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The Republic
Republic
of Artsakh (Armenian: Արցախի Հանրապետություն Arts'akhi Hanrapetut'yun),[3][4] or simply Artsakh (/ɑːrtsɑːk/), commonly known by its former name of the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Republic
Republic
(/nəˌɡɔːrnoʊ kɑːrəˈbɑːk/) between 1991 and 2017, is a state with limited recognition in the South Caucasus. The region is populated mostly by Armenians
Armenians
and the primary spoken language is Armenian. Artsakh controls most of the territory of the former Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast and some of the surrounding area, giving it a border with Armenia
Armenia
to the west, Iran
Iran
to the south. The predominantly Armenian-populated region of Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
was claimed by both the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Democratic Republic
Republic
and the First Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
when both countries became independent in 1918 after the fall of the Russian Empire, and a brief war over Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
broke out in 1920. The dispute was largely shelved after the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
established control over the area and created the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) within the Azerbaijan SSR in 1923. During the fall of the Soviet Union, the region re-emerged as a source of dispute between Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan. In 1991, a referendum held in the NKAO and the neighbouring Shahumian region resulted in a declaration of independence based on its right of self-determination. Large-scale ethnic conflict led to the 1991–1994 Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
War, which ended with a ceasefire that left the current borders. The Artsakh Republic
Republic
is a presidential democracy (in the middle of transforming from a semi-presidential one, after the 2017 referendum) with a unicameral legislature. Its reliance on Armenia
Armenia
means that in many ways it functions de facto as part of Armenia. The country is very mountainous, averaging 1,097 metres (3,599 ft) above sea level. The population is predominantly Christian, most being affiliated with the Armenian Apostolic Church. Several historical monasteries are popular with tourists, mostly from the Armenian diaspora, as most travel can take place only between Armenia
Armenia
and Artsakh.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Government and politics

3.1 Constitution 3.2 Foreign relations

4 Military

4.1 Land mines

5 Current situation

5.1 Artsakh status process 5.2 Recognition process 5.3 Displaced people

6 Geography 7 Administrative divisions 8 Demographics

8.1 Ethnic composition 8.2 Religion 8.3 Post-war resettlement attempts

9 Economy

9.1 Tourism

10 Transportation 11 Education 12 Culture

12.1 Publications 12.2 Sports 12.3 Holidays

13 See also 14 References 15 External links

Etymology[edit] According to Armenian and Western specialists, inscriptions dating to the Urartian
Urartian
period mention the region under a variety of names: "Ardakh", "Urdekhe", and "Atakhuni."[5][6][7] In speaking about Armenia
Armenia
in his Geography, the classical historian Strabo
Strabo
refers to an Armenian region which he calls "Orchistene.", which again is believed to be a Greek version of the old name of Artsakh [8] According to another hypothesis put forth by David M. Lang, the ancient name of Artsakh possibly derives from the name of King Artaxias I
Artaxias I
of Armenia
Armenia
(190–159 BC), founder of the Artaxiad Dynasty and the kingdom of Greater Armenia.[9] Folk etymology holds that the name is derived from "Ar" (Aran) and "tsakh" (woods, garden) (i.e., the gardens of Aran Sisakean, the first nakharar of northeastern Armenia).[10] History[edit] Main article: History of Nagorno-Karabakh See also: Artsakh (historic province) Government and politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Artsakh

The National Assembly of Artsakh
National Assembly of Artsakh
in Stepanakert

Artsakh is a presidential democracy (in the middle of transforming from a semi-presidential one, after the 2017 referendum). The Prime Minister's post was abolished and the executive power is now residing with the President who is both the head of state and head of government. The president is directly elected for a maximum of two-consecutive five-year terms.[4] The current President is Bako Sahakyan.[11] On 19 July 2012, Sahakyan was re-elected for a second term.[12] He was again re-elected to a third term on 19 July 2017. The National Assembly is a unicameral legislature. It has 33 members who are elected for 5-year terms.[13] Elections take place within a multi-party system; in 2009, the American NGO Freedom House
Freedom House
ranked the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh above the republics of Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
with respect to civil and political rights.[14][15][16] Five parties have members in the parliament: the Free Motherland
Free Motherland
party has 15 members, ARF has 8 members, Democratic Party of Artsakh
Democratic Party of Artsakh
has 7 members, Movement 88 has 2 members and the National Revival party has one member. A number of non-partisan candidates have also taken part in the elections, with some success; in 2015, two of the 33 members to the National Assembly took their seats without running under the banner of any of the established political parties in the republic. Elections in Artsakh are not recognised by international bodies such as the European Union
European Union
and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, as well as numerous individual countries, who called them a source of increased tensions.[17][18][19] Artsakh is heavily dependent on Armenia, and in many ways de facto functions and is administered as part of Armenia.[20][21] Constitution[edit]

The Presidential Palace

The government building

On 3 November 2006, the then-President of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Arkadi Ghukasyan, signed a decree to hold a referendum on a draft Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
constitution.[22] It was held on 10 December of the same year[23] and voters overwhelmingly approved the new constitution.[24] According to official preliminary results, with a turnout of 87.2%,[citation needed] as many as 98.6 percent of voters approved the constitution.[23] The First article of the document described the then Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Republic
Republic
as "a sovereign, democratic legal and social state". More than 100 non-governmental international observers and journalists who monitored the poll evaluated it positively, stating that it was held to a high international standard.[25] However, the vote was criticised harshly by inter-governmental organisations such as the European Union, OSCE
OSCE
and GUAM, which rejected the referendum, deeming it illegitimate[25][26] The EU announced it was "aware that a 'constitutional referendum' has taken place," but emphasised its stance that only a negotiated settlement between Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and ethnic Armenians
Armenians
could bring a lasting solution.[27] Secretary General of the Council of Europe
Secretary General of the Council of Europe
Terry Davis asserted that the poll "will not be recognized... and is therefore of no consequence".[25] In a statement, the OSCE
OSCE
chairman in office Karel De Gucht voiced his concern that the vote would prove harmful to the ongoing conflict settlement process, which, he said, had shown "visible progress" and was at a "promising juncture".[23] The outcome was also criticised by Turkey, which traditionally supports Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
because of common ethnic Turkic roots, and has historically had severe tensions with Armenia.[28][29] Another referendum was held on 20 February 2017, with a 87.6% vote in favour on a 76% turnout for instituting a new constitution. This constitution among other changes turned the government from a semi-presidential to a fully presidential model, and changed the official name from the " Republic
Republic
of Nagorno-Karabakh" to the "Republic of Artsakh"/"Artsakh Republic".[30][31] The new name implies a claim to the areas controlled beyond the former Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast, and the Presidential system
Presidential system
allows for quicker decisions on security matters. The referendum is seen as a response to the 2016 Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
clashes.[32] Foreign relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of Artsakh

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Artsakh in Stepanakert

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is based in Stepanakert. The Republic of Artsakh operates five permanent Missions and one Bureau of Social-Politic Information in France. Artsakh's Permanent Missions exist in Armenia, Australia, France, Germany, Russia, the United States, and one for Middle East countries based in Beirut.[33] The goals of the offices are to present the Republic's positions on various issues, to provide information and to facilitate the peace process. In his 2015 speech, the President of Armenia
Armenia
Serzh Sargsyan
Serzh Sargsyan
stated that he considered Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
"an inseparable part of Armenia".[34] The Republic
Republic
of Artsakh is a member of the Community for Democracy
Democracy
and Rights of Nations, commonly known as the "Commonwealth of Unrecognized States". Military[edit] Main articles: Artsakh Defense Army
Artsakh Defense Army
and Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
War

A T-72
T-72
tank standing as a memorial commemorating the Capture of Shusha.

According to the Constitution of Artsakh the army is under the civilian command of the government.[35] The Artsakh Defense Army
Artsakh Defense Army
was officially established on 9 May 1992 as a defense against Azerbaijan. It fought the Azerbaijani army to a ceasefire on 12 May 1994.[36] Currently the Artsakh Defense Army
Artsakh Defense Army
consists of around 18,000–20,000 officers and soldiers. However, only 8,500 citizens from Artsakh serve in the NK army; some 10,000 come from Armenia. There are also 177–316 tanks, 256–324 additional fighting vehicles, and 291–322 guns and mortars. Armenia
Armenia
supplies arms and other military necessities to Artsakh. Several battalions of Armenia's army are deployed directly in the Artsakh zone on occupied Azerbaijani territory.[37] The Artsakh Defense Army
Artsakh Defense Army
fought in Shusha
Shusha
in 1992, opening the Lachin corridor between The Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
and Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
(1992), and staged the defense of the Martakert
Martakert
front from 1992–1994. Land mines[edit] Main article: Land mine situation in Nagorno-Karabakh The region of Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
is considered to be one of the most heavily mined regions of the former Soviet Union. Mines were laid from 1991 to 1994 by both conflicting parties in the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
War. The United Nations
United Nations
and the U.S. have estimated the number of mines in Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
at 100,000.[citation needed] There have been many civilian casualties resulting from the land mines. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) claims that 123 people have been killed and over 300 injured by landmines near the disputed enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
since a 1994 truce ended a six-year conflict between ethnic Armenian and Azerbaijani forces.[38] The HALO Trust
HALO Trust
– UK based demining NGO, is the only other organisation conducting demining in Nagorno Karabakh.[39] Current situation[edit] Artsakh status process[edit] Further information: Political status of Artsakh

  Territory controlled by Artsakh.   Claimed by Artsakh but controlled by Azerbaijan.

Today, Artsakh is a de facto independent state, calling itself the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh. It has close relations with the Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
and uses the same currency, the dram. According to Human Rights Watch, "from the beginning of the Karabakh conflict, Armenia provided aid, weapons, and volunteers. Armenian involvement in Artsakh escalated after a December 1993 Azerbaijani offensive. The Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
began sending conscripts and regular Army and Interior Ministry troops to fight in Artsakh."[40] The politics of Armenia
Armenia
and the de facto Artsakh are so intertwined that a former president of the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Republic, Robert Kocharyan, first became the prime minister (from 1994 to 1997), and then the President of Armenia
Armenia
(from 1998 to 2008). However, Armenian governments have repeatedly resisted internal pressure to unite the two, due to ongoing negotiations under the auspices of the OSCE
OSCE
Minsk Group. In his case study of Eurasia, Dov Lynch of the Institute for Security Studies of WEU
WEU
believes that "Karabakh's independence allows the new Armenian state to avoid the international stigma of aggression, despite the fact that Armenian troops fought in the war between 1991–94 and continue to man the Line of Contact between Karabakh and Azerbaijan." Lynch also cites that the "strength of the Armenian armed forces, and Armenia's strategic alliance with Russia, are seen as key shields protecting the Karabakh state by the authorities in Stepanakert."[41] Some sources consider Artsakh as functioning de facto as a part of Armenia.[42][43][44][45][46]

General view of the capital Stepanakert

At present, the mediation process is at a standstill, with the most recent discussions in Rambouillet, France, yielding no agreement. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
has officially requested Armenian troops to withdraw from all disputed areas of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
outside Nagorno-Karabakh, and that all displaced persons be allowed to return to their homes before the status of Karabakh can be discussed.[citation needed] Armenia
Armenia
does not recognise Azerbaijani claims to Nagorno-Karabakh, and believes the territory should have self-determination.[47] Both the Armenian and Artsakhi governments note that the independence of Artsakh was declared around the time the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
dissolved and its members became independent.[48][49] The Armenian government insists that the government of Artsakh be part of any discussions on the region's future, and rejects ceding occupied territory or allowing refugees to return before talks on the region's status.[50] Representatives of Armenia, Azerbaijan, France, Russia
Russia
and the United States met in Paris and in Key West, Florida, in early 2001.[51] Despite rumours that the parties were close to a solution, the Azerbaijani authorities – both during Heydar Aliyev's period of office, and after the accession of his son Ilham Aliyev
Ilham Aliyev
in the October 2003 elections – have firmly denied that any agreement was reached in Paris or Key West. Further talks between the Azerbaijani and Armenian presidents, Ilham Aliyev and Robert Kocharyan, were held in September 2004 in Astana, Kazakhstan, on the sidelines of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) summit. Reportedly, one of the suggestions put forward was the withdrawal of the occupying forces from the Azeri territories adjacent to Artsakh and then holding referendums (plebiscites) in Artsakh and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
proper regarding the future status of the region. On 10 and 11 February 2006, Kocharyan and Aliyev met in Rambouillet, France, to discuss the fundamental principles of a settlement to the conflict. Contrary to the initial optimism, the Rambouillet
Rambouillet
talks did not produce any agreement, with key issues such as the status of Artsakh and whether Armenian troops would withdraw from Kalbajar
Kalbajar
still being contentious.[52] Talks were held at the Polish embassy in Bucharest
Bucharest
in June 2006.[53] Again, American, Russian, and French diplomats attended the talks that lasted over 40 minutes.[54] Earlier, Armenian President Kocharyan announced that he was ready to "continue dialogue with Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
for the settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
conflict and with Turkey
Turkey
on establishing relations without any preconditions."[55]

The town of Shushi

According to Armenian foreign minister, Vardan Oskanyan, no progress was made at this latest meeting. Both presidents failed to reach a consensus on the issues from the earlier Rambouillet
Rambouillet
conference. He noted that the Kocharyan-Aliyev meeting was held in a normal atmosphere. "Nevertheless," he added, "the foreign ministers of the two countries are commissioned to continue talks over settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
conflict and try to find common points before the next meeting of the presidents."[56] The major disagreement between both sides at the Bucharest
Bucharest
conference was the status of Artsakh. Azerbaijan's preferred solution would be to give Artsakh the "highest status of autonomy adopted in the world."[57] Armenia, on the other hand, endorsed a popular vote by the inhabitants of Artsakh to decide their future, a position that was also taken by the[which?] international mediators.[58] On 27 June, the Armenian foreign minister said both parties agreed to allow the residents of Artsakh to vote regarding the future status of the region.[59] The Azerbaijani Ministry of Foreign Affairs officially refuted that statement.[60] According to Azeri opposition leader Isa Gambar, however, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
did indeed agree to the referendum. Still, nothing official has confirmed this yet.[61] The ongoing "Prague Process" overseen by the OSCE
OSCE
Minsk Group was brought into sharp relief in the summer of 2006 with a series of rare public revelations seemingly designed to jump-start the stalled negotiations. After the release in June of a paper outlining its position, which had until then been carefully guarded, U.S. State Department official Matthew Bryza told Radio Free Europe
Europe
that the Minsk Group favored a referendum in Karabakh that would determine its final status. The referendum, in the view of the OSCE, should take place not in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
as a whole, but in Artsakh only. This was a blow to Azerbaijan, and despite talk that their government might eventually seek a more sympathetic forum for future negotiations, this has not yet happened.[62]

The "We Are Our Mountains" monument is widely seen as a symbol of the self-proclaimed republic.

On 10 December 2007 Azerbaijan's deputy foreign minister said Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
would be prepared to conduct anti-terrorist operations in Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
against alleged bases of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK).[63] Armenian Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Vladimir Karapetian previously rejected the allegations as "fabricated" and suggested the accusations of the PKK presence were a form of provocation.[64] In 2008, Azerbaijani president Ilham Aliyev
Ilham Aliyev
stated that " Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
will never be independent; the position is backed by international mediators as well; Armenia
Armenia
has to accept the reality" and that "in 1918, Yerevan
Yerevan
was granted to the Armenians. It was a great mistake. The khanate of Iravan was the Azeri territory, the Armenians
Armenians
were guests here".[65] On the other hand, in 2009, the president of the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Republic
Republic
Bako Sahakyan
Bako Sahakyan
declared that "Artsakh will never be a part of Azerbaijan. Artsakh security should never be an article of commerce either. As to other issues, we are ready to discuss them with Azerbaijan.".[66] In 2010 president of Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
Serzh Sargsyan
Serzh Sargsyan
in his speech in the Chatham House of the British Royal Institute of International Affairs declared that "Karabakh was never a part of independent Azerbaijan: it was annexed to Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
by a decision of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
party body. The people of Karabakh never put up with this decision, and upon the first opportunity, seceded from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
fully in line with the laws of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the applicable international law".[67] On 14 March 2008, the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly passed a non-binding resolution by a vote of 39 to 7, with 100 abstentions, reaffirming Azerbaijan's territorial integrity, expressing support for that country's internationally recognised borders and demanding the immediate withdrawal of all Armenian forces from all occupied territories there. The resolution was supported mainly by members of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
(OIC) and GUAM, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
is a member in both groups, as well as other nations facing breakaway regions. The resolution was opposed by all three members of the OSCE Minsk Group.[68] On 20 May 2010, the European Parliament
European Parliament
adopted a resolution "on the need for an EU strategy for the South Caucasus", which states that EU must pursue a strategy to promote stability, prosperity and conflict resolution in the South Caucasus.[69] The resolution "calls on the parties to intensify their peace talk efforts for the purpose of a settlement in the coming months, to show a more constructive attitude and to abandon preferences to perpetuate the status quo created by force and with no international legitimacy, creating in this way instability and prolonging the suffering of the war-affected populations; condemns the idea of a military solution and the heavy consequences of military force already used, and calls on both parties to avoid any further breaches of the 1994 ceasefire". The resolution also calls for withdrawal of Armenian forces from all occupied territories of Azerbaijan, accompanied by deployment of international forces to be organised with respect of the UN Charter in order to provide the necessary security guarantees in a period of transition, which will ensure the security of the population of Artsakh and allow the displaced persons to return to their homes and further conflicts caused by homelessness to be prevented; and states that the EU believes that the position according to which Artsakh includes all occupied Azerbaijani lands surrounding Artsakh should rapidly be abandoned. It also notes "that an interim status for Nagorno-Karabakh could offer a solution until the final status is determined and that it could create a transitional framework for peaceful coexistence and cooperation of Armenian and Azerbaijani populations in the region."[70] On 26 June 2010, the presidents of the OSCE
OSCE
Minsk Group's Co-Chair countries, France, Russia, and United States made a joint statement, reaffirming their "commitment to support the leaders of Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
as they finalize the Basic Principles for the peaceful settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
conflict".[71] After Armenia
Armenia
established diplomatic relations with Tuvalu
Tuvalu
in March 2012, it was speculated in the press that Armenia
Armenia
was attempting to persuade the small island nation to be the first state to recognise Artsakh's independence.[72] Tuvalu
Tuvalu
recognised two other disputed states in the Caucasus, Abkhazia
Abkhazia
and South Ossetia, the previous year. Recognition process[edit]

The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (January 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Artsakh Street in Watertown, Massachusetts

No UN member states have recognised Artsakh, although some other unrecognised states have done so. Various sub-national administrations in the United States of America have issued calls for recognition of Artsakh by their national government.

In May 2012, the Rhode Island House of Representatives
Rhode Island House of Representatives
in the United States passed a resolution calling on President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and the U.S. Congress
U.S. Congress
to recognise Republic
Republic
of Artsakh. The resolution, adopted by the state's House of Representatives, encourages Artsakh's "efforts to develop as a free and independent nation."[73] In August 2012, the Massachusetts House of Representatives
Massachusetts House of Representatives
passed a resolution calling on President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and the U.S. Congress
U.S. Congress
to recognise Republic
Republic
of Artsakh.[74] On October 24, 2012, the New South Wales Legislative Council
New South Wales Legislative Council
in Australia adopted a resolution recognising the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh and the right to self-determination of its Armenian people. The motion acknowledges the 20th anniversary of independence for the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh, it supports the right to self-determination of its people, and it “calls on the Commonwealth Government [of Australia] to officially recognise the independence of the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh and strengthen Australia’s relationship with the Artsakh and its citizens”.[75] In April 2013, the Maine House of Representatives
Maine House of Representatives
in the United States passed a resolution accepting Artsakh's independence and urging President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
to also accept Artsakh's independence.[76] In April 2013, Fresno County
Fresno County
in California recognised Nagorno-Karabakh.[77][78] In May 2013, the Louisiana State Senate
Louisiana State Senate
in the United States passed a resolution accepting Artsakh's independence and expressed support for the Artsakh Republic's efforts to develop as a free and independent nation.[79] In November 2013, Highland, California, recognised Artsakh and was twinned with Berdzor.[77][80] In January 2014, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
recognised Artsakh.[81] In May 2014, the California State Assembly
California State Assembly
passed a measure recognising Artsakh's independence with a 70–1 vote.[82] The measure also calls for President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and the U.S. Congress
U.S. Congress
to recognise Artsakh Republic.[83] In May 2014, the Louisiana State Senate
Louisiana State Senate
adopted a resolution saluting the Artsakh Republic’s independence and urging the U.S. President and Congress to "Support Self-Determination and Democratic Independence of the Artsakh Republic".[84] On 27 August 2014, the California State Senate
California State Senate
voted unanimously (23–0) to pass Assembly Joint Resolution 32, recognising the Republic
Republic
of Nagorno Karabakh as a sovereign state. The resolution encourages Artsakh’s efforts to develop as a free and independent nation and formally calls upon the President and Congress of the United States to support the self-determination and democratic independence of the Artsakh Republic.[85][86] On 3 March 2016, Georgia became the sixth state of the U.S. to recognize the independence of Artsakh.[87] On 30 March 2016, Hawaii
Hawaii
became the seventh state to unanimously recognize Artsakh, the Hawaii
Hawaii
House of Representatives placed bill H.R. 167 into effect despite pressure from Azerbaijani diplomats and Washington D.C.[88] On 30 March 2016, the US Embassy in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
issued a declaration that US foreign state policy is determined at a federal government level, and that the United States does not recognize the Artsakh Republic.[89] This statement was delivered shortly after Azerbaijan's president, president Ilham Aliyev, arrived in Washington D.C
Washington D.C
for bilateral discussions. On 5 May 2016 the Government of Armenia
Armenia
approved the bill on recognition of the independence of the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh. It was announced, that the recognition of the independence of the Artsakh Republic
Republic
is "due to the results of discussions between Armenia
Armenia
and Artsakh, [and] considering further developments, including external factors.”[90] On 28 September 2017 Michigan became the 8th U.S. state to recognize the independent Republic
Republic
of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabagh). The bipartisan measure calls upon the U.S. to establish economic and cultural ties with the Artsakh Republic
Republic
and support peace and stability across the South Caucasus.[91]

Displaced people[edit] The Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
conflict has resulted in the displacement of 597,000 Azerbaijanis[92] (this figure includes 230,000 children born to IDPs and 54,000 who have returned[92]) including Artsakh, and 220,000 Azeris, 18,000 Kurds and 3,500 Russians
Russians
fled from Armenia
Armenia
to Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
from 1988 to 1989. The Azerbaijani government has estimated that 63 percent of internally displaced persons (IDPs) lived below the poverty line as compared to 49% of the total population. About 154,000 lived in the capital, Baku. According to the International Organization for Migration, 40,000 IDPs lived in camps, 60,000 in underground dugout shelters, and 20,000 in railway cars. Forty-thousand IDPs lived in EU-funded settlements and UNHCR provided housing for another 40,000. Another 5,000 IDPs lived in abandoned or rapidly deteriorating schools. Others lived in trains, on roadsides in half-constructed buildings, or in public buildings such as tourist and health facilities. Tens of thousands lived in seven tent camps where poor water supply and sanitation caused gastro-intestinal infections, tuberculosis, and malaria.[93] The government required IDPs to register their place of residence in an attempt to better target the limited and largely inadequate national and international assistance due to the Armenian advocated and US imposed restrictions on humanitarian aid to Azerbaijan. Many IDPs were from rural areas and found it difficult to integrate into the urban labor market. Many international humanitarian agencies reduced or ceased assistance for IDPs citing increasing oil revenues of the country.[94] The infant mortality among displaced Azerbaijani children is 3–4 times higher than in the rest of the population. The rate of stillbirth was 88.2 per 1,000 births among the internally displaced people. The majority of the displaced have lived in difficult conditions for more than 13 years.[95] 280,000 persons—virtually all ethnic Armenians
Armenians
who fled Azerbaijan during the 1988–1993 war over the disputed region of Artsakh—were living in refugee-like circumstances in Armenia.[96] Some left the country, principally to Russia. Their children born in Armenia
Armenia
acquire citizenship automatically. Their numbers are thus subject to constant decline due to departure, and de-registration required for naturalization. Of these, about 250,000 fled Azerbaijan-proper (areas outside Nagorno-Karabakh); approximately 30,000 came from Nagorno-Karabakh. All were registered with the government as refugees at year's end.[96] Geography[edit]

Mount Mrav, the highest peak in Artsakh.

The Artsakh Republic
Republic
is mountainous, a feature which has given it its former name (from the Russian for "Mountainous/Highland Karabakh"). It is 11,500 km2 (4,440 sq mi) in area, bordering Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran. The highest peaks in the country are Mount Mrav at 3,340 metres (10,958 ft), and Mount Kirs at 2,725 metres (8,940 ft). The largest water body is the Sarsang reservoir, and the major rivers are the Terter and Khachen rivers.[97] The country is on a plateau which slopes downwards towards the east and southeast, with the average altitude being 3,600 ft (1,097 m) above sea level. Most rivers in the country flow towards the Artsakh Valley.[98] The climate is mild and temperate. The average temperature is 11 °C (52 °F), which fluctuates annually between 22 °C (72 °F) in July and −1 °C (30 °F) in January. The average precipitation can reach 710 mm (28 in) in some regions, and it is foggy for over 100 days a year.[98] Over 2,000 kinds of plants exist in Artsakh, and more than 36% of the country is forested. The plant life on the steppes consists mostly of semi-desert vegetation, while subalpine zone and alpine tundra ecosystems can be found above the forest in the highlands and mountains.[98] Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: Administrative divisions of the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh

Regions of Artsakh: 1: Shahumyan; 2: Mardakert; 3: Askeran; 4: Martuni; 5: Hadrut; 6: Shushi; 7: Kashatagh. ( Stepanakert
Stepanakert
not shown.)

Main cities and towns in Artsakh

The Republic
Republic
of Artsakh has eight administrative divisions. Their territories include the five districts of the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO), the Shahumyan Region
Shahumyan Region
in the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
SSR which is currently under Azerbaijani control, and the seven districts around the former NKAO that are under the control of the Artsakhi forces. Following the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Republic's declaration of independence, the Azerbaijani government abolished the NKAO and created Azerbaijani districts in its place. As a result, some of the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh's divisions correspond with the Azerbaijani districts, while others have different borders. A comparative table of the current divisions of Artsakh and the corresponding districts of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
follows:[99]

# Artsakh Division[100] Population (2005) Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Rayon(s) Sahar (city) Former NKAO?

1 Shahumyan
Shahumyan
Region 2,560 Southern Goranboy, Western Kalbajar Kalbajar
Kalbajar
(formerly Shahumian) No

2 Martakert
Martakert
Region 18,963 Eastern Kalbajar, Western Tartar, portion of Agdam Martakert Partially

3 Askeran Region 16,979 Khojali, portion of Agdam Askeran Partially

4 Martuni Region 23,157 Northern Khojavend, portion of Agdam Martuni Partially

5 Hadrut Region 12,005 Southern Khojavend, Jabrayil, portion of Fizuli Hadrut Partially

6 Shushi
Shushi
Region 4,324 Shusha Shushi Yes

7 Kashatagh Region 9,763 Lachin, Qubadli, Zangilan Berdzor No

8 Stepanakert
Stepanakert
(capital) 49,986 Khojali Stepanakert Yes

The Republic
Republic
of Artsakh claims Shahumian, which was not part of the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast. Representatives from Shahumian declared independence along with Artsakh, and the proclamation of Artsakh includes the Shahumian
Shahumian
region within its borders.[101] Unlike the rest of Artsakh, Shahumian
Shahumian
remains under Azerbaijani control. Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh

Children at Tumo Center Artsakh branch

The Freedom Fighters' Boulevard in Stepanakert

Azokh
Azokh
village

Mountain view in Martakert
Martakert
region

In 2002, the country's population was 145,000, made up of 95% Armenians
Armenians
and 5% others.[97]In March 2007, the local government announced that its population had grown to 138,000. The annual birth rate was recorded at 2,200–2,300 per year, an increase from nearly 1,500 in 1999. OSCE
OSCE
report, released in March 2011, estimates the population of the "seven occupied territories surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh" to be 14,000, and states "there has been no significant growth in the population since 2005."[102][103] Until 2000, the country's net migration was at a negative.[104] For the first half of 2007, 1,010 births and 659 deaths were reported, with a net emigration of 27.[105] According to age group: 15,700 (0–6), 25,200 (7–17) 75,800 (18–59) and 21,000 (60+) Population by province (2006):

Stepanakert
Stepanakert
54,500 (2013) Martuni 23,200 Martakert
Martakert
19,000 Askeran 17,400 (2007) Hadrut 12,300 (2009) Kashatagh 9,800 Shushi
Shushi
5,000 (2009) Shahumyan
Shahumyan
2,800

Population of the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh (2000–2008)[106][107]

Year Population (000s) Urban (000s) Rural (000s) Birth rate Death rate NGR Net immigration

2000 134.4 68.4 66.0 16.6 8.8 7.7 16.1

2001 135.7 68.7 67.0 17.0 7.9 9.1 11.5

2002 136.6 69.3 67.3 16.0 9.1 6.9 4.9

2003 137.0 69.1 67.9 15.0 9.0 6.0 1.3

2004 137.2 69.8 67.4 15.3 9.5 5.8 −2.6

2005 137.7 70.5 67.2 14.6 9.2 5.4 1.7

2006 137.7 70.8 66.9 15.3 9.0 6.3 −3.2

2007 138.8 71.6 67.2 15.4 8.8 6.6 −1.4

2008 139.9 72.7 67.2 17.3 9.4 7.9 2.6

Ethnic composition[edit] Ethnic Groups of the Nagorno-Karabach AO (1926–1989) and the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh (2015) according to census data

Ethnic group

census 1926 census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2005 census 2015 1

Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %

Armenians 111,694 89.1 132,800 88.0 110,053 84.4 121,068 80.5 123,076 75.9 145,450 76.9 137,380 99.7 144,683 99.7

Azerbaijanis 12,592 10.0 14,053 9.3 17,995 13.8 27,179 18.1 37,264 23.0 40,688 21.5 6 0.0

Russians 596 0.5 3,174 2.1 1,790 1.4 1,310 0.9 1,265 0.8 1,922 1.0 171 0.1 238 0.1

Ukrainians

436 0.3

193 0.1 140 0.1 416 0.2 21 0.0 26 0.0

Yezidis

16 0.0

Assyrians

16 0.0

Georgians

15 0.0

Others 416 0.3 374 0.2 568 0.4 563 0.4 436 0.3 609 0.3 159 0.1 50 0.0

Total 125,300 150,837 130,406 150,313 162,181 189,085 137,737 145,053

The territorial borders of the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
AO and the Artsakh Republic
Republic
are different.

Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Nagorno-Karabakh

Amaras Monastery

Dadivank Monastery

Gandzasar Cathedral

Ghazanchetsots Cathedral

Most of the Armenian population in Artsakh is Christian and belongs to the Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
which is an Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox
Church. Certain Eastern Orthodox and Evangelical
Evangelical
denominations also exist.[97][dubious – discuss] However, military authorities prohibited any Christian sect activity in Artsakh, for the reason that they would preach pacifism among population.[108] The Gandzasar monastery
Gandzasar monastery
("Գանձասար" in Armenian) is a historical monastery in Artsakh. Another is Dadivank Monastery (Armenian: Դադիվանք) also Khutavank (Armenian: Խութավանք – Monastery on the Hill) that was built between the 9th and 13th century. Artsakhi government's aim is to include the Gandzasar Monastery into the directory of the UNESCO's World Heritage Sites. Ghazanchetsots Cathedral
Ghazanchetsots Cathedral
(built 1868–1888) (Սուրբ Ամենափրկիչ Ղազանչեցոց Եկեղեցի (Surb Amenap'rkich Ghazanchets'ots' Yekeghets'i) in Armenian), also known as the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and the Shushi
Shushi
Cathedral, is an Armenian church located in Shusha. It is the main cathedral and headquarters of the Armenian Apostolic Church's "Diocese of Artsakh". Just uphill from the cathedral in Shushi
Shushi
is the Kanach Zham
Kanach Zham
(Green Church in Armenian) built in 1847. Amaras Monastery
Amaras Monastery
(4th century) was a monastery was established by the foremost Armenian saint, St. Gregory the Enlightener, who baptized Armenia
Armenia
into the world's first Christian state in 301 AD. Amaras also hosted the first school where St. Mesrop Mashtots, the inventor of the Armenian alphabet, taught the new script to pupils, in the 5th century. The Amaras Monastery's location is in the Martuni District. Tzitzernavank Monastery
Tzitzernavank Monastery
(4th century) is the best preserved example of an Armenian basilica with three naves. The monastery is in the Qashatagh
Qashatagh
District. Saint Yeghishe Arakyal Monastery
Saint Yeghishe Arakyal Monastery
(5th–13th centuries) commemorating St. Yeghishe, the famous evangelizer of Armenia's eastern lands. The church serves as a burial ground for the 5th century's King Vachagan II the Pious, the most well-known representative of the Arranshahik line of east Armenian monarchs. The monastery is located in the Martakert
Martakert
District. Dadivank Monastery
Dadivank Monastery
(13th century) is one of the most architecturally and culturally significant Monasteries in Artsakh. The western façade of Dadivank's Memorial Cathedral bears one of the most extensive Armenian lapidary (inscribed-in-stone) texts, and has one of the largest collection of Medieval Armenian frescoes. Dadivank is named after St. Dadi, a disciple of Apostle Thaddeus who preached the Holy Gospel in Artsakh in the 1st century. St. Dadi's tomb was later discovered by archeologists in 2007. The monastery is in the Shahumian District. Gtichavank
Gtichavank
Monastery (13th century) has design features shared with the architectural style of medieval Armenia's capital city of Ani. The monastery is located in the Hadrut District. Bri Yeghtze Monastery (13th century) that centers on embedded khachkars, unique-to- Armenia
Armenia
stone memorials with engraved crosses. The monastery is located in the Martuni District. Yerits Mankants Monastery
Yerits Mankants Monastery
(17th century) (meaning "three infants" in Armenian) is known for hosting the seat of Artsakh's rival clergy to that of the Holy See of Gandzasar. The monastery is located in the Martakert
Martakert
District. Church of St. Nerses the Great, is located in the city of Martuni. It is dedicated to the famous Armenian Catholicos, St. Nerses the Great. Post-war resettlement attempts[edit] Following the ceasefire, the Stepanakert-based administration launched various programs aimed at bringing in permanent Armenian settlers to the depopulated lands, including into regions previously populated by Azeris, with those that bordered Armenia
Armenia
Lachin
Lachin
and Kalbajar
Kalbajar
– being the priority.[109] Incentives in the form of free housing, access to property, social infrastructure, inexpensive or sometimes free electricity, running water, low taxes or limited tax exemptions were offered to new settlers. Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
regards this as a violation of Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention, to which Armenia
Armenia
became party in 1993, whereby "[t]he Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies".[110] The ruling party of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
accuses the Armenian side of artificially changing the demographic situation and the ethnic composition of the occupied region so that it can lay future claims to them, comparing this to the 1950s campaign of resettling diaspora Armenians
Armenians
in previously Azeri-populated locales in Soviet Armenia
Armenia
where Azeris
Azeris
were forcibly deported from in 1948–1950.[111] In 1979, the total Armenian population of the districts of Kalbajar, Lachin, Qubadli, Zangilan, Jabrayil, Fuzuli and Agdam was around 1,400 people.[112] An OSCE
OSCE
fact-finding mission established at Azerbaijan's request visited these regions in February 2005 with the intention to assess the scale of the settlement attempts. The mission's findings showed that these districts had as of 2005 an overall population of 14,000 persons, mostly living in precarious social conditions. It consisted primarily of ethnic Armenians
Armenians
displaced from non-conflict zones of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
during the war. It was noted, however, that most of them had settled in the conflict zone after having lived in Armenia for several years and some held Armenian passports and even voted in Armenian elections. A smaller segment of the settlers were originally from the towns of Gyumri
Gyumri
and Spitak
Spitak
in Armenia
Armenia
who had lived in temporary shelters following the devastating 1988 earthquake before moving to Karabakh, as well as a small number of natives of Yerevan who moved there for financial reasons.[113] A field assessment mission revisited the region in October 2010, confirming that there had not been much growth in population or change in living conditions of the settlers.[114] The Co-Chairs of the Minsk Group who visited Artsakh, Kalbajar
Kalbajar
and Lachin
Lachin
in 2014 reported seeing signs of improvements in infrastructure, but could not observe any indications that the size of the population had changed in recent years.[115] By June 2015, an estimated 17,000 of Syria's once 80,000-strong Armenian population had fled the civil war and sought refuge in Armenia.[116] David Babayan, spokesperson of the Artsakhi leader Bako Sahakyan, confirmed that some of those refugees had been resettled in Artsakh.[117] The Economist
The Economist
put the number of the resettled families at 30 as of June 2017.[118] In December 2014, Armenian media cited local municipal authorities in stating that dozens of Syrian Armenian families had been resettled in the disputed zone, in particular in the city of Lachin
Lachin
and the village of Xanlıq
Xanlıq
in Qubadli.[119] Azerbaijan's Minister of Foreign Affairs Elmar Mammadyarov
Elmar Mammadyarov
expressed his concern over Armenia's attempts to change the demographic situation in the region and informed of his intention to raise this issue with the Minsk Group.[120] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh

A hotel in downtown Stepanakert

The socio-economic situation of the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh was greatly affected by the conflict. Yet, foreign investments are beginning to come. The origin of most venture capital comes from Armenians
Armenians
in Armenia, Russia, United States, France, Australia, Iran, and the Middle East. Notably the telecommunications sector was developed with Karabakh Telecom[121] investing millions of dollars in mobile telephony, spearheaded by a Lebanese company. Copper and gold mining has been advancing since 2002 with development and launch of operations at Drmbon
Drmbon
deposit.[122] Approximately 27–28 thousand tons (wet weight) of concentrates are produced[123] with average copper content of 19–21% and gold content of 32–34 g/t.[124] The banking system is administered by Artsakhbank (the state bank) and a number of Armenian banks. The republic uses the Armenian dram. Wine growing and processing of agricultural products, particularly wine (i.e., storage of wine, wine stuff, cognac alcohol) is one of the prioritized directions of the economic development.[125] Tourism[edit]

Karmir Shuka.

The ruins of Tigranakert.

Section of Janapar
Janapar
trail.

The republic is developing a tourist industry geared to Armenia
Armenia
and the Armenian diaspora. The republic has been showing a major increase in tourists over the last several years, which keeps growing because of Artsakh's many cultural sights. There are currently nine[126] hotels in Stepanakert. The Artsakh development agency says 4,000 tourists visited Artsakh in 2005. The figures rose to 8,000 in 2010 (excluding visitors from Armenia).[127] The agency cooperates with the Armenia
Armenia
Tourism Development Agency (ATDA) as Armenia
Armenia
is the only way tourists (mainly Armenians) can access Artsakh. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Artsakh informs of continuous expansion visitors' geography.[128] The Tourism Development Agency of Artsakh was established in Yerevan as a non-governmental organisation in the Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
to promote tourism further in Artsakh. It makes preparations for tour operators, travel agencies and journalists covering the region, and arranges for hotel services, shopping, catering, recreation centers. Tourist attractions include:

Gandzasar monastery, main tourist attraction. Ghazanchetsots Cathedral
Ghazanchetsots Cathedral
of the Holy Savior. Church of the Holy Mother of God "Kanach Zham". Amaras Monastery. Tzitzernavank Monastery. St. Yeghish Arakyal Monastery. Dadivank Monastery. Gtichavank
Gtichavank
monastery. Bri Yeghtsi monastery. Yerits Mankants. Katarovank Monastery

Other tourist attractions include:

The ancient city of Tigranakert, one of four cities that were founded in the 1st century BC in opposite corners of Armenia
Armenia
and named after King Tigran II the Great, ruler of the short-lived Armenian Empire. Tigranakert, which has been undergoing archaeological excavations since 2005, is located in Mardakert District. Fort Mayraberd (10th–18th centuries) served as the primary bulwark against Turko-nomadic incursions from the eastern steppe. The fort is found to the east of the region's capital city of Stepanakert. Govharagha Mosque (18th century), a mosque located in the city of Shushi.

Janapar
Janapar
is a marked trail through mountains, valleys and villages of Artsakh, with monasteries and fortresses along the way. The trail is broken into day hikes, which will bring tourists to a different village each night.[129] The paths have existed for centuries, but now are marked specifically for hikers. The Himnakan Janapar
Janapar
(backbone trail), marked in 2007, leads from the northwest region of Shahumian to the southern town of Hadrut. Side trails and mini trails take one to additional parts of Artsakh. The important sites passed along this hike include Dadivank Monastery, Gandzasar monastery, Shushi, the Karkar Canyon with its high cliffs, Zontik Waterfall and the ruins of Hunot and Gtichavank
Gtichavank
monastery. Cost of staying in Artsakh is relatively cheaper in comparison with the region itself and varies approximately between 25 – 70 USD for a single person as of May, 2017.[126] However, those who travelled to Artsakh without Azerbaijani government's prior consent and permission will be denied entry to Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
since the country considers Artsakh their territory unlawfully occupied by Armenian army.[130] Azerbaijani government also keeps and publishes online a list of foreign nationals who visited these occupied areas without prior approval.[131] In late 2017 the list contained 699 names with additional details (date, country, profession, purpose of visit). The earliest entry recorded a visit to Artsakh that occurred on an unspecified date sometime between 1993-1996. The list contains many journalists and members of parliaments of foreign countries. Transportation[edit]

Stepanakert
Stepanakert
Airport

The transportation system damaged by the conflict has been noticeably improved during the last several years: the North-South Artsakh motorway alone has largely facilitated in the development of the transportation system.[132] The 169 kilometres (105 mi) Hadrut-Stepanakert-Askeran-Martakert motorway, the locals say, is the lifeline of Artsakh. $25 million donated during the Hayastan All-Armenian Foundation telethons have been allotted for the construction of the road.[132][133] The route from the Armenian capital Yerevan
Yerevan
to Stepanakert
Stepanakert
is estimated to be reduced from the current 8–9 hours drive once major infrastructures are realized.[134] Stepanakert
Stepanakert
Airport, the sole civilian airport of the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh, located about 8 kilometres (5 miles) east of the capital, has been closed since the onset of the war more than twenty years ago. However, the government was pressing ahead with plans to reopen the airport as of early 2011, and raised about 1 billion drams ($2.8 million) for its reconstruction from unspecified "charitable sources." It began building a new airport terminal and repairing the runway in late 2009. In any case, its unresolved status makes direct air communication with other countries all but impossible according to IATA conventions.[135] Though originally scheduled to launch the first commercial flights on 9 May 2011, Artsakh officials postponed a new reopening date throughout the whole of 2011.[136] In May 2012, the director of the Artsakh Civil Aviation Administration, Tigran Gabrielyan, announced that the airport would begin operations in mid-2012.[137] However the airport still remains closed due to political reasons. Education[edit]

Artsakh State University

Education in Artsakh is compulsory, and is free up to the age of 18. The education system is inherited from the old system of the Soviet Union.[138] Artsakh's school system was severely damaged because of the conflict. But the government of the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh with considerable aid from the Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
and with donations from the Armenian diaspora, has rebuilt many of the schools. The republic has around 250 schools of various sizes, with more than 200 lying in the regions. The student population estimated at more than 20,000 study, with almost half in the capital city of Stepanakert. Artsakh State University
Artsakh State University
was founded by Artsakh and Armenian governments' joint efforts, with main campus in Stepanakert. The university opening ceremony took place on 10 May 1992. Yerevan
Yerevan
University of Management also opened a branch in Stepanakert. Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Artsakh

The National Gallery of Shushi

"We Are Our Mountains" (Armenian: Մենք ենք մեր սարերը) by Sargis Baghdasaryan
Sargis Baghdasaryan
is a monument located in Stepanakert.[139] The sculpture is widely regarded as a symbol of the de facto independent Republic
Republic
of Artsakh. It is a large monument from tuff of an old Armenian man and woman hewn from rock, representing the mountain people of Artsakh. It is also known as Tatik yev Papik(Տատիկ և Պապիկ) in Armenian. The sculpture is featured prominently on Artsakh's coat of arms. Artsakh State Museum
Artsakh State Museum
is the historical museum of the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh. Located at 4 Sasunstsi David Street, in Stepanakert, the museum offers an assortment of ancient artifacts and Christian manuscripts. There are also more recent items, ranging in date from the 19th century to World War II and from events of the Karabakh Independence War. Artsakh has its own brand of popular music. As Artsakh question became a pan-Armenian question, Artsakh music was further promoted worldwide. Many nationalist songs, performed by Artsakhi artists, as well as artists from Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
and the Armenian diaspora, show support for the Artsakh independence movement; videos for the songs incorporate footage of Artsakhi military campaigns. These videos are posted to sites such as YouTube, where they often generate conflicting nationalist Armenian and Azerbaijani comments. Publications[edit] Azat Artsakh is the official newspaper of the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh. Sports[edit]

Stepanakert
Stepanakert
Republican Stadium

Sports in the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh are organised by the Artsakh Ministry of Culture and Youth. Due to the non-recognition of Artsakh, sports teams from the country cannot compete in most international tournaments. Football is the most popular sport in Artsakh. Stepanakert
Stepanakert
has a well-built football stadium. Since the mid-1990s, football teams from Artsakh started taking part in some domestic competitions in the Republic
Republic
of Armenia. The Lernayin Artsakh represents the city of Stepanakert. The Artsakh football league was launched in 2009. The Artsakh national football team
Artsakh national football team
was formed in 2012 and played their first competitive match against the Abkhazia
Abkhazia
national football team in Sokhumi, a match that ended with a result of 1–1 draw.[140][141] The return match between the unrecognized teams took place at the Stepanakert
Stepanakert
Stadium, on 21 October 2012, when the team from Artsakh defeated the Abkhazian team 3–0. There is also interest in other sports, including basketball and volleyball. Sailing is practiced in the town of Martakert. Artsakh sports teams and athletes also participate in the Pan-Armenian Games organised in the Republic
Republic
of Armenia. Holidays[edit]

Date[97] English name Local name Remarks

31 Dec – 1 Jan New Year's Day

6 Jan Christmas

20 Feb Artsakh Revival Day

8 March Women's Day

7 April Motherhood and Beauty Day

24 April Genocide Remembrance Day

1 May Worker's Solidarity Day

9 May Victory, Armed Forces & Shushi
Shushi
Liberation Day

28 May First Armenian Republic
Republic
Day

1 June Children's Day

29 June Fallen Soldiers and Missing in Action Memorial Day

2 September Independence Day

7 December Armenian Earthquake Memorial Day

10 December Independence Referendum
Referendum
Day Constitution Day

See also[edit]

Armenian-controlled territories surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh Community for Democracy
Democracy
and Rights of Nations Foreign relations of Artsakh Janapar
Janapar
– Multi-section hiking trail going through much of Karabakh Outline of Artsakh

Geography portal Artsakh portal Armenia
Armenia
portal Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
portal Europe
Europe
portal

References[edit]

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Caucasus
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Republic. Archived from the original on 26 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2010.  ^ Серж Саргсян: Нагорный Карабах – это Армения Archived 27 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Vestnik Kavkaza. 26 September 2015. ^ "Constitution of the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh". Nkrusa.org. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ "Important Facts about NKR Defense Army The Office of the Republic of Artsakh in USA". Nkrusa.org. Archived from the original on 1 August 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ Blandy, C. W. "Azerbaijan: Is War Over Nagornyy Karabakh a Realistic Option? Archived 10 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine." Advanced Research and Assessment Group. Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, Caucasus
Caucasus
Series 08/17, 2008, p.14. ^ "UN: More Than 100 Killed By Mines Near Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
– Radio Free Europe
Europe
/ Radio Liberty 2009". Rferl.org. 24 December 2005. Archived from the original on 6 July 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "The HALO Trust
HALO Trust
- A charity specialising in the removal of the debris of war :: Requirement for continued clearance". 25 June 2010. Archived from the original on 25 June 2010. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ " Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
World Report 1995". Hrw.org. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ Institute for Security Studies of WEU. Dov Lynch. Managing separatist states: A Eurasian case study. Archived 6 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Hughes, James (2002). Ethnicity and Territory in the Former Soviet Union: Regions in Conflict (1. publ. ed.). London: Cass. p. 211. ISBN 9780714682105. Indeed, Nagomo- Karabakh is de facto part of Armenia.  ^ " Armenia
Armenia
expects Russian support in Karabakh war". Hürriyet Daily News. 20 May 2011. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 25 June 2013. While internationally recognized as Azerbaijani territory, the enclave has declared itself an independent republic but is administered as a de facto part of Armenia.  ^ Central Asia
Asia
and The Caucasus, Information and Analytical Center, 2009, Issues 55–60, Page 74, " Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
became de facto a part of Armenia
Armenia
(its quasi-statehood can dupe no one) as a result of aggression." ^ Deutsche Gesellschaft für auswärtige Politik, Internationale Politik, Volume 8, 2007 "...and Nagorno-Karabakh, the disputed territory that is now de facto part of Armenia..." ^ Cornell, Svante (2011). Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Since Independence. New York: M.E. Sharpe. p. 135. ISBN 9780765630049. Following the war, the territories that fell under Armenian control, in particular Mountainous Karabakh itself, were slowly integrated into Armenia. Officially, Karabakh and Armenia
Armenia
remain separate political entities, but for most practical matters the two entities are unified.  ^ "Nagorno-Karabakh". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic
Republic
of Armenia. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.  ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Republic. "Nagorno Karabagh Republic: History and Current Reality". Archived from the original on 20 May 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2010.  ^ "Interview of President Serzh Sargsyan
Serzh Sargsyan
to "Politique Internationale" Journal". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
Official Site. 4 March 2009. Archived from the original on 29 April 2010. Retrieved 15 November 2013.  ^ "Minister of Foreign Affairs of Armenia
Armenia
on a question of "Haylur" News Program". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Republic
Republic
of Armenia Official Site. 16 February 2010. Archived from the original on 11 November 2011.  ^ U.S. Department of State – Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan: Key West
Key West
Peace Talks Archived 16 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Resources – Center for Security Studies ETH Zurich". Isn.ethz.ch (in German). 2016-12-12. Retrieved 2016-12-18.  ^ Condon, Christopher (2006-06-05). "'Marathon' talks on Nagorno-Karabakh". News.ft.com. Retrieved 2012-05-06.  ^ "Kocharyan-Aliyev Meeting Over in Bucharest". Panarmenian.net. 5 June 2006. Archived from the original on 22 September 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ " Yerevan
Yerevan
Ready to Continue Dialogue with Baku for Karabakh Settlement". Panarmenian.net. 5 June 2006. Archived from the original on 22 September 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "No Progress at Kocharyan-Aliyev Meeting in Bucharest". Panarmenian.net. 6 June 2006. Archived from the original on 22 September 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ " Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
FM: Granting Autonomy To Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Is Out Of Baku Competence". Regnum.ru. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "U.S. Confirms Vote Option For Karabakh". Azatutyun .am (in Armenian). 23 June 2006. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ "Armenian, Azeri Leaders 'Agreed To Karabakh Referendum'". Azatutyun .am (in Armenian). 27 June 2006. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ "Azerbaijani Foreign Ministry about latest statement of Armenia
Armenia
on Nagorno Karabakh". Today.az. 27 June 2006. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "Isa Gambar: "Baku Gave OK On Referendum
Referendum
In Nagorno-Karabakh"". Today.az. 28 June 2006. Archived from the original on 17 January 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "Resources – Center for Security Studies ETH Zurich". Isn.ethz.ch (in German). 12 December 2016. Archived from the original on 13 June 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ " Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Prepared to Hold Anti-Terror Operations in Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
against Placement of Kurdish Gunmen". Trend News Agency. 10 December 2007. Archived from the original on 7 January 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2007.  ^ "Vladimir Karapetyan: Allegations of PKK bases in Armenia
Armenia
and NK groundless provocation". Regnum. 5 December 2007. Archived from the original on 2 January 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2007.  ^ Azerbaijani president: Armenians
Armenians
are guests in Yerevan
Yerevan
Archived 12 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine., REGNUM News Agency, 17 January 2008. ^ "Artsakh will never be a part of Azerbaijan". Panarmenian.net. 4 February 2009. Archived from the original on 17 October 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.  ^ "Serzh Sargsyan: Karabakh was never a part of independent Azerbaijan". Panorama.am. 10 February 2010. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 September 2017.  ^ "UNO Department of Public Information. General Assembly adopts resolution reaffirming territorial integrity of Azerbaijan, demanding withdrawal of all Armenian forces". Un.org. 14 March 2008. Archived from the original on 3 July 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ cs – čeština (20 May 2010). "South Caucasus: EU must help stabilise the region, say MEPs". Europarl.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 4 February 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ cs – čeština (20 May 2010). "Texts adopted – Thursday, 20 May 2010 – The need for an EU strategy for the South Caucasus
South Caucasus
– P7_TA-PROV(2010)0193". Europarl.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 22 June 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "G8 Summit: Joint Statement On The Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Conflict by Dmitry Medvedev, President Of The Russian Federation, Barack Obama, President Of The United States Of America, and Nicolas Sarkozy, President Of The French Republic". Whitehouse.gov. 26 June 2010. Archived from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "If Tuvalu
Tuvalu
recognizes Karabakh's independence, will Turkey
Turkey
ask Tuvalu
Tuvalu
to return footballs?". 26 March 2012. Archived from the original on 29 March 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2012.  ^ "Rhode Island Legislature Calls For Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Recognition". Rferl.org. 18 May 2012. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ "Massachusetts State Legislature Calls For Recognition Of Nagorno-Karabakh". Rferl.org. 7 August 2012. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ "Australia's New South Wales Recognizes Karabakh Independence". Asbarez. 25 October 2012. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016.  ^ "JOINT RESOLUTION MEMORIALIZING THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES AND THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS TO SUPPORT THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE NAGORNOKARABAKH REPUBLIC" (PDF). Mainelegislature.org. Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ a b " Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Protests California Town's Recognition of Nagorno-Karabakh". RIA Novosti. 6 December 2013. Archived from the original on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2014.  ^ "98th Anniversary of the Armenian Genocide and Independence of Nagomo Karabakh Republic" (PDF). 2.co.fresno.ca.us. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ "OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE SENATE OF THE STATE OF LOUISIANA" (PDF). Senate.la.gov. Retrieved 2016-12-18.  ^ "The US City of Highland Recognizes Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
– Armenian News". Tert.am. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ " Los Angeles
Los Angeles
city council recognizes the independence of Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Republic". ARKA News Agency. 29 January 2014. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.  ^ White, Jeremy B. (8 May 2014). "Capitol Alert: California Assembly calls for Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Republic". Fresno Bee. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014.  ^ Mason, Melanie (5 May 2014). "Calif. lawmakers to weigh in on dispute between Armenia, Azerbaijan". LA Times. Archived from the original on 13 May 2014.  ^ ANCA LOUISIANA STATE SENATE RECOGNIZES KARABAKH INDEPENDENCE Archived 31 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "California Senate Recognizes Artsakh's Independence - Armenian Weekly". 2 September 2014. Archived from the original on 2 September 2014. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ California State Senate
California State Senate
Recognizes Karabakh’s Independence Archived 1 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Georgia House Recognizes Independence of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic". Asbarez.com. 3 March 2016. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ " Hawaii
Hawaii
Recognizes Nagorno Karabakh Republic's Independence". Asbarez.com. 30 March 2016. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ "US Embassy: US does not recognize " Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Republic"". News.Az. 31 March 2016. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ " Armenia
Armenia
government approves bill on recognition of Karabakh independence". News.am. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ Hairenik (28 September 2017). "Breaking: Michigan Recognizes Artsakh Independence". The Armenian Weekly. Archived from the original on 28 September 2017. Retrieved 28 September 2017.  ^ a b Council, Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) - Norwegian Refugee. "IDMC » Azerbaijan: After more than 20 years, IDPs still urgently need policies to support full integration". www.internal-displacement.org. Archived from the original on 17 September 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2017.  ^ Hundreds of thousands of people displaced Archived 2 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. Amnesty International. 28 June 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2008. ^ World Refugee Survey: Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
report 2005 Archived 7 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Global IDP Project: Proifle of Internal Displacement: Azerbaijan. May 2003 Archived 28 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine. (as a PDF file) ^ a b US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. World Refugee Survey; Armenia
Armenia
Country Report. 2001. Archived 7 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. According to the Nagorno Karabakh Republic
Republic
information, Some 350,000 Armenians
Armenians
were expelled from Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and some 36,000 of them came to Nagorno Karabakh. Additionally some 71,000 Karabakh Armenians
Armenians
were internally displaced ("FACT SHEET: REFUGEES & INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS (IDP) IN NAGORNO KARABAKH" (PDF). The Office of the Nagorno Karabakh Republic
Republic
(NKR) in the USA. May 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2010. ). ^ a b c d "Nagorno Karabakh Republic
Republic
– Country Overview". Nkrusa.org. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ a b c "The Office of the Nagorno Karabakh Republic
Republic
in USA". Nkrusa.org. Archived from the original on 18 April 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "Azerb.com – Regions". Travel-images.com. 24 March 2007. Archived from the original on 9 June 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "2005 NKR census (Map of divisions and info on each shown" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ [2] Archived 3 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Azerbaijani Party Appeals To OSCE
OSCE
About Armenian Resettlement". RFERL. 13 May 2011. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 13 May 2011.  ^ "Executive Summary of the "Report of the OSCE
OSCE
Minsk Group Co-Chairs' Field Assessment Mission to the Occupied Territories of Azerbaijan Surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh"". OSCE. 2011. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2011.  ^ Regnum News Agency. Nagorno Karabakh prime minister: We need to have at least 300,000 population Archived 5 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. Regnum. 9 March 2007. Retrieved 9 March 2007. ^ "Евразийская панорама". Demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ [3] Archived 11 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Population" (PDF). Stat-nkr.am. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ "Правозащитный центр "Мемориал", Россия". Memo.ru. Archived from the original on 1 February 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ Заселение освобожденных территорий противоречит стратегическим интересам России Archived 28 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Nyut.am. 15 July 2013. ^ GENEVA CONVENTION RELATIVE TO THE PROTECTION OF CIVILIAN PERSONS IN TIME OF WAR OF 12 AUGUST 1949. Article 49. ^ Gafar Azimov. Правящая партия Азербайджана направила протест сопредседателям Минской группы ОБСЕ Archived 8 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Aze.az. 13 May 2011. ^ "ТЕРРИТОРИИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ИМПЕРИИ, ВОШЕДШИЕ ПОЗЖЕ В СОСТАВ АЗЕРБАЙДЖАНСКОЙ ССР (1886 г.)". Ethno-kavkaz.narod.ru. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ Report of the OSCE
OSCE
Fact-Finding Mission (FFM) to the Occupied Territories of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
(NK) Archived 29 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. February 2005. ^ "Executive Summary of the "Report of the OSCE
OSCE
Minsk Group Co-Chairs' Field Assessment Mission to the Occupied Territories of Azerbaijan Surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh". October 2010". Archived from the original on 11 June 2015.  ^ "Press Release by the Co-Chairs of the OSCE
OSCE
Minsk Group". OSCE. 20 May 2014. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees Archived 21 October 2015 at Wikiwix. ^ Nana Martirosyan. Давид Бабаян: Армения и Арцах приняли сирийских беженцев, исходя из гуманитарных принципов Archived 28 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. ArmInfo. 3 June 2015. ^ Syria’s Armenians
Armenians
are fleeing to their ancestral homeland Archived 5 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine.. The Economist. 26 June 2017. ^ ПОСЕЛИВШИЕСЯ В АРЦАХЕ СИРИЙСКИЕ АРМЯНЕ ГОВОРЯТ О СВОИХ ЧАЯНИЯХ Archived 28 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. NKR News. 26 December 2014. ^ Глава МИД Азербайджана о поэтапном урегулировании нагорно-карабахского конфликта Archived 28 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Trend. 15 September 2015. ^ "Karabakh Telecom site". Karabakhtelecom.com. Archived from the original on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "Base Metals LLC – History". Bm.am. 7 October 2002. Archived from the original on 18 April 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "Statistical Yearbook of NKR 2002–2008, p. 169" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ "Base Metals LLC – Product". Bm.am. Archived from the original on 17 January 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ " Republic
Republic
of Nagorno-Karabakh: Process of State Building at the Crossroad of Centuries" (PDF). "Institute of Political Research" SNCO. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 November 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2011.  ^ a b Solutions, Overall. "Search Hotels Stepanakert". Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2017.  ^ "В мире растет интерес к Арцаху". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Nagorno Karabakh Republic. 24 January 2011. Archived from the original on 26 May 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011. , Google Translation. ^ "Geography of the visitors to the NKR keeps on expanding". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Nagorno Karabakh Republic. 18 December 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 25 August 2010.  ^ Walk, the magazine of The Ramblers, Summer 2009, "Up the Garden Path" p 67-69. Laurence Mitchell. ^ "Warning for the foreign nationals wishing to travel to the occupied territories of the Republic
Republic
of Azerbaijan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic
Republic
of Azerbaijan. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.  ^ "List of foreign citizens illegally visited occupied territories of the Republic
Republic
of Azerbaijan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic
Republic
of Azerbaijan. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.  ^ a b "NORTH-SOUTH HIGHWAY: THE BACKBONE OF KARABAKH". Armenia
Armenia
Fund USA. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2014.  ^ "Karabakh hopes for recognition – from investors". Russia
Russia
Journal. 7 October 2000. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2014.  ^ "It'll take 3 hours to drive from Yerevan
Yerevan
to Stepanakert
Stepanakert
through new highway being constructed by Hayastan fund". Arka. 13 May 2013. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2014.  ^ " Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Airport Preparing For First Flights in Decades". Radio Free Europe
Europe
Radio Liberty. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 21 September 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2014.  ^ " Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Flights On Hold Despite Airport Reconstruction". RFE/RL. 16 May 2011. Archived from the original on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 16 May 2011.  ^ (in Armenian) "«Հայկական ժամանակ».Ստեփանակերտի օդանավակայանը վերջապես շահագործման կհանձնվի Archived 2 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine." (Haykakan Zhamanak: Stepanakert Airport will Finally Become Operational). Yelaket Lratvakan. May 30, 2012. ^ "Education in the Nagorno Karabakh Republic". Nkrusa.org. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2012.  ^ Artsakh: A Photographic Journey by Hrair Khatcherian, p.49. ^ "Աբխազիայի ու Արցախի հավաքականները բաժանվեցին խաղաղությամբ՝ 1:1". Tert.am. Archived from the original on 8 November 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2016.  ^ "Armenia's newly formed second national football team to face Abkhazia
Abkhazia
NEWS .am Sport – All about sports". Sport.news.am. 14 September 2012. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Retrieved 18 December 2016. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Nagorno-Karabakh.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
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Official websites

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Nagorno-Karabakh
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Republic Office of the Nagorno-Karabakh
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Republic, Washington D.C. National Statistical Service of NKR President of the Nagorno Karabagh Republic

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v t e

Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
conflict

Background

Nagorno-Karabakh

History

Deportation of Azerbaijanis
Azerbaijanis
from Armenia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Karabakh movement

Miatsum

Armenians
Armenians
in Azerbaijan

Armenians
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in Baku

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relations

Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
War

Askeran clash Sumgait pogrom Kirovabad pogrom Baku pogrom Battle of Kalbajar Capture of Shusha Black January Zvartnots Airport clash Siege of Stepanakert Khojaly Massacre Maraga massacre Mardakert and Martuni Offensives Law on Abolishment of Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast 1991 Azerbaijani Mil Mi-8 shootdown 1992 Azerbaijani Mil Mi-8 shootdown Operation Goranboy Operation Ring 1993 Summer Offensives 1994 Bagratashen bombing

Post-war clashes

2008 Mardakert skirmishes February 2010 Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
skirmish 2010 Mardakert skirmishes 2012 Armenian–Azerbaijani border clashes 2014 Armenian–Azerbaijani clashes 2014 Armenian Mil Mi-24 shootdown 2016 Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
clashes

Main locations

Administrative divisions of the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh

Stepanakert Askeran Region Hadrut Region Kashatagh Region Martakert
Martakert
Region Martuni Region Shahumyan
Shahumyan
Region Shushi
Shushi
Region

Armenian-controlled territories

Agdam District Fuzuli District Jabrayil District Kalbajar
Kalbajar
District Lachin
Lachin
District Qubadli District Zangilan District

Political leaders

 Armenia

Levon Ter-Petrosyan Robert Kocharyan Serzh Sargsyan

  Republic
Republic
of Artsakh

Artur Mkrtchyan Robert Kocharyan Leonard Petrosyan Arkadi Ghukasyan Bako Sahakyan

 Azerbaijan

Ayaz Mutallibov Abulfaz Elchibey Heydar Aliyev Ilham Aliyev

Azerbaijani Community of Nagorno-Karabakh

Bayram Safarov Nizami Bahmanov

 Russia

Boris Yeltsin

 Soviet Union

Mikhail Gorbachev

 Turkey

Turgut Özal

Military leaders

 Armenia

Vazgen Sargsyan Gurgen Dalibaltayan Norat Ter-Grigoryants Jirair Sefilian

  Republic
Republic
of Artsakh

Samvel Babayan Kristapor Ivanyan Arkady Ter-Tadevosyan Monte Melkonian

 Azerbaijan

Isgandar Hamidov Rahim Gaziyev Surat Huseynov Valeh Barshadly

 Russia

Pavel Grachev

 Soviet Union

Viktor Polyanichko

 Chechen Republic
Republic
of Ichkeria

Shamil Basayev

 Afghanistan

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar

Peace process

Baker rules Bishkek Protocol Tehran Communiqué Zheleznovodsk Communiqué OSCE
OSCE
Minsk Group Prague Process Madrid Principles

International documents

Astrakhan Declaration Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Declaration NATO Lisbon Summit Declaration OIC Resolution 10/11, OIC Resolution 10/37 PACE Resolution 1416 UNGA Resolution 62/243 UNSC Resolutions 822, 853, 874, 884

v t e

Community for Democracy
Democracy
and Rights of Nations

 Abkhazia  Artsakh  South Ossetia

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