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The Red Lake
Lake
Indian Reservation
Indian Reservation
(Miskwaagamiiwi-zaaga'igan) covers 1,258.62 sq mi (3,259.81 km²) in parts of nine counties in northwestern Minnesota, United States. It is made up of numerous holdings but the largest section is an area about Red Lake, in north-central Minnesota, the largest lake entirely within that state. This section lies primarily in the counties of Beltrami and Clearwater. Land in seven other counties is also part of the reservation. The second-largest section (49°16′N 95°03′W / 49.267°N 95.050°W / 49.267; -95.050) is much farther north, in the Northwest Angle
Northwest Angle
of Lake
Lake
of the Woods County near the Canada–United States border. It has no permanent residents. Between these two largest sections are hundreds of mostly small, non-contiguous reservation exclaves in the counties of Beltrami, Clearwater, Lake
Lake
of the Woods, Koochiching, Roseau, Pennington, Marshall, Red Lake, and Polk. Home to the federally recognized Red Lake
Lake
Band of Chippewa, it is unique as the only "closed reservation" in Minnesota. In a closed reservation, all land is held in common by the tribe and there is no private property.[1] The tribe claims the land by right of conquest and aboriginal title; they were not reassigned to it by the United States government.[1] The Red Lake
Lake
Band of Chippewa
Chippewa
refused to join with six other bands in organizing as the Minnesota
Minnesota
Chippewa
Chippewa
Tribe in the mid-1930s; at the time, its people wanted to preserve their traditional system of hereditary chiefs, rather than forming an electoral government. As of 2011, the Ojibwe language
Ojibwe language
is the official language of Red Lake.[2] In the 2000 census, Red Lake
Lake
was the most populous reservation in the state, with 5,162 residents. The only place in Minnesota
Minnesota
with a higher Native American population at that time was the state's largest city, Minneapolis, 250 miles to the south; it recorded 8,378 Indian residents that year. By 2007, the White Earth and Leech Lake reservations (both led by parts of the Minnesota
Minnesota
Chippewa
Chippewa
Tribe) had higher resident populations of enrolled Ojibwe. The reservation's largest community is Red Lake, on the south shore of Red Lake. Given the large lake in the heart of the reservation, its total land area of 880.324 square miles (2,280.03 km2) covers about 70% of the reservation's surface area.

Contents

1 History

1.1 19th century 1.2 20th century to present

2 Communities 3 Demographics 4 Economy 5 Government 6 Education 7 Topography 8 Climate 9 Notable natives and residents 10 References 11 External links

History[edit] In the 17th century, the Algonquian-speaking Ojibwe
Ojibwe
migrated into present-day Minnesota
Minnesota
from the north around the Great Lakes. Their warriors went ahead of colonizers and were told to clear the way for the Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
families. Before invading the Mille Lacs region, Ojibwe
Ojibwe
warriors had forced their way into the region just west of what is now Duluth, Minnesota
Minnesota
on Lake
Lake
Superior. They established a village known as Wi-yah-kwa-kit-chi-ga-ming. It was later called Fond du Lac (Bottom of the Lake) by French fur traders, the first Europeans to interact with the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
in this area. From there, Anishinaabe warriors invaded the Sandy Lake
Lake
and Red Lake
Lake
regions. Their conquest of the Red Lake
Lake
region may have occurred between 1650 and 1750. By that time, Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
people were already living in the Grand Portage, Rainy Lake, and Pembina region of present-day northern Minnesota.[3] After subjugating the Dakota who lived in the Red Lake
Lake
region, and forcing many from the area, the Noka (the Military and Police totem of the Anishinaabe) settled in. They eventually allowed other Anishinaabe totems to enter the Red Lake
Lake
region to live. Most Anishinaabe immigrants to this area were from the Noka totem (or clan). They established many villages in the Red Lake
Lake
region. Later, they and their Dakota allies invaded the plains of present-day North Dakota, western South Dakota, and Montana. The Western Dakota, who refused to surrender, continued to fight the Anishinaabe-Dakota alliance. With each battle and defeat, more Dakota asked for peace from the Anishinaabe. The Western Dakota who continued the conflict developed a great hatred for those Eastern Dakota who were allies of the Anishinaabe.[3] William Whipple Warren, the first historian of the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
people, noted their longstanding associations with the French Canadians by the mid-18th century, due both to fur trading and intermarriage among their peoples. As a result, the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
fought with the French during the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
against the English; it was known in North America as the French and Indian War. Although the English won the war and took over "French" territory in Canada
Canada
and east of the Mississippi River, the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
retained many trading and family associations with ethnic French Canadians. 19th century[edit] In the 1850s two Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
priests established a mission with the Red Lake
Lake
band. Later, Catholic nuns from the Benedictine monastery (convent) in St. Joseph founded St. Mary's Mission at Red Lake. They organized a boarding school at the mission to serve Ojibwe
Ojibwe
girls, teaching them Christianity and English. Over time, most residents on the reservation adopted Roman Catholicism, although many also retained Ojibwe
Ojibwe
rituals and traditions, including funeral and mourning practices.[4] Allied with the Pembina Band of Chippewa
Chippewa
Indians, in 1863 the Red Lake Band negotiated the Treaty of Old Crossing in Minnesota
Minnesota
with the United States. They agreed to cede their lands in the Red River and Pembina area. They made additional agreements for land cessions in the following decades, under pressure of increased numbers of European-American settlers in the area. The United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
surveyed the international border between them to correct previous errors. By the corrected boundaries, the Northwest Angle
Northwest Angle
was included within the United States, together with its historic residents, the Lac du Bois Band of Ojibwa. As they lacked federal recognition from the US Bureau of Indian Affairs, the US consolidated the small Lac du Bois Band administratively with the Red Lake
Lake
Band. While the tribe ceded large tracts of land to the US, it maintained a central portion. It resisted US attempts to gain its approval for allotment of communal land to individual households under the Dawes Act of 1887. This involved dividing communal tribal land into individual household plots for farming and private ownership. The US would declare any land remaining on the reservation after allocating 160 acres to each head of household as "surplus" and available for sale to non-Indians. During this period, some of the Pembina Band of Chippewa
Chippewa
Indians, refusing relocation to the Turtle Mountain or the White Earth reservations, escaped to the Red Lake
Lake
Indian Reservation
Indian Reservation
because it was "untouched Indian land." It had never left tribal control.[1] On July 8, 1889, the United States
United States
told the Minnesota
Minnesota
Chippewa
Chippewa
that the Red Lake
Lake
and White Earth reservations would be retained, but the others would be put up for public sale. They said that Chippewa
Chippewa
from the other reservations would be relocated to White Earth Reservation. The United States
United States
told the leaders of the Chippewa
Chippewa
reservations that the members of each reservation could vote on whether to accept allotment at that reservation, with voting to be by all qualified Chippewa
Chippewa
men. The Chippewa
Chippewa
leaders were outraged. Red Lake
Lake
leaders warned the United States
United States
about reprisals if their Reservation were violated. The members of the White Earth and Mille Lacs reservations both voted overwhelmingly to accept land allotments and allow the surplus land sold to the whites, with the tribes to receive the lump sums of money from the sales. The Leech Lake Reservation members also voted for land allotments. The October 5, 1898 Battle of Sugar Point
Battle of Sugar Point
was over land. In 1889, the Red Lake
Lake
Reservation covered 3,260,000 acres or 5,093 sq. mi. The Band was forced to cede 2,905,000 acres as "surplus" after allotment to households registered on the Dawes Rolls took place. That left the Reservation with more than 300,000 acres of land and most of Lower and Upper Red Lake. Learning of Chippewa
Chippewa
unrest because of the vote, the United States
United States
later set aside large areas of forests to add back to the Red Lake
Lake
Reservation. But, in 1904 US officials returned, and forced the Red Lake
Lake
Chippewa
Chippewa
to cede more land from that set aside in 1889.[citation needed] The present Red Lake
Lake
Reservation dates to the 1904 land act. There was no allotment of land at that time to individual Chippewa
Chippewa
living on the Red Lake
Lake
Reservation. Only a small portion of the White Earth Reservation
White Earth Reservation
remained. This was the northeast part of the full reservation; it was a fraction of the original territory. All other Minnesota, Chippewa
Chippewa
reservations were closed, with the lands sold off after the 1889 Nelson Act. As a result of the 1898 Rebellion, which occurred on the Leech Lake
Lake
Reservation, the US changed its policy. It returned some land to Minnesota's remaining Chippewa
Chippewa
reservations, including White Earth. 20th century to present[edit] The current Red Lake
Lake
reservation is entirely owned and occupied by members of the Red Lake
Lake
Band, making it unique among reservations in Minnesota. (As a result of allotment and sales in the intervening years, some tribes own less than 10% of the land within their reservation boundaries). Red Lake
Lake
is the most isolated reservation in the United States. In 1934, after the Indian Reorganization Act
Indian Reorganization Act
that year encouraged tribes to restore their governments, the tribe rejected joining six other Chippewa
Chippewa
bands to organize the federally recognized Minnesota
Minnesota
Chippewa
Chippewa
Tribe under a written constitution. Its leaders did not want to give up the tradition of hereditary chiefs for an elected government or give up any control of its land to the Tribe. By 2007, the Minnesota
Minnesota
Chippewa
Chippewa
Tribe reported a total enrollment of more than 40,000 members. In the 1950s, new tribal leaders of Red Lake
Lake
wrote a constitution to establish democratically elected government of chairman and council, without term limits. The tribe elected its first chairman and tribal council in 1959. Roger Jourdain was repeatedly re-elected and retained power until 1990. Under his leadership, the tribe developed infrastructure on the reservation, including running water, roads, and housing. The tribe has established a library and archives, and appointed a tribal archaeologist to study and preserve the archaeological artifacts of its people. Tribal schools on the reservation were established so that the children could be educated in their own community through high school. Red Lake, like the White Earth, and Leech Lake
Lake
reservations, is known for its tradition of singing hymns in the Ojibwe
Ojibwe
language.[5] In part because of the reservation's isolation, it has struggled economically. Many people are unemployed. High unemployment has contributed to high rates of poverty, alcoholism, violence and suicide. As a result, since the 1990s, the school board has added classes to the high school curriculum to include drug and alcohol abuse prevention, anti-gang training, anti-bullying training, and instruction about fetal alcohol syndrome. As a result of gang killings in the 1990s, the school added security measures to the high school, including guards.[6] The Red Lake
Lake
Band of the Chippewa
Chippewa
are the only entity beside state governments and Pacific dependencies currently eligible for SAMHSA Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment block grants[7] Since the mid-20th century, the tribe has asserted a significant level of sovereignty. Due to its status as a "closed reservation", the tribe can assert a considerable amount of control over non-residents, including controlling their movements within the reservation or expelling them altogether. As an example, the tribe has barred journalists from entry on several occasions. The prosecution of crimes is often complex due to issues of jurisdiction, which often have to be clarified on a case by case basis. The reservation tribal police have jurisdiction over misdemeanors, but the US government, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) police, legally has jurisdiction over felonies. The state of Minnesota
Minnesota
has no criminal jurisdiction over the reservation. Political tensions have sometimes erupted into violence. In 1979, during a struggle over leadership, men with rifles attacked the tribal police station, and two teenagers were killed. One shot himself accidentally and the other was accidentally shot while struggling with a companion over control of a weapon. Men burned several buildings, including the home of the tribal chairman.[6][8] The tribe and reservation was the first in the United States
United States
to issue its own vehicle license plates as a measure of its sovereign status. It is struggling to find ways to develop its economy. It is collaborating in the 21st century with the White Earth and Leech Lake
Lake
bands to reach out to the business and academic communities to promote job development. (See "Economy" below.) The Red Lake
Lake
shootings occurred on March 21, 2005 in two locations on the reservation. Communities[edit]

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The communities of Red Lake
Lake
Reservation tend to have housing units located on each side of one road, similar to other rural settlements. Redby has housing units on more cross streets and appears more like a typical town. Yet many of Redby's housing units are located deep in the woods.

Little Rock Ponemah Red Lake Redby

Demographics[edit] Per capita income is lower at Red Lake
Lake
than on any other reservation in the state. It was estimated at US$8,372 in 1999, according to the Northwest Area Foundation.[citation needed] Approximately 40% of residents live below the poverty line. Between 1990 and 2000, the population increased by 40% as people returned to the reservation after difficulty finding employment elsewhere during recession years. An unemployment rate hovering near 60%[9] and associated poverty are thought to contribute to a high level of crime. In 2004, the tribal police filed 3,500 court cases. The majority of the population is young, with approximately 60% of the residents under the age of 18. The unemployment and poverty have resulted in associated problems of high rates of violence, including suicide. A 2004 Minnesota
Minnesota
School Study found that 43% of boys and 81% of girls in the freshman class of the high school had considered suicide, and 48% of the girls had tried it.[6] The school has a low graduation rate.[9] Economy[edit] Some in the community have expressed hope that renewal of the tribe's traditions and its traditional values may improve life on the reservation. But, others believe that the community needs to focus on education and job development, to employ people and pay them adequately. The majority of jobs on the reservation pay in the vicinity of $7 per hour as of 2005. The tribe operates three casino operations, which are struggling to generate revenue as they do not allow the sale or consumption of alcohol. A small operation is located in the village of Red Lake, the 13,000 ft². River Road Casino
Casino
is located seven miles south of Thief River Falls, and the Lake
Lake
of the Woods Bingo and Casino
Casino
is in Warroad. Seven Clans Casino
Casino
Red Lake
Lake
is located in Red Lake, Minnesota. The three casinos combined are known as Seven Clans Casinos. Industry on the reservation has consisted primarily of logging and commercial fishing of walleye in the lakes. Walleye
Walleye
production dropped significantly in the 1990s, adding to the reservation's financial problems. The community receives $50 to $60 million each year in US federal subsidies, such as Social Security and welfare. Because the reservation has few retail businesses and no bank, little money is exchanged within the reservation to help generate more jobs. The poverty level of the tribe, coupled with financial difficulties in state government, led Minnesota
Minnesota
Governor Tim Pawlenty
Tim Pawlenty
in 2004–2005 to propose a joint casino operation to be co-owned by the White Earth, Leech Lake, and Red Lake
Lake
bands, and the state government. The state was willing to designate a site in the populous Twin Cities area, where some of the most successful Indian gaming facilities in the country are located. Many state residents turned against the plan, and it was ruled to be illegal by the state Attorney General Mike Hatch. The Red Lake
Lake
Band pulled out of negotiations. Northern Minnesota
Minnesota
tribes are working together to stimulate economic development in the region. The Red Lake, Leech Lake
Lake
and White Earth nations created the Northern Minnesota
Minnesota
Tribal Economic Development Commission. They are seeking to make more connections with area businesses and resources. In 2008 the three tribes organized the Northern Minnesota
Minnesota
Reservation Economic Development Summit and Trade Show.[10] The White Earth Band is the largest of the six who belong to the Minnesota
Minnesota
Chippewa
Chippewa
Tribe, to which the Leech Lake
Lake
Band also belongs. Government[edit] In 1934, Red Lake
Lake
rejected organization under the Indian Reorganization Act, as it preferred to retain a clan-based system of governance. The Band did not join the Minnesota
Minnesota
Chippewa
Chippewa
Tribe, a federally recognized conglomeration of Minnesota's other Chippewa nations, which has its own governing authority. During the 1950s, governmental reform efforts in Red Lake
Lake
resulted in the drafting of a tribal constitution. The constitution established an elected Tribal Council; a group of seven traditionally selected tribal leaders was established to serve on an advisory basis. Together with the elected council members, these traditional leaders form the Tribal Council's subordinate committees.[10] In 1959, Roger Jourdain was elected as Red Lake's first chairman; he was successively re-elected until 1990.[1] Jourdain is credited with working to affirm the tribe's sovereignty through negotiations with the state and federal governments, which resulted in Red Lake's continued exemption from Public Law 280. Jourdain's administration also oversaw the reopening of an Indian Health Service hospital and extensive infrastructure improvements, which focused on running water, housing development, and roads.[11] Jourdain's administration also attracted controversy; in 1979, a two-day riot occurred on the reservation following the Tribal Council's dismissal of its secretary-treasurer. During the riots, armed protestors attacked the tribal police station and burned fourteen buildings, including Jourdain's home.[11] Two teenagers were killed; one during a struggle over a weapon and the other due to an accidental, self-inflicted wound.[8] In 1990, Gerald "Butch" Brun unseated Jourdain. Darrell G. Seki, Sr. is the current tribal chairman. Education[edit] School systems include:

Red Lake
Lake
School District

Red Lake
Lake
Senior High School

Topography[edit] Red Lake
Lake
Reservation has some widely scattered properties in northwest Minnesota. Most of the Reservation is located around Lower and Upper Red Lake, which is one of the largest lakes in the United States. The land area of the Reservation is located mainly around Lower Red Lake and west of that and Upper Red Lake. The land is covered by prime forest. Elevation across the Red Lake
Lake
Reservation is uniform. It ranges in elevation from 1,100 feet above sea level to 1,300 feet above sea level. Besides Lower and Upper Red Lakes, many smaller lakes are scattered across the reservation, especially south of Lower Red Lake. Climate[edit] Red Lake
Lake
Reservation has extreme climate conditions. Winters are long and cold, while summers are short and warm. During the winter months of December, January, and February, the average low temperatures at Red Lake
Lake
are 0, -8, and -3. Average high temperatures for the same winter months at Red Lake
Lake
are 19, 13, and 20. Average high temperatures for the summer months of June, July, and August at Red Lake
Lake
are 73, 78, and 76. Average low temperatures for the same summer months at Red Lake
Lake
are 51, 57, and 54. The lake and forest contribute to significant precipitation at Red Lake, 23 inches annually. The large lake has a warming effect, especially in low temperatures. The mild summer low temperatures are a result of the warming effect of Lower and Upper Red Lake. Low temperatures during the summer further south, are cooler, especially at communities that are not located next to lakes. Notable natives and residents[edit]

Jody Beaulieu, director of tribal library and archives[11] Donna Bergstrom, retired USMC officer, running for the Minnesota Senate in 2016 n[12] Brenda Child, Educator and author, history professor, University of Minnesota. Author of: Boarding School Seasons (2000); Holding Our World Together: Ojibwe
Ojibwe
Women and the Survival of the Community (2012) Leon F. Cook, president of the National Congress of American Indians from 1971 to 1972. Patrick DesJarlait, artist. Sam English, painter, activist. Noted fine artist, painter, and activist for various causes, including that of Native American chemical dependency, health, and wellness organizations. Adam Fortunate Eagle, Native American political activist. Anna C Gibbs Waasabiikwe (1944 - 2017), Red Lake
Lake
spiritual leader, author, and cultural preservation authority.[13] Roger Jourdain (1913-2002), elected the first Chairman of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa
Chippewa
in 1959, in the tribe's first popular election of leader; served until 1990.[11][14] He was selected in 1986 as the Indian Man of the Year by the American Indian Heritage Foundation.[11] Bill Lawrence (1939-2010), owner-editor of Native American Press/ Ojibwe
Ojibwe
News since 1988[11][15] Charlie Norris, professional wrestler. Gary Sargent, professional hockey player. Thomas J. Stillday, Jr., spiritual leader of the Red Lake
Lake
Nation, tribal council member, served as first non-Judeo/Christian Minnesota Senate Chaplain from 1997 to 1998. Ginger Thompson, tribal archeologist who specializes in the Ojibwe William Whipple Warren, Minnesota
Minnesota
territorial legislator (1851-1853) and first Ojibwe
Ojibwe
historian, wrote a work combining oral history and recognized European-American criteria; his History of the Ojibway People, Based Upon Traditions and Oral Statements (1885), was published posthumously and reprinted in 2009 in an annotated edition[3]

References[edit]

^ a b c d Charles Brill (1992). Red Lake
Lake
Nation: Portraits of Ojibway Life, University of Minnesota
Minnesota
Press, p. 19. ISBN 0-8166-1906-9 ^ Meurs, Michael (2011-09-21). "Native American Language Revitalization on Red Lake
Lake
Agenda". Indian Country Today Media Network. Retrieved 2013-04-13.  ^ a b c William Whipple Warren, History of the Ojibway People, Based Upon Traditions and Oral Statements, ed. Theresa Schenk, Minnesota Historical Society, 2009 ^ Sister Owen Lindblad, OSB, Full of Fair Hope: A History of St. Mary's Mission, Red Lake, Waite Park, MN: Park Press Quality Printing, Inc., 1997 ^ Dan Gunderson (2013-01-14). "At White Earth, hymns a unique part of a renewed Ojibwe
Ojibwe
culture". Park Rapids Enterprise. Park Rapids, Minnesota. Retrieved 2013-01-17.  ^ a b c Blaine Harden and Dana Hedgpeth, " Minnesota
Minnesota
Killer Chafed at Life On Reservation", Washington Post, 25 March 2005, accessed 20 December 2012 ^ SAMHSA, "Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request", SAMHSA, 22 November 2016, accessed 13 February 2017 ^ a b Brill, Charles (1992). Red Lake
Lake
Nation: Portraits of Ojibway Life. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota
Minnesota
Press. p. 155.  ^ a b Kimberly Sevcik, "Reservation for Death", Salon, 8 August 2005 ^ a b "Tribal Chairs", Northern Minnesota
Minnesota
Reservation Economic Development Summit and Trade Show, 13 & 14 August 2008, Minnesota Tribal Initiative website, accessed 20 December 2012 ^ a b c d e f Chuck Haga, "Roger Jourdain, longtime tribal chairman, dies", Star Tribune, 27 March 2002, accessed 19 December 2012 ^ Lisa Kaczke, "Bergstrom Enters Senate Race", Duluth News Tribune, 27 January 2016; accessed 29 October 2016 ^ "Anna C Gibbs Waasabiikwe December 17, 1944 ~ July 24, 2017 (age 72)" at Red Lake
Lake
Nation News, July 25, 2017. Accessed July 26, 2017. ^ "Roger Jourdain, longtime Red Lake
Lake
tribal chairman, dies", Native American Press/ Ojibwe
Ojibwe
News, 29 March 2002, accessed 19 December 2012 ^ Curt Brown, "Watchdog journalist Bill Lawrence, 70", Star Tribune, 3 March 2010, accessed 19 December 2010

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Red Lake
Lake
Indian Reservation.

External links[edit]

Minnesota
Minnesota
portal Indigenous peoples of North America portal

Red Lake
Lake
Nation "Tribal Consultation Protocol between the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service and the Red Lake
Lake
Band of Minnesota
Minnesota
Chippewa", Natural Resources Conservation Service Archival Images of Red Lake
Lake
Mission from the Saint Benedict's Monastery Archives

Coordinates: 48°09′18″N 95°06′08″W / 48.15500°N 95.10222°W / 48.15500; -95.10222

v t e

Indian reservations in Minnesota

Bois Forte Fond du Lac Grand Portage Ho-Chunk1 Leech Lake Lower Sioux Mille Lacs Prairie Island Red Lake Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Upper Sioux White Earth

1 No reservation in the state, trust lands or legal status only

Articles Relating to Red Lake
Lake
Indian Reservation

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Beltrami County, Minnesota, United States

County seat: Bemidji

Cities

Bemidji Blackduck Funkley Kelliher Solway Tenstrike Turtle River Wilton

Townships

Alaska Battle Bemidji Benville Birch Buzzle Cormant Durand Eckles Frohn Grant Valley Hagali Hamre Hines Hornet Jones Kelliher Lammers Langor Lee Liberty Maple Ridge Minnie Moose Lake Nebish Northern O'Brien Port Hope Quiring Roosevelt Shooks Shotley Spruce Grove Steenerson Sugar Bush Summit Taylor Ten Lake Turtle Lake Turtle River Waskish Woodrow

CDPs

Little Rock Ponemah Red Lake Redby

Unorganized territories

Brook Lake Lower Red Lake North Beltrami Shotley Brook Upper Red Lake

Unincorporated communities

Hines Island Lake Pennington Pinewood Puposky Rosby‡ Saum Shooks Waskish

Indian reservations

Leech Lake
Lake
Indian Reservation‡ Red Lake
Lake
Indian Reservation‡

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Clearwater County, Minnesota, United States

County seat: Bagley

Cities

Bagley Clearbrook Gonvick Leonard Shevlin

Townships

Bear Creek Clover Copley Dudley Eddy Falk Greenwood Hangaard Holst Itasca La Prairie Leon Long Lost Lake Minerva Moose Creek Nora Pine Lake Popple Rice Shevlin Sinclair Winsor

CDPs

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Unorganized territories

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Unincorporated communities

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Indian reservations

Red Lake
Lake
Indian Reservation‡ White Earth Indian Reservation

Ghost town

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Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Koochiching County, Minnesota, United States

County seat: International Falls

Cities

Big Falls International Falls Littlefork Mizpah Northome Ranier

Unorganized territories

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Unincorporated communities

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Indian reservations

Nett Lake
Lake
Indian Reservation‡ Red Lake
Lake
Indian Reservation‡

Ghost towns

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Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Lake
Lake
of the Woods County, Minnesota, United States

County seat: Baudette

Cities

Baudette Roosevelt‡ Williams

Townships

Angle Baudette Beaver Dam Boone Chilgren Cloverdale Eugene Forest Area Gudrid Hiwood Kiel Lakewood McDougald Meadowland Myhre Norris Noyes Park Pioneer Potamo Prosper Rapid River Rulien Spooner Swiftwater 157-30 158-30 Victory Wabanica Walhalla Wheeler Zippel

CDP

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Unincorporated communities

Arnesen Birch Beach Carp Clementson Faunce Graceton Hackett Long Point Oak Island Penasse Sandy Shores Wheeler's Point

Indian reservations

Red Lake
Lake
Indian Reservation‡

Ghost towns

Lude Pitt

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Marshall County, Minnesota, United States

County seat: Warren

Cities

Alvarado Argyle Grygla Holt Middle River Newfolden Oslo Stephen Strandquist Viking Warren

Townships

Agder Alma Augsburg Big Woods Bloomer Boxville Cedar Como Comstock Donnelly Eagle Point East Park East Valley Eckvoll Espelie Excel Foldahl Fork Grand Plain Holt Huntly Lincoln Linsell Marsh Grove McCrea Middle River Moose River Moylan Nelson Park New Folden New Maine New Solum Oak Park Parker Rollis Sinnott Spruce Valley Tamarac Thief Lake Valley Vega Veldt Viking Wanger Warrenton West Valley Whiteford Wright

Unincorporated communities

Big Woods Englund Espelie Florian Gatzke Luna March Radium Rosewood

Unorganized territory

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Indian reservation

Red Lake
Lake
Indian Reservation‡

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Pennington County, Minnesota, United States

County seat: Thief River Falls

Cities

Goodridge St. Hilaire Thief River Falls

Townships

Black River Bray Clover Leaf Deer Park Goodridge Hickory Highlanding Kratka Mayfield Norden North Numedal Polk Centre Reiner River Falls Rocksbury Sanders Silverton Smiley Star Wyandotte

Unincorporated communities

Dakota Junction Erie Hazel Highlanding Kratka Mavie

Indian reservation

Red Lake
Lake
Indian Reservation‡

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Polk County, Minnesota, United States

County seat: Crookston

Cities

Beltrami Climax Crookston East Grand Forks Erskine Fertile Fisher Fosston Gully Lengby McIntosh Mentor Nielsville Trail Winger

Townships

Andover Angus Badger Belgium Brandsvold Brandt Brislet Bygland Chester Columbia Crookston Eden Esther Euclid Fairfax Fanny Farley Fisher Garden Garfield Gentilly Godfrey Grand Forks Grove Park-Tilden Gully Hammond Helgeland Higdem Hill River Hubbard Huntsville Johnson Kertsonville Keystone King Knute Lessor Liberty Lowell Nesbit Northland Onstad Parnell Queen Reis Rhinehart Roome Rosebud Russia Sandsville Scandia Sletten Sullivan Tabor Tynsid Vineland Winger Woodside

Unincorporated communities

Benoit Cisco Dugdale Eldred Euclid Key West Mallory Maple Bay Shirley

Indian reservation

Red Lake
Lake
Indian Reservation‡

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

v t e

Municipalities and communities of Red Lake
Lake
County, Minnesota, United States

County seat: Red Lake
Lake
Falls

Cities

Brooks Oklee Plummer Red Lake
Lake
Falls

Townships

Browns Creek Emardville Equality Garnes Gervais Lake
Lake
Pleasant Lambert Louisville Poplar River Red Lake
Lake
Falls River Terrebonne Wylie

Unincorporated communities

Dorothy Huot Perault Terrebonne

Indian reservation

Red Lake
Lake
Indian Reservation‡

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

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Municipalities and communities of Roseau County, Minnesota, United States

County seat: Roseau

Cities

Badger Greenbush Roosevelt‡ Roseau Strathcona Warroad

Townships

Barnett Barto Beaver Cedarbend Deer Dewey Dieter Enstrom Falun Golden Valley Grimstad Hereim Huss Jadis Lake Laona Lind Malung Mickinock Moose Moranville Nereson Palmville Pohlitz Polonia Poplar Grove Reine Ross Skagen Soler Spruce Stafford Stokes

Unorganized territories

North Roseau Northwest Roseau Southeast Roseau

Unincorporated communities

Casperson Fox Haug Leo Longworth Malung Mandus Pencer Pinecreek Ross Salol Skime Swift Torfin Wannaska

Ghost town

Winner

Indian reservation

Red Lake
Lake
Indian Reservation‡

Footnotes

‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties

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Pembina Chippewa

Full political Successors

Chippewa
Chippewa
Cree Little Shell Roseau River Turtle Mountain

Minor political Successors

Red Lake White Earth

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Anishinaabe

Culture

Anishinabek Educational Institute birch bark biting birch bark scrolls clan system Dreamcatcher Drumkeeper Jingle dress Manitou Medicine wheel Grand Medicine Society Nanabozho Ojibwe
Ojibwe
language Ottawa dialect Pow wow Quillwork Ribbon work traditional beliefs Wampum

Political organizations

Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Chiefs of Ontario Council of Three Fires Grand Council of Treaty 3 Grand Council of Treaty 8 Great Lakes
Great Lakes
Inter-tribal Council Inter-tribal Council of Michigan Minnesota
Minnesota
Indian Affairs Council Nishnawbe Aski Nation

Independent First Nations Alliance Keewaytinook Okimakanak Council Matawa First Nations Mishkeegogamang First Nation Mocreebec Council of the Cree Nation Mushkegowuk Council Sandy Lake
Lake
First Nation Shibogama First Nations Council Wabun Tribal Council Weenusk First Nation Windigo First Nations Council

Union of Ont

.