Resurrection is the concept of coming back to life after death. In a
number of ancient religions, a dying-and-rising god is a deity which
dies and resurrects. The death and resurrection of Jesus, an example
of resurrection, is the central focus of Christianity.
As a religious concept, it is used in two distinct respects: a belief
in the resurrection of individual souls that is current and ongoing
(Christian idealism, realized eschatology), or else a belief in a
singular resurrection of the dead at the end of the world. The
resurrection of the dead is a standard eschatological belief in the
Some believe the soul is the actual vehicle by which people are
Christian theological debate ensues with regard to what kind of
resurrection is factual – either a spiritual resurrection with
a spirit body into Heaven, or a material resurrection with a restored
human body. While most Christians believe Jesus' resurrection from
the dead and ascension to
Heaven was in a material body, a very small
minority believe it was spiritual.
There are documented rare cases of the return to life of the
clinically dead which are classified scientifically as examples of the
Lazarus syndrome, a term originating from the Biblical story of the
Resurrection of Lazarus.
2.1 Ancient religions in the Near East
2.2 Ancient Greek religion
Resurrection of Jesus
Resurrection of the Dead
2.3.4 Difference From Platonic philosophy
2.5 Judaism and Samaritanism
Resurrection in Hinduism
4 Technological resurrection
6 Disappearances (as distinct from resurrection)
7 See also
8 Further reading
9 External links
Resurrection, from the Latin noun resurrectio -onis, from the verb
rego, "to make straight, rule" + preposition sub, "under", altered to
subrigo and contracted to surgo, surrexi, surrectum ("to rise", "get
up", "stand up") + preposition re-, "again", thus literally "a
straightening from under again".
Ancient religions in the Near East
See also: Dying-and-rising god
The concept of resurrection is found in the writings of some ancient
Abrahamic religions in the Middle East. A few extant Egyptian and
Canaanite writings allude to dying and rising gods such as
James Frazer in his book
The Golden Bough
The Golden Bough relates to these
dying and rising gods, but many of his examples, according to
various scholars, distort the sources. Taking a more positive
Tryggve Mettinger argues in his recent book that the
category of rise and return to life is significant for the following
deities: Ugaritic Baal, Melqart, Adonis, Eshmun,
Ancient Greek religion
In ancient Greek religion a number of men and women were made
physically immortal as they were resurrected from the dead. Asclepius
was killed by Zeus, only to be resurrected and transformed into a
major deity. Achilles, after being killed, was snatched from his
funeral pyre by his divine mother
Thetis and resurrected, brought to
an immortal existence in either Leuce, Elysian plains or the Islands
of the Blessed. Memnon, who was killed by Achilles, seems to have
received a similar fate. Alcmene, Castor, Heracles, and Melicertes,
were also among the figures sometimes considered to have been
resurrected to physical immortality. According to Herodotus's
Histories, the seventh century BC sage
Aristeas of Proconnesus was
first found dead, after which his body disappeared from a locked room.
Later he found not only to have been resurrected but to have gained
Many other figures, like a great part of those who fought in the
Trojan and Theban wars, Menelaus, and the historical pugilist
Cleomedes of Astupalaea, were also believed to have been made
physically immortal, but without having died in the first place.
Indeed, in Greek religion, immortality originally always included an
eternal union of body and soul. The philosophical idea of an immortal
soul was a later invention, which, although influential, never had a
breakthrough in the Greek world. As may be witnessed even into the
Christian era, not least by the complaints of various philosophers
over popular beliefs, traditional Greek believers maintained the
conviction that certain individuals were resurrected from the dead and
made physically immortal and that for the rest of us, we could only
look forward to an existence as disembodied and dead souls.
This traditional religious belief in physical immortality was
generally denied by the Greek philosophers. Writing his Lives of
Illustrious Men (Parallel Lives) in the first century CE, the Middle
Platonic philosopher Plutarch's chapter on
Romulus gave an account of
the mysterious disappearance and subsequent deification of this first
king of Rome, comparing it to traditional Greek beliefs such as the
resurrection and physical immortalization of
Alcmene and Aristeas the
Proconnesian, "for they say Aristeas died in a fuller's work-shop, and
his friends coming to look for him, found his body vanished; and that
some presently after, coming from abroad, said they met him traveling
Plutarch openly scorned such beliefs held in
traditional ancient Greek religion, writing, "many such
improbabilities do your fabulous writers relate, deifying creatures
The parallel between these traditional beliefs and the later
resurrection of Jesus was not lost on the early Christians, as Justin
Martyr argued: "when we say ... Jesus Christ, our teacher, was
crucified and died, and rose again, and ascended into heaven, we
propose nothing different from what you believe regarding those whom
you consider sons of Zeus." (1 Apol. 21). There is, however, no belief
in a general resurrection in ancient Greek religion, as the Greeks
held that not even the gods were able to recreate flesh that had been
lost to decay, fire or consumption. The notion of a general
resurrection of the dead was therefore apparently quite preposterous
to the Greeks. This is made clear in Paul's
Areopagus discourse. After
having first told about the resurrection of Jesus, which makes the
Athenians interested to hear more, Paul goes on, relating how this
event relates to a general resurrection of the dead:
"Therefore having overlooked the times of ignorance, God is now
declaring to men that all everywhere should repent, because He has
fixed a day in which He will judge the world in righteousness through
a Man whom He has appointed, having furnished proof to all men by
raising Him from the dead." Now when they heard of the resurrection of
the dead, some began to sneer, but others said, `We shall hear you
again concerning this.'"
Resurrection of Jesus
In Christianity, resurrection most critically concerns the
Resurrection of Jesus, but also includes the resurrection of Judgment
Day known as the
Resurrection of the Dead
Resurrection of the Dead by those Christians who
subscribe to the
Nicene Creed (which is the majority or Mainstream
Christianity), as well as the resurrection miracles done by Jesus and
the prophets of the
Old Testament (see Judaism and Samaritanism
below). Some churches distinguish between raising the dead (a
resumption of mortal life) and a resurrection (the beginning of an
immortal life).
Resurrection of Jesus
Main articles: Life-death-rebirth deity,
Resurrection of Jesus,
Resurrection appearances of Jesus
Christians regard the resurrection of Jesus as the central doctrine in
Christianity. Others take the Incarnation of Jesus to be more central;
however, it is the miracles – and particularly his
Resurrection – which provide validation of his incarnation.
According to Paul, the entire Christian faith hinges upon the
centrality of the resurrection of Jesus and the hope for a life after
Apostle Paul wrote in his first letter to the Corinthians:
If only for this life we have hope in Christ, we are to be pitied more
than all men. But Christ has indeed been raised from the dead, the
first fruits of those who have fallen asleep.
Resurrection of Lazarus, painting by Leon Bonnat, France, 1857.
Miracles of Jesus
Miracles of Jesus §
Resurrection of the dead
Ministry of Jesus
Ministry of Jesus on earth, before his death, Jesus
Twelve Apostles to, among other things, raise the
dead. In the New Testament, Jesus is said to have raised several
persons from death. These resurrections included the daughter of
Jairus shortly after death, a young man in the midst of his own
funeral procession, and Lazarus, who had been buried for four days.
According to the Gospel of Matthew, after Jesus's resurrection, many
of those previously dead came out of their tombs and entered
Jerusalem, where they appeared to many.
In the end, we have the
Resurrection of Jesus
Resurrection of Jesus Christ, firstly shown in
Emmaus, three days after the Crucifixion and death. This resurrection
is singular, because there is not Jesus or an apostle in resurrecting
some other people died. This is the most relevant question in
Christology: God takes the resurrection of himself, as Jesus Christ
God was died on the cross, but in the same time were not died the God
Father (who has the same substance of the Son of God for the Nicene
Creed, but who lives in the
Heaven for the Lord's prayer), and the
Spirit God (who has no body, by himself). If this fact may be
conceived referring to Three Divine Persons of the Holy Trinity
Family, therefore it also must be denied for what the Three Divine
Persons are the same and unique God, always and in any instance of
time. In conclusion, the resurrecfion-after -death of Jesus Christ God
is a mistery of faith.
Similar resurrections are credited to Christian apostles and saints.
In the Acts of the Apostles,
Saint Peter raised a woman named Dorcas
(also called Tabitha), and
Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle revived a man named
Eutychus who had fallen asleep and fell from a window to his death.
Proceeding the apostolic era, many saints were said to resurrect the
dead, as recorded in
Orthodox Christian hagiographies.[citation
St Columba supposedly raised a boy from the dead in the land
of Picts 
Most Christians understand these miraculous resurrections to be of a
different nature than the resurrection of Jesus and the future
resurrection of the dead. The raising of Lazarus and others from
the dead could also be called "resuscitations" or "reanimations",
since the life given to them is presumably temporary in nature—there
is no suggestion in the Bible or hagiographic traditions that these
people became truly immortal. In contrast, the resurrection of Jesus
and the future resurrection of the dead will abolish death once and
for all (see Isaiah 25:8, 1 Corinthians 15:26, 2 Timothy 1:10,
Resurrection differs from reincarnation for many aspects. One main
difference is that in all cases mentioned in the Bible resurrection is
in the same soul and body one people have had before being died, not
in another form of life, like an animal or an angel.
It is what is written about: Lazarus (John 11:44), Jairu's daughter
(Mark 5:41), son of the widow at Nain (Luie 7:11-14), Tabitha (Acts
Eutychus (Acts 20:9-10). In all of those points, nothing is
told about the new life of the people resurrected, e.g. if they have
the same personality and any kind of memory of the previous earthly
life, or about what may be happened to them during the time-lapse
between death and resurrection.
Roman Catholics infer that after they have had a second and last
earthly life, again ended in a common death, since nothing else matter
is told after their resurrection: with the soul leaving the human
body, to Hell,
Purgatory or to Paradise.
Resurrection of the Dead
Resurrection of the dead
Resurrection of the dead § Views in Christianity,
and Christian eschatology §
Resurrection of the dead
Christianity started as a religious movement within 1st-century
Judaism (late Second Temple Judaism), and it retains what the New
Testament itself claims was the
Pharisaic belief in the afterlife and
Resurrection of the Dead. Whereas this belief was only one of many
beliefs held about the
World to Come
World to Come in Second Temple Judaism, and was
notably rejected by both the
Sadducees and, according to Josephus, the
Pharisees, this belief became dominant within Early
already in the Gospels of Luke and John included an insistence on the
resurrection of the flesh. This was later rejected by gnostic
teachings, which instead continued the Pauline insistence that flesh
and bones had no place in heaven. Most modern Christian churches
continue to uphold the belief that there will be a final Resurrection
of the Dead and World to Come, perhaps as prophesied by the Apostle
Paul when he said: "...he hath appointed a day, in the which he will
judge the world..." (Acts 17:31 KJV) and "...there shall be a
resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust." (Acts 24:15
Belief in the
Resurrection of the Dead, and Jesus' role as judge, is
codified in the Apostles' Creed, which is the fundamental creed of
Christian baptismal faith. The
Book of Revelation
Book of Revelation also makes many
references about the Day of Judgment when the dead will be raised.
Difference From Platonic philosophy
In Platonic philosophy and other Greek philosophical thought, at death
the soul was said to leave the inferior body behind. The idea that
Jesus was resurrected spiritually rather than physically even gained
popularity among some Christian teachers, whom the author of 1 John
declared to be antichrists. Similar beliefs appeared in the early
church as Gnosticism. However, in Luke 24:39, the resurrected Jesus
expressly states "behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself.
Handle me and see, for a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you
see I have."
Main article: Qiyama
Belief in the "Day of Resurrection", Yawm al-Qiyāmah (Arabic: يوم
القيامة) is also crucial for Muslims. They believe the time
of Qiyāmah is preordained by God but unknown to man. The trials and
tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the
Qur'an and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of scholars. The
Qur'an emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic
Arabian understanding of death.
Judaism and Samaritanism
Main article: Jewish eschatology
There are three explicit examples in the Hebrew Bible of people being
resurrected from the dead:
Elijah prays and God raises a young boy from death (1
Elisha raises the son of the Shunammite woman (
2 Kings 4:32-37); this
was the very same child whose birth he previously foretold (2 Kings
A dead man's body that was thrown into the dead Elisha's tomb is
resurrected when the body touches Elisha's bones (
2 Kings 13:21)
During the period of the Second Temple, there developed a diversity of
beliefs concerning the resurrection. The concept of resurrection of
the physical body is found in 2 Maccabees, according to which it will
happen through recreation of the flesh.
Resurrection of the dead
also appears in detail in the extra-canonical books of Enoch, in
Apocalypse of Baruch, and 2 Esdras. According to the British
scholar in ancient Judaism Philip R. Davies, there is “little or no
clear reference … either to immortality or to resurrection from the
dead” in the
Dead Sea scrolls
Dead Sea scrolls texts. Both
Josephus and the New
Testament record that the
Sadducees did not believe in an
afterlife, but the sources vary on the beliefs of the Pharisees.
New Testament claims that the
Pharisees believed in the
resurrection, but does not specify whether this included the flesh or
not. According to Josephus, who himself was a Pharisee, the
Pharisees held that only the soul was immortal and the souls of good
people will be reincarnated and “pass into other bodies,” while
“the souls of the wicked will suffer eternal punishment.”
Paul, who also was a Pharisee, said that at the resurrection what
is "sown as a natural body is raised a spiritual body." Jubilees
seems to refer to the resurrection of the soul only, or to a more
general idea of an immortal soul.
According to Herbert C. Brichto, writing in Reform Judaism's Hebrew
Union College Annual, the family tomb is the central concept in
understanding biblical views of the afterlife. Brichto states that it
is "not mere sentimental respect for the physical remains that
is...the motivation for the practice, but rather an assumed connection
between proper sepulture and the condition of happiness of the
deceased in the afterlife".
According to Brichto, the early
Israelites apparently believed that
the graves of family, or tribe, united into one, and that this unified
collectivity is to what the
Biblical Hebrew term
Sheol refers, the
common Grave of humans. Although not well defined in the Tanakh, Sheol
in this view was a subterranean underworld where the souls of the dead
went after the body died. The
Babylonians had a similar underworld
called Aralu, and the
Greeks had one known as Hades. For biblical
Sheol see Genesis 42:38, Isaiah 14:11, Psalm 141:7,
Daniel 12:2, Proverbs 7:27 and Job 10:21,22, and 17:16, among others.
According to Brichto, other Biblical names for
Sheol were: Abaddon
(ruin), found in Psalm 88:11, Job 28:22 and Proverbs 15:11; Bor (the
pit), found in Isaiah 14:15, 24:22, Ezekiel 26:20; and Shakhat
(corruption), found in Isaiah 38:17, Ezekiel 28:8.
There are stories in
Buddhism where the power of resurrection was
allegedly demonstrated in Chan or
Zen tradition. One is the legend of
Bodhidharma, the Indian master who brought the
Ekayana school of India
to China that subsequently became Chan Buddhism.
The other is the passing of Chinese Chan master Puhua (J., Fuke) and
is recounted in the Record of Linji (J., Rinzai). Puhua was known for
his unusual behavior and teaching style so it is no wonder that he is
associated with an event that breaks the usual prohibition on
displaying such powers. Here is the account from Irmgard Schloegl's
Zen Teaching of Rinzai".
"One day at the street market Fuke was begging all and sundry to give
him a robe. Everybody offered him one, but he did not want any of
them. The master [Linji] made the superior buy a coffin, and when Fuke
returned, said to him: "There, I had this robe made for you." Fuke
shouldered the coffin, and went back to the street market, calling
Rinzai had this robe made for me! I am off to the East Gate
to enter transformation" (to die)." The people of the market crowded
after him, eager to look. Fuke said: "No, not today. Tomorrow, I shall
go to the South Gate to enter transformation." And so for three days.
Nobody believed it any longer. On the fourth day, and now without any
spectators, Fuke went alone outside the city walls, and laid himself
into the coffin. He asked a traveler who chanced by to nail down the
The news spread at once, and the people of the market rushed there. On
opening the coffin, they found that the body had vanished, but from
high up in the sky they heard the ring of his hand bell."
Resurrection in Hinduism
There are folklore, stories, and extractions from certain holy texts
that refer to resurrections. One major folklore is that of Savitri
saving her husbands life from Yamraj. In the Ramayana after Ravana was
slayed by Rama in a great battle between good and evil, Rama requests
the king of Gods Indra to restore the lives of all the monkeys who
died in the great battle.
Cryonics is the low-temperature preservation of humans who cannot be
sustained by contemporary medicine, with the hope that healing and
resuscitation may be possible in the future.
ideally begin within minutes of cardiac arrest, and use
cryoprotectants to prevent ice formation during cryopreservation.
However, the idea of cryonics also includes preservation of people
long after death because of the possibility that brain encoding memory
structure and personality may still persist or be inferable in the
future. Whether sufficient brain information still exists for cryonics
to successfully preserve may be intrinsically unprovable by present
knowledge. Therefore, most proponents of cryonics see it as an
intervention with prospects for success that vary widely depending on
Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov
Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov advocated resurrection of
the dead using scientific methods. Fedorov tried to plan specific
actions for scientific research of the possibility of restoring life
and making it infinite. His first project is connected with collecting
and synthesizing decayed remains of dead based on "knowledge and
control over all atoms and molecules of the world". The second method
described by Fedorov is genetic-hereditary. The revival could be done
successively in the ancestral line: sons and daughters restore their
fathers and mothers, they in turn restore their parents and so on.
This means restoring the ancestors using the hereditary information
that they passed on to their children. Using this genetic method it is
only possible to create a genetic twin of the dead person. It is
necessary to give back the revived person his old mind, his
personality. Fedorov speculates about the idea of "radial images" that
may contain the personalities of the people and survive after death.
Nevertheless, Fedorov noted that even if a soul is destroyed after
death, Man will learn to restore it whole by mastering the forces of
decay and fragmentation.
In his 1994 book The Physics of Immortality, American physicist Frank
J. Tipler, an expert on the general theory of relativity, presented
his Omega Point Theory which outlines how a resurrection of the dead
could take place at the end of the cosmos. He posits that humans will
evolve into robots which will turn the entire cosmos into a
supercomputer which will, shortly before the big crunch, perform the
resurrection within its cyberspace, reconstructing formerly dead
humans (from information captured by the supercomputer from the past
light cone of the cosmos) as avatars within its metaverse.
David Deutsch, British physicist and pioneer in the field of quantum
computing, agrees with Tipler's Omega Point cosmology and the idea of
resurrecting deceased people with the help of quantum computers
but he is critical of Tipler's theological views.
Italian physicist and computer scientist
Giulio Prisco presents the
idea of "quantum archaeology", "reconstructing the life, thoughts,
memories, and feelings of any person in the past, up to any desired
level of detail, and thus resurrecting the original person via
'copying to the future'".
In his book Mind Children, roboticist
Hans Moravec proposed that a
future supercomputer might be able to resurrect long-dead minds from
the information that still survived. For example, this information can
be in the form of memories, filmstrips, medical records, and
Ray Kurzweil, American inventor and futurist, believes that when his
concept of singularity comes to pass, it will be possible to resurrect
the dead by digital recreation.
In their science fiction novel The Light of Other Days, Sir Arthur
Clarke and Stephen Baxter imagine a future civilization resurrecting
the dead of past ages by reaching into the past, through micro
wormholes and with nanorobots, to download full snapshots of brain
states and memories.
Both the Church of Perpetual Life and the
Terasem Movement consider
themselves transreligions and advocate for the use of technology to
indefinitely extend the human lifespan.
Main article: Zombie
A zombie (Haitian Creole: zonbi; North Mbundu: nzumbe) can be either a
fictional undead monster or a person in an entranced state believed to
be controlled by a bokor or wizard. These latter are the original
zombies, occurring in the
West African Vodun
West African Vodun religion and its American
Haitian Vodou and New Orleans Voodoo.
Zombies became a popular device in modern horror fiction, largely
because of the success of George A. Romero's 1968 film Night of the
Living Dead and they have appeared as plot devices in various
books, films and in television shows.
Zombie fiction is now a sizable
subgenre of horror, usually describing a breakdown of civilization
occurring when most of the population become flesh-eating
zombies – a zombie apocalypse. The monsters are usually hungry
for human flesh, often specifically brains. Sometimes they are victims
of a fictional pandemic illness causing the dead to reanimate or the
living to behave this way, but often no cause is given in the story.
Disappearances (as distinct from resurrection)
See also: Entering heaven alive
As knowledge of different religions has grown, so have claims of
bodily disappearance of some religious and mythological figures. In
ancient Greek religion, this was a way the gods made some physically
immortal, including such figures as Cleitus, Ganymede, Menelaus, and
Tithonus. After his death,
Cycnus was changed into a swan and
vanished. In his chapter on
Romulus from Parallel Lives, Plutarch
criticises the continuous belief in such disappearances, referring to
the allegedly miraculous disappearance of the historical figures
Romulus, Cleomedes of Astypalaea, and Croesus. In ancient times, Greek
and Roman pagan similarities were explained by the early Christian
writers, such as Justin Martyr, as the work of demons, with the
intention of leading Christians astray.
In somewhat recent years it has been learned that Gesar, the Savior of
Tibet, at the end, chants on a mountain top and his clothes fall empty
to the ground. The body of the first Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Nanak
Dev, is said to have disappeared and flowers were left in place of his
Lord Raglan's Hero Pattern lists many religious figures whose bodies
disappear, or have more than one sepulchre. B. Traven, author of
The Treasure of the Sierra Madre, wrote that the
arrived at Cusco (in modern-day Peru) and the Pacific seacoast where
he walked across the water and vanished. It has been thought that
teachings regarding the purity and incorruptibility of the hero's
human body are linked to this phenomenon. Perhaps, this is also to
deter the practice of disturbing and collecting the hero's remains.
They are safely protected if they have disappeared.
The first such case mentioned in the Bible is that of Enoch (son of
Jared, great-grandfather of Noah, and father of Methuselah). Enoch is
said to have lived a life where he "walked with God", after which "he
was not, for God took him" (Genesis 5:1–18). In Deuteronomy
Moses is secretly buried.
Elijah vanishes in a whirlwind 2
Kings (2:11). After hundreds of years these two earlier Biblical
heroes suddenly reappear, and are seen walking with Jesus, then again
vanish. Mark (9:2–8), Matthew (17:1–8) and Luke (9:28–33). The
last time he is seen, Luke (24:51) alone tells of Jesus leaving his
disciples by ascending into the sky.
1 Corinthians 15
Near death experience
Resurrection: The Power of God for Christians and Jews by Kevin J.
Madigan and Jon D. Levenson. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008
Resurrection of the Dead
Resurrection of the Dead in Early Judaism, 200 BCE -- CE
200. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.
Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov. Philosophy of Physical Resurrection
Edwin Hatch. Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages Upon the Christian
Church (1888 Hibbert Lectures).
Alfred J Hebert. Raised from the Dead: True Stories of 400
Lange, Dierk. "The dying and the rising God in the New Year Festival
of Ife", in: Lange, Ancient Kingdoms of West Africa, Dettelbach: Röll
Vlg. 2004, pp. 343–376.
Richard Longenecker, editor. Life in the Face of Death: The
Resurrection Message of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,
Joseph McCabe Myth of the
Resurrection and Other Essays, Prometheus
books, New York, 1993, originally printed in 1925 and 1926
Tryggve Mettinger. The Riddle of Resurrection: "Dying and Rising Gods"
in the Ancient Near East, Stockholm: Almqvist 2001.
Markus Mühling. Grundinformation Eschatologie. Systematische
Theologie aus der Perspektive der Hoffnung. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck
& Ruprecht, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8252-2918-4, 242–262.
George Nickelsburg. Resurrection, Immortality, and Eternal Life in
Intertestmental Judaism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1972.
Pheme Perkins. Resurrection:
New Testament Witness and Contemporary
Reflection. Garden City: Doubleday & Company, 1984.
Erwin Rohde Psyche: The Cult of Souls and Belief in
the Greeks. New York: Harper & Row, 1925 .
Charles H. Talbert. "The Concept of Immortals in Mediterranean
Antiquity", Journal of Biblical Literature, Volume 94, 1975, pp
Charles H. Talbert. "The Myth of a Descending-Ascending Redeemer in
New Testament Studies, Volume 22, 1975/76,
Frank J. Tipler (1994). The Physics of Immortality: Modern Cosmology,
God and the
Resurrection of the Dead. my house: Doubleday.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Resurrection.
"Resurrection". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Resurrection of Jesus
Resurrection of Jesus Christ - Catholic Encyclopedia
Article on resurrection in the Hebrew Bible.
Jewish Encyclopedia: Resurrection
The enticement of the Occult: Occultism examined by a scientist and
Rethinking the resurrection.(of Jesus Christ)(Cover Story) Newsweek,
April 8th 1996, Woodward, Kenneth L.
Dictionary of the History of Ideas:
Death and Immortality,
^ "Gregory of Nyssa: "On the
Soul and the Resurrection:" However far
from each other their natural propensity and their inherent forces of
repulsion urge them, and debar each from mingling with its opposite,
none the less will the soul be near each by its power of recognition,
and will persistently cling to the familiar atoms, until their
concourse after this division again takes place in the same way, for
that fresh formation of the dissolved body which will properly be, and
be called, resurrection". Ccel.org.
^ As in the Apostle's Creed: "I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy
catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the
resurrection of the body, and life everlasting." Catholic
Encyclopedia: General Resurrection: "
Resurrection is the rising again
from the dead, the resumption of life. The Fourth Lateran Council
(1215) teaches that all men, whether elect or reprobate, "will rise
again with their own bodies which they now bear about with them"
(chapter "Firmiter"). In the language of the creeds and professions of
faith this return to life is called resurrection of the body
(resurrectio carnis, resurrectio mortuoram, anastasis ton nekron) for
a double reason: first, since the soul cannot die, it cannot be said
to return to life; second the heretical contention of Hymeneus and
Philitus that the
Scriptures denote by resurrection not the return to
life of the body, but the rising of the soul from the death of sin to
the life of grace, must be excluded."
^ Symes, R. C. "According to Paul of Tarsus, the resurrection
transformed Jesus into the Christ, the Son of God and Savior of the
world. Christ's resurrected body was not a resuscitated physical body,
but a new body of a spiritual/celestial nature: the natural body comes
first and then the spiritual body (1 Cor. 15:46). Paul never says that
the earthly body becomes immortal". religioustolerance.org.
^ The Watchtower Society claims that Jesus was not raised in His
actual physical human body, but rather was raised as an invisible
spirit being—what He was before, the archangel Michael. They believe
that Christ's post-
Resurrection appearances on earth were on-the-spot
manifestations and materializations of flesh and bones, with different
forms, that the Apostles did not immediately recognize. Their
explanation for the statement "a spirit hath not flesh and bones" is
that Christ was saying that he was not a ghostly apparition, but a
true materialization in flesh, to be seen and touched, as proof that
he was actually raised. But that, in fact, the risen Christ was, in
actuality, a divine spirit being, who made himself visible and
invisible at will. The Christian Congregation of Jehovah’s Witnesses
believes that Christ’s perfect manhood was forever sacrificed at
Calvary, and that it was not actually taken back. They state: "...in
his resurrection he ‘became a life-giving spirit.’ That was why
for most of the time he was invisible to his faithful apostles... He
needs no human body any longer... The human body of flesh, which Jesus
Christ laid down forever as a ransom sacrifice, was disposed of by
God’s power."—Things in Which it is Impossible for God to Lie,
pages 332, 354.
Resurrection Theories". Gospel-mysteries.net. Retrieved
^ Karl Ernst Georges, Ferruccio Badellino, Oreste Calonghi, Dizionario
Latino-Italiano (Latin to Italian dictionary), Rosenberg &
Sellier, 3rd edition, Turin, 1989, 2.957 pages
^ Cassell's Latin Dictionary
James Frazer (1922). The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and
Religion Ware: Wordsworth 1993.
Jonathan Z. Smith
Jonathan Z. Smith "Dying and Rising Gods" in Mircea Eliade (ed.) The
Encyclopedia of Religion: Vol. 3. New York: Simon & Schuster
Macmillan 1995: 521-27.
^ Mettinger, Riddle of Resurrection, 55-222.
Erwin Rohde Psyche: The Cult of Souls and Belief in Immortality
among the Greeks. New York 1925 
^ "Acts 17:30-32". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 2013-05-04.
^ 1 Corinthians 15:19-20
^ Not in the
Great Commission of the resurrected Jesus, but only in
the so-called Lesser Commission of Matthew, specifically Matthew 10:8.
^ Adomnan of Iona. Life of St Columba. Penguin books, 1995
Archived from the original on June 29, 2013. Retrieved June 29,
2013. Missing or empty title= (help)
"Resurrection", The New Encyclopedia of Islam (2003)
"Avicenna". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. : Ibn Sīnā, Abū
ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Sīnā is known in the West as
L. Gardet. "Qiyama". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online.
2 Maccabees 7.11, 7.28.
^ 1 Enoch 61.5, 61.2.
^ 2 Baruch 50.2, 51.5
^ Philip R. Davies. “Death,
Resurrection and Life After
Death in the
Qumran Scrolls” in Alan J. Avery-Peck & Jacob Neusner (eds.)
Judaism in Late Antiquity: Part Four: Death, Life-After-Death,
Resurrection, and the World-To-Come in the Judaisms of Antiquity.
Josephus Antiquities 18.16; Matthew 22.23; Mark 12.18; Luke 20.27;
^ Acta 23.8.
Josephus Jewish War 2.8.14; cf. Antiquities 8.14-15.
^ Acts 23.6, 26.5.
^ 1 Corinthians 15.35-53
^ Jubilees 23.31
^ Raphael, Simcha Paull (2009). Jewish Views of the Afterlife. Lanham,
MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 45.
^ Herbert Chanon Brichto "Kin, Cult, Land and Afterlife – A
Hebrew Union College Annual 44, p.8 (1973)
^ Schloegl, Irmgard; tr. "The
Zen Teaching of Rinzai". Shambhala
Publications, Inc., Berkeley, 1976. Page 76. ISBN 0-87773-087-3.
^ "What is Cryonics?". Alcor Foundation. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
Cryonics is an effort to save lives by using temperatures so cold
that a person beyond help by today's medicine might be preserved for
decades or centuries until a future medical technology can restore
that person to full health."
^ Best BP (April 2008). "Scientific justification of cryonics
practice". Rejuvenation Research 11 (2): 493–503.
doi:10.1089/rej.2008.0661. PMID 18321197.
^ Nikolai Berdyaev, The Religion of Resusciative Resurrection. "The
Philosophy of the Common Task of N. F. Fedorov.
^ Frank J. Tipler, The Physics of Immortality: Modern Cosmology, God
Resurrection of the Dead
Resurrection of the Dead (New York: Doubleday, 1994),
ISBN 0198519494. 56-page excerpt available here.
David Deutsch (1997). "The Ends of the Universe". The Fabric of
Reality: The Science of Parallel Universes—and Its Implications.
London: Penguin Press. ISBN 0-7139-9061-9.
Giulio Prisco (October 11, 2015). "Technological Resurrection
Concepts From Fedorov to Quantum Archeology". Institute for Ethics and
Emerging Technologies. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Giulio
Prisco (December 16, 2011). "Quantum Archaeology". Retrieved 6 July
^ "Mind Children". google.co.uk. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
^ "Resurrecting the Dead - Futurisms - The New Atlantis". Futurisms -
The New Atlantis. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
^ Socrates (18 July 2012). "
Ray Kurzweil on the Singularity and
Bringing Back the Dead". Singularity Weblog. Retrieved 6 July
^ Arthur C. Clarke, Profiles of the Future: An Inquiry into the Limits
of the Possible, Millennium [i.e., Second] Edition, Victor Gollancz
– An imprint of Orion Books Ltd., 1999, p. 118: "the novel that
Stephen Baxter has now written from my synopsis — The Light of Other
^ Anthony Cuthbertson (December 9, 2015). "Virtual reality heaven: How
technology is redefining death and the afterlife". International
Business Times. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
^ Smith, Neil (March 7, 2008). "
Zombie maestro lays down the lore".
London: BBC News. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
Erwin Rohde Psyche: The Cult of Souls and Belief in Immortality
among the Greeks. New York: Harper & Row 1966.
^ Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho (ca 147-161 A.D.) Catholic
University Press, 2003
^ Alexandra David-Neel,and Lama Yongden, The Superhuman Life of Gesar
of Ling, Rider, 1933, While still in oral tradition, it is recorded
for the first time by an early European traveler.
^ Otto Rank, Lord Raglan, and Alan Dundes, In Quest of the Hero,
Princeton University Press, 1990
^ B. Traven, The Creation of the Sun and Moon, Lawerence Hill Books,
^ See: Michael Paterniti, Driving Mr. Albert: A Trip Across America
with Einstein's Brain, The Dial Press, 2000