Republic of Crimea
   HOME

TheInfoList



The Republic of Crimea (, , ),
translit. Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#Latin, liter-'') in predictable ways, such as Greek → , Cyr ...
''Respublika Krym'' ; uk, Республіка Крим,
translit. Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#Latin, liter-'') in predictable ways, such as Greek → , Cyr ...
''Respublika Krym''; crh, , is a
federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (russian: ...
(
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature ...

republic
) of
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly becau ...

Russia
located on the disputed
Crimea Crimea; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on mos ...

Crimea
n Peninsula, which was annexed by Russia from Ukraine in 2014, but it is still internationally recognized as being part of
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
. The capital city and largest city within the republic is
Simferopol Simferopol () is the second-largest city on the Crimean Peninsula, and the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea. Simferopol is an important political, economic and transport hub of the peninsula, and serve ...
, which is also the second-largest city of the peninsula, behind the
federal city The term federal city is a title for certain cities in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = Ger ...

federal city
of
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
. At the last census, the republic had a population of


History


Background

The origins of the Russian historical claim to Crimea, which would culminate in the 2014 annexation of the territory, date to the 18th century, when the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical that extended across and from 1721, succeeding the following the that ended the . The Empire lasted until the was proclaimed by the that took power after the ...
, under the Empress
Catherine the Great russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Романова, translit=Yekaterina Alekseyevna Romanova en, Catherine Alexeievna Romanova, link=yes , house = , father = Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst , mother ...
,
annexed upCivilians and coalition military forces wave Kuwaiti and Saudi Arabian flags as they celebrate the reversal of the annexation of Kuwait by Iraq (28 February 1991). Annexation (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging ...
the peninsula for the first time, in April 1783. While ostensibly recognised by the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th a ...
in December that year, the annexation sowed tensions which ultimately contributed to the outbreak of
Russo-Turkish war The Russo-Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of twelve wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries. It was one of the longest series of military conflicts in History of Europe ...
of 1787–1792, in which the Ottoman Empire attempted to reverse it, but to no avail: the 1792
Treaty of Jassy The Treaty of Jassy, signed at Jassy (''Iași'') in Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic: or ) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographic areas ...
, which formally ended the war, reaffirmed the 1783 annexation again. From 1802, Crimea constituted a southern part of the
Taurida Governorate The Taurida Governorate (russian: Таврическая губернія, modern spelling , ; uk, Таврiйська губернія, ; crh, script=Latn, Tavrida guberniyası, ) or the Government of Taurida, was a historical guberniya, gover ...
of the Russian Empire until the collapse thereof in 1917. During the
Russian Civil War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Russian Civil War , partof = the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution across the territory of the Russian Empire The R ...
(1917–1921) Crimea changed hands multiple times, being ''inter alia'' the last territory held by the
White White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue). It is the color of snow, chalk, and milk, and is the opposite of black. White objects fully diffuse reflection, reflect and scattering, scatter all the visible spectrum, visible wa ...
Russian government The government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries a ...
in the European part of Russia in 1920, and finally became an Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, autonomous republic within Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) in 1921. During World War II, in 1944, the central Soviet authorities Deportation of the Crimean Tatars, deported the Crimean Tatars for alleged collaboration with the Nazi occupation regime; in 1945, the region was stripped of its autonomy status. In 1954, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, Supreme Soviet 1954 transfer of Crimea, transferred the region from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, another Republics of the Soviet Union, constituent republic of the USSR, then a highly centralised state, wherein borders between constituent republics was a technical issue of administration, despite the fact that Ukraine was a separate member of the UN. The Crimean Tatars were allowed to return to Crimea in the mid-1980s under perestroika. With the History of the Soviet Union (1985–1991), collapse of the Soviet Union, Crimea became part of the newly independent Ukraine, which led to tensions between
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly becau ...

Russia
and Ukraine. With the Black Sea Fleet based on the peninsula, worries of armed skirmishes were occasionally raised. Crimean Tatars began returning from exile and resettling in Crimea. Ukraine restored Crimea's Autonomous Republic of Crimea, autonomous status in 1991. Crimea's autonomous status was re-affirmed in 1996 with the ratification of Ukraine's Constitution of Ukraine, current constitution, which designated Crimea as the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea", but also an "inseparable constituent part of Ukraine".


2014 annexation

In February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that ousted the President of Ukraine, Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, the Russian leadership decided to "start working on returning Crimea to Russia" (i.e. envisaged the annexation of peninsula) and after a Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present), takeover of Crimea by Little green men (Ukrainian crisis), Russian armed forces without insignias and pro-Russian separatists the territory within weeks came under Russian effective control. To facilitate the annexation politically, the Russian-backed Supreme Council of Crimea, Crimean parliament and the
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
City Council announced on 6 March, in violation of the Constitution of Ukraine, Ukrainian Constitution, a 2014 Crimean status referendum, referendum on the issue of joining Russia, to be held on 16 March. The upcoming vote allowed citizens to vote on whether Crimea should apply to join Russia as a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of the Russian Federation, or restore the Constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, 1992 Crimean constitution and Crimea's status as a part of Ukraine. The available choices did not include keeping the status quo of Crimea and Sevastopol as they were at the time the referendum was held. On 11 March 2014, the Supreme Council of Crimea, Crimean parliament and the
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
City Council jointly Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Crimea, issued a letter of intent to Unilateral declaration of independence, unilaterally declare independence from Ukraine in the event of a 'Yes' vote in the upcoming referendum, citing the "Kosovo independence precedent, Kosovo precedent" in the lead part. The envisaged process was so designed to allow Russia to claim that "it did not annex Crimea from Ukraine, rather the Republic of Crimea exercised its sovereign powers in seeking a merge with Russia". On 16 March 2014, according to the organizers of 2014 Crimean status referendum, Crimean status referendum, a large majority (reported as 96.77% of the 81.36% of the population of Crimea who voted) voted in favour of independence of Crimea from Ukraine and joining Russia as a federal subject. The referendum was not recognized by Political status of Crimea and Sevastopol#Stances, most of the international community and the reported results were disputed by numerous independent observers. The BBC reported that most of the Crimean Tatars that they interviewed were boycotting the vote. Reports from the UN criticised the circumstances surrounding the referendum, especially the presence of paramilitary, paramilitaries, militia, self-defence groups and Little green men (2014 Crimean crisis), unidentifiable soldiers. The European Union, Canada, Japan and the United States condemned the vote as illegal.After the referendum, Crimean lawmakers formally voted both to secede from Ukraine and applied for their admission into Russia. The Sevastopol City Council, however, requested the port's separate admission as a federal cities of Russia, federal city. On the same day Russia formally approved the draft treaty on absorption of the self-proclaimed Republic of Crimea, and on 18 March 2014 the political process of annexation was formally concluded, with the self-proclaimed independent Republic of Crimea signing a treaty of accession to the Russian Federation. The accession was granted but separately for each the former regions that composed it: one accession for the Autonomous Republic of Crimea as the ''Republic of Crimea''—the same name as the short-lived self-proclaimed independent republic—and another accession for Sevastopol as a federal city. A post-annexation transition period, during which Russian authorities were to resolve the issues of integration of the new subjects "in the economic, financial, credit and legal system of the Russian Federation", was set to last until 1 January 2015. (and
PDF copy
of signed document)
The change of status of Crimea was only recognised internationally by a few states with most regarding the action as illegal. Ukraine refused to accept the annexation, however the Ukrainian military began to withdraw from Crimea on 19 March, and by 26 March, Russia had acquired complete military control of Crimea, so the annexation was essentially complete.


Post-annexation integration to Russian Federation

The post-annexation integration process started within days. On 24 March, the Russian ruble went into official circulation with parallel circulation of the Ukrainian hryvnia permitted until 1 January 2016, however, taxes and fees were to be paid in rubles only, and the wages of employees at budget-receiving organisations were to be paid out in rubles as well. On 29 March, the clocks in Crimea were moved forward to Moscow time, and on 31 March, the Russian Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev announced a series of programmes aimed at swiftly incorporating the territory into Russia's economy and infrastructure. The creation of a new ministry for Crimean affairs was announced too. Also on 31 March, the Russian Foreign Ministry declared that foreign citizens visiting Crimea needed to apply for a Visa (document), visa to the Russian Federation at one of Russian diplomatic missions or its consulates. On 3 April 2014, Moscow sent a diplomatic note to
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
on terminating the actions of agreements concerning the deployment of the Russian Federation's Black Sea Fleet on the territory of Ukraine. As part of the agreements, Russia used to pay the Ukrainian government $530 million annually for the base, and wrote off nearly $100 million of Kyiv's debt for the right to use Ukrainian waters. Ukraine also received a discount of $100 on each 1,000 cubic meters of natural gas imported from Russia, which was provided for by cutting export duties on the gas, money that would have gone into the Russian state budget. The Kremlin explained that because the base was no longer located in Ukraine, the discount was no longer legally justifiable. Crimea and the city of
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
became part of Russia's Southern Military District. On 11 April 2014, the parliament of Crimea approved a new constitution, with 88 out of 100 lawmakers voting in favor of its adoption. The new constitution confirms the Republic of Crimea as a democratic state within the Russian Federation and declares both territories united and inseparable. The Crimean parliament would become smaller and have 75 members instead of the current 100. According to the Kommersant newspaper, the authorities, including the State Council chair Vladimir Konstantinov, unofficially promised that certain quotas would be reserved for Crimean Tatars in various government bodies. On the same day, a new revision of the Constitution of Russia, Russian Constitution was officially published, with the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
included in the list of federal subjects of the Russian Federation. On 12 April 2014, the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea, adopted at the session of the State Council on 11 April, entered into legal force. The constitution was published by the Krymskiye Izvestiya newspaper, becoming law on the publication date, the State Council of Crimea said. The Constitution consists of 10 chapters and 95 articles; its main regulations are analogous to the articles of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The text proclaims the Republic of Crimea is a democratic, legal state within the Russian Federation and an equal subject of the Russian Federation. The source of power in the Crimean Republic is its people, which constitutes to the multinational nation of the Russian Federation. It is noted that the supreme direct manifestation of the power of the people is referendum and free elections; seizure of power and appropriation of power authorization are unacceptable. On 15 April 2014, the Ukrainian parliament, Ukrainian Parliament Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation#Ukrainian response, declared Crimea and the city of Sevastopol "occupied territories". On 1 June 2014, Crimea officially switched over to the Russian Ruble, Russian ruble as its only form of legal tender. On 7 May 2015, Crimea switched its phone codes (Telephone numbers in Ukraine, Ukrainian number system) to the Telephone numbers in Russia, Russian number system. In July 2015, Russian Prime Minister, Dmitry Medvedev, declared that Crimea had been fully integrated into Russia, similar statements were also expressed at the Russian Security Council. In July 2016, Crimea ceased to be a separate Federal districts of Russia, federal district of the Russian Federation and was included into the Southern Federal District, Southern federal district instead.


Government and politics

The State Council of Crimea is a legislative body with a 75-seat parliament. The polling held on 14 September 2014 resulted in United Russia securing 70 of the 75 members elected. Justice is administered by courts, as part of the judiciary of Russia. Under Russian law, all decisions delivered by the Crimean branches of the judiciary of Ukraine up to its annexation remain valid.Pro-Russian Activist Falls On Hard Times In Annexed Crimea
Radio Free Europe (16 January 2016)
This includes sentences (for "encroaching on Ukraine's territorial integrity and inviolability") for pre-2014 calls for an incorporation of Crimea into Russia. The executive power is represented by the Council of Ministers of Crimea, Council of Ministers, headed either by the Prime Minister of Crimea or by the Head of the Republic of Crimea. The authority and operation of the State Council and the Council of Ministers of Crimea, Council of Ministers of Crimea are determined by the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea and other Crimean laws, as well as by regular decisions carried out by the Council. Crimeans who refused to take Russian citizenship are barred from holding government positions or municipal jobs.Ukraine human rights 'deteriorating rapidly'
''Al Jazeera'' (3 December 2014)
Disappearing Crimea's anti-Russia activists
''Al Jazeera''
By July 2015, 20,000 Crimeans had renounced their Ukrainian citizenship. From the time of Russia's annexation until October 2016, more than 8,800 Crimean residents received Ukrainian passports.


Military

* Marine Corps of the Russia "Little green men (Russo-Ukrainian War), little green men" * Baherove (air base) * Krasnokamianka (village), Theodosius-13 * Southern Naval Base (Ukraine), Southern Naval Base


Administrative divisions

The Republic of Crimea continues to use the administrative divisions previously used by the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and is thus subdivided into 25 regions: 14 districts (''raions'') and 11 city municipalities (''gorodskoj sovet'' or ''gorsovet''), officially known as ''territories governed by city councils''.


Geography


Political geography

If considered to be a part of Russia, then Crimea is one of two parts of European Russia that have no land connection to the rest of the country, the other being Kaliningrad Oblast on the Baltic Sea. Being a Enclave and exclave, semi-exclave, the peninsula is connected to the rest of Russia by a multibillion-dollar road–rail fixed link across the Kerch Strait, dubbed Crimean Bridge by the Russian government. The link is operational for road traffic since 2018, and for rail traffic since 2019 (passenger) and 2020 (freight). If Crimea is considered separate from
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
, which continues to claim sovereignty over the peninsula, then Ukraine is the only country with which it shares a land border, with a number of road and rail connections. These crossings have been under the control of Russian troops since at least mid-March 2014.


Demographics


Ethnic groups

According to the Crimean Federal District Census (2014), 2014 Crimean Federal District census, the ethnic makeup of the population of the whole Crimean Federal District at the time comprised the following self-reported groups: * Russians: 1,188,978 (65.2%) * Ukrainians: 291,603 (16.0%) * Crimean Tatars: 229,526 (12.6%) * Tatars: 42,254 (2.3%) * Belarusians: 17,919 (1.0%) * Armenians: 9,634 (0.5%) According to the 2014 census, 84% of Crimean inhabitants named Russian language, Russian as their native language; 7.9% named Crimean Tatar language, Crimean Tatar; 3.7% Tatar language, Tatar and 3.3% Ukrainian language, Ukrainian. The previous census was held more than decade ago in 2001, when Crimea was still controlled by Ukraine.


Languages

According to the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea: According to the Republic of Crimea Ministry of Education, Science, and Youth, most primary and secondary school pupils have decided to study in Russian in 2015. * In Russian - 96.74% * In Crimean Tatar - 2.76%. 5083 pupils (+188 to 2014 year) study in Crimean Tatar language in 53 schools in 17 districts. 37 1st grade classes of primary school have been opened. * In Ukrainian - 0.5%. 949 pupils study in Ukrainian language in 22 schools in 13 districts. 2 1st grade classes of primary school have been opened. Its Education Minister Natalia Goncharova announced mid-August 2014 that (since no parents of first-graders wrote an application for learning Ukrainian) Crimea had decided not to form Ukrainian language classes in its primary schools.Crimea has no longer Ukrainian classes
Ukrayinska Pravda (14 August 2014)
Goncharova said that since more than a quarter of parents at the Ukrainian gymnasium in Simferopol had written an application to teach children in Ukrainian; this school might have Ukrainian language classes. Goncharova also added that the parents of first-graders had written application for learning the Russian language, and (in areas inhabited by Crimean Tatars) for learning Crimean Tatar. Goncharova stated on 10 October 2014 that at that time Crimea had 20 schools where all subjects were conducted in Ukrainian. A report (realised in the summer of 2015) of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) claimed that the Republic of Crimea had the aim to "end the teaching of Ukrainian" by "pressure on school administrations, teachers, parents, and children".Two Years After Annexation, Crimeans Wait On Russia's Unfulfilled Promises
Radio Free Europe (18 March 2016)


Religion

The majority of the demographics of Crimea, Crimean population adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, with the Crimean Tatars forming a Islam in Crimea, Sunni Muslim minority, besides smaller Roman Catholic Diocese of Odessa-Simferopol, Roman Catholic, Ukrainian Catholic Archiepiscopal Exarchate of Odessa – Crimea, Ukrainian Greek Catholic, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Apostolic and Jews in Crimea, Jewish minorities. In 2013, Orthodox Christians made up 58% of the Crimean population, followed by Muslims (15%, mainly Tatars) and believers without religion (10%).


Economy

Peninsula economy is based on tourism, agriculture (wines, fruits, wheat, rice and further crops), fishing, pearls, mining and natural resources (mainly iron, titanium, aluminium, manganese, calcite, sandstone, quartz and silicates, amethyst, other), metallurgical and steel industry, shipbuilding and repair, oil gas and petrochemical, chemical industry, electronics and devices machinery, instruments making, glass, electronics and electric parts devices, materials and building.


Overview

In March 2014 Crimean GDP was estimated at $4.3 billion or 0.2% of Russia based on current prices and 0.5% based on purchasing power parity. After annexation of the peninsula, Russia doubled payments to about 560,000 pensioners and 200,000 public workers (in Crimea). Those raises were cut back in April 2015. In June 2015 The Economist estimated that the average salary in Crimea was about two-thirds of the average salary in Russia. According to Russian statistics by March 2015 the inflation in Crimea was 80%.Dreams in Isolation: Crimea 2 Years After Annexation
The Moscow Times (18 March 2016)
According to the Crimean authorities local food prices have grown 2.5 times since Russia's annexation. Since then the peninsula now has to import most of its food from Russia. After the annexation, Russian Crimean authorities started nationalization of what they called strategically important enterprises, which included not only transportation and energy production enterprises, but also, for example, a wine factory in Massandra. The enterprises which belonged to Russian citizens were nationalized against financial reimbursement, which was, however, much lower than the actual value; those which belonged to Ukrainian citizens, for example, PrivatBank owned by Ihor Kolomoyskyi or Ukrtelecom owned by Rinat Akhmetov, were expropriated without any reimbursement. The future of the nationalized enterprises is decided by the government. Reasons given for this were (among others) "the company helped to finance military operations against Donetsk People's Republic and Lugansk People's Republic" and "the resort complex illegally blocked public access to nearby park lands". The government can nationalise assets considered to have "particular social, cultural, or historical value". In the case of the Zalyv Shipbuilding yard, Crimean "self-defense" forces stormed the company's headquarters to demand nationalization. Head of the Republic of Crimea, Head of the Republic Sergey Aksyonov claimed that in at least one case "Employees established control of the enterprise on their own, we just helped them a little".Russia Delivers a New Shock to Crimean Business: Forced Nationalization
Bloomberg News (18 November 2014 )
The nationalization of Ihor Kolomoyskyi's assets was, according to Aksyonov, "totally justified due to the fact that he is one of the initiators and financiers of the special ATO zone, anti-terrorist operation in the Eastern Ukraine where Russian citizens are being killed". By late October 2014 90% of the heads of Crimean government-owned corporation were fired as part of a supposed anti-Corruption in Russia, corruption campaign, although no charges have been filed against anyone. Human rights activists in the region have described the seizures as lacking a legal basis and dismissed the "anti-corruption" rationale.Crimea’s rapid Russification means pride for some but perplexity for others
Guardian Weekly (11 November 2014)
In June 2015 the Federal Security Service (FSB) started several anti-corruption criminal cases against high ranking Crimean officials. According to Aksyonov the FSB had opened these criminal cases because it was "interested in destabilizing the situation in Crimea". On 6 May 2014 the National Bank of Ukraine ordered Ukrainian banks to cease operations in Crimea; the following weeks the Central Bank of Russia closed all Ukrainian banks in the peninsula because "they had failed to meet their obligations to creditors". Eight months after the Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, 21 March 2014 formal annexation of Crimea by Russia it became impossible for clients of Ukrainian banks to access their deposits and most of them did not pay interest (on loans). A "Fund for the Protection of Depositors in Crimea", as part of Russia's Deposit Insurance Agency, was set up by Russia to compensate Crimeans. By 6 November 2014 it paid out more than $500 million to 196,400 depositors; the fund has a limit of about $15,000 per bank account.Months After Russian Annexation, Crimeans Ask: 'Where Is Our Money?'
Moscow Times (20 November 2014)
In July 2015, 25 banks were operating in Crimea while prior to the Russian annexation there were 180 banks. While many international businesses left the region, in 2015 only few Russian companies were reported to invest in Crimea, fearing sanctions. Under the International sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis, international sanctions Crimea's once bustling IT-sector shrunk to a few IT companies. Russia invests significantly in Crimea, according to "The Federal Target Program for the Development of the Republic of Crimea and
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
" they plan to invest one trillion Russian rubles (15.3 billion dollars) before 2022 The Russian government claims that those investments are necessary because Ukraine, Ukrainian mismanagement of the Crimean territory caused losses of 2.5 trillion Russian rubles (38.3 billion dollars) to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
Meanwhile, Ukraine estimates their losses due to Russian annexation of the peninsula to 100 billion dollars.


Banks

*JSC GENBANK *JSC Bank CHBDR *Russian National Commercial Bank Gross regional product: * Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles, personal and household goods – 13% * Transport and Telecom – 10% * Real estate, renting and business activities – 10% * Health care and social services – 10% * Public administration, defense, compulsory social security – 8% * Agriculture, hunting and forestry – 10% * Other – 39%


Free economic zone

A Free economic zone, Free Economic Zone has been established in the territory of the Republic of Crimea since 1 January 2015. By the end of 2017, the amount of investment in Crimea's free economic zone since early 2015, exceeded 100 billion rubles ($1.69 billion). At the beginning of 2019, 215 billion rubles ($3.3 billion) were attracted to the economy of
Crimea Crimea; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on mos ...

Crimea
.


Tourism

In 2014 about two million tourists holidayed in Crimea, including 300,000 Ukrainians. In 2013 3.5 million Ukrainian and 1.5 million Russian tourists visited Crimea. Tourism is the mainstay of the Crimean economy. In August 2014 Head of the Republic Aksyonov was confident that in 2015 Crimea would welcome "at least five million visitors - I have no doubts about that".Tourism takes a nosedive in Crimea
BBC News (7 August 2014)
Russia's takeover of Crimea is killing tourism industry
Kyiv Post (14 August 2014)
Early August 2015 the press service of his government stated that in 2015 2.02 million tourists had visited Crimea (16.5% more than in 2014). They stated in January 2016 (that in 2015) more than 4 million tourists had vacationed in the peninsula. Over 6.4 million tourists visited Crimea in 2018.


Museums and art galleries

* Aivazovsky National Art Gallery * Alexander Grin house museum * Feodosia Money Museum * Lapidarium, Kerch * Livadia Palace * Massandra Palace * Simferopol Art Museum * Museum of Vera Mukhina * Vorontsov Palace (Alupka) * White Dacha


Industrial Park

* Feodosia Industrial park, Industrial Park * Bakhchysarai Industrial park, Industrial Park


Telecommunication

The internet connection goes via Krasnodar Krai. Cell telecom In Crimea Peninsula worked four mobile operators already offers voice and mobile data for 2G, 3G and 4G users


Transport


Aviation

Simferopol Simferopol () is the second-largest city on the Crimean Peninsula, and the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea. Simferopol is an important political, economic and transport hub of the peninsula, and serve ...
is an air transport hub of the Republic of Crimea. * Simferopol International Airport


Rail

* Crimea Railway


Trolleybus Line

Crimean Trolleybus, Crimean trolleybus line length of 86 kilometres (53 mi) long of service «Krymtrolleybus». Routes: Simferopol International Airport, Airport Simferopol —
Simferopol Simferopol () is the second-largest city on the Crimean Peninsula, and the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea. Simferopol is an important political, economic and transport hub of the peninsula, and serve ...
— Alushta — Yalta


Roads

* European route E105 - Syvash – Dzhankoy – North Crimean Canal –
Simferopol Simferopol () is the second-largest city on the Crimean Peninsula, and the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea. Simferopol is an important political, economic and transport hub of the peninsula, and serve ...
– Alushta – Yalta * Tavrida Highway, Tavrida Highway A291: Kerch — Feodosia — Bilohirsk Raion, Belogorsk —
Simferopol Simferopol () is the second-largest city on the Crimean Peninsula, and the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea. Simferopol is an important political, economic and transport hub of the peninsula, and serve ...
— Bakhchysarai, Bakhchisarai —
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
. * European route E97: Dzhankoy – Feodosiya – Kerch. * A290 highway (Russia), Novorossiysk — Kerch highway A290: Crimean Bridge — Kerch * Highway H19 (Ukraine) - Yalta –
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...

Sevastopol
* Highway M18 (Ukraine) - Yalta –
Simferopol Simferopol () is the second-largest city on the Crimean Peninsula, and the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea. Simferopol is an important political, economic and transport hub of the peninsula, and serve ...
– Dzhankoy * Highway H05 (Ukraine) -
Simferopol Simferopol () is the second-largest city on the Crimean Peninsula, and the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea. Simferopol is an important political, economic and transport hub of the peninsula, and serve ...
– Simferopol International Airport – Krasnoperekopsk.


Water

* Kerch Strait ferry line (until 2020), Kerch–Yenikale Canal


Education

*V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University *Simferopol gymnasium №1 *Gymnasium 9 (Simferopol) *Kerch Polytechnic College


Science

*Crimean Astrophysical Observatory is a part of the Soviet Deep Space Network *Pluton (complex), Deep-Space communications center *RT-70 *Simeiz Observatory


Sport


Football clubs

* FC TSK Simferopol * FC Krymteplytsia Molodizhne * FC Ocean Kerch * FC Rubin Yalta


Human rights

United Nations monitors (that had been in Crimea from 2 April to 6 May 2014) said they were concerned about treatment of journalists, sexual, religious and ethnic minorities and AIDS patients. The monitors had found that journalists and activists who had opposed the 2014 Crimean referendum had been harassed and abducted. They also reported that Crimeans who hadn't applied for Russian citizenship faced harassment and intimidation. Russia criticized the monitoring report as politically motivated and as an attempt to whitewash " violations of human rights by the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, self-proclaimed Kiev First Yatsenyuk Government, authorities". Russia added that it did not support the deployment of human rights monitors in Crimea. The (new) Crimean authorities vowed to investigate the reports of human rights violations. According to Human Rights Watch "Russia has violated multiple obligations it has as an occupying power under international humanitarian law – in particular in relation to the protection of civilians' rights." In its November 2014 report on Crimea, Human Rights Watch stated that "The de facto authorities in Crimea have limited free expression, restricted peaceful assembly, and intimidated and harassed those who have opposed Russia's actions in Crimea". According to the report, 15 persons went missing since March 2014; according to Ukrainian authorities 21 people disappeared. Head of the Republic of Crimea, Head of the Republic Sergey Aksyonov pledged to find the missing persons as well as the culprits behind the kidnappings. Aksyonov regularly meets with a group of parents, whose children have gone missing, and human rights activists. These parents and human rights activists have complained that rotation of the team of investigators into these missing persons has harmed these investigations.


Crimean Tatars

The Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People has come under the scrutiny of the Russian Federal Security Service, which reportedly took control of the building where the Mejlis meets and searched it on 16 September 2014. Crimean Tatar media said FSB officers also searched the office of the ''Avdet'' newspaper, which is based inside the Mejlis building. Several members of the Mejlis were also reportedly subjected to FSB searches at their homes. Several Crimean Tatar opposition figures were banned from entering Crimea for five years. Since Russia annexed Crimea several Crimean Tatars have disappeared or have been found dead after being reported missing. Crimean authorities state these deaths and disappearances are connected to "smoking an unspecified substance" and volunteers for the Syrian civil war; human rights activists claim the disappearances are part of a repression campaign against Crimean Tatars. In February 2016 human rights defender Emir-Usein Kuku from Crimea was arrested and accused of belonging to the Islamist organization Hizb ut-Tahrir although he denies any involvement in this organization. Amnesty International has called for his immediate liberation. In May 2018 Server Mustafayev, the founder and coordinator of the human rights movement Crimean Solidarity was imprisoned by Russian authorities and charged with "membership of a terrorist organisation". Amnesty International and Front Line Defenders demand his immediate release.


International status

The status of the republic is disputed, as Russia and Political status of Crimea#Pro-Russian stances on Crimea, some other states recognised the annexation, whilst Political status of Crimea#Recognition of Ukraine's territorial integrity, most other nations do not. Ukraine still considers both the Autonomous Republic and Sevastopol as subdivisions of Ukraine under Ukrainian territory and subject to Ukrainian law. The official line of the US, EU and Australia is that they don't grant visas to Crimeans with Russian passports. Nevertheless, Russian media claims Crimeans get visas for some EU countries. On 21 March 2014, Armenia recognised the Crimean referendum, which led to Ukraine recalling its ambassador to that country. The unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic also recognised the referendum earlier that week on 17 March. On 22 March 2014, President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan told a U.S. delegation that he recognised and supported the Crimean referendum and "respects the free will of the people of Crimea and Sevastopol to decide their own future". On 23 March 2014, Belarus recognised Crimea as de facto part of
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly becau ...

Russia
. On 27 March 2014, Nicaragua unconditionally recognised the incorporation of Crimea into
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly becau ...

Russia
. On 27 March 2014, the UN General Assembly voted on a non-binding resolution claiming that the referendum was invalid and reaffirming Ukraine's territorial integrity, by a vote of 100 to 11, with 58 abstentions and 24 absent. Australia, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, United Kingdom, United States and other 89 countries voted for; Armenia, Belarus, Bolivia, Cuba, North Korea, Nicaragua, Sudan, Syria, Venezuela and Zimbabwe, as well as Russia, voted against. Among the abstaining countries were China, India, and Brazil; Israel was among the countries listed as absent. Reuters reported unnamed UN diplomats saying the Russian delegation threatened with punitive action against certain Eastern European and Central Asian countries if they supported the resolution. Subsequent United Nations General Assembly resolutions also reaffirmed non-recognition of the annexation and condemned "the temporary occupation of part of the territory of Ukraine—the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol".


See also

* Legislative Assembly of Sevastopol


Notes


References


External links


Agreement on the accession of the Republic of Crimea to the Russian Federation signed


{{authority control Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation Crimean Federal District Disputed territories in Europe Politics of Crimea Republics of Russia, Crimea Russian-speaking countries and territories Separatism in Ukraine Southern Federal District States and territories established in 2014, Crimea, Republic of Russian irredentism 2014 establishments in Russia Former unrecognized countries