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Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
District (Punjabi and Urdu: ضِلع راولپِنڈى‬‎), is a district located in the northernmost part of the Punjab province of Pakistan. Parts of the district form part of the Islamabad Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
metropolitan area. Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
city is the district capital. The district has an area of 5,286 km2 (2,041 sq mi). Originally, its area was 6,192 km2 (2,391 sq mi) until the 1960s when Islamabad Capital Territory
Islamabad Capital Territory
was carved out of the district, giving away an area of 906 km2 (350 sq mi).[citation needed] It is situated on the southern slopes of the north-western extremities of the Himalayas, including large mountain tracts with rich valleys traversed by mountain rivers. The chief rivers are the Indus
Indus
and the Jhelum, and it is noted for its milder climate and abundant rainfall due to its proximity to the foothills.[3]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient history 1.2 Mughal era 1.3 British era

2 Demography 3 Education 4 Agriculture 5 Administrative divisions 6 Notable people 7 References

History[edit] Ancient history[edit]

Mankiala
Mankiala
Stupa
Stupa
27 kilometres (17 mi) from Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
city

In ancient times the whole or the greater part of the area between the Indus
Indus
and the Jhelum
Jhelum
seems to have belonged to a Naga tribe called Takshakas, who gave their name to the city of Takshasila. Known as Taxila by the Greek historians, the location of the ancient city has been identified to be in the ruins of Shahdheri in the north-west corner of the District. At the time of Alexander's invasion Taxila was described by Arrian
Arrian
as a flourishing city, the greatest indeed between the Indus
Indus
and the Hydaspes; Strabo adds that the neighbouring country was crowded with inhabitants and very fertile; and Pliny speaks of it as a famous city situated in a district called Amanda. The invasion of Demetrius
Demetrius
in 195 B.C. brought the Punjab under the Graeco-Bactrian kings. Later they were superseded by the Sakas, who ruled at Taxila with the title of Satrap. At the time of Hiuen Tsiang the country was a dependency of Kashmir.[4] Mughal era[edit] Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi passed through the District after his defeat of Anand Pal and capture of Ohind. The Gakhars, a tribe still of importance within the district trace their origins back to Mahmud of Ghanzi. The first mention of the Gakhars
Gakhars
occurs in the memoirs of Babar, who gives an interesting account of the capture of their capital, Paralah. It was strongly situated in the hills, and was defended with great bravery by its chief Hati Khan, who escaped from one gate as the Mughal army marched in at the other. Hati Khan died by poison in 1525 ; his cousin and murderer Sultan Sarang then submitted to Babar, who conferred on him the area of Potwar. From that time on the Gakhar chieftains remained firm allies of the Mughal dynasty, and provided significant aid to the Mughal in their struggle against the house of Sher Shah. Salim Shah attempted in vain to subdue their country. In 1553 Adam Khan, Sarang's successor, surrendered the rebel prince Kamran to Humayun. Adam Khan was subsequently deposed by Akbar, and his principality given over to his nephew Kamal Khan. During the height of the Mughal empire, the family of Sarang retained its territorial possessions. Its last and Gakhars
Gakhars
chief, Mukarrab Khan, ruled over a kingdom which extended from the Chenab to the Indus.[4] British era[edit] In 1849 Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
passed with the rest of the Sikh dominions under British rule; and though tranquillity was disturbed by an insurrection four years later, led by a Gakhar chief with the object of placing a pretended son of Ranjit Singh on the throne, its administration was generally peaceful until the outbreak of the Mutiny in 1857. The Dhunds and other tribes of the Murree
Murree
Hills, incited by Hindustani agents, rose in insurrection, and the authorities received information from a faithful native of a projected attack upon the station of Murree
Murree
in time to organise measures for defence. The women near the station, who were present in large numbers, were placed in safety, while the Europeans and police were drawn up in a cordon round the station. The rebels arrived expecting no resistance, but were met with organised resistance and were repelled.[4] The district of Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
was created during British rule as part of Punjab province. The district obtained its current boundaries in 1904 when Attock District
Attock District
was created as a separate district. According to the 1901 census of India the population in 1901 was 558,699, an increase of 4.7% from 1891.[3] During the period of British rule, Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
district increased in population and importance. Demography[edit] Main article: Demography of Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
District According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, the population of the district was 3,363,911 of which 53.03% were urban,[5] and is the second-most urbanised district in Punjab. The population was estimated to be 4.5 million in 2010. In 2017 population of Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
district was 5,405,633. [6]

First Languages of Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
district in 1981   Punjabi (83.9%)    Urdu
Urdu
(7.5%)    Pashto
Pashto
(5.3%)   others (3.3%)

As per the 1998 census of Pakistan, the following are the demographics of the Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
district, by first language:[7]

Punjabi: 84% Urdu: 7.5% Pashto
Pashto
5.3% Others : 3.3 % appreox

Education[edit] According to 2015 data, Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
was ranked number one district of Pakistan
Pakistan
in terms of education and school infrastructure facilities. According to official 2014 Public Schools Census data, district Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
had a total of 1,230 primary, 316 middle, 365 secondary and 40 higher secondary schools.[8] Out of these public sector schools, 911 are male schools while 1,040 are for girls. There were 4,279 teachers teaching at primary level while 3,129, 6,516 and 1,155 teachers are teaching at middle, secondary and higher secondary level, respectively. Out of these teachers, 9,788 are female while 5,291 are male. 24% of the Class 2 students could not read a story in Urdu, 26% could not read a sentence in English and 46% of Class 5 students could not do two digit divisions. 8% of the students dropped out of the school at the primary level.[9] Agriculture[edit] The principal crops were wheat, barley, maize, millets, and pulses. The district was traversed by the main line of the North-Western railway, crossing the Indus
Indus
at Attock and also by a branch towards the Indus
Indus
at Kushalgarh.[3] Administrative divisions[edit] The district is sub-divided into seven tehsils:

Sr. Tehsil Headquarters Area (km²) Population (2017)

1 Taxila Taxila NA 677,951

2 Rawalpindi Rawalpindi NA 3,258,547

3 Gujar Khan Gujar Khan 1,466 678,503

4 Kallar Syedan Kallar Syedan 421 217,273

5 Kahuta Kahuta NA 220,576

6 Kotli Sattian Kotli Sattian NA 119,312

7 Murree Murree NA 233,471

Administrative subdivisions of Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
District.

Notable people[edit]

Shahid khakan Abbasi, current Prime Minister of Pakistan Raja Pervaiz Ashraf, ex Prime Minister of Pakistan Gen. Ashfaq Pervez Kayani, ex Chief of the Army Staff (2007–2013) Gen. Tikka Khan, ex Chief of the Army Staff (1972–1976), Governor of East Pakistan
Pakistan
(1971), Governor of Punjab (1988–1990) Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan, ex Interior minister of Pakistan. Sheikh Rashid Ahmad, Politician Shoaib Akhtar, former Pakistan
Pakistan
Cricket Team player and World's Fastest Bowler. Sohail Tanvir, Pakistan
Pakistan
Cricket Team player Gen. Zaheerul Islam, director general of the Inter-Services Intelligence of Pakistan Muhammad Mahfuz, Nishan-e-Haider
Nishan-e-Haider
(Highest Military Aw Bilquis Sheikh, Pakistani author Rohail Hyatt, Pakistani record producer, keyboardist, and composer. Swaran Lata (actress), Pakistani film actress Azhar Mahmood, Cricketer Yasir Arafat Satti, Cricketer Najaf Shah, Cricketer[10][better source needed] Umar Amin, Cricketer Raja Muhammad Sarwar, Nishan-e-Haider
Nishan-e-Haider
(Highest Military Award) Baadshah Pehalwan Khan, Wrestler Aamir Khan, Boxer Mohammad Amir, Cricketer Sawar Muhammad Hussain Shaheed, Nishan-e-Haider
Nishan-e-Haider
(Highest Military Award) Khan Ghulam Sarwar Khan, Politician from Taxila, Former Federal Minister Mohammad Wasim, Cricketer Mohammad Akram, Cricketer Sawar Khan,1st Ex Vice Chief of the Army Staff

References[edit]

^ "DISTRICT WISE CENSUS RESULTS CENSUS 2017" (PDF). www.pbscensus.gov.pk.  ^ Stephen P. Cohen (2004). The Idea of Pakistan. Brookings Institution Press. p. 202. ISBN 0815797613.  ^ a b c Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
- Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition ^ a b c Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
District - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 21, p. 264. ^ 1998 Census details Archived 2006-05-13 at the Wayback Machine. ^ District Profile: Northern Punjab - Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
Archived May 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ 1998 District Census report of Rawalpindi. Census publication. 23. Islamabad: Population Census Organization, Statistics Division, Government of Pakistan. 1999. p. 44.  ^ " Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi
School Census Data". School Education Department. Retrieved 16 August 2016.  ^ "Rawalpindi, Punjab". Alif Ailaan. Retrieved 3 March 2016.  ^ Najaf Shah

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Rawalpindi.

v t e

Districts of Punjab, Pakistan

Provincial capital: Lahore

Bahawalpur

Bahawalnagar Bahawalpur Rahim Yar Khan

Dera Ghazi Khan

Dera Ghazi Khan Layyah Muzaffargarh Rajanpur

Faisalabad

Chiniot Faisalabad Jhang Toba Tek Singh

Gujranwala

Gujranwala Gujrat Hafizabad Mandi Bahauddin Narowal Sialkot

Lahore

Kasur Lahore

Multan

Khanewal Lodhran Multan Vehari

Rawalpindi

Attock Chakwal Jhelum Rawalpindi

Sargodha

Bhakkar Khushab Mianwali Sargodha

Sahiwal

Sahiwal Okara Pakpattan

Sheikhupura

Sheikhupura Nankana Sahib

See also: Districts of P

.