in November
Thomson Reuters Corp. eliminated 2,000 worldwide jobs out of its
around 50,000 employees.
Reuters employs some 2,500 journalists and 600
photojournalists in about 200 locations worldwide.
Reuters Handbook of Journalism as a guide for fair
presentation and disclosure of relevant interests, to maintain the
values of integrity and freedom upon which their reputation for
reliability, accuracy, speed and exclusivity relies.
In May 2000, Kurt Schork, an American reporter, was killed in an
ambush while on assignment in Sierra Leone. In April and August 2003,
Taras Protsyuk and
Mazen Dana were killed in separate
incidents by U.S. troops in Iraq. In July 2007,
Namir Noor-Eldeen and
Saeed Chmagh were killed when they were struck by fire from a U.S.
military Apache helicopter in Baghdad. During
Adlan Khasanov in
Chechnya and Dhia Najim in
also killed. In April 2008, cameraman
Fadel Shana was killed in the
Gaza Strip after being hit by an Israeli tank.
While covering China's
Cultural Revolution in
Peking in the late 1960s
for Reuters, journalist
Anthony Grey was detained by the Chinese
government in response to the jailing of several Chinese journalists
by the colonial British government of Hong Kong. He was
released after being imprisoned for 27 months from 1967 to 1969 and
was awarded an OBE by the British Government. After his release, he
went on to become a best-selling historical novelist.
In May 2016, the Ukrainian website
Myrotvorets published the names and
personal data of 4,508 journalists, including
Reuters reporters, and
other media staff from all over the world, who were accredited by the
self-proclaimed authorities in the separatist-controlled regions of
In 2018, two
Reuters journalists were convicted in Myanmar of
obtaining state secrets while investigating a massacre in a Rohingya
village. The arrest and convictions were widely condemned
as an attack on press freedom. The journalists, Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe
Oo, received several awards, including the Foreign Press Association
Media Award and the Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting, and
were named as part of the
Time Person of the Year for 2018 along with
other persecuted journalists.
After 511 days in prison, Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo were freed from
prison on May 7, 2019 after receiving a presidential
12 July 1993
12 July 1993
24 May 2000
8 April 2003
17 August 2003
9 May 2004
1 November 2004
28 August 2005
12 July 2007
12 July 2007
16 April 2008
10 April 2010
29 March 2011
20 December 2013
Criticism and controversy
Policy of objective language
Reuters building entrance in New York City
Reuters has a policy of taking a "value-neutral approach," which
extends to not using the word "terrorist" in its stories, a practice
which attracted criticism following the September 11
attacks. Reuters' editorial policy states: "
refer without attribution to terrorism and counterterrorism in
general, but do not refer to specific events as terrorism. Nor does
Reuters use the word terrorist without attribution to qualify specific
individuals, groups or events." By contrast, the
Associated Press does use the term "terrorist" in reference to
non-governmental organizations who carry out attacks on civilian
Following the September 11 attacks,
Reuters global head of news
Stephen Jukes reiterated the policy in an internal memo and later
explained to media columnist
Howard Kurtz (who criticized the policy):
"We all know that one man's terrorist is another man's freedom
fighter, and that
Reuters upholds the principle that we do not use the
word terrorist... We're trying to treat everyone on a level playing
field, however tragic it's been and however awful and cataclysmic for
the American people and people around the world. We're there to tell
the story. We're not there to evaluate the moral case."
In early October 2001, CEO
Tom Glocer and editor-in-chief Geert
Linnebank and Jukes later released a statement acknowledging that
Jukes' memo "had caused deep offence among members of our staff, our
readers, and the public at large" and wrote: "Our policy is to avoid
the use of emotional terms and not make value judgments concerning the
facts we attempt to report accurately and fairly. We apologize for the
insensitive manner in which we characterized this policy and extend
our sympathy to all those who have been affected by these tragic
In September 2004,
The New York Times
The New York Times reported that
managing editor, David A. Schlesinger objected to Canadian newspapers'
Reuters articles to insert the word terrorist. Schlesinger
said: "my goal is to protect our reporters and protect our editorial
Climate change reporting
In July 2013, David Fogarty, former
Reuters climate change
correspondent in Asia, resigned after a career of almost 20 years with
the company and wrote about a "climate of fear" which resulted in
"progressively, getting any climate change-themed story published got
harder" following comments from then deputy editor-in-chief Paul
Ingrassia that he was a "climate change sceptic". In his comments,
Fogarty stated that "Some desk editors happily subbed and pushed the
button. Others agonised and asked a million questions. Debate on some
story ideas generated endless bureaucracy by editors frightened to
make a decision, reflecting a different type of climate within
Reuters—the climate of fear," and that "by mid-October, I was
informed that climate change just wasn't a big story for the present.
…Very soon after that conversation I was told my climate change role
was abolished." Ingrassia,
formerly Reuters' managing editor, previously
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal and Dow Jones for 31
Reuters responded to Fogarty's piece by stating
Reuters has a number of staff dedicated to covering this story,
including a team of specialist reporters at Point Carbon and a
columnist. There has been no change in our editorial
Subsequently, climate blogger Joe Romm cited a
Reuters article on
climate as employing "false balance", and quoted Dr. Stefan Rahmstorf,
Co-Chair of Earth System Analysis at the Potsdam Institute that
"[s]imply, a lot of unrelated climate skeptics nonsense has been added
Reuters piece. In the words of the late Steve Schneider, this
is like adding some nonsense from the
Flat Earth Society
Flat Earth Society to a report
about the latest generation of telecommunication satellites. It is
absurd." Romm opined that "We can't know for certain who insisted on
cramming this absurd and non-germane 'climate sceptics nonsense' into
the piece, but we have a strong clue. If it had been part of the
reporter's original reporting, you would have expected direct quotes
from actual skeptics, because that is journalism 101. The fact that
the blather was all inserted without attribution suggests it was added
at the insistence of an editor."
According to Ynetnews,
Reuters was accused of bias against
its coverage of the
2006 Israel–Lebanon conflict
2006 Israel–Lebanon conflict after the wire
service used two doctored photos by a Lebanese freelance photographer,
Adnan Hajj. In August 2006,
Reuters announced it had
severed all ties with Hajj and said his photographs would be removed
from its database.
Reuters was criticised again by
Haaretz for "anti-Israeli"
bias when it cropped the edges of photos, removing commandos' knives
held by activists and a naval commando's blood from photographs taken
aboard the Mavi Marmara during the Gaza flotilla raid, a raid that
left nine Turkish activists dead. It has been alleged that in two
separate photographs, knives held by the activists were cropped out of
the versions of the pictures published by Reuters. Reuters
said it is standard operating procedure to crop photos at the margins,
and replaced the cropped images with the original ones after it was
brought to the agency's attention.
Accusations of pro-
Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Fernando Henrique Cardoso bias
In March 2015, the Brazilian affiliate of
Reuters released a text
containing an interview with Brazilian ex-president Fernando Henrique
Cardoso about the ongoing Petrobras scandal. One of the paragraphs
mentioned a comment by a former Petrobras manager, in which he
suggests corruption in that company may date back to Cardoso's
presidency. Attached to it, there was a comment between parenthesis:
"Podemos tirar se achar melhor" ("we can take it out if [you] think it
would be better"), which is now absent from the current
version of the text. The agency later issued a text in
which they confirm the mistake, explaining it was a question by one of
the Brazilian editors to the journalist who wrote the original text in
English, and that it was not supposed to be published.
United Kingdom portal
Media of the United Kingdom
List of news agencies
Interbank market, competitor
Press Association, a UK rival of Reuters
Related to Reuters
Reuters Market Data System
Reuters 3000 Xtra
Reuters Instrument Code
Reuters Market Light
Related to Thomson Reuters
Thomson Reuters Business Classification
Thomson Reuters Messenger
Thomson Reuters Citation Laureates
Thomson Reuters Indices
Thomson Reuters/Jefferies CRB Index
Thomson Reuters league tables
Thomson Reuters Realized Volatility Index
Thomson Reuters Foundation
^ "About us".
Reuters Agency. Reuters. Retrieved 14 January
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^ Stevens, Mark A. (2001). Merriam Webster's Collegiate Encyclopedia.
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Criticism of references to the Holocaust
Reuters photo caption of New York City's World Trade Center site after
11 September causes controversy
Reuters Investigation Leads To Dismissal Of Editor
Breaking News: How the Wheels Came Off at Reuters
Media related to
Reuters Group at Wikimedia Commons
Times of Crisis – multimedia interactive charting the year of global
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Links to related articles
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vteGerald Loeb Award winners for Images, Graphics, Interactives, and
VisualsGerald Loeb Award for News or Images/Visuals
Tom Giratikanon (2013 shared)
Amanda Cox (2013 shared)
Sergio Pecanha (2013 shared)
Alicia Parlapiano (2013 shared)
Jeremy White (2013 shared)
Robert Gebeloff (2013 shared)
Ford Fessenden (2013 shared)
Archie Tse (2013 shared)
Alan McLean (2013 shared)
Shan Carter (2013 shared)
Mike Bostock (2013 shared)
Matthew Ericson (2013 shared)
Ford Fessenden (2014 shared)
Tom Giratikanon (2014 shared)
Josh Keller (2014 shared)
Archie Tse (2014 shared)
Tim Wallace (2014 shared)
Derek Watkins (2014 shared)
Jeremy White (2014 shared)
Karen Yourish (2014 shared)
Shan Carter (2014 shared)
Hannah Fairfield (2014 shared)
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Matthew Ericson (2014 shared)
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