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Rear admiral
Rear admiral
is a naval commissioned officer rank above that of a commodore and captain, and below that of a vice admiral. It is generally regarded as the lowest of the "admiral" ranks, which are also sometimes referred to as "flag officers" or "flag ranks". In many navies it is referred to as a two-star rank (OF-7). It originated from the days of naval sailing squadrons and can trace its origins to the Royal Navy. Each naval squadron would be assigned an admiral as its head, who would command from the centre vessel and direct the activities of the squadron. The admiral would in turn be assisted by a vice admiral, who commanded the lead ships which would bear the brunt of a naval battle. In the rear of the naval squadron, a third admiral would command the remaining ships and, as this section of the squadron was considered to be in the least danger, the admiral in command of the rear would typically be the most junior of the squadron admirals. This has survived into the modern age, with the rank of rear admiral the most-junior of the admiralty ranks of many navies. In some European navies (e.g., that of France), and in the Canadian Forces' French rank translations, the rank of rear admiral is known as contre-amiral. In the German Navy
German Navy
the rank is known as Konteradmiral, superior to the flotilla admiral (Commodore in other navies). In the Royal Netherlands Navy, this rank is known as schout-bij-nacht (lit.: supervisor during night), denoting the role junior to the squadron admiral, and fleet admiral.

Contents

1 Australia 2 Canada 3 Germany 4 Guyana 5 India 6 Iran 7 Pakistan 8 Netherlands 9 New Zealand 10 Singapore 11 United Kingdom 12 United States 13 Vietnam 14 See also 15 References and notes

Australia[edit] Main article: Rear admiral
Rear admiral
(Australia)

Rear admiral
Rear admiral
(Australia)

The RADM insignia

Country  Australia

Service branch  Royal Australian Navy

Abbreviation RADM

Rank Two-star

NATO
NATO
rank O-9

Next higher rank Vice admiral

Next lower rank Commodore

Equivalent ranks

Major general
Major general
(Army) Air vice-marshal
Air vice-marshal
(RAAF)

The Royal Australian Navy
Royal Australian Navy
maintains a rank of rear admiral; refer to Australian Defence Force
Australian Defence Force
ranks and insignia. The abbreviation is RADM. Since the mid-1990s, the insignia of a Royal Australian Navy
Royal Australian Navy
rear admiral is the Crown of St. Edward
Crown of St. Edward
above a crossed sword and baton, above two silver stars, above the word "Australia". Like the Royal Navy version, the sword is a traditional naval cutlass. The stars have eight points, unlike the four pointed Order of the Bath
Order of the Bath
stars used by the army (which are often referred to as "pips"). Prior to 1995, the RAN shoulder board was identical to the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
shoulder board. The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
shoulder board changed again in 2001 and the Australian and UK shoulder boards are now identical except for the word "Australia".[1] Rear Admiral
Admiral
Robyn Walker AM, RAN became the first female admiral in the Royal Australian Navy
Royal Australian Navy
when she was appointed Surgeon-General of the Australian Defence Force
Australian Defence Force
on 16 December 2011.[2] Canada[edit] In the Royal Canadian Navy, the rank of rear-admiral (RAdm) (contre-amiral or CAm in French) is the Navy rank equivalent to major-general of the Army and Air Force. A rear-admiral is a flag officer, the naval equivalent of a general officer. A rear-admiral is senior to a commodore and brigadier-general, and junior to a vice-admiral and lieutenant-general. The rank insignia for a rear-admiral is two silver maple leaves beneath a silver crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St Edward's Crown, worn on gold shoulder boards on the white short-sleeved shirt or the tropical white tunic. The service dress features a wide strip of gold braid around the cuff and, since June 2010,[3] above it a narrower strip of gold braid embellished with the executive curl. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves.

Canadian rear admiral sleeve insignia (since June 2010).

Uniform shirts

Shoulder boards for short-sleeve shirt, tropical white tunic and white mess jacket.

CADPAT
CADPAT
uniform

Further information: Canadian Forces ranks and insignia

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Commissioned officer
Commissioned officer
ranks of the Canadian Armed Forces

NATO
NATO
rank code Student Officer OF-1 OF-2 OF-3 OF-4 OF-5 OF-6 * OF-7 ** OF-8 *** OF-9 **** OF-10 *****

Royal Canadian Navy NCdt A/SLt SLt Lt(N) LCdr Cdr Capt(N) Cmdre RAdm VAdm Adm Not used

Canadian Army OCdt 2Lt Lt Capt Maj LCol Col BGen MGen LGen Gen Not used

Royal Canadian Air Force OCdt 2Lt Lt Capt Maj LCol Col BGen MGen LGen Gen Not used

Germany[edit] Main articles: Konteradmiral
Konteradmiral
and List of German admirals

Konteradmiral
Konteradmiral
is an OF-7
OF-7
two-star rank equivalent to the Generalmajor (en: Major
Major
general) in the German Army
German Army
and the German Air Force. Guyana[edit] The Guyana Defence Force
Guyana Defence Force
Coast Guard is the naval component of the Military of Guyana. As such, the ranks of the Coast Guard are naval ranks similar to the practice in the respective Coast Guards of Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. The rank of rear admiral was first awarded to chief of staff commodore Gary Best on August 19, 2013. The rank insignia consists of two silver pips with green highlights, beneath a crossed sword and baton (also silver colored), all surmounted by the gold-colored Cacique's crown with red, and green highlights.

GDF Coast Guard rear admiral shoulder board

India[edit] The Indian Navy
Indian Navy
also maintains a rear admiral rank senior to commodore and captain ranks and junior to vice admiral (and admiral) ranks.

Indian admiral sleeve insignia

Shoulder curl for rear admiral

The rank insignia for a rear-admiral is two stars beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by Emblem of India, worn on shoulder boards. Iran[edit] Before Islamic Revolution (1979) The Iranian Imperial Navy (IIN).

Daryaban (دریابان)

After Islamic Revolution (1979) The Islamic Republic of Iran Navy
Islamic Republic of Iran Navy
(IRIN), also known as the Iranian Navy.

Daryaban (دریابان)

Pakistan[edit]

Pakistani rear admiral rank insignia.

A rear admiral in the Pakistani Navy is a senior and two-star rank naval officer, appointed in higher naval commands. Like most Commonwealth navies, the rear admiral rank is superior to commodore and captain. However, the rank is junior to the three-star rank vice-admiral and four-star rank admiral, who is generally a Chief of Naval
Naval
Staff of the Navy. Netherlands[edit]

The rank insignia of a schout-bij-nacht

Schout-bij-nacht
Schout-bij-nacht
(pronounced [ˈsxʌu̯d bɛi̯ ˈnɑxt])[4] is a Dutch Naval
Naval
rank, equivalent to rear admiral in the US Navy
US Navy
and Royal Navy. It is the second most junior admiral position of the Dutch Navy, ranking above commandeur ("commodore") and below a vice-admiraal ("vice admiral"). The rank of schout-bij-nacht originated between the 15th and 16th century. Interpreted as "watch-at-night", the schout-bij-nacht was the officer who supervised the ship when the captain was asleep. In later times the schout-bij-nacht was also the officer who supervised an entire naval squadron, in the absence of a senior admiral, and by the 17th century schout-bij-nacht was the common rank held by the naval commander of a battle fleet's rear squadron. In the 17th century the navies of Sweden
Sweden
and Denmark-Norway
Denmark-Norway
adopted the rank as schoutbynacht and the early Imperial Russian Navy
Imperial Russian Navy
as шаутбенахт ("shautbenakht"). In 1724 the Russians, followed in 1771 by both the Swedish navy
Swedish navy
and the Dano-Norwegian navy changed the name of the rank to counter admiral (контр-адмирал in Russian, konteramiral in Swedish, kontreadmiral in Danish and Norwegian). New Zealand[edit] The highest ordinary rank currently filled in the Royal New Zealand Navy is rear admiral and this is the rank held by the Chief of Navy[5] unless that person is also Chief of Defence Force. Singapore[edit] Main article: Singapore Armed Forces ranks § Officers The Republic of Singapore Navy
Republic of Singapore Navy
uses two ranks with the title of rear admiral: rear-admiral (one-star), a one-star rank; and rear-admiral (two-star), a two-star rank. United Kingdom[edit] Main article: Rear admiral
Rear admiral
(Royal Navy) The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
maintains a rank of rear admiral. Note that the rank of rear admiral is quite different from the honorary office Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom. United States[edit] Main article: Rear admiral
Rear admiral
(United States)

US Navy
US Navy
Rear Admiral
Admiral
Michelle J. Howard
Michelle J. Howard
uses the public address system to address the crew of USS Wasp in 2009. Howard has since been promoted to admiral.

In the United States since 1984, there have been two ranks with the title of rear admiral: rear admiral (lower half) (RDML), a one-star rank; and rear admiral (RADM), a two-star rank. Prior to that, a combination of ranks were used.

The stars and shoulder boards of a US Navy
US Navy
two-star, rear admiral

The stars and shoulder boards of a US Coast Guard two-star, rear admiral

The star and shoulder boards of a US Public Health Service two-star, rear admiral

The stars, shoulder boards, and sleeve stripes of a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration two-star, rear admiral

Vietnam[edit] In Vietnam, the equivalent to rear admiral is the chuẩn đô đốc or đề đốc. See also[edit]

Ranks and insignia of officers of NATO
NATO
navies Samuel Eliot Morison, Pulitzer Prize winner and rear admiral

References and notes[edit]

^ "Uniform Ranks". Royal Australian Navy. Australian Government. Archived from the original on 24 January 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2016.  ^ "First female Admiral
Admiral
for the Royal Australian Navy". Defence News. Department of Defence, Australian Government. 6 December 2011.  ^ [1] The Maple Leaf/La Feuille d'érable – no. 13 vol.18 ^ Schout in isolation: [ˈsxʌu̯t]. ^ "Rear Admiral
Admiral
Jack Steer Appointed Chief of Navy". Royal New Zealand Navy. Royal New Zealand Navy. Retrieved 15 November 2014. 

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Military ranks and insignia by country

List of comparative military ranks

Africa

Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros DR Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Egypt

Army Navy Air Force

Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Former

Biafra Bophuthatswana Ciskei Kingdom of Egypt Ethiopian Empire Rhodesia South West Africa Transkei Venda Zaire

Comparative

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Apartheid States in Southern Africa

Americas

Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Bahamas Barbados Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile

Army Air Force Navy

Colombia Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico

Army Navy

Nicaragua Paraguay Peru Saint Kitts and Nevis Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States

Officers:

Army Navy Air Force Coast Guard

Enlisted:

Army Navy Air Force Coast Guard

Other:

Marine Corps Warrant officer

Uruguay Venezuela

Former

United States Army enlisted

World War I World War II

Comparative

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Asia

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh

Army Navy Air Force

Bhutan Brunei Cambodia PR of China

Army Navy Air Force

Republic of China(Taiwan)

Army Navy Air Force

East Timor India

Army Air Force Navy

Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Korea(North & South) Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar

Army Navy Air Force

Nepal Oman Pakistan

Army Air Force Navy

Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka

Army Navy Air Force

Syria Tajikistan Thailand Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

Former

Democratic Kampuchea Imperial Iran Imperial Japan

Army Navy

Mengjiang Manchukuo South Vietnam

Comparative

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Europe

Albania Austria Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark

Army Navy Air Force

Estonia Finland France

Army Navy Gendarmerie Air Force Foresters

Germany

Rank information Rank insignia

Georgia Greece Hungary Iceland

Land Forces Coast Guard

Ireland Italy

Army Navy Air Force Carabinieri Finance Guard

Kosovo Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia

Army Navy Air Force Between 1994 and 2010

San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

Army officers Army other ranks Navy officers Navy ratings Air Force officers Air Force other ranks

Vatican

Former

Austria–Hungary

Army Navy

Independent State of Croatia Czechoslovakia German Empire Nazi Germany

Army Navy Air Force People's Militia SA SS Nazi Party

East Germany Kingdom of Greece

Army Navy Air Force

Kingdom of Hungary Hungarian People's Republic Kingdom of Italy

Blackshirts

Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Soviet Union

1918–35 1935–40 1940–43 1943–55 1955–91

Kingdom of Yugoslavia SFR Yugoslavia FR Yugoslavia

Comparative

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Oceania

Australia Fiji New Zealand Papua New Guinea Tonga Vanuatu

Comparative

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Post-Soviet states

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Commonwealth of Nations

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

NATO

Army

Officers Enlisted

Air Force

Officers Enlisted

Navy

Officers Enlisted

Comparative officer ranks of

World War I World War II

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Star officer grades

General officer Flag officer Air officer

By star ranks

Six-star rank
Six-star rank
(proposed) Five-star rank Four-star rank Three-star rank Two-star rank One-star rank

By titles

Generalissimo Generalissimus of the Soviet Union Supreme Allied Commander Admiral
Admiral
of the Navy General of the Armies Generalfeldmarschall Field marshal Mareşal Marshal of the air force Marshal of the Russian Federation Marshal of the Soviet Union Mushir Caudillo Magister militum Spahbed Ispahsalar Beylerbey Constable of France Grand Domestic Dux bellorum Grand marshal Hetman Jenderal besar Reichsmarschall Sardar Serasker Strategos autokrator First marshal of the empire Dai-gensui Taewonsu Voivoda Wonsu Yuan Shuai Da yuan shuai Marshal of Yugoslavia

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Highest military ranks

General officer Flag officer Air officer

Imperator Marshal of Italy Generalissimo Generalissimus of the Soviet Union Supreme Allied Commander Admiral
Admiral
of the Navy General of the Armies General of the Air Force Generalfeldmarschall Mareşal Marshal of the air force Marshal of the Soviet Union Marshal of the Russian Federation Mushir Magister militum Spahbed Ispahsalar Beylerbey Bojni Vojvoda Chom Thap Thai Constable of France Domestic of the Schools Grand Domestic Shōgun Dux bellorum Grand marshal Hetman Jenderal besar Polemarch Reichsmarschall Federal General of Switzerland Sardar Serasker Autokrator First marshal of the empire Da yuan shuai Dai-gensui Taewonsu Yuan shuai Wonsu Mar

.