HOME
The Info List - Rescue Of Jews By Poles During The Holocaust


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Polish Jews were the primary victims of the Nazi
Nazi
-organized Holocaust . Throughout the German occupation of Poland , many Poles risked their own lives – and the lives of their families – to rescue Jews from the Nazis. Grouped by nationality, Poles represent the biggest number of people who rescued Jews during the Holocaust. To date, 6,706 Christian Poles have been awarded the title of Righteous Among the Nations by the State of Israel – more than those of any other nation by far.

The Armia Krajowa (Polish resistance) alerted the world to the Holocaust, notably with the reports of Witold Pilecki and Jan Karski
Jan Karski
. The Polish government-in-exile and the Polish Secret State asked for American and British help to stop the Holocaust, to no avail.

Some estimates put the number of Poles involved in rescue at up to 3 million, and credit Poles with saving up to around 450,000 Jews from certain death. The rescue efforts were aided by one of the largest anti- Nazi
Nazi
resistance movements in Europe, the Polish Underground State and its military arm, the Armia Krajowa. Supported by the Polish government-in-exile, these organizations operated special units dedicated to helping Jews; of those, the most notable was Żegota Council based in Warsaw
Warsaw
with branches in Kraków , Wilno
Wilno
and Lwów .

Polish citizens were hampered by the most extreme conditions in all of German-occupied Europe . Occupied Poland was the only territory where the Germans decreed that any kind of help for Jews was punishable by death for the helper and their entire family. Of the estimated 3 million non-Jewish Poles killed in World War II, up to 50,000 were executed by Nazi
Nazi
Germany solely as the penalty for saving Jews. After the War most of this information was suppressed by the Soviet-installed satellite regime in an attempt to discredit Polish prewar society and its wartime government as reactionary. Further information: The Holocaust in occupied Poland

CONTENTS

* 1 Background

* 1.1 Statistics * 1.2 Difficulties * 1.3 Punishment for aiding the Jews

* 2 Jews in Polish villages * 3 Jews in Polish cities * 4 Organizations dedicated to saving the Jews * 5 Jews and the Church * 6 Jews and the Polish government * 7 Partial list of communities * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References

BACKGROUND

Main article: Polish Righteous among the Nations

Before World War II, 3,300,000 Jewish people lived in Poland – ten percent of the general population of some 33 million. Poland was the center of the European Jewish world.

The Second World War began with the Nazi
Nazi
German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939; and, on September 17, in accordance with the Molotov-Ribbentrop agreement, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
attacked Poland from the east. By October 1939, the Second Polish Republic was split in half between two totalitarian powers. Germany occupied western and central Poland. Racial policy of Nazi
Nazi
Germany regarded Poles as "sub-human " and Polish Jews beneath that category, validating a campaign of unrestricted violence . One aspect of German foreign policy in conquered Poland was to prevent its ethnically diverse population from uniting against Germany. The Nazi
Nazi
plan for Polish Jews was one of concentration, isolation, and eventually total annihilation in the Holocaust
Holocaust
also known as the _Shoah_. Similar policy toward the Polish Catholic majority focused on the murder or suppression of political, religious, and intellectual leaders as well as the Germanization of the annexed lands which included a program to resettle Germans from the Baltics and other regions onto farms, ventures and homes formerly owned by the expelled Poles including Polish Jews.

The response of the Polish majority to the Jewish Holocaust
Holocaust
covered an extremely wide spectrum, often ranging from acts of altruism at the risk of endangering their own and their families’ lives, through compassion, to passivity, indifference, and blackmail. Polish rescuers also faced threats from unsympathetic neighbours, the Polish-German Volksdeutsche , the ethnic Ukrainian pro-Nazis, as well as blackmailers called szmalcowniks along with Jewish collaborators from Żagiew and Group 13 . Holocaust
Holocaust
testimonies confirm that the Jewish criminal underworld took advantage of inside information about the socio-economic standing of their own compatriots who were trapped in the ghettos. The Jewish looters knew much better than anyone else "where to dig for valuables" wrote Isaiah Trunk and Rubin Katz. The Catholic saviors of Jews were also betrayed by the Jews in hiding following their capture by the military police, which resulted in the Nazi
Nazi
murder of the entire networks of Polish rescuers and their families. During Barbarossa , the operational guidelines for the mass anti-Jewish actions to be carried out with the local participation were issued by Reinhard Heydrich . His _Einsatzkommando _ chiefs were ordered to implement them on territories newly occupied by the German forces. There were cases of denunciations of Jews or even local participation in the Nazi
Nazi
German "cleansing" operations such as the Jedwabne pogrom of 1941. Nevertheless, statistics of the Israeli War Crimes Commission indicate that less than one tenth of 1 per cent of native Poles collaborated with the occupiers. By contrast, national minorities gathered around OUN-UPA , YB , TDA , and BKA , routinely participated in the massacres of Polish Jews following Barbarossa. Rudolf Weigl

Non–Jewish Poles provided assistance to the Jews in an organised fashion as well as through varying degrees of individual efforts. Many Poles offered food to Polish Jews and left food in places Jews would pass on their way to forced labour . Others directed Jews – who managed to escape from the ghettos – to Polish people who could help them. Some sheltered Jews for only one or a few nights, others assumed full responsibility for the Jews' survival, well aware that the Nazis punished those who helped Jews by summary killings. A special role fell to the Polish medical doctors who alone saved thousands of Jews through their subversive practise. For example, Dr. Eugeniusz Łazowski , known as Polish 'Schindler', saved 8,000 Polish Jews from deportation to death camps, by faking an epidemic of typhus in the town of Rozwadów . Free medicine was given out in the Kraków Ghetto
Ghetto
by Tadeusz Pankiewicz saving unspecified number of Jews. Rudolf Weigl employed and protected Jews in his Institute in Lwów . His vaccines were smuggled into the local ghetto as well as the ghetto in Warsaw
Warsaw
saving countless lives. Dr. Tadeusz Kosibowicz, director of the state hospital in Będzin was sentenced to death for rescuing Jewish fugitives. It is mostly those who took full responsibility who qualify for the title of the Righteous Among the Nations . To date, a total of 6,066 Poles have been officially recognized by Israel as the Polish Righteous among the Nations for their efforts in saving Polish Jews during the Holocaust, making Poland the country with the highest number of Righteous in the world.

STATISTICS

The number of Poles who rescued Jews from the Nazi
Nazi
persecution would be hard to determine in black-and-white terms, and is still the subject of scholarly debate. According to Gunnar S. Paulsson , the number of rescuers that meet Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
's criteria is perhaps 100,000 and there may have been two or three times as many who offered minor help; the majority "were passively protective." In an article published in the _ Journal of Genocide Research _, Hans G. Furth estimated that there may have been as many as 1,200,000 Polish rescuers. Richard C. Lukas estimated that upwards of 1,000,000 Poles were involved in such rescue efforts, "but some estimates go as high as three million." Lukas also cites Władysław Bartoszewski , a wartime member of _ Żegota _, as having estimated that "at least several hundred thousand Poles ... participated in various ways and forms in the rescue action." Elsewhere, Bartoszewski has estimated that between 1 and 3 percent of the Polish population was actively involved in rescue efforts; Marcin Urynowicz estimates that a minimum of from 500 thousand to over a million Poles actively tried to help Jews. The lower number was proposed by Teresa Prekerowa who claimed that between 160,000 and 360,000 Poles assisted in hiding Jews, amounting to between 1% and 2.5% of the 15 million adult Poles she categorized as "those who could offer help." Her estimation counts only those who were involved in hiding Jews directly. It also assumes that each Jew who hid among the non-Jewish populace stayed throughout the war in only one hiding place and as such had only one set of helpers. However, other historians indicate that a much higher number was involved. Paulsson wrote that, according to his research, an average Jew in hiding stayed in seven different places throughout the war. The Król family of Polish Righteous west of Nowy Sącz Ghetto
Ghetto
hid Jewish friends in the attic for three years. In close proximity, the Germans carried out mass executions of civilians .

An average Jew who survived in occupied Poland depended on many acts of assistance and tolerance, wrote Paulsson. "Nearly every Jew that was rescued, was rescued by the cooperative efforts of dozen or more people," as confirmed also by the Polish-Jewish historian Szymon Datner . Paulsson notes that during the six years of wartime and occupation, the average Jew sheltered by the Poles had three or four sets of false documents and faced recognition as a Jew multiple times. Datner explains also that hiding a Jew lasted often for several years thus increasing the risk involved for each Christian family exponentially. Polish-Jewish writer and Holocaust
Holocaust
survivor Hanna Krall has identified 45 Poles who helped to shelter her from the Nazis and Władysław Szpilman , the Polish musician of Jewish origin whose wartime experiences were chronicled in his memoir _The Pianist _ and the film of the same title identified 30 Poles who helped him to survive the Holocaust.

Meanwhile, Father John T. Pawlikowski from Chicago, referring to work by other historians, speculated that claims of hundreds of thousands of rescuers struck him as inflated. Likewise, Martin Gilbert has written that under Nazi
Nazi
regime, rescuers were an exception, albeit one that could be found in towns and villages throughout Poland.

There is no official number of how many Polish Jews were hidden by their Christian countrymen during wartime. Lukas estimated that the number of Jews sheltered by Poles at one time might have been "as high as 450,000." However, concealment did not automatically assure complete safety from the Nazis, and the number of Jews in hiding who were caught has been estimated variously from 40,000 to 200,000.

DIFFICULTIES

The wall of ghetto in Warsaw
Warsaw
, being constructed by Nazi
Nazi
German order in August 1940

Efforts at rescue were encumbered by several factors. The threat of the death penalty for aiding Jews and limited ability to provide for the escapees were often responsible for the fact that many Poles were unwilling to provide direct help to a person of Jewish origin. This was exacerbated by the fact that the people who were in hiding did not have official ration cards and hence food for them had to be purchased on the black market at high prices. According to Emmanuel Ringelblum in most cases the money that Poles accepted from Jews they helped to hide, was taken not out of greed, but out of poverty which Poles had to endure during the German occupation. Israel Gutman has written that the majority of Jews who were sheltered by Poles paid for their own up-keep, but thousands of Polish protectors perished along with the people they were hiding.

There is general consensus among scholars that, unlike in Western Europe, Polish collaboration with the Nazis was insignificant. However, the Nazi
Nazi
terror combined with inadequacy of food rations, as well as German greed, along with the system of corruption as the only "one language the Germans understood well," wrecked traditional values. Poles helping Jews faced unparalleled dangers not only from the German occupiers but also from their own ethnically diverse countrymen including Polish-German Volksdeutsche , and Polish Ukrainians, many of whom were anti-Semitic and morally disoriented by the war. There were people, the so-called szmalcownicy ("shmalts people" from _shmalts_ or _szmalec_, slang term for money), who blackmailed the hiding Jews and Poles helping them, or who turned the Jews to the Germans for a reward. Outside the cities there were peasants of various ethnic backgrounds looking for Jews hiding in the forests, to demand money from them. There were also Jews turning in other Jews and non-Jewish Poles for profit, or in order to alleviate hunger with the awarded prize. The vast majority of these individuals joined the criminal underworld after the German occupation and were responsible for the deaths of tens of thousands of people, both Jews and the Poles who were trying to save them. The fear of denunciation not only deterred many Jews from attempting to find shelter among Poles, but also discouraged well-intentioned Poles who feared denunciators and slanderers.

According to one reviewer of Paulsson, with regard to the extortionists, "a single hooligan or blackmailer could wreak severe damage on Jews in hiding, but it took the silent passivity of a whole crowd to maintain their cover." He also notes that "hunters" were outnumbered by "helpers" by a ratio of one to 20 or 30. According to Lukas the number of renegades who blackmailed and denounced Jews and their Polish protectors probably did not number more than 1,000 individuals out of the 1,300,000 people living in Warsaw
Warsaw
in 1939. Public execution of Michał Kruk and several other ethnic Poles in Przemyśl as punishment for helping Jews, 1943

Michael C. Steinlauf writes that not only the fear of the death penalty was an obstacle limiting Polish aid to Jews, but also some prewar attitudes towards Jews, which made many individuals uncertain of their neighbors' reaction to their attempts at rescue. Number of authors have noted the negative consequences of the hostility towards Jews by extremists advocating their eventual removal from Poland. Meanwhile, Alina Cala in her study of Jews in Polish folk culture argued also for the persistence of traditional religious antisemitism and anti-Jewish propaganda before and during the war both leading to indifference. Steinlauf however notes that despite these uncertainties, Jews were helped by countless thousands of individual Poles throughout the country. He writes that "not the informing or the indifference, but the existence of such individuals is one of the most remarkable features of Polish-Jewish relations during the Holocaust." Nechama Tec , who herself survived the war aided by a group of Catholic Poles, noted that Polish rescuers worked within an environment that was hostile to Jews and unfavorable to their protection, in which rescuers feared both the disapproval of their neighbors and reprisals that such disapproval might bring. Tec also noted that Jews, for many complex and practical reasons, were not always prepared to accept assistance that was available to them. Some Jews did not expect help from the Poles — in fact, some were surprised to have been aided by some people who expressed antisemitic attitudes before the war. Similar sentiment was expressed by Mordecai Paldiel , former Director of the Department of the Righteous at Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
, who writes that the widespread revulsion at the murders being committed by the Nazis was sometimes accompanied by a feeling of relief at the disappearance of Jews. A Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
study of Żegota cites an interview, in which the organization's Deputy Chairman, Tadeusz Rek , mentions his report to the representatives of the Polish government-in-exile claiming "that the overwhelming majority of Polish society are hostile toward those extending relief." Paulsson and Pawlikowski write that overall, such negative attitudes were not a major factor impeding the survival of sheltered Jews, or the work of the rescue organization _Żegota_.

The fact that the Polish Jewish community was destroyed during World War II, coupled with stories about Polish collaborators, has contributed, especially among Israelis and American Jews, to a lingering stereotype that the Polish population has been passive in regard to, or even supportive of, Jewish suffering. However, modern scholarship has not validated the claim that Polish antisemitism was irredeemable or different from contemporary Western antisemitism; it has also found that such claims are among the stereotypes that comprise anti-Polonism . The presenting of selective evidence in support of preconceived notions have led some popular press to draw overly simplistic and often misleading conclusions regarding the role played by Poles at the time of the Holocaust.

PUNISHMENT FOR AIDING THE JEWS

Announcement of death penalty for Jews captured outside the Ghetto
Ghetto
and for Poles helping Jews

In an attempt to discourage Poles from helping the Jews and to destroy any efforts of the resistance, the Germans applied a ruthless retaliation policy. On November 10, 1941, the death penalty was introduced by Hans Frank , governor of the General Government
General Government
, to apply to Poles who helped Jews "in any way: by taking them in for the night, giving them a lift in a vehicle of any kind" or "feed runaway Jews or sell them foodstuffs." The law was made public by posters distributed in all major cities.

The imposition of the death penalty for Poles aiding Jews was unique to Poland among all German occupied countries, and was a result of the conspicuous and spontaneous nature of such an aid. For example, the Ulma family (father, mother and six children) of the village of Markowa near Łańcut – where many families concealed their Jewish neighbors – were executed jointly by the Nazis with the eight Jews they hid. The entire Wołyniec family in Romaszkańce was massacred for sheltering three Jewish refugees from a ghetto. In Maciuńce , for hiding Jews, the Germans shot eight members of Józef Borowski family along with him and four guests who happened to be there. Nazi
Nazi
death squads carried out mass executions of the entire villages that were discovered to be aiding Jews on a communal level. In the villages of Białka near Parczew and Sterdyń near Sokołów Podlaski , 150 villagers were massacred for sheltering Jews. In November 1942, the Ukrainian SS squad executed 20 villagers from Berecz in Wołyń Voivodeship for giving aid to Jewish escapees from the ghetto in Povorsk. According to Peter Jaroszczak "Michał Kruk and several other people in Przemyśl were executed on September 6, 1943 (_pictured_) for the assistance they had rendered to the Jews. Altogether, in the town and its environs 415 Jews (including 60 children) were saved, in return for which the Germans killed 568 people of Polish nationality." Several hundred Poles were massacred with their priest, Adam Sztark, in Słonim on December 18, 1942, for sheltering Jewish refugees of the Słonim Ghetto
Ghetto
in a Catholic church. In Huta Stara near Buczacz , Polish Christians and the Jewish countrymen they protected, were herded into a church by the Nazis and burned alive on March 4, 1944. In the years 1942-1944 about 200 peasants were shot dead and burned alive as punishment in the Kielce region alone.

Entire communities that helped shelter Jews were annihilated, such as the now-extinct village of Huta Werchobuska near Złoczów , Zahorze near Łachwa , Huta Pieniacka near Brody or Stara Huta near Szumsk .

Additionally, after the end of the war Poles who saved Jews during the Nazi
Nazi
occupation very often became the victims of repression at the hands of the Communist security apparatus , due to their instinctive devotion to social justice which they saw as being abused by the government.

JEWS IN POLISH VILLAGES

A number of Polish villages in their entirety provided shelter from Nazi
Nazi
apprehension, offering protection for their Jewish neighbors as well as the aid for refugees from other villages and escapees from the ghettos. Postwar research has confirmed that communal protection occurred in Głuchów near Łańcut with everyone engaged, as well as in the villages of Główne , Ozorków , Borkowo near Sierpc , Dąbrowica near Ulanów , in Głupianka near Otwock
Otwock
, and Teresin near Chełm . In Cisie near Warsaw, 25 Poles were caught hiding Jews; all were killed and the village was burned to the ground as punishment. Jerzy and Irena Krępeć rescued over 30 Jews on their farms in Gołąbki and set up homeschooling for all kids, Christian and Jewish together

The forms of protection varied from village to village. In Gołąbki , the farm of Jerzy and Irena Krępeć provided a hiding place for as many as 30 Jews; years after the war, the couple's son recalled in an interview with the _ Montreal Gazette _ that their actions were "an open secret in the village everyone knew they had to keep quiet" and that the other villagers helped, "if only to provide a meal." Another farm couple, Alfreda and Bolesław Pietraszek , provided shelter for Jewish families consisting of 18 people in Ceranów near Sokołów Podlaski , and their neighbors brought food to those being rescued.

Two decades after the end of the war, a Jewish partisan named Gustaw Alef-Bolkowiak identified the following villages in the Parczew - Ostrów Lubelski area where "almost the entire population" assisted Jews: Rudka , Jedlanka , Makoszka , Tyśmienica , and Bójki . Historians have documented that a dozen villagers of Mętów near Głusk outside Lublin sheltered Polish Jews.

In some documented cases, Polish Jews who were hidden were circulated between locations in a village. Farmers in Zdziebórz near Wyszków , by turns, sheltered two Jewish men who later joined the Polish resistance Armia Krajowa (Home Army). The entire village of Mulawicze near Bielsk Podlaski
Bielsk Podlaski
took responsibility for the survival of an orphaned nine-year-old Jewish boy. Different families took turns hiding a Jewish girl at various homes in Wola Przybysławska near Lublin , and around Jabłoń near Parczew many Polish Jews successfully sought refuge.

Impoverished Polish Jews, unable to offer any money in return, were nonetheless provided with food, clothing, shelter and money by some small communities; historians have confirmed this took place in the villages of Czajków near Staszów as well as several villages near Łowicz , in Korzeniówka near Grójec , near Żyrardów , in Łaskarzew , and across Kielce
Kielce
Voivodship .

In tiny villages where there was no permanent Nazi
Nazi
military presence, such as Dąbrowa Rzeczycka , Kępa Rzeczycka and Wola Rzeczycka near Stalowa Wola , some Jews were able to openly participate in the lives of their communities. Olga Lilien, recalling her wartime experience in the 2000 book _To Save a Life: Stories of Holocaust
Holocaust
Rescue_, was sheltered by a Polish family in a village near Tarnobrzeg , where she survived the war despite the posting of a 200 deutsche mark reward by the Nazi
Nazi
occupiers for information on Jews in hiding. Chava Grinberg-Brown from Gmina Wiskitki recalled in a postwar interview that some farmers used the threat of violence against a fellow villager who intimated the desire to betray her safety. Polish-born Israeli writer and Holocaust
Holocaust
survivor Natan Gross, in his 2001 book _Who Are You, Mr. Grymek?_, told of a village near Warsaw
Warsaw
where a local Nazi
Nazi
collaborator was forced to flee when it became known he reported the location of a hidden Jew.

Nonetheless there were cases where Poles who saved Jews were met with a different response after the war. Antonina Wyrzykowska from Janczewko village near Jedwabne managed to successfully shelter seven Jews for twenty-six months from November 1942 until liberation. Some time earlier, during the Jedwabne pogrom close by, a minimum of 300 Polish Jews were burned alive in a barn set on fire by a group of Polish men under the German command. Among the Jews rescued by Wyrzykowska was Szmuel Wasersztajn who, without seeing anything that happened, later falsely accused many innocent Poles of the crime. Wyrzykowska was honored as Righteous among the Nations for her heroism, but left her hometown after liberation for fear of retribution.

JEWS IN POLISH CITIES

Irena Sendler smuggled to safety 2,500 Jewish children from the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto
Ghetto

In Poland's cities and larger towns, the Nazi
Nazi
occupiers created ghettos that were designed to imprison the local Jewish populations. The food rations allocated by the Germans to the ghettos condemned their inhabitants to starvation. Smuggling of food into the ghettos and smuggling of goods out of the ghettos, organized by Jews and Poles, was the only means of subsistence of the Jewish population in the ghettos. The price difference between the Aryan and Jewish sides was large, reaching as much as 100%, but the penalty for aiding Jews was death . Hundreds of Polish and Jewish smugglers would come in and out the ghettos, usually at night or at dawn, through openings in the walls, underground tunnels and sewers or through the guardposts by paying bribes. For more details on this topic, see Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland .

The Polish Underground urged the Poles to support smuggling. The punishment for smuggling was death, carried out on the spot. Among the Jewish smuggler victims were scores of Jewish children aged five or six, whom the German shot at the ghetto exits and near the walls. While communal rescue was impossible under these circumstances, many Polish Christians concealed their Jewish neighbors. For example, Zofia Baniecka and her mother rescued over 50 Jews in their home between 1941 and 1944. Paulsson, in his research on the Jews of Warsaw, documented that Warsaw's Polish residents managed to support and conceal the same percentage of Jews as did residents in other European cities under Nazi
Nazi
occupation.

Ten percent of Warsaw's Polish population was actively engaged in sheltering their Jewish neighbors. It is estimated that the number of Jews living in hiding on the Aryan side of the capital city in 1944 was at least 15,000 to 30,000 and relied on the network of 50,000–60,000 Poles who provided shelter, and about half as many assisting in other ways.

ORGANIZATIONS DEDICATED TO SAVING THE JEWS

Żegota members at the 3rd anniversary of the Ghetto
Ghetto
Uprising .

Several organizations were created and run by ethnic Poles and Jewish underground activists, dedicated to saving the Polish Jewish community. Among those, _ Żegota _, the Council to Aid Jews, was the most prominent. It was unique not only in Poland, but in all of Nazi-occupied Europe, as there was no other organization dedicated solely to that goal. _Żegota_ concentrated its efforts on saving Jewish children toward whom the Germans were especially cruel. Polish sociologist Tadeusz Piotrowski estimates that about half of the Jews who survived the war (more than 50,000) were aided by _Żegota_ with various forms of assistance – financial, legalization, medical, child care, and help against blackmailers.

Perhaps the most famous member of _Żegota_ was Irena Sendler , who managed to successfully smuggle 2,500 Jewish children out of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto
Ghetto
. Besides _Żegota_, there were few smaller, less effective organizations, which on their actions agenda included help to the Jews. Some were associated with _Zegota_.

JEWS AND THE CHURCH

Mother Matylda Getter rescued between 250-550 Jewish children from the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto
Ghetto
. Recognized as the Righteous Among the Nations in 1985

The Roman Catholic Church in Poland provided many persecuted Jews with food and shelter during the war, even though monasteries gave no immunity to Polish priests and monks against the death penalty. Nearly every Catholic institution in Poland looked after a few Jews, usually children with forged Christian birth certificates and an assumed or vague identity. In particular, convents of Catholic nuns in Poland (see Sister Bertranda ), played a major role in the effort to rescue and shelter Polish Jews, with the Franciscan Sisters credited with the largest number of Jewish children saved. Two thirds of all nunneries in Poland took part in the rescue, in all likelihood with the support and encouragement of the church hierarchy. These efforts were supported by local Polish bishops and the Vatican itself. The convent leaders never disclosed the exact number of children saved in their institutions, and for security reasons the rescued children were never registered. Jewish institutions have no statistics that could clarify the matter. Systematic recording of testimonies did not begin until the early 1970s. In the villages of Ożarów , Ignaców, Szymanów , and Grodzisko near Leżajsk , the Jewish children were cared for by Catholic convents and by the surrounding communities. In these villages, Christian parents did not remove their children from schools where Jewish children were in attendance.

Irena Sendler head of children's section Żegota (the Council to Aid Jews) organisation cooperated very closely in saving Jewish children from the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto
Ghetto
with social worker and catholic nun , mother provincial of Franciscan Sisters of the Family of Mary - Matylda Getter . The children were placed with Polish families, the Warsaw orphanage of the Sisters of the Family of Mary, or Roman Catholic convents such as the Little Sister Servants of the Blessed Virgin Mary Conceived Immaculate at Turkowice and Chotomów. Sister Matylda Getter rescued between 250-550 Jewish children in different education and care facilities for children in Anin , Białołęka , Chotomów , Międzylesie , Płudy , Sejny , Vilnius
Vilnius
and others. Getter's convent was located at the entrance to the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto
Ghetto
. When the Nazis commenced the clearing of the Ghetto
Ghetto
in 1941, Getter took in many orphans and dispersed them among Family of Mary homes. As the Nazis began sending orphans to the gas chambers, Getter issued fake baptismal certificates, providing the children with false identities. The sisters lived in daily fear of the Germans. Michael Phayer credits Getter and the Family of Mary with rescuing more than 750 Jews.

Historians have determined that in some villages, Jewish families survived the Holocaust
Holocaust
by living under assumed identities as Christians — with the knowledge of their neighbors, who did not betray their identities. This has been confirmed in the villages of Bielsko ( Upper Silesia ), in Dziurków near Radom
Radom
, in Olsztyn Village near Częstochowa , in Korzeniówka near Grójec , in Łaskarzew , Sobolew , and Wilga triangle, and in several villages near Łowicz .

Some officials in the senior Polish priesthood however, remained hostile toward the Jews – a theological attitude well-known from before the war. After the war, some convents were unwilling to return children to Jewish institutions that asked for them and refused to disclose the adoptive parents' identities, forcing government agencies and courts to intervene.

JEWS AND THE POLISH GOVERNMENT

What the Allies knew : the 1942 report by the Polish government-in-exile addressed to the wartime allies of the United Nations

Lack of international effort to aid Jews resulted in political uproar on the part of the Polish government in exile residing in Great Britain . The government often publicly expressed outrage at German mass murders of Jews. In 1942, Directorate of Civil Resistance , part of the Polish Underground State , issued a following declaration based on reports by Polish underground.

For nearly a year now, in addition to the tragedy of the Polish people, which is being slaughtered by the enemy, our country has been the scene of a terrible, planned massacre of the Jews. This mass murder has no parallel in the annals of mankind; compared to it, the most infamous atrocities known to history pale into insignificance. Unable to act against this situation, we, in the name of the entire Polish people, protest the crime being perpetrated against the Jews; all political and public organizations join in this protest.

Polish government was the first to inform the Western Allies about the Holocaust, although early reports were often met with disbelief even by Jewish leaders themselves; then, for much longer, by Western powers. Holocaust
Holocaust
resistor Witold Pilecki

Witold Pilecki was member of Polish Armia Krajowa resistance, and the only person who volunteered to be imprisoned in Auschwitz . As agent of underground intelligence he begun sending numerous reports about camp and genocide to Polish resistance headquarters in Warsaw
Warsaw
through the resistance network he organized in Auschwitz. In March 1941, Pilecki\'s reports were being forwarded via the Polish resistance to the British government in London
London
but the British authorities refused AK reports on atrocities as being gross exaggerations and propaganda of the Polish government.

Similarly, Jan Karski
Jan Karski
, who had been serving as a courier between the Polish underground and the Polish government in exile, was smuggled into the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto
Ghetto
and reported to the Polish, British and American governments on the situation of Jews in Poland. In 1942 Karski reported to the Polish, British and US governments on the situation in Poland, especially the destruction of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto and the Holocaust
Holocaust
of the Jews. He met with Polish politicians in exile including the prime minister, as well as members of political parties such as the Polish Socialist Party , National Party , Labor Party , People\'s Party , Jewish Bund and Poalei Zion
Poalei Zion
. He also spoke to Anthony Eden
Anthony Eden
, the British foreign secretary, and included a detailed statement on what he had seen in Warsaw
Warsaw
and Bełżec. In 1943 in London
London
he met the then much known journalist Arthur Koestler . He then traveled to the United States and reported to President Franklin D. Roosevelt .

In July 1943, Jan Karski
Jan Karski
again personally reported to Roosevelt about the plight of Polish Jews, but the president "interrupted and asked the Polish emissary about the situation of... horses" in Poland. He also met with many other government and civic leaders in the United States, including Felix Frankfurter , Cordell Hull , William Joseph Donovan , and Stephen Wise . Karski also presented his report to media, bishops of various denominations (including Cardinal Samuel Stritch ), members of the Hollywood
Hollywood
film industry and artists, but without success. Many of those he spoke to did not believe him and again supposed that his testimony was much exaggerated or was propaganda from the Polish government in exile .

The supreme political body of the underground government within Poland was the Delegatura . There were no Jewish representatives in it. Delegatura financed and sponsored _ Żegota _, the organization for help to the Polish Jews – run jointly by Jews and non-Jews. Żegota was granted nearly 29 million zlotys (over $5 million; or, 13.56 times as much in today's funds) by Delegatura since 1942 for the relief payments to thousands of extended Jewish families in Poland. The government in exile also provided special assistance – funds, arms and other supplies – to Jewish resistance organizations (like ŻOB and ŻZW ), particularly from 1942 onwards. The interim government transmitted messages from Jewish underground to the West and gave support to their requests for retaliation on German targets if the atrocities are not stopped – a request that was dismissed by the Allied governments. The Polish government also tried, without much success, to increase the chances of Polish refugees finding a safe haven in neutral countries and to prevent deportations of escaping Jews back to Nazi-occupied Poland. Diplomat Henryk Sławik , the Polish Wallenberg , awarded the title of Righteous posthumously in 1977

Polish Delegate of the Government in Exile residing in Hungary, diplomat Henryk Sławik known as the Polish Wallenberg , helped rescue over 30,000 refugees including 5,000 Polish Jews in Budapest
Budapest
, by giving them false Polish passports as Christians. He founded an orphanage for Jewish children officially named _School for Children of Polish Officers_ in Vác .

With two members on the National Council, Polish Jews were sufficiently represented in the government in exile. Also, in 1943 a Jewish affairs section of the Underground State was set up by the Government Delegation for Poland ; it was headed by Witold Bieńkowski and Władysław Bartoszewski . Its purpose was to organize efforts concerning the Polish Jewish population, to coordinate with _Zegota_, and to prepare documentation about the fate of the Jews for the government in London. Regrettably, the great number of Polish Jews had been killed already even before the Government-in-exile fully realized the totality of the Final Solution. According to David Engel and Dariusz Stola, the government-in-exile concerned itself with the fate of Polish people in general, the re-recreation of the independent Polish state, and with establishing itself as an equal partner amongst the Allied forces. On top of its relative weakness, the government in exile was subject to the scrutiny of the West, in particular, American and British Jews reluctant to criticize their own governments for inaction in regard to saving their fellow Jews.

The Polish government and its underground representatives at home issued declarations that people acting against the Jews (blackmailers and others) would be punished by death. General Władysław Sikorski , the Prime Minister and Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces, signed a following decree and called upon the Polish population to extend aid to the persecuted Jews:

“ Any Pole who collaborates in their acts of murder, whether by extortion, informing on Jews, or by exploiting their terrible plight or participating in acts of robbery, is committing a most serious offense against the laws of the Polish Republic. ”

However, according to Michael C. Steinlauf , only on rare occasions did appeals to Poles to help Jews accompany these statements before the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto uprising in 1943. Steinlauf points out that in one speech made in London
London
Sikorski was promising equal rights for Jews after the war, but the promise was omitted from the printed Polish version of the speech. According to David Engel , the loyalty of Polish Jews to Poland and Polish interests was held in doubt by some members of the exiled government, leading to political tensions. Overall, as Stola notes, Polish government was just as unprepared to deal with the Holocaust
Holocaust
as were the other Allied governments, and that the government's hesitancy in appeals to the general population to aid the Jews diminished only after reports of the Holocaust
Holocaust
became more wide spread.

Szmul Zygielbojm , a member of the National Council of the Polish government in exile, committed suicide in May 1943, in London, in protest against the indifference of the Allied governments toward the destruction of the Jewish people, and the failure of the Polish government to rouse public opinion commensurate with the scale of the tragedy befalling Polish Jews.

Poland, with its unique underground state, was the only country in occupied Europe to have an extensive, underground justice system. These clandestine courts operated with attention to due process (obviously limited by circumstances) and as a result it could take months to get a death sentence passed, much as in regular judicial systems. However, Prekerowa notes that the death sentences only began to be issued in September 1943, which meant that blackmailers were able to operate undeterred for 3 years from the time of the sealing of the Jewish ghettos in Autumn 1940. Overall, it took the Polish underground until late 1942 to legislate and organize non-military courts which were authorized to pass death sentences for civilian crimes, such as non-treasonous collaboration, extortion and blackmail. According to Joseph Kermish from Israel, among the thousands of collaborators sentenced to death by the Special Courts and executed by the Polish resistance fighters who risked death carrying out these verdicts, few were explicitly blackmailers or informers who had persecuted Jews. This, according to Kermish, led to increasing boldness of some of the blackmailers in their criminal activities. Marek Jan Chodakiewicz writes that a number of Polish Jews were executed for denouncing other Jews. He notes that since Nazi
Nazi
informers often denounced members of the underground as well as Jews in hiding, the charge of collaboration was a general one and sentences passed were for cumulative crimes.

The Home Army units under the command of officers from left-wing Sanacja , the PPS as well as the centrist Democratic Party welcomed Jewish fighters to serve with Poles without problems stemming from their ethnic identity. As noted by Joshua D. Zimmerman , many negative stereotypes about the Home Army among the Jews came from reading postwar literature on the subject, and not from personal experience. In spite of Polish Jewish representation in the London-based government in exile, some rightist units of the Armia Krajowa – as noted by Joanna B. Michlic – exhibited ethno-nationalism that excluded Jews. Similarly, some members of the Delegate's Bureau saw Jews and ethnic Poles as separate entities. Historian Israel Gutman has noted that AK leader Stefan Rowecki advocated the abandonment of the long-range considerations of the underground and the launch of an all-out uprising should the Germans undertake a campaign of extermination against ethnic Poles, but that no such plan existed while the extermination of Jewish Polish citizens was under way. On the other hand, not only the pre-war Polish government armed and trained Jewish paramilitary groups such as Lehi but also – while in exile – accepted thousands of Polish Jewish fighters into Anders Army including leaders such as Menachem Begin . The policy of support continued throughout the war with the Jewish Combat Organization and the Jewish Military Union forming an integral part of the Polish resistance.

PARTIAL LIST OF COMMUNITIES

Below is the partial list of Polish communities engaged in collective rescuing of Jews during the Holocaust, as described in literature mentioned. Spelling of some of the names of settlements and counties has been revised in accordance with the currently available geodata. Occasionally, the below links lead to disambiguation pages listing villages known by the same name in the same geographical area of prewar and postwar Poland.

FOR LIST OF SETTLEMENTS AND THEIR LOCALES IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER, PLEASE USE TABLE-SORT BUTTONS.

SETTLEMENT AREA SETTLEMENT AREA SETTLEMENT AREA

Białka Parczew Sterdyń Sokołów Bolimów Skierniewice

Główne Sierpc Ozorków Sierpc Borkowo Sierpc

Dąbrowica Ulanów Głupianka Otwock
Otwock
Osiny Łuków

Wola Przybysławska Lublin Jabłoń Parczew Kańczuga Przeworsk

Czajków Staszów Zdziebórz Wyszków Parczew Ostrów

Rudka Lublin Jedlanka Łuków Makoszka Dębowa Kłoda

Tyśmienica Gmina Parczew Bójki Ostrów Niedźwiada Opole

Mętów Głusk Gołąbki Lublin Króle Duże Ostrów

Dąbrowa Rzeczycka Stalowa Wola Kępa Rzeczycka Stalowa Wola Wola Rzeczycka Stalowa Wola

Rzeczyca Okrągła Stalowa Wola Głuchów Łańcut Mulawicze Bielsk

Drzewica Opoczno Ceranów Sokołów Poniatowa Lublin

Bielsko Upper Silesia Dziurków Radom
Radom
Olsztyn Village Częstochowa

Korzeniówka Grójec Łaskarzew Garwolin Sobolew Garwolin

Wilga Łowicz Siedlce Masovia Wielki Las Pisz

Lendowo Brańsk Teresin Chełm Powiłańce Lida

Kajetanówka Lublin Ożarów Kielce
Kielce
Ignaców Lublin

Szymanów Masovia Grodzisko Leżajsk Białka Parczew

Sterdyń Sokołów Okopy Kisorycze Rokitno Wołyń

Tarnopol Tarnopol V. Berecz † Wołyń Huta Werchobuska † Złoczów

Zahorze † Łachwa Dubeczno Lublin Kozaki Lublin

Stara Kubra Radziłów Bełżec Tomaszów Sobibór Włodawa

Treblinka Małkinia Serock
Serock
Warsaw
Warsaw
Sikórz Płock

Urzędów Lublin Milanówek Warsaw
Warsaw
Mielec Rzeszów

Goszcza Miechów Gawłuszowice Mielec Chrząstów Mielec

Majdan Nepryski Bełżec Głowaczowa Dębica Grodzisk Warsaw
Warsaw

Wołomin Warsaw
Warsaw
Zabłudów Białystok
Białystok
Nowosady Brańsk

Baranki
Baranki
Białystok
Białystok
Araje Białystok
Białystok
Zawyki Białystok
Białystok

Niedźwiada Opole Lubelskie Runów Grójec Gorzyce Dąbrowa

Przydonica Nowy Sącz
Nowy Sącz
Ubiad Nowy Sącz
Nowy Sącz
Klimkówka Nowy Sącz
Nowy Sącz

Jelna Gródek Słowikowa Nowy Sącz
Nowy Sącz
Librantowa Chełmiec

Piszczac Biała Podlaska Kolonia Dworska Piszczac Rożki Krasnystaw

Zamość Lublin Radzymin Wołomin Otwock
Otwock
Warsaw
Warsaw

Miedzeszyn Warsaw
Warsaw
Praga Warsaw
Warsaw
Żoliborz Warsaw
Warsaw

Obórki Brodnica Woronówka † Ludwipol Kościejów Bełżec

Kulików Bełżec Bar Gródek Zawołocze † Ludwipol

Bereźne Kostopol Korzec Wołyń Stara Huta Szumsk

Kosów Kołomyja Międzyrzec Równe Niżniów Czortków

Ułaszkowce Czortków Hanaczów Lwów Ostra Mogiła † Skałat

Konińsk † Sarny Borowskie Budki Kisorycze Świnarzyn Dominopol

Bereźne Kostopol Janówka Tarnopol Wólka Kotowska Łuck

Huta Stepańska Wołyń Przebraże Wołyń Zdołbunów Bereźne

Huta Brodzka † Lwów Adamy Lwów Netreba † Wołyń

Karaczun † Kostopol Złoczów Rakowiec Pańska Dolina Wołyń

Kurdybań Wołyń Bortnica † Wołyń Zameczek Wilno
Wilno

Żeniówka Wołyń Wsielub Nowogródek Mieżańce Raduń

Dźwinogród Buczacz Huta Stara Buczacz Hołosko Wielkie Lwów

Berecz † Wołyń Matejkany Wilno
Wilno
Białozoryszki Wilno
Wilno

Potok Górny Tomaszów Bybło Rohatyn county Jazłowiec Buczacz

Dołha Tarnopol Słonim Nowogródek Hucisko Oleskie Tarnopol

Anin Białołęka Chotomów Międzylesie Płudy Sejny

Muranów Warsaw
Warsaw
Vilnius
Vilnius
Vilnius
Vilnius
district Turkowice Żyrardów

Kolonia Wileńska Nieśwież Tyniec Staniątki Kraków Nowogródek

SETTLEMENT AREA SETTLEMENT AREA SETTLEMENT AREA

† _A cross marks the Polish villages razed in various pacification operations during World War II, and no longer existing in that form. For more information see: Pacifications of villages in German-occupied Poland or the aftermath of the Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia and the Zamość Uprising among others._

SEE ALSO

* List of individuals and groups assisting Jews during the Holocaust

* Rescue of Jews by Catholics during the Holocaust
Holocaust
* Irena\'s Vow , stage play recounting the story of Irena Gut * Kastner\'s Train of 1,684 Jews freed from Nazi-controlled Hungary * Schindler\'s List biographical drama film about Oskar Schindler

NOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Yad Vashem, The Holocaust
Holocaust
Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, Righteous Among the Nations - per Country page 13. ISBN 0813116929 . * ^ "About the Righteous: Statistics". _The Righteous Among The Nations_. Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
The Holocaust
Holocaust
Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority. 1 January 2017. Retrieved 7 March 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Tadeusz Piotrowski (1997). "Assistance to Jews". _Poland’s Holocaust_. McFarland & Company. p. 119. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3 . * ^ "Zapluty karzeł reakcji, czyli lekcja nienawiści" at the Wayback Machine (archived February 22, 2012) (The spittly dwarf of the Reaction, or the lesson in hate). _Leksykon PRL _, Telewizja Polska SA ( Internet Archive ). Retrieved August 30, 2013. * ^ London
London
Nakl. Stowarzyszenia Prawników Polskich w Zjednoczonym Królestwie , _Polska w liczbach. Poland in numbers_. Zebrali i opracowali Jan Jankowski i Antoni Serafinski. Przedmowa zaopatrzyl Stanislaw Szurlej. * ^ From Ringelblum’s Diary: "As the Ghetto
Ghetto
is Sealed Off, Jews and Poles Remain in Contact" June, 1942 * ^ United States Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Museum, "POLES: VICTIMS OF THE NAZI ERA" Washington D.C. * ^ Janusz Gumkowski Hitler\'s Plans for Eastern Europe_. _Poland under Nazi
Nazi
Occupation_. Warsaw
Warsaw
: Polonia Publishing House. pp. 7–33, 164–178 – via Internet Archive. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Emanuel Ringelblum, Joseph Kermish, Shmuel Krakowski, _Polish-Jewish relations during the Second World War._ Page 226. Quote from chapter "The Idealists": "Informing and denunciation flourish throughout the country, thanks largely to the Volksdeutsche. Arrests and round-ups at every step and constant searches..." * ^ Matthew J. Gibney, Randall Hansen, Immigration and Asylum, page 204 * ^ _A_ _B_ Paul, Mark (September 2015). "Patterns of Cooperation, Collaboration and Betrayal: Jews, Germans and Poles in Occupied Poland during World War II" (PDF). _Glaukopis_. Foreign language studies. 159/344 in PDF. Retrieved 25 February 2016. Testimony of Anzel Daches, Majer Gdański, Laja Goldman, Mojżesz Klajman, Chana Kohn, Jakub Libman, and Izrael Szerman, dated October 13, 1947; Jewish Historical Institute Archive, record group 301, number 2932. * ^ Wacław Zajączkowski (June 1988). _Christian Martyrs of Charity_ (PDF). S.M. Kolbe. pp. 152-178 (1-14 of 25 in current document). ISBN 0945281005 . In Grzegorzówka, and in Hadle Szklarskie (Przeworsk county, Rzeszów voivodeship), military police extracted from Jewish women the names of Christian Poles helping them and other Jews – 11 Polish men were murdered. In Korniaktów forest (Łańcut county, Rzeszów voivodeship) a Jewish woman caught in a bunker revealed the whereabouts of the Catholic family who fed her – the whole Polish family were murdered. In Jeziorko ( Łowicz county, Warsaw voivodeship), a Jewish man betrayed all Polish rescuers known to him – 13 Catholics were murdered by the German military police. In Lipowiec Duży (Biłgoraj county, Lublin voivodeship), a captured Jew led the Germans to his saviors – 5 Catholics were murdered including a 6-year-old child and their farm was burned down. There were other similar cases. * ^ Christopher R. Browning, Jurgen Matthaus, _The Origins of the Final Solution_, page 262 Publisher University of Nebraska Press, 2007. ISBN 0-8032-5979-4 * ^ Paweł Machcewicz , "Płomienie nienawiści", Polityka
Polityka
43 (2373), October 26, 2002, p. 71-73 _The Findings_ * ^ Michael C. Steinlauf. _Bondage to the Dead_. Syracuse University Press, p. 30. * ^ _Out of the inferno: Poles remember ... - Richard C. Lukas - Google Books_. Retrieved 2011-10-07 – via Google Books . * ^ Alfred J. Rieber. "Civil Wars in the Soviet Union" (PDF). Project Muse: 145–147. * ^ Symposium Presentations (September 2005). "The Holocaust
Holocaust
and Colonialism in Ukraine: A Case Study" (PDF). _The Holocaust
Holocaust
in the Soviet Union_. The Center for Advanced Holocaust
Holocaust
Studies of the United States Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Museum. pp. 15, 18–19, 20 in current document of 1/154. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 August 2012 – via direct download 1.63 MB. * ^ I.K. Patrylyak (2004). "Військова діяльність ОУН(Б) у 1940—1942 роках" (PDF). Kiev: Shevchenko University; Institute of History of Ukraine. 522–524 (4–6/45 in PDF). * ^ Іван Качановський (30 March 2013). "Сучасна політика пам\'яті на Волині щодо ОУН(б) та нацистських масових вбивств" . Україна модерна. * ^ Bubnys, Arūnas (2004). "The Holocaust
Holocaust
in Lithuania: An Outline of the Major Stages and Results". _The Vanished World of Lithuanian Jews_. Rodopi. pp. 209–210. ISBN 90-420-0850-4 . * ^ Art Golab, Chicago\'s \'Schindler\' who saved 8,000 Jews at the Wayback Machine (archived October 30, 2007) Chicago Sun-Times, Dec 20, 2006. * ^ (Polish) Andrzej Pityñski, Stalowa Wola Museum, Short biography of Eugeniusz Łazowski * ^ "Museum of National Remembrance at "Under the Eagle Pharmacy"". Krakow-info.com. Retrieved 2013-04-30. * ^ Halina Szymanska Ogrodzinska, "Her Story". Recollections * ^ Dr. Maria Ciesielska & Klara Jackl (ed.) (August 2014). "Dr. Tadeusz Kosibowicz. Sprawiedliwy wśród Narodów Świata - tytuł przyznany: 20 marca 2006". _Historia pomocy_. POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews . CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Krakowski, Shmuel. "Difficulties in Rescue Attempts in Occupied Poland" (PDF). Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Archives. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Righteous Among the Nations by country". Jewish Virtual Library. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ Gunnar S. Paulsson, “The Rescue of Jews by Non-Jews in Nazi-Occupied Poland,” published in _The Journal of Holocaust
Holocaust
Education_, volume 7, nos. 1 (AN 6025705) * ^ Michael Phayer. _The Catholic Church and the Holocaust, 1930-1965_ Indiana University Press, 2000. Pages 113, 250. * ^ Marcin Urynowicz, "Organized and individual Polish aid for the Jewish population exterminated by the German invader during the Second World War" as cited by Institute of National Remembrance. The Life for a Life Project: Remembrance of Poles who gave their lives to save Jews * ^ Teresa Prekerowa. "The Just and the Passive" in Antony Polonsky, editor, _My Brother's Keeper?_: Recent Polish Debates on the Holocaust. Routledge, 1989. Pages 72-74 * ^ Joshua D. Zimmerman. _Contested Memories: Poles and Jews During the Holocaust
Holocaust
and Its Aftermath_ Rutgers University Press, 2003. * ^ Jerzy Turowicz. "Polish reasons and Jewish reasons" in: Antony Polansky, ed. _My Brother's Keeper?_: Recent Polish Debates on the Holocaust. Routledge, 1989. * ^ Urząd Miasta Nowego Sącza (2016). "Sądeczanie w telewizji: Sprawiedliwy Artur Król". Nowy Sącz: Oficjalna strona miasta. Komunikaty Biura Prasowego. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Tadeusz Piotrowski (1998). _Poland\'s Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947_. McFarland. p. 22. ISBN 0786403713 . * ^ Knade, Tadeusz (12 October 2002). "Człowiek musiał być silny" . _Rzeczpospolita _. Retrieved 19 June 2015. * ^ John T. Pawlikowski. "Polish Catholics and the Jews during the Holocaust" in: Joshua D. Zimmerman, _Contested Memories: Poles and Jews During the Holocaust
Holocaust
and Its Aftermath_, Rutgers University Press, 2003. Page 110 * ^ Martin Gilbert. _The Righteous: The Unsung Heroes of the Holocaust_ Macmillan, 2003. pp 102-103. * ^ Ringelblum, "Polish-Jewish Relations", pg. 226. * ^ Martin Gilbert. The Righteous: The Unsung Heroes of the Holocaust. Macmillan, 2003. p146. * ^ Richard C. Lukas (1994). _Did the Children Cry? Hitler's War Against Jewish and Polish Children, 1939-1945_. Hippocrene. pp. 180–189. ISBN 0-7818-0242-3 . * ^ Carla Tonini, _The Polish underground press and the issue of collaboration with the Nazi
Nazi
occupiers, 1939-1944_, European Review of History: Revue Europeenne d'Histoire, Volume 15, Issue 2 April 2008 , pages 193 - 205 * ^ Klaus-Peter Friedrich. _Collaboration in a "Land without a Quisling": Patterns of Cooperation with the Nazi
Nazi
German Occupation Regime in Poland during World War II._ Slavic Review, Vol. 64, No. 4, (Winter, 2005), pp. 711-746. JSTOR * ^ John Connelly, _Why the Poles Collaborated so Little: And Why That Is No Reason for Nationalist Hubris_, Slavic Review, Vol. 64, No. 4 (Winter, 2005), pp. 771-781, JSTOR * ^ _A_ _B_ David S. Wyman, Charles H. Rosenzveig, _The world reacts to the Holocaust_ Published by JHU Press; pages 81-101, and 106. * ^ Wiktoria Śliwowska, Jakub Gutenbaum, _The Last Eyewitnesses_, page 187-188 Northwestern Univ Press * ^ " Nazi
Nazi
German Camps on Polish Soil During World War II". Msz.gov.pl. 2006-06-14. Retrieved 2011-10-07. * ^ " Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Holocaust
Holocaust
documents part 2, #157". .yadvashem.org. 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2013-04-30. * ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski (1998). _Poland\'s Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces_. McFarland. p. 66. ISBN 0786403713 . Retrieved 21 July 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Unveiling the Secret City H-Net Review: John Radzilowski * ^ Robert Szuchta. Review of Jan Grabowski, "Ja tego Żyda znam! Szantażowanie Żydów w Warszawie, 1939-1943". Zydzi w Polsce * ^ Robert Szuchta "Smierc dla szmalcownikow" http://www.rp.pl/artykul/194439.html * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Joseph Kermish. The Activities of the Council for Aid to Jews (“Żegota”) In Occupied Poland. Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Shoah Resource Center. Pp 14-16. * ^ (in English) "Demographic Yearbooks of Poland 1939-1979, 1980-1994". _www.stat.gov.pl_. Central Statistical Office of Poland. Retrieved 2008-08-29. * ^ _A_ _B_ Michael C. Steinlauf. Bondage to the Dead. Syracuse University Press, pp 41-42. * ^ David Cesarani, Sarah Kavanaugh. _Holocaust: Critical Concepts in Historical Studies_ Routledge, 2004, pages 41ff. * ^ Israel Gutman. The Jews of Warsaw, 1939-1943. Indiana University Press, 1982. Pages 27ff. * ^ Antony Polonsky. "Beyond Condemnation, Apologetics and Apologies: On the Complexity of Polish Behavior Towards the Jews During the Second World War." In: Jonathan Frankel, ed. Studies in Contemporary Jewry 13. (1997):190-224. * ^ Jan T. Gross. A Tangled Web: Confronting Stereotypes Concerning Relations between Poles, Germans, Jews, and Communists. In: István Deák, Jan Tomasz Gross, Tony Judt. The Politics of Retribution in Europe: World War II and Its Aftermath. Princeton University Press, 2000. P. 84ff * ^ _A_ _B_ Joshua D. Zimmerman. Contested Memories: Poles and Jews During the Holocaust
Holocaust
and Its Aftermath. Rutgers University Press, 2003. * ^ Joshua D. Zimmerman. Review of Aliana Cala, _The Image of the Jew in Polish Folk Culture._ In: Jonathan Frankel, ed. Jews and Gender: The Challenge to Hierarchy. Oxford University Press US, 2000. * ^ " Holocaust
Holocaust
survivor Dr. Nechama Tec to address SRU community at remembrance". Sru.edu. Retrieved 2013-04-30. * ^ Nechama Tec. When Light Pierced the Darkness: Christian Rescue of Jews in Nazi-Occupied Poland. Oxford University Press US, 1987. * ^ Nechama Tec. When Light Pierced the Darkness: Christian Rescue of Jews in Nazi-Occupied Poland. Oxford University Press US, 1987. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ John T. Pawlikowski, _Polish Catholics and the Jews during the Holocaust_, in, Google Print, p. 113 in Joshua D. Zimmerman, _Contested Memories: Poles and Jews During the Holocaust and Its Aftermath_, Rutgers University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8135-3158-6

* ^ Mordecai Paldiel. _The Path of the Righteous: Gentile Rescuers of Jews During the Holocaust._ KTAV Publishing House, Inc., 1993. * ^ Joseph Kermish. The Activities of the Council for Aid to Jews (“Żegota”) In Occupied Poland. Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Shoah Resource Center. Pages 17, 30 and 32. * ^ _A_ _B_ Robert D. Cherry , Annamaria Orla-Bukowska, _Rethinking Poles and Jews_, Rowman Richard C. Lukas (1986), _The Forgotten Holocaust: The Poles Under German Occupation, 1939-1944._ University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-1566-3 . * ^ The Righteous and their world. Markowa through the lens of Józef Ulma, by Mateusz Szpytma, Institute of National Remembrance * ^ Marek Jan Chodakiewicz , The Last Rising in the Eastern Borderlands: The Ejszyszki Epilogue in its Historical Context * ^ Robert D. Cherry , Annamaria Orla-Bukowska, _Rethinking Poles and Jews: Troubled Past, Brighter Future_, Rowman quoted in _Wartime Rescue_, p.261, ibidem. * ^ _A_ _B_ (in Polish) Władyslaw Siemaszko and Ewa Siemaszko, _Ludobójstwo dokonane przez nacjonalistów ukraińskich na ludności polskiej Wołynia, 1939–1945_, Warsaw: Von Borowiecky, 2000, vol. 1, p.363. * ^ Leszek M. Włodek, historian (2002). "Zagłada Żydów przemyskich (The destruction of Przemyśl Jews)" (PDF 4,096 bytes). _Bulletin No 28 – January 2002_ (in Polish). Przemyśl: _Katolickie Stowarzyszenie „Civitas Christiana”_. p. 2. Retrieved 14 January 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Moroz and Datko, _Męczennicy za wiarę 1939–1945_, pp.385–86 and 390–91. Stanisław Łukomski, “Wspomnienia,” in _Rozporządzenia urzędowe Łomżyńskiej Kurii Diecezjalnej_, no. 5–7 (May–July) 1974: p.62; Witold Jemielity, “Martyrologium księży diecezji łomżyńskiej 1939–1945,” in _Rozporządzenia urzędowe Łomżyńskiej Kurii Diecezjalnej_, no. 8–9 (August–September) 1974: p.55; Jan Żaryn, “Przez pomyłkę: Ziemia łomżyńska w latach 1939–1945.” Conversation with Rev. Kazimierz Łupiński from Szumowo parish, _Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej_, no. 8–9 (September–October 2002): pp.112–17. In Mark Paul, _Wartime Rescue of Jews_. Page 252. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Jan Żaryn, The Institute of National Remembrance , The „Life for a life” project - Poles who gave their lives to save Jews * ^ _A_ _B_ Kopel Kolpanitzky, _Sentenced To Life: The Story of a Survivor of the Lahwah Ghetto_, London
London
and Portland, Oregon : Vallentine Mitchell, 2007, pp.89–96. * ^ Zajączkowski, _Martyrs of Charity_, Part One, pp.154–55; Tsvi Weigler, “Two Polish Villages Razed for Extending Help
Help
to Jews and Partisans,” Yad Washem Bulletin, no. 1 (April 1957): pp.19–20; Ainsztein, Jewish Resistance in Nazi-Occupied Eastern Europe, pp.450–53; Na Rubieży (Wrocław), no. 10 (1994): pp.10–11 (Huta Werchodudzka); Na Rubieży, no. 12 (1995): pp.7–20 (Huta Pieniacka); Na Rubieży, no. 54 (2001): pp.18–29. * ^ _A_ _B_ Ruth Sztejnman Halperin, “The Last Days of Shumsk,” in H. Rabin, ed., _Szumsk: Memorial Book of the Martyrs of Szumsk_ English translation from Shumsk: Sefer zikaron le-kedoshei Shumsk (Tel Aviv: Former Residents of Szumsk in Israel, 1968), pp.29ff. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Władysław Bartoszewski , Zofia Lewinówna (1969), _Ten jest z ojczyzny mojej_, Kraków : Wydawnictwo Znak, pp.533–34. * ^ _A_ _B_ (in Polish) Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, Wystawa „Sprawiedliwi wśród Narodów Świata”– 15 czerwca 2004 r., Rzeszów. „Polacy pomagali Żydom podczas wojny, choć groziła za to kara śmierci – o tym wie większość z nas.” (_Exhibition "Righteous among the Nations." Rzeszów, June 15, 2004. Subtitled: "The Poles were helping Jews during the war - most of us already know that."_) Last actualization November 8, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ (in Polish) Jolanta Chodorska, ed., "Godni synowie naszej Ojczyzny: Świadectwa," Warsaw
Warsaw
, Wydawnictwo Sióstr Loretanek, 2002, Part Two, pp.161–62. ISBN 83-7257-103-1 * ^ _A_ _B_ Kalmen Wawryk, _To Sobibor and Back: An Eyewitness Account_ (Montreal: The Concordia University Chair in Canadian Jewish Studies, and The Montreal
Montreal
Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies, 1999), pp.66–68, 71. * ^ Ryszard Walczak (1997). _Those Who Helped: Polish Rescuers of Jews During the Holocaust_. Warsaw: GKBZpNP–IPN. p. 51. ISBN 9788376290430 . Retrieved 17 April 2014. * ^ Szymon Datner (1968). _Las sprawiedliwych. Karta z dziejów ratownictwa Żydów w okupowanej Polsce_. Warsaw: Książka i Wiedza. p. 99. * ^ _A_ _B_ Peggy Curran, "Decent people: Polish couple honored for saving Jews from Nazis," Montreal Gazette , December 10, 1994; Janice Arnold, "Polish widow made Righteous Gentile," The Canadian Jewish News ( Montreal
Montreal
edition), January 26, 1995; Irene Tomaszewski and Tecia Werbowski, _ Żegota : The Council for Aid to Jews in Occupied Poland, 1942–1945_, Montreal
Montreal
: Price-Patterson, 1999, pp.131–32. * ^ (in Polish) "Odznaczenia dla Sprawiedliwych," Magazyn Internetowy Forum 26,09,2007. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ (in Polish) Dariusz Libionka , "Polska ludność chrześcijańska wobec eksterminacji Żydów—dystrykt lubelski," in Dariusz Libionka, _Akcja Reinhardt: Zagłada Żydów w Generalnym Gubernatorstwie_ (Warsaw: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej –Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu, 2004), p.325. * ^ _A_ _B_ (in Polish) Krystian Brodacki, "Musimy ich uszanować!" Tygodnik Solidarność, December 17, 2004. * ^ _A_ _B_ Alina Cała , _The Image of the Jew in Polish Folk Culture_, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Magnes Press, Hebrew University of Jerusalem 1995, pp.209–10. * ^ _A_ _B_ Shiye Goldberg (Szie Czechever), _The Undefeated_ Tel Aviv, H. Leivick Publishing House, 1985, pp.166–67. * ^ _A_ _B_ “Marian Małowist on History and Historians,” in _Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry_, vol. 13, 2000, p.338. * ^ _A_ _B_ Gabriel Singer, "As Beasts in the Woods," in _Elhanan Ehrlich_, ed., Sefer Staszow, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
: Organization of Staszowites in Israel with the Assistance of the Staszowite Organizations in the Diaspora, 1962, p. xviii (English section). * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Władysław Bartoszewski and Zofia Lewin, eds., _Righteous Among Nations: How Poles Helped the Jews, 1939–1945_, ibidem, p.361.; Gedaliah Shaiak, ed., _Lowicz, A Town in Mazovia: Memorial Book_, Tel Aviv: Lowitcher Landsmanshaften in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia, 1966, pp.xvi–xvii.; Wiktoria Śliwowska, ed., _The Last Eyewitnesses: Children of the Holocaust
Holocaust
Speak_, Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1998, pp.120–23.; Małgorzata Niezabitowska, _Remnants: The Last Jews of Poland_, New York: Friendly Press, 1986, pp.118–124. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Ellen Land-Weber, _To Save a Life: Stories of Holocaust
Holocaust
Rescue_ (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press , 2000), pp.204–206, 246. * ^ Nechama Tec, _Resilience and Courage: Women, Men, and the Holocaust_. Ibid., pp.224–27, p.29. * ^ Natan Gross, _Who Are You, Mr Grymek?_, London
London
and Portland, Oregon : Vallentine Mitchell, 2001, pp.248–49. ISBN 0-85303-411-7 * ^ Komunikat dot. postanowienia o umorzeniu śledztwa w sprawie zabójstwa obywateli polskich narodowości żydowskiej w Jedwabnem w dniu 10 lipca 1941 r. (A communique regarding the decision to stop investigation of the murder of Polish citizens of Jewish nationality in Jedwabne on 10 July 1941) from 30 June 2003 * ^ Bogdan Musial (Apr 11, 2009). "The Pogrom in Jedwabne: Critical Remarks about Jan T. Gross\' _Neighbors_". _The Neighbors Respond: The Controversy over the Jedwabne Massacre in Poland_. Antony Polonsky, Joanna B. Michlic. Princeton University Press. pp. 323–324. Retrieved 1 August 2013. * ^ Dorota Glowacka, Joanna Zylinska, _Imaginary Neighbors_. University of Nebraska Press, 2007, p.7. ISBN 0803205996 . * ^ Insight Into Tragedy at the Wayback Machine (archived March 5, 2012). _The Warsaw
Warsaw
Voice_, 17 July 2003 (Internet Archive). Retrieved August 1, 2013. * ^ Joanna Michlic, _The Polish Debate about the Jedwabne Massacre_ Hebrew University of Jerusalem’s Current Trend in Antisemitism Series. * ^ Sławomir Kapralski. The Jedwabne Village Green? The Memory and Counter-Memory of the Crime. _History & Memory_ . Vol 18, No 1, Spring/Summer 2006, pp. 179-194. "...a genuine memory of a traumatic event is possible only in a de-centered memory space, in which no standpoints are privileged a priori." * ^ Ruth Franklin. Epilogue. _The New Republic_, October 2nd, 2006. * ^ "Ghetto". .yadvashem.org. 1940-04-30. Retrieved 2016-08-16. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ http://www1.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/microsoft%20word%20-%205108.pdf * ^ _A_ _B_ Joseph Kermish, The Activities of the Council for Aid to Jews (“Żegota”) In Occupied Poland. _Shoah Resource Center_, The International School for Holocaust
Holocaust
Studies. PDF direct download, 139 KB. Retrieved October 2, 2012. * ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski (1997). "Assistance to Jews". _Poland’s Holocaust_. McFarland & Company. p. 112. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Andrzej Sławiński, _Those who helped Polish Jews during WWII_. Translated from Polish by Antoni Bohdanowicz. Article on the pages of the London
London
Branch of the Polish Home Army Ex-Servicemen Association. Last accessed on March 14, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ Tadeusz Piotrowski (1997). "Assistance to Jews". _Poland\'s Holocaust_. McFarland & Company. p. 118. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3 . * ^ "Irena Sendler". Auschwitz.dk. Retrieved 2013-04-30. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Tadeusz Piotrowski (1997). "Assistance to Jews". _Poland\'s Holocaust_. McFarland & Company. p. 117. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Delegatura. The Polish government-in-exile underground representation in Poland. Shoah Resource Center, The International School for Holocaust
Holocaust
Studies. PDF direct download, 45.2 KB. Retrieved October 2, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Your Life is Worth Mine: How Polish Nuns Saved Hundreds of Jewish Children in German-occupied Poland, 1939-1945 By Ewa Kurek * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ John T. Pawlikowski, _Polish Catholics and the Jews during the Holocaust_, in, Google Print, p. 113 in Joshua D. Zimmerman, _Contested Memories: Poles and Jews During the Holocaust and Its Aftermath_, Rutgers University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8135-3158-6

* ^ _Cesarni and Kavanaugh. "Holocaust", pg. 68_. Retrieved 2013-04-30 – via Google Books . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Zofia Szymańska, _Byłam tylko lekarzem..._, Warsaw: Pax, 1979, pp.149–76.; Bertha Ferderber-Salz, _And the Sun Kept Shining..._, New York City
New York City
: Holocaust
Holocaust
Library, 1980, 233 pages; p.199. * ^ _A_ _B_ "L.S.I.C". Web.archive.org. 2009-10-26. Archived from the original on July 28, 2009. Retrieved 2013-04-30. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Mordecai Paldiel "Churches and the Holocaust: unholy teaching, good samaritans, and reconciliation" p.209-210, KTAV Publishing House, Inc., 2006, ISBN 0-88125-908-X , ISBN 978-0-88125-908-7 * ^ Michael Phayer; The Catholic Church and the Holocaust, 1930-1965; Indiana University Press; p.117-

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Al Sokol, " Holocaust
Holocaust
theme underscores work of artist," Toronto Star , November 7, 1996. ^ Władysław Bartoszewski and Zofia Lewinówna, eds., _Ten jest z ojczyzny mojej_, Second revised and expanded edition, Kraków : Znak, 1969, pp.741–42. ^ Tadeusz Kozłowski, "Spotkanie z żydowskim kolegą po 50 latach," Gazeta (Toronto), May 12–14, 1995. ^ Frank Morgens, _Years at the Edge of Existence: War Memoirs, 1939–1945_, Lanham , Maryland
Maryland
: University Press of America, 1996, pp.97, 99. ^ Władysław Bartoszewski and Zofia Lewin, eds., _Righteous Among Nations: How Poles Helped the Jews, 1939–1945_, London: Earlscourt Publications, 1969, p.361. * ^ John T. Pawlikowski. _Polish Catholics and the Jews during the Holocaust._ In: Joshua D. Zimmerman, _Contested Memories: Poles and Jews During the Holocaust
Holocaust
and Its Aftermath_, Rutgers University Press, 2003 * ^ Nahum Bogner The Convent Children: The Rescue of Jewish Children in Polish Convents During the Holocaust. Vad Yashem Shoah Resource Center. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ http://www1.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/microsoft%20word%20-%20138.pdf * ^ Norman Davies , _Europe: A History_, Oxford University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-19-820171-0 ., Google Print, p. 1023 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Dariusz Stola. The Polish government in exile and the Final Solution: What conditioned its actions and inactions? In: Joshua D. Zimmerman, ed. Contested Memories: Poles and Jews During the Holocaust
Holocaust
and Its Aftermath. Rutgers University Press, 2003. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ David Engel.Facing a Holocaust: The Polish Government-in-exile and the Jews, 1943-1945. University of North Carolina Press, 1993. * ^ Yad Vashem. The Righteous Among the Nations. Yad Vashem, The Holocaust
Holocaust
Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority. * ^ Scheib, Ronnie (2011-03-07). "The Karski Report - Entertainment News, Film Reviews, Media". Variety. Retrieved 2011-10-07. * ^ Waldemar Piasecki, Interview with Elim Zborowski, President of International Society for Yad Vashem: "Egzamin z pamięci" (Memory Exam). (in Polish) Forum Polacy - Żydzi - Chrześcijanie. _Quote in Polish : "Kiedy w lipcu 1943 roku raportował mu w Białym Domu tragedię żydowską, prezydent przerwał i zapytał polskiego emisariusza o sytuację... koni w Generalnej Guberni."_ * ^ Michael C. Steinlauf. Poland. In: David S. Wyman, Charles H. Rosenzveig. The World Reacts to the Holocaust. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. pp 98; 105. * ^ Robert Alexander Clarke Parker, The Second World War Published by Oxford University Press. Page 276 * ^ Inflation Calculator: The Value of a Dollar based on the Consumer Price Index * ^ David Cesarani, Sarah Kavanaugh, Holocaust
Holocaust
Published by Routledge. Page 64. * ^ Grzegorz Łubczyk, Henryk Slawik - the Polish Wallenberg. at the Wayback Machine (archived September 27, 2007) _Trybuna_ 120 (3717), May 24, 2002. * ^ "Unsung Hero". _ Warsaw
Warsaw
Voice_. 2004-01-28. Retrieved 2008-05-20. * ^ Premiera filmu " Henryk Sławik – Polski Wallenberg." at the Wayback Machine (archived September 2, 2007) _Archiwum działalności Prezydenta RP w latach 1997-2005._ BIP. * ^ Maria Zawadzka, "Righteous Among the Nations: Henryk Sławik and József Antall." _Museum of the History of Polish Jews ._ Warsaw, 7 October 2010. _See also:_ "The Sławik family" (ibidem). Accessed 3 September 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ David Engel. In the Shadow of Auschwitz: The Polish Government-In-Exile and the Jews, 1939-1942. University of North Carolina Press. 1987. * ^ Michael C. Steinlauf. Poland. In: David S. Wyman, Charles H. Rosenzveig. The World Reacts to the Holocaust. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. pp 98; 104-105. * ^ Joseph Kermish. The Activities of the Council for Aid to Jews (“Żegota”) In Occupied Poland. Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Shoah Resource Center. Pg 28. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Michael C. Steinlauf. Bondage to the Dead. Syracuse University Press, p. 38. * ^ David Engel.Facing a Holocaust: The Polish Government-in-exile and the Jews, 1943-1945. University of North Carolina Press, 1993. Pp 138ff * ^ Robert Moses Shapiro. Why Didn\'t the Press Shout?: American 178. * ^ Joshua D. Zimmerman, "The Polish Underground Home Army (AK) and the Jews: What Survivor Memoirs and Testimonies Reveal" Yeshiva University * ^ Joanna B. Michlic. Poland\'s Threatening Other: The Image of the Jew from 1880 to the Present. University of Nebraska Press, 2006. Pages 153-156. * ^ Israel Gutman. The Jews of Warsaw, 1939-1943: Ghetto, Underground, Revolt. Indiana University Press, 1982. * ^ (in Polish) Jakub Mielnik: "Jak polacy stworzyli Izrael" (How the Poles created Israel), Focus.pl Historia, May 5th 2008 (see Part six: II Korpus palestynski) * ^ A considerable portion of the quoted list of Polish settlements engaged in collective rescuing of Jews originates from: "Wartime Rescue of Jews by the Polish Catholic Clergy. The Testimony of Survivors" at the Wayback Machine (archived July 1, 2007) compiled by Mark Paul, with selected bibliography; published by the Polish Educational Foundation in North America, Toronto
Toronto
2007. The second source by the same author is _A Tangled Web: Polish-Jewish Relations in Wartime Northeastern Poland and the Aftermath_ (Part One) published by Pefina Press, Toronto
Toronto
2008. The complete list of works by Mark Paul used as reference is available at Glaukopis.pl Online Library. * ^ Paul 2007 , p. 77. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Paul 2007 , p. 78. * ^ _A_ _B_ Paul 2007 , p. 79.

REFERENCES

* Paul, Mark (2007), "The Holocaust
Holocaust
Gets Under Way with Full Fury" (PDF), _Wartime Rescue of Jews by the Polish Catholic Clergy_, Polish Educational Foundation in North America, Toronto, direct download 911 KB, archived from the original (PDF) on July 1, 2007, retrieved October 1, 2012, _Selected sources:_ Michał Grynberg, _Księga sprawiedliwych_ (Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 1993); Ewa Kurek, _Your Life Is Worth Mine: How Polish Nuns Saved Hundreds of Jewish Children in German-Occupied Poland, 1939–1945_ (New York: Hippocrene Books, 1997) * Paul, Mark (2009). _Patterns of Cooperation, Collaboration and Betrayal: Jews, Germans and Poles in Occupied Poland during World War II_ (PDF). _Expanded version_. Toronto
Toronto
and Chicago: The Polish Educational Foundation in North America. * Paul, Mark (2016) . _A Tangled Web: Polish-Jewish Relations in Wartime Northeastern Poland and the Aftermath_ (PDF). _Part One_. Toronto: Pefina Press. * Malgorzata Melchior, The Holocaust
Holocaust
Survivors who passed as non-Jews – in Nazi
Nazi
occupied Poland and France. The comparison of the Survivors’ experience1, Warsaw
Warsaw
University, PDF file direct download. * Gunnar S. Paulsson , “The Demography of Jews in Hiding in Warsaw, 1943–1945,” _Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry_, volume 13 (2000), at pages 78–103. * Gunnar S. Paulsson, “Evading the Holocaust: The Unexplored Continent of Holocaust
Holocaust
Historiography,” in John K. Roth and Elisabeth Maxwell, eds., _Remembering for the Future: The Holocaust_, p. 257, in an _Age of Genocide_ (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire and New York: Palgrave, 2001), volume 1, pp. 302–318. * Gunnar S. Paulsson, “Ringelblum Revisited: Polish-Jewish Relations in Occupied Warsaw, 1940–1945,” in Joshua D. Zimmerman, ed., _Contested Memories: Poles and Jews during the Holocaust
Holocaust
and Its Aftermath_ (New Brunswick, New Jersey and London: Rutgers University Press, 2003), pp. 173–92. * Gunnar S. Paulsson, _Secret City: The Hidden Jews of Warsaw, 1940–1945_ (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2002). Monograph. * Richard C. Lukas , _Did the Children Cry: Hitler's War Against Jewish and Polish Children, 1939-1945_ (1st ed.: N.Y.: Hippocrene, 1994). * Richard C. Lukas, _Forgotten Holocaust:The Poles under German Occupation, 1939-1944_ (3rd rev. ed.: N.Y.: Hippocrene, 2012). * Sebastian Rejak, Elżbieta Frister (ed). _Inferno of Choices: Poles and the Holocaust_ (PDF file, direct download 1.64 MB). RYTM, Warsaw
Warsaw
2011. ISBN 9788373995147 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * John T. Pawlikowski, _Polish Catholics and the Jews during the Holocaust_, in, Google Print, p. 107-123 in Joshua D. Zimmerman, _Contested Memories: Poles and Jews During the Holocaust
Holocaust
and Its Aftermath_, Rutgers University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8135-3158-6 * Tadeusz Piotrowski (1997). "Assistance to Jews". _Poland\'s Holocaust_. McFarland & Company. pp. 112–128. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3 . * Nechama Tec, _When Light Pierced the Darkness: Christian Rescue of Jews in Nazi-Occupied Poland_, Oxford University Press US, 1987, ISBN 0-19-505194-7 , Google Print * Irene Tomaszewski, Tecia Werbowski, _Zegota: The Rescue of Jews in Wartime Poland_, Price-Patterson, 1994, ISBN 0-9695771-6-8

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rescue_of_Jews_by_Poles_during_the_Holocaust additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.

* Privacy policy * About * Disclaimers * Contact * Developers * Cookie statement * Mobile view

* *

Links: ------ /wiki/Polish_Jews /wiki/Holocaust_in_Poland /wiki/Nazi /wiki/Holocaust /wiki/Occupation_of_Poland_(1939%E2%80%931945) /#cite_note-YV_Stats-1 /#cite_note-Lukas-2 /#cite_note-righteous_count-3 /wiki/Polish_Righteous_Among_the_Nations /#cite_note-YV_Stats-1 /wiki/Armia_Krajowa /wiki/Witold_Pilecki /wiki/Jan_Karski /wiki/Polish_government-in-exile /wiki/Polish_Secret_State /#cite_note-Lukas-2 /wiki/Resistance_movements /wiki/Polish_Underground_State /wiki/%C5%BBegota /wiki/Warsaw /wiki/Krak%C3%B3w /wiki/Wilno /wiki/Lw%C3%B3w /#cite_note-Piotrowski119-4 /wiki/German-occupied_Europe /wiki/Capital_punishment /#cite_note-Lukas-2 /#cite_note-www-5 /wiki/The_Holocaust_in_occupied_Poland /#Background /#Statistics /#Difficulties /#Punishment_for_aiding_the_Jews /#Jews_in_Polish_villages /#Jews_in_Polish_cities /#Organizations_dedicated_to_saving_the_Jews /#Jews_and_the_Church

.