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Iraqi Kurds
Kurds
fleeing to Turkey in April 1991, during the Gulf War

Refugees of Iraq
Iraq
are Iraqi nationals who have fled Iraq
Iraq
due to war or persecution. Throughout the past 30 years, there have been a growing number of refugees fleeing Iraq
Iraq
and settling throughout the world, peaking recently with the latest Iraq
Iraq
War. Precipitated by a series of conflicts including the Kurdish rebellions during the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War (1980 to 1988), Iraq's Invasion of Kuwait
Invasion of Kuwait
(1990) and the Gulf War (1991), the subsequent sanctions against Iraq, and culminating in the violence during and after the American-led invasion and occupation of Iraq, millions have been forced by insecurity to flee their homes in Iraq. Unlike most refugees, Iraqi refugees have established themselves in urban areas in other countries rather than in refugee camps.[1] In April 2007, there was an estimate of over 4 million Iraqi refugees around the world, including 1.9 million in Iraq, 2 million in neighboring Middle East
Middle East
countries, and around 200,000 in countries outside the Middle East.[2][3][4][5][6] The United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has led the humanitarian efforts for Iraqi refugees.[5] The Iraqi displacement of several million is the largest in the Middle East, and is much larger than the number of Palestinians
Palestinians
who were displaced in 1948 during the creation of the state of Israel.[5][7]

Contents

1 Reasons of refugee

1.1 Iraqi–Kurdish conflict 1.2 Persian Gulf War 1.3 Iraq
Iraq
War (2003–11) 1.4 Iraqi insurgency and civil war (2011–present)

2 Internally displaced
Internally displaced
Iraqis 3 Host countries

3.1 Jordan 3.2 Syria

3.2.1 Refugees flee Syrian civil war, and targeted executions

3.3 Lebanon 3.4 Egypt 3.5 Other countries

4 Third country resettlement

4.1 United States 4.2 Other countries

5 Minorities

5.1 Kurds 5.2 Christians 5.3 Mandaeans 5.4 Palestinians 5.5 Yazidis

6 Challenges 7 International aid 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Reasons of refugee[edit] Iraqi–Kurdish conflict[edit] Main article: Kurdish refugees Persian Gulf War[edit] Main article: Gulf War On August 2, 1990, Iraq
Iraq
invaded Kuwait.[8] The ensuing 1991 Gulf War produced nearly three million refugees, many of them from Iraq.[8] Almost all them left Iraq
Iraq
and Kuwait
Kuwait
before the war started or after Desert Storm
Desert Storm
was over.[8] The largest groups were the Kurds
Kurds
and Shi'as fleeing Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
after a failed uprising, as well as the Palestinians. Palestinians
Palestinians
were the second largest group uprooted by the war, and 300,000 resettled in Jordan. There were a smaller number of Iraqi Arab refugees, only about 37,000, mostly shia who moved to Saudi Arabia. About 100,000 Iraqis escaped to Jordan
Jordan
and Syria.[8] Shia comprise 55% of the Iraqi population, but are excluded from the government by the Sunni
Sunni
Arabs.[8] There was a 1991 uprisings in Iraq Shia uprising in March 1991. Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
regained control of the Shia dominated South in mid-March, and his cousin, Ali Hasan Majid, conducted public executions, bombarded city centers, and destroyed homes and mosques. 200,000 people died in the South between March and September 1991 from the violence. In 2003, there were 530,000 Iraqi refugees in Iran, mostly Shi’ite Arabs.[1][8] 1.85 million Kurds
Kurds
fled to the borders of Turkey and Iran.[8] Unlike the Shi'ites, the Kurds
Kurds
had a recognized political leadership—the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan
Patriotic Union of Kurdistan
(PUK) and the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) that took control of northern Iraq. As a result of this formal political leadership, the revolution in the Kurdish north was much less violent than in the Shi’ite South, and produced relatively few refugees and Internally Displaced Persons
Internally Displaced Persons
(IDPs).[8] In late March 1991, the Bush administration gave the Iraqi government permission to use helicopters against the Kurds. These were used to terrorize the Kurdish population. About 450,000 Kurds
Kurds
fled to the mountains bordering Turkey and Iran, and the Hussein government had retaken control of the main Kurdish cities by April 3, 1991.[8] Turkey refused to allow the Kurds
Kurds
into the country, but there was significant media attention to the refugee population.[8] The Kurds
Kurds
on the Iranian border were more isolated and received less media attention, but Iran admitted some groups of refugees and the physical conditions were less harsh than on the Turkish border.[8] In response to this humanitarian crisis, on April 8, 1991 the UN agreed to establish a safe haven in northern Iraq.[9] To this end, two days later the US and its allies established the northern no-fly zone. This was in conjunction with the highly successful British initiative Operation Provide Comfort. In response to the humanitarian crisis, the US tried to station unarmed aid workers in northern Iraq, but the Kurds
Kurds
refused to return.[8] The US, the UK, France, the Netherlands, and Turkey then created a safe area between the cities of Amadiya, Dihok, and Zakho, and excluded the Iraqi military and police from the area. Near Zakho, the US military built a tent city to hold refugees, but it was not extensively used.[8] The Kurds
Kurds
eventually moved to the safe area. On February 15, 1991, President George H.W Bush
George H.W Bush
called upon the Iraqi people to overthrow Saddam Hussein, which did not occur until 2003 under the administration of his son, President George W. Bush, and incited the recent Iraq
Iraq
War.[8] Iraq
Iraq
War (2003–11)[edit] Main article: Iraq
Iraq
War Refugees from Iraq
Iraq
have increased in number since the US-led invasion into Iraq
Iraq
in March 2003. After Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
fell in 2003, over 30,000 refugees returned home within two years. But by 2006, they were fleeing again due to sectarian violence that culminated with the al-Askari mosque bombing in February 2006.[1][2][4] The US occupation and ethnic conflict among Iraqis ended the minority Sunni
Sunni
governance and allowed the Shi’ite majority to regain control, which worried Iraq’s Sunni
Sunni
majority neighbors, including Saudi Arabia. Terrorist organizations like Al Qaeda
Al Qaeda
have taken advantage of the chaos and violence to establish a presence in Iraq.[5] By February 16, 2007, António Guterres, the United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees, said that the external refugee number fleeing the war reached 2 million and that within Iraq
Iraq
there are an estimated 1.7 million internally displaced people.[10][11] The refugee traffic out of the country has increased since the intensification of civil war.[10][12] As many as 110,000 Iraqis could be targeted as collaborators because of their work for coalition forces.[13] A May 25, 2007 article notes that in the past seven months only 69 people from Iraq
Iraq
have been granted refugee status in the United States.[14] Roughly 40% of Iraq's middle class is believed to have fled.[2][15][16] Most are fleeing systematic persecution and have no desire to return.[15] Iraqi insurgency and civil war (2011–present)[edit] Internally displaced
Internally displaced
Iraqis[edit] There is also a significant number of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Iraq.[1] As of April 2017 International Organization for Migration estimated that there were about 3 million Iraqis displaced within the country.[17] As the battle to retake areas from ISIS continues, thousands of Iraqis are being displaced on a daily basis.[18] Many IDPs face difficult conditions, and due to continued instability and lack of resource are unlikely to be able to go home in coming months. At the end of July 2007 the NGO Coordinating Committee in Iraq
Iraq
(NCCI) and Oxfam International
Oxfam International
issued a report, Rising to the Humanitarian Challenge in Iraq, that declared that one-third of the populace was in need of aid. The NCCI is an alliance of approximately 80 international NGOs
NGOs
and 200 Iraqi NGOs, formed in Baghdad
Baghdad
in 2003. The report, based on survey research of the nation's civilian population, found that 70 percent of the Iraqi population lacks proper access to water supplies. Only 20 percent of the population has proper sanitation and 30 percent of children experience malnutrition. About 92 percent of children experience problems learning. These figures represent sharp increases since 2003.[19] There is a need to address the elderly, disabled population, and disadvantaged families through physical, mental, and social support to help them return to Iraq
Iraq
once the war ends and conditions are stabilized.[20] Host countries[edit] Iraqi refugees have mainly fled into urban centers across region, rather than in refugee camps.[1] There are roughly 2 million Iraqi refugees living in countries neighboring Iraq[5][6] and 95% of them still live in the Middle East
Middle East
- although other nations in Europe have begun to accept Iraqi refugees.[4] It is difficult for refugees and their children to obtain legal status in a middle eastern country as they are treated as temporary "guests" rather than as "refugees".[5] Current regional host countries include Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Kuwait, Iran, small numbers in Iraq, the Gulf States, and Turkey.[5] Only Egypt
Egypt
and Turkey have signed the UNHCR
UNHCR
refugee convention, and even then with heavy restrictions and limited effective protection.[5] Jordan[edit] Main article: Iraqis in Jordan Pre-war relations between Jordan
Jordan
and Iraq
Iraq
were positive, especially economically.[5] By 2009, Jordan
Jordan
had taken in roughly 700,000 Iraqi refugees since the war began, a high proportion for a country of only 6 million.[5] Until the end 2005, Iraqis were allowed into Jordan
Jordan
and could register as guests for 3–6 months without work authorization.[5] Renewal became more difficult after 2005 when Iraqi terrorists associated with Al Qaeda
Al Qaeda
bombed a Jordan
Jordan
hotel, and the number of unregistered Iraqis increased.[5] In 2006, Jordan
Jordan
excluded single men and boys between age 17-35 from entering, then required all Iraqis produce a newly issued passport.[5] In February 2008, the Jordanian government began requiring Iraqi refugees to apply for a Jordan
Jordan
visa in Iraq
Iraq
rather than at the Jordanian border.[1] Only Iraqis who have been able to invest in Jordanian businesses or who employed in fields of national interest have been able to obtain long-term status and receive yearly residence permits, seek employment in specified fields, send their children to schools, and access public services.[5] In the capital city of Jordan, Amman, the population blames Iraqis for increasing cost of housing and inflation.[5] Health facilities are free in Jordan
Jordan
regardless of legal status, but facilities in Iraqi neighborhoods are overstretched and many Iraqis are afraid of being identified as undocumented.[5] Additionally, water infrastructure in Jordan
Jordan
is inadequate to support the large influx of refugees.[5] A UNHCR-UNICEF international appeal to support the education of Iraqi children in Jordan, Syria, Egypt
Egypt
in Lebanon
Lebanon
will give Jordan
Jordan
$80 million to absorb 50,000 Iraqi children into public schools.[5] Most refugees in Jordan
Jordan
lack legal status and stay hidden for fear of deportation, making aid efforts difficult.[1] Syria[edit]

Iraqi refugees in Syria

Main article: Iraqis in Syria Syria
Syria
has historically offered assistance to Iraqi refugees.[20] At the beginning of 2007, the UNHCR
UNHCR
estimated that the number of Iraqi refugees in Syria
Syria
was over 1.2 million.[1][20] 80–90% of the Iraqi refugee population lives in the capital city of Damascus.[5] The reason for its large refugee population can be attributed to more than just geography. Until 2007, Syria
Syria
maintained an open-door policy to Iraqis fleeing the war-ravaged country.[1] Many Iraqis in Syria live in poverty, and an estimated 50,000 Iraqi girls and women, many of them widows, are forced into prostitution just to survive.[21][22] According to the UNHCR, about 27% of Iraqi refugee families in Syria
Syria
are without a breadwinner.[20] Early in the recent Iraq
Iraq
war, Iraqis in Syria were the politically threatened Baath party, including supporters of Hussein's government.[5] But after the fighting began in Falluja in 2004, Shi'a were the main new entries to Syria.[5] Before the restrictions were imposed, Iraqis seeking refuge in Syria
Syria
received 3 month visas or permits with extension possibilities.[5] However, the refugees are not entitled to work, but most do anyway due to lax enforcement on the part of the Syrian government.[5] There were few sanctions for those who overstay and fail to renew.[5] Numbering over 1.2 million, Iraqi refugees comprise a large portion of Syria's population of 18 million.[20] This has caused an increase in the cost of living and caused a strain on infrastructure.[1][20] Sources like oil, heat, water and electricity were said to be becoming more scarce as demand had gone up.[23] Syrian's deputy foreign minister has stated that the price of food has increased by 30%, property prices by 40%, and rentals by 150%.[1][20] Water consumption rose by 21%, costing the Syrian government about 6.8 million US dollars in 2006.[20] The Iraqi population also strained the labor market: Syrian unemployment was 18% in 2006.[20] Refugees put a strain on health services (which are free in Syria), and Syria
Syria
experienced public school overcrowding.[20] In 2005 and 2006, Syria
Syria
used $162 million to offer aid to Iraqi refugees in the country.[20] Syria
Syria
once maintained an open border for Arab migrants, and entitled Iraqi refugees to Syrian health care and schools.[5] The Syrian government accepted Iraqis as prima facie refugees.[5] However, on October 1, 2007 news agencies reported that Syria
Syria
re-imposed restrictions on Iraqi refugees, as stated by a spokesperson for the United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees. Under Syria's new rules, only Iraqi merchants, businessmen and university professors with visas acquired from Syrian embassies may enter Syria.[1][24][25][26]

Iraqi Refugees, Damascus, Syria

Refugees flee Syrian civil war, and targeted executions[edit] In 2012–13, as a Syrian civil war intensified, many Iraqi refugees fled the rising violence. Fewer than 200,000 Iraqis remained in Syria in 2012, according to the office of the Iraqi ambassador in Damascus. Many of the Iraqis were helped to return to Iraq
Iraq
by the provision of free flights and bus tickets, paid for by the Iraqi government. Tens of thousands of Iraqi families traveled back to their original country, although Iraq
Iraq
is itself unstable, and sectarian bomb attacks occur there almost daily.[27] The majority of Iraqis fleeing back from Syria
Syria
in 2012 were Shia according to a spokesman for the Iraqi Ministry of Displacement and Migration. The UN refugee agency said Iraqis in the mainly Shia Damascus suburb of Sayeda Zeinab were fleeing not only increasing violence but "targeted threats" against them. In July 2012, the most intense fighting of the 17-month-old Syrian conflict began. Rebels took over whole neighborhoods of the Syrian capital, and government forces responded ferociously. Amid the fighting, it appears rebel fighters specifically targeted Iraqis. According to the UN, an Iraqi family of seven was killed at gunpoint in their Damascus apartment. 23 Iraqi refugees were reported killed in July, some by beheaded, according to the Washington-based Shiite Rights Watch. The attacks reflect the sectarian nature of Syria's war, In which opposition mostly from the country's Sunni
Sunni
majority has risen up against the government of Syrian President Assad. Motives for attacks against Iraqi refugees are unclear, but may be due to antagonism towards Shia generally, because of their sectarian association with the government, or because Iraq's Shiite-led government is perceived as siding with Assad. Though Baghdad
Baghdad
has publicly vowed not to become involved with Syria's war, skeptics believe it is at least helping Iran ship weapons and reinforcements to Assad's government. In March, the US urged Baghdad
Baghdad
to cut off its airspace to flights headed to Syria
Syria
from Iran, and Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki pledged to curb arms smuggling across his borders into Syria.[28] Lebanon[edit] Many Shi'a Iraqis fleeing Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
in the 1990s moved to Lebanon. A 2007 article by the journal Middle East
Middle East
Report reported that Lebanon
Lebanon
hosted around 40,000 Iraqi refugees.[7] About 80% of Iraqi refugees live in Lebanon's capital of Beirut, contrary to many other Middle Eastern countries where Iraqi refugees are entirely concentrated in an urban center.[7] Lebanon
Lebanon
has instituted a policy of non-refoulement. Refugees living in Lebanon
Lebanon
cannot be forcibly deported if their lives will be in danger in their home countries.[7] Like in other Middle Eastern host countries, Iraqi refugees in Lebanon face the negative effects of unemployment and poverty as they cannot obtain work visas.[7] Egypt[edit] Egypt, which does not border Iraq, became a major destination for Iraqi refugees in 2006. Iraqi refugees entered Egypt
Egypt
extremely quickly. Only 800 refugees were in Egypt
Egypt
in 2003, but by 2006, there were almost 150,000 Iraqis in Egypt.[7][29] In 2007, Egypt
Egypt
imposed restrictions on the entry of new refugees into the country. Other countries[edit] Since 2006, Iraqis have been the leading nationality seeking asylum in industrialized countries.[4] Increasing tensions in the Middle East and the treatment of Iraqi refugees as temporary guests in the Arab states has led to increased travel distance for Iraqi asylum seekers.[2] Sweden
Sweden
has seen a surge of refugees from Iraq
Iraq
since 2007. Sweden currently accepts more than half of all asylum applications from Iraqis in Europe. In 2006, more than 9,000 Iraqis fled their country and came to Sweden
Sweden
seeking shelter, a four times increase over 2005. Sweden's immigration authority expects up to 40,000 Iraqis seeking asylum in 2007. An estimated 79,200 Iraqis call Sweden
Sweden
their home. Many Iraqis fled to Sweden
Sweden
during the 90's as well. Current refugees like Sweden
Sweden
because many of their relatives are there and because of the generous refugee policies.[30] Third country resettlement[edit] See also: Third country resettlement In 2008, the UNHCR
UNHCR
resettled 17,800 Iraqi refugees in third countries outside the Middle East.[2] United States[edit] In early February 2007 the United States
United States
and the United Nations developed a plan to resettle several thousand refugees in the United States.[1] In an initial step, refugees would apply for applicant status.[31] The US aimed to settle at least 5,000 refugees in the US by the end of 2007.[32] Kristele Younes of Refugees International supported these moves towards resettlement, but she said that "the numbers remain low compared to what the needs are."[33] A July 22, 2007 article notes that in 2007 only 133 of the planned 7000 Iraqi refugees were allowed into the United States.[13] Of the refugees' status, US Senator Edward M. Kennedy
Edward M. Kennedy
(Massachusetts) said, "We can’t solve the problem alone, but we obviously bear a heavy responsibility for the crisis."[33] Iraqi refugees looking to live in the United States
United States
must apply to the US Refugee
Refugee
Admission Program (USRAP).[34] USRAP involves both governmental and non-governmental partners to resettle refugees in the United States.[34] The US Department of State’s Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM) has overall management responsibility of USRAP.[34] The Department of Homeland Security
Department of Homeland Security
(DHS) and the US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) interview refugee applicants and review applications for refugee status.[34] The PRM coordinates with the UNHCR
UNHCR
for Iraqi refugee referrals.[34] The USRAP, UNHCR, and DHS prioritize refugees who are affiliated with the US government and religious minorities.[34] Iraqis can be referred by the UNHCR, a US embassy, some NGOs, the US government, a US contractor, a US media organization, eligible family members in the US, and the US military.[34][35] USCIS officers interview Iraqi refugees in Jordan, Egypt, Turkey, Lebanon, and Iraq, and have not been able to work in Syria
Syria
since March 2011.[34] Applicants to the USRAP must fall under the US's legal definition of "refugee", having "suffered past persecution or [have] a well founded fear of future persecution on the basis of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion in his or her home country".[34] Iraqis in the US may apply for asylum with the USCIS if they cannot return to Iraq
Iraq
because they have been "persecuted or fear that they will be persecuted on account of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion".[34] Since 2007, 203,321 Iraqi nationals have been referred, the USCIS interviewed 142,670 applicants, approved 119,202 for resettlement, and 84,902 have arrived in the US, a tiny fraction of those who wish to apply.[5][34][35] Refugees in America are usually settled in small towns rather than big cities because they receive community support that helps them navigate their new life.[35] Other countries[edit] The UN aims to register 135,000 to 200,000 to determine which people had fled persecution and would thus qualify for refugee status.[31] By 2007, Australia
Australia
resettled almost 6,000 Iraqi refugees.[36] According to the List Project, led by Kirk W. Johnson, "Poland, which had approximately 2,500 troops at its peak, was scheduled to withdraw its forces from Iraq
Iraq
by October 2008. Building on the successful precedent set by Denmark and the eventual British airlift, the Polish government offered all of their Iraqi employees either full resettlement or a one-time payment of $40,000 if they remained in Iraq."[37] Minorities[edit] Main article: Minorities in Iraq Kurds[edit] Among Iraqi refugees in Germany, about 50 percent are Kurds.[38] In the UK, about 65-70% of people originating from Iraq
Iraq
are Kurdish, and 70% of those from Turkey and 15% of those from Iran are Kurds.[39] Christians[edit] Main article: Assyrian exodus from Iraq Perhaps as many as half a million Assyrians, Chaldeans, and Armenians are thought to have fled the sectarian fighting in Iraq, with Christians
Christians
bearing the brunt of animosity toward a perceived "crusade" by the United States
United States
in Iraq. Most chose to go to Syria
Syria
due to the cultural similarities between the two countries, Syria's open-door policy to Iraqis, and the large population of Assyrians and other Christians
Christians
in the country which perhaps totals as high as 2 million. The large influx of Iraqis may tip the demographic scale in a country with a diverse population.[40][41] Although Christians
Christians
represent less than 5% of the total Iraqi population, they make up 40% of the refugees now living in nearby countries, according to U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees.[42] Between October 2003 and March 2005 alone, 36% of 700,000 Iraqis who fled to Syria
Syria
were Assyrians and other Christians, judging from a sample of those registering for asylum on political or religious grounds.[43][44][45][46][47] Mandaeans[edit] Mandaeans
Mandaeans
are an ancient ethnoreligious group in southern Iraq. They are the last practicing gnostic sect in the Middle East. There are thought to have been about 40,000 Mandaeans
Mandaeans
in Iraq
Iraq
prior to the US-led invasion. As a non-Muslim group, they have been abused by sectarian militias. The vast majority of Baghdadi Mandaeans
Mandaeans
left Baghdad; many have fled to Syria, Jordan
Jordan
and elsewhere[48] while Mandaean communities of southern Iraq
Iraq
are mostly secure. Mandaean diaspora organizations are reportedly focusing all their resources on evacuating all the remaining Mandaeans
Mandaeans
in Iraq.[citation needed] Palestinians[edit] See also: Palestinians
Palestinians
in Iraq A small Palestinian population of about 38,000 also faced pressure, with many living in the Baghdadi neighborhood of al-Baladiya. Denied access by Syria, more than 350 Palestinians
Palestinians
remained in "inhumane conditions" on the Syrian border until finally being allowed into the country. They face more uncertain conditions because most Palestinians
Palestinians
do not hold Iraqi citizenship and consequently do not hold passports. The UNHCR
UNHCR
appealed to Israel
Israel
to allow this particular group of refugees admission into the occupied territories of Gaza and the West Bank. The agency said that from resettlement countries, only Canada and Syria
Syria
had taken Palestinians
Palestinians
from Iraq
Iraq
in the past.

Palestinian Iraqi girl plays with a clothesline

Yazidis[edit] The Yazidi
Yazidi
community was affected by several acts of violence in 2007. On April 23, 2007 masked gunmen abducted and shot 23 Yazidis near Mosul. On August 14, 2007 Yazidis were targeted in a series of bombings that became the deadliest suicide attack since the Iraq
Iraq
War began. Challenges[edit] Iraqi refugee populations face unique challenges, particularly since they are located in urban centers rather than in refugee camps. Access to public services like health care and education is very limited for refugees. In late 2007, less than 40% of Iraqi refugee children attended school.[6] In many host countries, education is offered free of charge to all children, including refugees. However, the cost of books, uniforms, and a lack of inexpensive transportation prevents many Iraqi refugee children from actually attending school.[6][7] There is little data available on the health status of Iraqi refugees, but limited reports indicate that they suffer worse health than that of their host populations.[6] Psychological health care is especially crucial yet lacking, as many Iraqis suffer psychologically as a result of witnessing extreme violence.[7] The current lack of health care contrasts greatly to the high-quality and accessible health services offered in Iraq
Iraq
before the 2003 invasion.[6] International aid[edit] On April 17, 2007 an international conference on the Iraqi refugee crisis began in Geneva, Switzerland. Attendees included Human Rights Watch representatives, US Undersecretary of State Paula Dobriansky, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
representatives and members of 60 other Non-Governmental Organizations.[49] The World Health Organization began a two-day conference in Damascus, Syria, on July 29, 2007. The conference addressed the health requirements of the more than two million refugees from Iraq. Aside from the WHO, participants in the conference included the International Committee of the Red Cross, the Red Crescent, and various UN agencies.[50] On September 18, 2007, the UNHCR, WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, and WFP launched an appeal for $84.8 million to help host countries meet health and nutrition needs of Iraqi refugees. The funds support clinics, facilities, medicines, and medical supplies.[5] In 2007, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Turkey, UN agencies, and NGOs
NGOs
assisting Iraqi refugees received about $60 million to better provide for Iraqi refugee populations.[6] $27 million was allocated to health care as part of the UN joint health appeal.[6] As of 2007, the US has pledged $18 million and the European Union has pledged 50 million euros to assist Iraqi refugees.[6] See also[edit]

Iraqi diaspora Urban refugee Arab diaspora Asylum in the United States Human Rights in the Middle East Human rights in Iraq Human rights in post-invasion Iraq Sectarianism Civil war in Iraq Ethnic cleansing Religious war Iraqi Refugee
Refugee
Camp, West Azerbaijan Kurdish Cinema Refugees of the Syrian Civil War

References[edit]

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Iraq
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Iraq
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Iraq
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United Nations
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Iraq
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Iraq
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refugees". workpermit.com. Retrieved November 20, 2014.  ^ a b RACHEL L. SWARNS and KATHERINE ZOEPF, More Refugees are Headed to U.S.," New York Times, February 14, 2007 ^ US in Iraq
Iraq
for 'another 50 years', The Australian, June 2, 2007 ^ a b More Iraqi Refugees Are Headed to U.S., New York Times ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Iraqi refugee processing fact sheet". U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. Retrieved March 10, 2014.  ^ a b c Tarabya, J (August 20, 2013). "Iraq's refugees: reborn in the USA". Al Jazeera.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ US in Iraq
Iraq
for 'another 50 years', The Australian, June 2, 2007 ^ " Iraq
Iraq
– 2007-present «  The List Project to Resettle Iraqi Allies". Retrieved November 20, 2014.  ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20080626131005/http://www.bmi.bund.de/nn_334158/Internet/Content/Nachrichten/Pressemitteilungen/2006/01/Asylzahlen2005.html ^ Begikhani, Nazand; Gill, Aisha; Hague, Gill; Ibraheem, Kawther (November 2010). "Final Report: Honour-based Violence (HBV) and Honour-based Killings in Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraqi Kurdistan
and in the Kurdish Diaspora in the UK" (PDF). Centre for Gender and Violence Research, University of Bristol and Roehampton University. Retrieved May 19, 2016.  ^ "Many Christians
Christians
Flee Iraq". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved December 26, 2006. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Iraq's Christians
Christians
Flee as Extremist Threat Worsens ^ "Christians, targeted and suffering, flee Iraq". Retrieved November 20, 2014.  ^ U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees, Background Information on the Situation of Non-Muslim Religious Minorities in Iraq
Iraq
(Oct. 2005) ^ "Assyrians Face Escalating Abuses in "New Iraq," Inter-Press Service (May 3, 2006)". Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved November 20, 2014.  ^ "Incipient Genocide" http://www.aina.org/reports/ig.pdf ^ Doug Bandow, "Thrown to the Lions," "The American Spectator," July 2, 2007 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 5, 2007. Retrieved July 18, 2007.  ^ "In Twenty Years there will be No Christians
Christians
in Iraq" "The Guardian" http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,,1888848,00.html ^ Iraq's Mandaeans
Mandaeans
'face extinction', Angus Crawford, BBC, March 4, 2007. ^ Valentina Mites, "Iraq: Refugee
Refugee
Conference Addresses Plight Of Millions," Radio Free Europe April 17, 2007 http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2007/04/58087acf-cd93-4748-aaae-295d62a942b7.html ^ "WHO opens conference in Syria
Syria
on Iraqi refugee health needs," The International Herald Tribune, July 29, 2007 http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/07/29/africa/ME-GEN-Syria-WHO-Iraq-Refugees.php

External links[edit]

Iraqi Refugees: Seeking Stability in Syria
Syria
and Jordan Iraq: The World's Fastest Growing Refugee
Refugee
Crisis Uneasy Havens Await Those who Flee Iraq U.N.: Iraqi civilian death toll reaches new monthly high Palestinians
Palestinians
in Iraq
Iraq
Pay the Cost of Being 'Saddam's People' UN: Palestinians
Palestinians
in Iraq
Iraq
threatened Forced Migration Review special July 2007 issue on Iraq
Iraq
available in Arabic and English 106 page Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
November 2006 report on the refugee crisis November 30, 2006 Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
statement on the West's silence on the refugee crisis January 19, 2007 Human Rights Tribune on the refugee crisis January 22, 2007 BBC report on the refugee crisis Iraqi children soldier on Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre's March 30 2007 report on displaced people in Iraq Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre page of 22 maps of internal and external displacement of people in Iraq May 13, 2007 New York Times Magazine article on "The Flight from Iraq" Refugees International July 27, 2007 report and pdf report on the refugee crisis and the UN response July 30, 2007 NNCI and Oxfam International
Oxfam International
report on resource deficiencies in the civilian population

v t e

Iraqi diaspora

Americas

Canada United States

Detroit

Asia

Middle East

Iran Israel Jordan Lebanon Saudi Arabia Syria Turkey United Arab Emirates

South Asia

India Baghdadi Jews

Europe

Denmark Germany Greece Netherlands Norway Sweden United Kingdom

Oceania

Australia New Zealand

v t e

Iraq
Iraq
War (2003–2011)

Background

Lead-up Disarmament crisis Yellowcake uranium WMD claims Rationale US popular opinion Hussein interview Biological weapons

Invasion

Failed Iraqi peace initiatives Preparations Multi-National Force Timeline Battle of Nasiriyah Invasion of Baghdad Debecka Pass Firdos Square statue Mission Accomplished speech Post-war WMD conjecture Coalition Provisional Authority

Key events

Invasion (2003) Execution of Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
(2006) Anbar Province (2003–11) Insurgency (2003–11)

Post-invasion insurgency (2003–06) Sectarian violence (2006–08) U.S. withdrawal (2007–11)

Aftermath

Post-withdrawal insurgency (2011–13) Military intervention against ISIL
Military intervention against ISIL
(2014–present)

American-led intervention in Iraq

Iraqi Civil War (2014–present)

Reactions

Views on the invasion Legitimacy of the invasion Opposition Protests Criticism United Nations Governmental positions

Controversies

Journalist deaths by U.S. fire (2003) Baghdad
Baghdad
Museum looting (2003) Fallujah killings (2003) Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse (2004) Mukaradeeb wedding party massacre (2004) Haditha massacre
Haditha massacre
(2005) Mahmudiyah rape and killings
Mahmudiyah rape and killings
(2006) Ishaqi incident (2006) Baghdad
Baghdad
airstrike (2007) Nisour Square massacre
Nisour Square massacre
(2007) Iraq
Iraq
War documents leak (2010)

Impact

Refugees Duelfer Report Damage to Baghdad Iraq
Iraq
Interim Governing Council Aid and Investment Economic reform Financial cost Casualties Chilcot Inquiry Human rights

Memorials

London

Lists

Coalition military operations Bombings Aviation shootdowns and accidents Associated people

Timeline

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Category Wikinews Multimedia

v t e

European migrant crisis

Timeline of the European migrant crisis

Refugees and immigration

Afghan refugees Kurdish refugees Syrian refugees Libyan refugees Iraqi refugees

Assyrian refugees

Sudanese refugees Immigration to Europe

Immigration to Italy Immigration to Greece African immigration to Europe

Migrant vehicle incidents

Lampedusa shipwreck (October 2013) Blue Sky M incident
Blue Sky M incident
(December 2014) Ezadeen incident (January 2015) Death of Alan Kurdi
Death of Alan Kurdi
(September 2015) 2016 Egypt
Egypt
migrant shipwreck (September 2016) November 2016 Libya migrant shipwrecks (November 2016) List of migrant vessel incidents on the Mediterranean Sea List of migrant vehicle incidents in Europe List of migrant incidents on the borders in Europe

Maritime operations

Operation Poseidon (EU, 2006–2015) Operation Hermes (EU, 2011–2013) Operation Mare Nostrum
Operation Mare Nostrum
(Italy, 2013–2014) Operation Triton
Operation Triton
(EU, 2014–present) EUNAVFOR Med (Operation Sophia) (EU, 2015–present) Operation Poseidon Rapid Intervention (EU, 2015–present)

Migrant camps

Lampedusa immigrant reception center Migrants around Calais

Calais Jungle Calais migrant crisis

La Liniere refugee camp Basroch refugee camp

Border barriers

Austrian border barrier Bulgarian border barrier Ceuta border fence Calais border barrier Hungarian border barrier Macedonian border barrier Melilla border fence Norway–Russia border barrier Slovenian border barrier

Related events

2015 IKEA stabbing attack November 2015 Paris attacks 2015 Vienna swimming pool rape 2015 Geldermalsen riot 2015 Corsican protests New Year's Eve sexual assaults in Germany Murder of Ashley Ann Olsen Killing of Alexandra Mezher 2016 Würzburg train attack 2016 Ansbach bombing Reutlingen knife attack Hungarian migrant quota referendum, 2016 Murder of Maria Ladenburger Marseille stabbing 2017 Kandel stabbing attack 2018 Calais migrant violence

Related articles

Asylum in the European Union

European Asylum Curriculum (EAC) European Asylum Support Office
European Asylum Support Office
(EASO)

Convention relating to the Status of Refugees Dublin Regulation

Eurodac

European Border Surveillance System (Eurosur) Fire at Sea Frontex
Frontex
(European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders

European Border and Coast Guard

Fortress Europe Schengen Agreement

Schengen Information System
Schengen Information System
(SIS)

Valletta Summit

.