Raphaël Alibert (17 February 1887, Saint-Laurent, Lot – 5 June
1963, Paris) was a French politician.
2 Enters government
3 After war
4 In culture
5 See also
Raphael Alibert was an ardent Roman Catholic convert and someone
with strong royalist ideas. One of the most intense followers of
Charles Maurras, Alibert was elected to the Chamber of Deputies for
Action Française party. In October 1939 he and Henry Lémery had
visited Maréchal Petain to discuss in private the make-up of a
possible ministry with him.
In the French government's new Cabinet formed on 16 June 1940 he was
Secretary of State to the Prime Minister, now Pétain.
He was one of the opposition within the Cabinet to removing the
government to North Africa after the Armistice with Germany, and it is
said that he was instrumental in preventing the departure by President
Albert Lebrun and
Camille Chautemps on 20 June 1940, although General
Weygand, also opposed to a move, had already urged Lebrun to remain
until the evening. In the event only 30 deputies and just one senator
Alibert was responsible for Exposé des motifs, his document forming
the basis for the Révolution Nationale, a proposition which the
Chamber and Senate adopted on the 9 July 1940. Contrary to post-war
opinions, Otto Abetz, the German Ambassador in Paris, saw clearly that
"nothing could have been further from fascism, whether of the Italian
or German variety, than the Revolution Nationale". Abetz felt instead
that the government at Vichy believed in "reactionary, hierarchical
principals" and that its "nationalism was dangerous to the European
concept of the New Order". The following day Pétain signed three
'Constitutional Acts' drafted by Alibert. the first announced that he
himself was taking over the functions of the 'French State', in other
words that he was becoming 'Head of State'. The second gave the Head
of State complete and overall power, both executive and legislative.
The third adjourned the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate sine die;
they could only be reconvened by Order of the Head of State. Laval
remarked that Pétain had been granted more powers than Louis XIV.
Pétain, however, maintained that he never wished to assume the mantle
of a Caesar, and that he only wanted to serve until a Peace Treaty
with Germany had been signed and he could retire.
Alibert was made
Keeper of the Seals
Keeper of the Seals (Garde des sceaux) from 12 July
1940 to 27 January 1941, and was appointed Minister of Justice in the
new Cabinet formed on 13 July 1940, during the time the government was
removed to Vichy.
On 22 July he instituted a review of all naturalisations since 1927.
This resulted in 15,000 people, including 600 Jews, having their
French citizenships revoked and being made stateless.
In keeping with the ideals of Action Francaise, he promulgated the law
dissolving secret societies (
Freemasonry amongst others) on 13 August
1940, aided in this project by other devout Catholics, notably Bernard
Fay, administrator of the Bibliothèque Nationale, and Robert
Vallery-Radot. Their task was to root out about 15,000 Masonic
dignitaries from public life, as part of an effort by militant
right-wing Christians to displace, while taking revenge on, their
The new government took a serious anti-semitic position, and he also
promulgated the first Statut des Juifs (Statute on Jews) of October
1940 which excluded Jews from certain Civil Service posts and presaged
action against those in the so-called liberal professions.
The German Ambassador to France, Otto Abetz, wrote to von Ribbentrop
on 8 October 1940 saying that "some (French) ministers, such as
Alibert, Baudouin and Bouthillier, are hoping for an eventual
restoration of the Bourbons". By mid-November that year Alibert,
Yvres Bouthillier, Paul Baudouin,
Marcel Peyrouton (Minister of the
Jean Darlan and General Huntziger were putting pressure
upon Pétain to have
Pierre Laval dismissed from office, in which they
were successful on 13 December. A furious Abetz visited Pétain
calling for Laval's reinstatement and the dismissal of the plotters
against him, including Alibert, to no avail. However, on 9
February 1941 Alibert and
Pierre-Etienne Flandin were both dismissed
from the government, "probably as a sop to the Germans".
At the end of the war, Alibert fled abroad into hiding, and was
condemned to death in absentia on 7 March 1947. Living in exile in
Belgium, he was finally given amnesty in 1959, four years before his
death from natural causes.
Hôtel du Parc (1992) ; co-scénarists :
Pierre Beuchot and
Jérôme Prieur ; avec
André Wilms et Marylène Dagouat.
Raphaël Alibert was played by Jean Périmony
Louis Darquier de Pellepoix
^ Hellman, John, Professor, The Knight-Monks of Vichy France; Uriage,
1940-45, Liverpool University Press, 2nd edition, 1997, p.17,
^ Griffiths, Richard, Petain, Constable, London, 1970, p.205,
^ Griffiths, 1970, p.241.
^ Griffiths, 1970, p.247.
^ Griffiths, 1970, p.264.
^ Williams, Charles, Pétain, Little Brown (Time Warner Book Group
UK), London, 2005, p.342 & 346, ISBN 0-316-86127-8
^ Hellman, 1997, p.18.
^ Hellman, 1997, p.18.
^ Hellman,1997, p.18.
^ Griffiths, 1970, p.264.
^ Griffiths, 1970, p.274.
^ Griffiths, 1970, p.280.
Minister of Justice
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