Rawalpindi District (Punjabi and Urdu: ضِلع
راولپِنڈى), is a district located in the northernmost
part of the Punjab province of Pakistan. Parts of the district form
part of the Islamabad
Rawalpindi metropolitan area.
Rawalpindi city is
the district capital.
The district has an area of 5,286 km2 (2,041 sq mi).
Originally, its area was 6,192 km2 (2,391 sq mi) until
the 1960s when
Islamabad Capital Territory
Islamabad Capital Territory was carved out of the
district, giving away an area of 906 km2
(350 sq mi). It is situated on the southern
slopes of the north-western extremities of the Himalayas, including
large mountain tracts with rich valleys traversed by mountain rivers.
The chief rivers are the
Indus and the Jhelum, and it is noted for its
milder climate and abundant rainfall due to its proximity to the
1.1 Ancient history
1.2 Mughal era
1.3 British era
5 Administrative divisions
6 Notable people
Stupa 27 kilometres (17 mi) from
In ancient times the whole or the greater part of the area between the
Indus and the
Jhelum seems to have belonged to a Naga tribe called
Takshakas, who gave their name to the city of Takshasila. Known as
Taxila by the Greek historians, the location of the ancient city has
been identified to be in the ruins of Shahdheri in the north-west
corner of the District. At the time of Alexander's invasion Taxila was
Arrian as a flourishing city, the greatest indeed between
Indus and the Hydaspes; Strabo adds that the neighbouring country
was crowded with inhabitants and very fertile; and Pliny speaks of it
as a famous city situated in a district called Amanda. The invasion of
Demetrius in 195 B.C. brought the Punjab under the Graeco-Bactrian
kings. Later they were superseded by the Sakas, who ruled at Taxila
with the title of Satrap. At the time of Hiuen Tsiang the country was
a dependency of Kashmir.
Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi passed through the District after his defeat of
Anand Pal and capture of Ohind. The Gakhars, a tribe still of
importance within the district trace their origins back to Mahmud of
Ghanzi. The first mention of the
Gakhars occurs in the memoirs of
Babar, who gives an interesting account of the capture of their
capital, Paralah. It was strongly situated in the hills, and was
defended with great bravery by its chief Hati Khan, who escaped from
one gate as the Mughal army marched in at the other. Hati Khan died by
poison in 1525 ; his cousin and murderer Sultan Sarang then
submitted to Babar, who conferred on him the area of Potwar. From that
time on the Gakhar chieftains remained firm allies of the Mughal
dynasty, and provided significant aid to the Mughal in their struggle
against the house of Sher Shah. Salim Shah attempted in vain to subdue
In 1553 Adam Khan, Sarang's successor, surrendered the rebel prince
Kamran to Humayun. Adam Khan was subsequently deposed by Akbar, and
his principality given over to his nephew Kamal Khan. During the
height of the Mughal empire, the family of Sarang retained its
territorial possessions. Its last and
Gakhars chief, Mukarrab Khan,
ruled over a kingdom which extended from the Chenab to the Indus.
Rawalpindi passed with the rest of the Sikh dominions under
British rule; and though tranquillity was disturbed by an insurrection
four years later, led by a Gakhar chief with the object of placing a
pretended son of Ranjit Singh on the throne, its administration was
generally peaceful until the outbreak of the Mutiny in 1857. The
Dhunds and other tribes of the
Murree Hills, incited by Hindustani
agents, rose in insurrection, and the authorities received information
from a faithful native of a projected attack upon the station of
Murree in time to organise measures for defence. The women near the
station, who were present in large numbers, were placed in safety,
while the Europeans and police were drawn up in a cordon round the
station. The rebels arrived expecting no resistance, but were met with
organised resistance and were repelled.
The district of
Rawalpindi was created during British rule as part of
Punjab province. The district obtained its current boundaries in 1904
Attock District was created as a separate district. According to
the 1901 census of India the population in 1901 was 558,699, an
increase of 4.7% from 1891. During the period of British rule,
Rawalpindi district increased in population and importance.
Main article: Demography of
According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, the population of the
district was 3,363,911 of which 53.03% were urban, and is the
second-most urbanised district in Punjab. The population was estimated
to be 4.5 million in 2010. In 2017 population of
was 5,405,633. 
First Languages of
Rawalpindi district in 1981
As per the 1998 census of Pakistan, the following are the demographics
Rawalpindi district, by first language:
Others : 3.3 % appreox
According to 2015 data,
Rawalpindi was ranked number one district of
Pakistan in terms of education and school infrastructure facilities.
According to official 2014 Public Schools Census data, district
Rawalpindi had a total of 1,230 primary, 316 middle, 365 secondary and
40 higher secondary schools. Out of these public sector schools,
911 are male schools while 1,040 are for girls. There were 4,279
teachers teaching at primary level while 3,129, 6,516 and 1,155
teachers are teaching at middle, secondary and higher secondary level,
respectively. Out of these teachers, 9,788 are female while 5,291 are
male. 24% of the Class 2 students could not read a story in Urdu, 26%
could not read a sentence in English and 46% of Class 5 students could
not do two digit divisions. 8% of the students dropped out of the
school at the primary level.
The principal crops were wheat, barley, maize, millets, and pulses.
The district was traversed by the main line of the North-Western
railway, crossing the
Indus at Attock and also by a branch towards the
Indus at Kushalgarh.
The district is sub-divided into seven tehsils:
Administrative subdivisions of
Shahid khakan Abbasi, current Prime Minister of Pakistan
Raja Pervaiz Ashraf, ex Prime Minister of Pakistan
Gen. Ashfaq Pervez Kayani, ex Chief of the Army Staff (2007–2013)
Gen. Tikka Khan, ex Chief of the Army Staff (1972–1976), Governor of
Pakistan (1971), Governor of Punjab (1988–1990)
Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan, ex Interior minister of Pakistan.
Sheikh Rashid Ahmad, Politician
Shoaib Akhtar, former
Pakistan Cricket Team player and World's Fastest
Pakistan Cricket Team player
Gen. Zaheerul Islam, director general of the Inter-Services
Intelligence of Pakistan
Nishan-e-Haider (Highest Military Aw
Bilquis Sheikh, Pakistani author
Rohail Hyatt, Pakistani record producer, keyboardist, and composer.
Swaran Lata (actress), Pakistani film actress
Azhar Mahmood, Cricketer
Yasir Arafat Satti, Cricketer
Najaf Shah, Cricketer[better source needed]
Umar Amin, Cricketer
Raja Muhammad Sarwar,
Nishan-e-Haider (Highest Military Award)
Baadshah Pehalwan Khan, Wrestler
Aamir Khan, Boxer
Mohammad Amir, Cricketer
Sawar Muhammad Hussain Shaheed,
Nishan-e-Haider (Highest Military
Khan Ghulam Sarwar Khan, Politician from Taxila, Former Federal
Mohammad Wasim, Cricketer
Mohammad Akram, Cricketer
Sawar Khan,1st Ex Vice Chief of the Army Staff
^ "DISTRICT WISE CENSUS RESULTS CENSUS 2017" (PDF).
^ Stephen P. Cohen (2004). The Idea of Pakistan. Brookings Institution
Press. p. 202. ISBN 0815797613.
^ a b c
Rawalpindi - Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
^ a b c
Rawalpindi District - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 21, p.
^ 1998 Census details Archived 2006-05-13 at the Wayback Machine.
^ District Profile: Northern Punjab -
Rawalpindi Archived May 16,
2008, at the Wayback Machine.
^ 1998 District Census report of Rawalpindi. Census publication. 23.
Islamabad: Population Census Organization, Statistics Division,
Government of Pakistan. 1999. p. 44.
Rawalpindi School Census Data". School Education Department.
Retrieved 16 August 2016.
^ "Rawalpindi, Punjab". Alif Ailaan. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
^ Najaf Shah
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Districts of Punjab, Pakistan
Provincial capital: Lahore
Rahim Yar Khan
Dera Ghazi Khan
Dera Ghazi Khan
Toba Tek Singh
See also: Districts of P