Religious law
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Religious law includes ethical and moral codes taught by
religious tradition Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, ethics in religion, ...
s. Different religious systems hold sacred law in a greater or lesser degree of importance to their belief systems, with some being explicitly
antinomian Antinomianism (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Myc ...
whereas others are nomistic or "legalistic" in nature. In particular, religions such as
Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of de ...
,
Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
and the
Baháʼí Faith The Baháʼí Faith (; fa , بهائی ') is a relatively new religion teaching the Baháʼí Faith and the unity of religion, essential worth of all religions and Baháʼí Faith and the unity of humanity, the unity of all people. Establish ...
teach the need for revealed positive law for both state and society, whereas other religions such as
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's la ...
generally reject the idea that this is necessary or desirable and instead emphasise the eternal moral precepts of divine law over the civil, ceremonial or judicial aspects, which may have been annulled as in theologies of grace over law. Examples of religiously derived legal codes include
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is t ...
''
halakha ''Halakha'' (; he, הֲלָכָה, ; also Romanization of Hebrew, transliterated as ''halacha'', ''halakhah'', ''halachah'', or ''halocho''; ) is the collective body of Judaism, Jewish religious laws derived from the Torah, written and Oral Tor ...
'',
Islamic Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
''
sharia Sharia (, ar, ), Islamic law, or Sharia law, is a religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition. It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, derived from the hadith. In Arabic, the term ''sharīʿah'' refers to God in Islam, G ...
'',
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...
canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical jurisdiction, ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or churc ...
(applicable within a wider theological conception in the church, but in modern times distinct from secular state law), and Hindu law.


Established religions and religious institutions

A
state religion A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religion, religious body or creed officially endorsed by the Sovereign state, state. A state with an official religion, while not secular state, secular, is not neces ...
(or
established church A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether ...
) is a religious body officially endorsed by the
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
. A
theocracy Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as "a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polytheistic relig ...

theocracy
is a
form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature A legislature is a deliberative assemb ...
in which a
God God, in monotheistic thought, is conceived of as the supreme being, creator, and principal object of faith Faith, derived from Latin ''fides'' and Old French ''feid'', is confidence or trust in a person, thing, or In the context of religio ...

God
or a
deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as "a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polytheistic religion)", or anything revered as divine. C. Scott Littlet ...
is recognized as the supreme civil ruler. In both theocracies and some religious jurisdictions,
conscientious objector A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia A militia () is generally an army or some othe ...
s may cause
religious offense Religious offense is any action which offends religious sensibilities and arouses serious negative emotions in people with strong belief. Causes Different religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated reli ...
. The contrary legal systems are
secular state A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularity, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and pra ...
s or
multicultural The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. ...
societies in which the government does not formally adopt a particular religion, but may either repress all religious activity or enforce tolerance of religious diversity.


Baháʼí Faith

Baháʼí laws Baháʼí laws are laws and ordinances used in the Baháʼí Faith The Baháʼí Faith (; fa , بهائی ') is a new religion teaching the essential worth of all religions and the unity of all people. Established by Baháʼu'lláh in the ...
are laws and ordinances used in the
Baháʼí Faith The Baháʼí Faith (; fa , بهائی ') is a relatively new religion teaching the Baháʼí Faith and the unity of religion, essential worth of all religions and Baháʼí Faith and the unity of humanity, the unity of all people. Establish ...
and are a fundamental part of Baháʼí practice. The laws are based on authenticated texts from Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Baháʼí Faith, subsequent interpretations from `Abdu'l-Bahá and
Shoghi Effendi Shoghí Effendí (; 1 March 1897 – 4 November 1957) was the grandson and successor of ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, appointed to the role of Guardian of the Baháʼí Faith from 1921 until his death in 1957. Shoghi Effendi created a series of teaching ...
and legislation by the
Universal House of Justice The Universal House of Justice ( fa, بیت‌العدل اعظم) is the nine-member supreme ruling body of the Baháʼí Faith The Baháʼí Faith (; fa , بهائی ') is a new religion teaching the essential worth of all religions a ...
. Baháʼí law is presented as a set of general principles and guidelines and individuals must apply them as they best seem fit. While some of the social laws are enforced by Baháʼí institutions, the emphasis is placed on individuals following the laws based on their conscience, understanding and reasoning, and Baháʼís are expected to follow the laws for the love of Bahá'u'lláh. The laws are seen as the method of the maintenance of order and security in the world. A few examples of laws and basic religious observances of the Kitáb-i-Aqdas which are considered obligatory for Baháʼís include: * Recite an obligatory prayer each day. There are three such prayers among which one can be chosen each day. * Observe a
Nineteen Day Fast The Nineteen-Day Fast is a nineteen-day period of the year during which members of the Baháʼí Faith The Baháʼí Faith (; fa , بهائی ') is a new religion teaching the essential worth of all religions and the unity of all people. ...
from sunrise to sunset from March 2 through March 20. During this time Baháʼís in good health between the ages of 15 and 70 abstain from eating and drinking. *
Gossip Gossip is idle talk or rumour, especially about the personal or private affairs of others; the act is also known as dishing or tattling. Gossip has been researched in terms of its origins in evolutionary psychology, which has found gossip to be ...

Gossip
and backbiting are prohibited and viewed as particularly damaging to the individual and their relationships.


Buddhism

Patimokkha comprises a collection of precepts for
bhikkhu A ''bhikkhu'' (Pali Pali () is a Middle Indo-Aryan liturgical language native to the Indian subcontinent. It is widely studied because it is the language of the '' Pāli Canon'' or '' Tipiṭaka'' and is the sacred language of '' Thera ...
s and bhikkhunis (Buddhist monks and nuns).


Christianity

Within the framework of
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's la ...
, there are several possible definitions for religious law. One is the
Mosaic Law The Law of Moses ( he, תֹּורַת מֹשֶׁה ), also called the Mosaic Law, primarily refers to the Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the fi ...
(from what Christians consider to be the
Old Testament The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the Christian biblical canon, which is based primarily upon the 24 books of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical c ...
) also called
Divine Law Divine law is any body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, i ...
or
biblical lawBiblical law refers to the legal aspects of the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the ...
, the most famous example being the
Ten Commandments The Ten Commandments ( he, עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת, ''Aseret ha'Dibrot''), also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship that play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christia ...
. Another is the instructions of
Jesus of Nazareth Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, '' Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunc ...
to his disciples in the
Gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, tea ...

Gospel
(often referred to as the Law of Christ or the
New Commandment The New Commandment is a term used in Christianity to describe Jesus, Jesus's commandment to "love one another" which, according to the Bible, was given as part of the final instructions to Disciple (Christianity), his disciples after the Last Supp ...
or the
New Covenant The New Covenant (Biblical Hebrew, Hebrew '; Koine Greek, Greek ''diatheke kaine'') is a biblical interpretation originally derived from a Book of Jeremiah#Sections of the Book, phrase in the Book of Jeremiah (Jeremiah 31:31-34), in the Hebrew ...
, in contrast to the
Old Covenant The Mosaic covenant (named after Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, Hebrew romanization, romanized: ''Mōshé'', ISO 259#ISO 259-3, ISO 259-3: '; syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, '. (), also known as Moshe Rabbenu ...
). Another is the Apostolic Decree of Acts 15, which is still observed by the
Greek Orthodox Church The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek language, Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἐκκλησία, ''Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía'', ), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Christian denomination, churches within the lar ...

Greek Orthodox Church
. Another is
canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical jurisdiction, ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or churc ...
in the
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ri ...

Catholic
,
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; th ...
, and
Orthodox Orthodox, Orthodoxy, or Orthodoxism may refer to: Religion * Orthodoxy, adherence to accepted norms, more specifically adherence to creeds, especially within Christianity and Judaism, but also less commonly in non-Abrahamic religions like Neo-paga ...
churches. In some
Christian denominations Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...
, law is often contrasted with
grace Grace may refer to: Places United States * Grace, Idaho Grace is a city in Caribou County, Idaho, in the United States. History The area of Grace is believed to have once been inhabited by the Shoshone Indians. The economy in and around Gra ...
(see also
Law and Gospel In Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus ...
and Antithesis of the Law): the contrast here speaks to attempt to gain
salvation Salvation (from Latin: ''salvatio'', from ''salva'', 'safe, saved') is the state of being saved or protected from harm or a dire situation. In religion and theology, ''salvation'' generally refers to the deliverance of the soul from sin and its co ...

salvation
by obedience to a code of laws as opposed to seeking salvation through faith in the
atonement Atonement (also atoning, to atone) is the concept of a person taking action to correct previous wrongdoing on their part, either through direct action to undo the consequences of that act, equivalent action to do good for others, or some other e ...
made by
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label= Hebrew/ Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, ...

Jesus
on the cross. The Gospel of John says of Christ's
truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact or reality.Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionarytruth 2005 In everyday language, truth is typically ascribed to things that aim to represent reality or otherwise correspond to it, such as belie ...
: For many Christians Christianity is not regarded as a religion. Instead, Christianity is taught as a Relationship with God The Father by Holy Spirit through Jesus Christ "The First-Born of The Father, from the dead" (referring to Spiritual Death), olossians 1:15


Biblical/Mosaic law

Christian views of the
Old Covenant The Mosaic covenant (named after Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, Hebrew romanization, romanized: ''Mōshé'', ISO 259#ISO 259-3, ISO 259-3: '; syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, '. (), also known as Moshe Rabbenu ...
vary. and are to be distinguished from
Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Christianity, Christian belief and practice. * help them better understand Christian tenets * make comparative religion, comparisons between Christianity and other traditions * Christian apologetics, defend ...
,
ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, m ...
, and practice. The term "Old Covenant", also referred to as the
Mosaic covenant The Mosaic covenant (named after Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, Hebrew romanization, romanized: ''Mōshé'', ISO 259#ISO 259-3, ISO 259-3: '; syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, '. (), also known as Moshe Rabbenu ...
and the
Law of Moses The Law of Moses ( he, תֹּורַת מֹשֶׁה ), also called the Mosaic Law, primarily refers to the Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the fi ...
, refers to the statements or principles of religious law and
religious ethics Ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong action (philosophy), behavior".''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'"Ethics"/ref> The field of et ...
codified in the first five books or ''
Pentateuch Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses) of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: ...
'' of the
Old Testament The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the Christian biblical canon, which is based primarily upon the 24 books of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical c ...
. Views of the Old Covenant are expressed in the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as w ...

New Testament
, such as
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label= Hebrew/ Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, ...

Jesus
' antitheses of the law, the
circumcision controversy in Early Christianity According to the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah. These texts are almost exclusively in Biblical Hebrew, with a f ...
, and the Incident at Antioch and position of
Paul the Apostle and Judaism 's artistic depiction of ''Saint Paul Writing His Epistles'', 16th century ( Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas Texas (, ) is a state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States. It is the second largest U ...
. Most Christians hold that only parts are applicable, while some
Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. ...
have the view that none is applicable. Dual-covenant theologians have the view that only
Noahide Laws In Judaism Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Kingdom of Judah, Judah", via Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ioudaismos''; the term itself is of Anglo-Latin origin c. 1400) is an Abrahamic primarily ethn ...
apply to
Gentiles Gentile (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman ...
. The
Jewish Christian Jewish Christians ( he, יהודים נוצרים, yehudim notzrim) were the followers of a Jewish religious sect that emerged in Judea Judea or Judaea, and the modern version of Judah (; from he, יהודה, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew ...
ity movement is virtually extinct. According to the New Testament Christians are no longer regarded as Gentiles (Romans 8: 28–29)


Canon law

Canon law is the body of laws and regulations made by or adopted by ecclesiastical authority for the governance of the Christian organization and its members. It is the internal
ecclesiastical {{Short pages monitor The Greek-speaking Orthodox have collected canons and commentaries upon them in a work known as the ''Pēdálion'' (Greek: Πηδάλιον, "Rudder"), so named because it is meant to "steer" the Church. The Orthodox Christian tradition in general treats its canons more as guidelines than as laws, the economy (Eastern Orthodox Church), bishops adjusting them to cultural and other local circumstances. Some Orthodox canon scholars point out that, had the Ecumenical Councils (which deliberated in Greek) meant for the canons to be used as laws, they would have called them ''nómoi/νόμοι'' (laws) rather than ''kanónes/κανόνες'' (rules), but almost all Orthodox conform to them. The dogmatic decisions of the Councils, though, are to be obeyed rather than to be treated as guidelines, since they are essential for the Church's unity.


Anglican Communion

In the Church of England, the ecclesiastical courts that formerly decided many matters such as disputes relating to marriage, divorce, wills, and defamation, still have jurisdiction of certain church-related matters (e.g., discipline of clergy, alteration of church property, and issues related to churchyards). Their separate status dates back to the 11th century when the Normans split them off from the mixed secular/religious county and local courts used by the Saxons. In contrast to the other courts of England, the law used in ecclesiastical matters is at least partially a Civil law (legal system), civil law system, not common law, although heavily governed by parliamentary statutes. Since the English Reformation, Reformation, ecclesiastical courts in England have been royal courts. The teaching of canon law at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge was abrogated by Henry VIII of England, Henry VIII; thereafter practitioners in the ecclesiastical courts were trained in Civil law (legal system), civil law, receiving a Doctor of Civil Law (D.C.L.) degree from Oxford, or an Doctor of Laws, LL.D. from Cambridge. Such lawyers (called "doctors" and "civilians") were centred at "Doctors' Commons, Doctors Commons", a few streets south of St Paul's Cathedral in London, where they monopolized probate, matrimonial, and Admiralty law, admiralty cases until their jurisdiction was removed to the common law courts in the mid-19th century. (Admiralty law was also based on civil law instead of common law, thus was handled by the civilians too.) Charles I of England, Charles I repealed Canon Law in Scotland in 1638 after uprisings of Covenanters confronting the Bishops of Aberdeen following the convention at Muchalls Castle and other revolts across Scotland earlier that year. Other churches in the
Anglican Communion The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also called the Holy Communion or Lord's Supper), the Christian rite involving the eating of bread and drinking of wine, ree ...
around the world (e.g., the Episcopal Church in the United States and the Anglican Church of Canada) still function under their own private systems of canon law.


Presbyterian and Reformed Churches

In Presbyterian and Reformed Churches, canon law is known as "practice and procedure" or "church order," and includes the church's laws respecting its government, discipline, legal practice and worship.


Lutheranism

The Book of Concord is the historic doctrinal statement of the Lutheranism, Lutheran Church, consisting of ten creed, credal documents recognized as authoritative in Lutheranism since the 16th century. However, the Book of Concord is a confessional document (stating orthodox belief) rather than a book of ecclesiastical rules or discipline, like canon law. Each Lutheran national church establishes its own system of church order and discipline, though these are referred to as "canons".


The United Methodist Church

The Book of Discipline (United Methodist), Book of Discipline contains the laws, rules, policies and guidelines for The United Methodist Church. It is revised every four years by the General Conference, the law-making body of The United Methodist Church; the last edition was published in 2016.


Hinduism

Hindu law is largely based on the Manu Smriti (smriti of Manu). It was recognized by the United Kingdom, British during their British Raj, rule of India but its influence waned after the establishment of the India, Republic of India, which has a Secularism in India, secular legal system.


Islam

''Sharia'', also known as Islamic law ( '')'', is the moral code and religious law of
Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
. Sharia is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law, sources, the precepts set forth in the Quran and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the ''sunnah''. Islamic jurisprudence (''fiqh'') interprets and extends the application of sharia to questions not directly addressed in the primary sources by including secondary sources. These secondary sources usually include the consensus of the ''ulama'' (religious scholars) embodied in ''ijma'' and analogy from the Quran and ''sunnah'' through ''qiyas''. Shia jurists prefer to apply reasoning ('''aql'') rather than analogy in order to address difficult questions. Muslims believe ''sharia'' is God's law, but they differ as to what exactly it entails. Modernists, traditionalists and fundamentalists all hold different views of sharia, as do adherents to different schools of Islamic thought and scholarship. Different countries, societies and cultures have varying interpretations of sharia as well. Sharia deals with many topics addressed by secular law, including Islamic criminal jurisprudence, crime, Political aspects of Islam, politics and Islamic economic jurisprudence, economics, as well as personal matters such as Islamic sexual jurisprudence, sexual intercourse, Islamic hygienical jurisprudence, hygiene, Islamic dietary laws, diet, salat, prayer, and Sawm, fasting. Where it has official status, sharia is applied by Islamic judges, or qadis. The imam has varying responsibilities depending on the interpretation of sharia; while the term is commonly used to refer to the leader of communal prayers, the imam may also be a scholar, religious leader, or political leader. The reintroduction of sharia is a longstanding goal for Islamist movements in Muslim countries. Some Muslim minorities in Asia (''e.g.'', in Islam in Israel, Israel or in Islam in India, India) have maintained institutional recognition of sharia to adjudicate their personal and community affairs. In Western countries, where Muslim immigration is more recent, Muslim minorities have introduced sharia family law for use in their own disputes with varying degrees of success, e.g., Britain's Muslim Arbitration Tribunal. Attempts by Muslims to impose sharia on non-Muslims in countries with large Muslim populations have been accompanied by controversy, violence, and even warfare (cf. Second Sudanese Civil War#Civil War, Second Sudanese Civil War).


Jainism

Jain law or Jaina law refers to the modern interpretation of ancient Jain Law that consists of rules for adoption, marriage, succession and death for the followers of Jainism.


Judaism

''Halakha'' ( he, הלכה; literally "walking") is the collective body of rabbinic Judaism, rabbinic Jewish religious laws derived from the Torah, Written and Oral Torah, including the Mishnah, the halakhic Midrash, the Talmud, and its commentaries. After the Siege of Jerusalem (70)#Destruction of Jerusalem, destruction of the Second Temple by the Roman Empire, Romans in the year 70 during the First Jewish-Roman War, the Oral Law was developed through intensive and expansive interpretations of the written Torah. The ''halakhah'' has developed gradually through a variety of legal and quasi-legal mechanisms, including Judiciary, judicial decisions, legislation, legislative enactments, and customary law. The literature of questions to rabbis, and their considered answers, are referred to as Responsa#In Judaism, Responsa. Over time, as practices develop, codes of Jewish law were written based on Talmudic literature and Responsa. The most influential code, the Shulchan Aruch, guides the religious practice of most Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox and some Conservative Judaism, Conservative Jews. According to rabbinic tradition there are 613 mitzvot in the written Torah. The ''mitzvot'' in the Torah (also called the
Law of Moses The Law of Moses ( he, תֹּורַת מֹשֶׁה ), also called the Mosaic Law, primarily refers to the Torah Torah (; he, תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the fi ...
) pertain to nearly every aspect of human life. Some of these laws are directed only to men or to women, some only to the ancient priestly groups (the Kohen, Kohanim and Levite, Leviyim) members of the tribe of Levi, some only to farmers within the Land of Israel. Some laws are only applicable when there is a Temple in Jerusalem (see Third Temple).


Wicca

The Wiccan Rede is a statement that provides the key moral system in the neopagan religion of Wicca and certain other related witchcraft-based faiths. A common form of the Rede is "An it harm none, do what ye will".


See also

* Doctrine and Covenants * Ethics in religion * Law and religion, the interdisciplinary study of religion and law * Lawsuits against God * Morality and religion * List of national legal systems * Religious police * Rule according to higher law * Rule of law


References


Further reading

* Norman Doe. ''Comparative Religious Law: Judaism, Christianity, Islam''. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018. * Buddhism and Law: An Introduction. Edited by Rebecca Redwood French and Mark A. Nathan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. Pp. 407.- Volume 31. Issue 1. * Ulanov, M.S., Badmaev, V.N., Holland, E.C. Buddhism and Kalmyk Secular Law in the Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries. ''Inner Asia'', 2017, no.19, pp. 297–314.


External links


Judaism 101: A List of the 613 Mitzvot (Commandments)
{{DEFAULTSORT:Religious Law Religious law,