ŚrīRāmacaritamānasa), is an epic poem in the language Awadhi,
composed by the 16th-century Indian bhakti poet Goswami Tulsidas
literally means "Lake of the deeds of
is considered one of the greatest works of
literature. The work has variously been acclaimed as "the living
sum of Indian culture", "the tallest tree in the magic garden of
medieval Indian poetry", "the greatest book of all devotional
literature" and "the best and most trustworthy guide to the popular
living faith of the Indian people".
Part of a series on
Hindu scriptures and texts
Shastras and sutras
Sanskrit name of
Tulsidas can be transliterated in two
ways. Using the
IAST transliteration scheme, the name is written as
Tulasīdāsa, as pronounced in Sanskrit. Using the Hunterian
transliteration scheme, it is written as
Tulsidas or Tulsīdās, as
pronounced in Hindi).
Tulsidas was a great scholar of Sanskrit.
However, he wanted the story of
Rama to be accessible to the general
public and not just the Sanskrit-speaking elite. In order to make the
Rama as accessible to the layman as to the scholar, Tulsidas
chose to write in Awadhi, a dialect of
Hindi which was the language of
general parlance in large parts of north
India at the time. Tradition
has it that
Tulsidas had to face a lot of criticism from the Sanskrit
Varanasi for being a bhasha (vernacular) poet. However,
Tulsidas remained steadfast in his resolve to simplify the knowledge
contained in the Vedas, the
Upanishads and the
Puranas to the common
people. Subsequently, his work was accepted by all.
Ramcharitmanas, made available the story of
Rama to the common man to
sing, meditate and perform on. The writing of
heralded many a cultural tradition, most significantly that of the
tradition of Ramlila, the dramatic enactment of the text.
Ramcharitmanas is considered by many as a work belonging to the Saguna
school of the
Bhakti movement[n 1] in
2.1 Invocations at beginning of each episode
2.2 Kānd endings
3.1 Bāl Kāṇḍ
3.2 Ayodha Kāṇḍ
3.3 Araṇya Kāṇḍ
3.4 Kiśkindhā Kāṇḍ
3.5 Sundar Kāṇḍ
3.6 Laṅkā Kāṇḍ
3.7 Uttar Kānd
4 Stories behind the incarnation of Rama
4.1 Jay and Vijay
4.2 The curse of Nārad Muni
Svayambhuva Manu and Shatarupa
4.4 Tale of King Pratapbhanu
5 The immolation of Sati and the incarnation of Parvati
5.1 Sati's doubts
5.2 Daksha's sacrifice
Parvati and Nārad's prophecy
5.4 The wedding of
Shiva and Parvati
6 The divinity of Ram in the Manas
6.1 Ram's divine birth
6.2 Deliverance of Ahalya
7 The abrupt ending
8 English translation
9 See also
10 Notes and references
11 External links
Picture of author,
Tulsidas published in the Ramcharitmanas, 1949.
Tulsidas began writing the
Ayodhya in Vikram Samvat
1631 (1574 CE). [n 2]  The exact date is stated within the poem as
being the ninth day of the month of Chaitra, which is the birthday of
Ramcharitmanas was composed at Ayodhya,
Varanasi & Chitrakoot.
India was under the reign of Mughal
Akbar (1556-1605 CE) during this period. This also makes
Tulsidas a contemporary of William Shakespeare.[n 3][n 4]
Ramcharitmanas is written in vernacular Awadhi
language, The core of the work is considered by some to be
a poetic retelling of the events of the
Ramayana by Valmiki. The
centered on the narrative of Rama, the scion of the family tree of
Raghu of the Sun Dynasty.
Rama was the crown prince of Ayodhya
and is considered in
Hindu tradition as the seventh
Avatar of Vishnu.
However, the Ramacharitmanas is by no means a word-to-word copy of the
Ramayana nor an abridged re-telling of the latter.
Ramcaritmanas has elements from many other Ramayanas written earlier
Sanskrit and other Indian dialects as well as stories from Puranas.
Tulsidas himself never writes
Ramcharitmanas as being a retelling of
Valmiki Ramayana. He calls the epic
Ramcharitmanas as the story of
Rama, that was stored in the mind (Mānasa) of
Shiva before he
narrated the same to His wife Parvati.
Tulsidas claims to have
received the story through his guru, Narharidas.
Tulsidas was a naive
(Acheta) child and the story was stored in his mind (Mānasa) for long
before he wrote it down as Ramcharitmanas. Some understand this
passage of the
Ramcharitmanas to mean that
Tulsidas at first could not
grasp the story fully as he was a naïve young boy. His guru
graciously repeated it again and again so that he could understand and
remember it. Then he narrated the story and named it
Shiva himself called it. The epic poem is, therefore, also referred to
Ramayana (literally, The
Ramayana composed by
Ramcharitmanas is a masterpiece of vernacular literature. Some
believe it to represent a challenge to the dominance of high-class
Brahmanical Sanskrit, echoing the revolt of
Brahmanical elitism. However, this interpretation appears faulty
Tulsidas himself was a brahmin and often talks very highly of the
Ramcharitmanas and other books written by him. It was the
Tulsidas to reconcile the different stories of
Rama and to
bring the story within the reach of the common man.
Scene Ramayana, Gupta art
Ramcharitmanas consists of seven Kāndas (literally "books" or
"episodes", cognate with cantos).
Tulsidas compared the seven Kāndas
of the epic to seven steps leading into the holy waters of Lake
Manasarovar "which purifies the body and the soul at once".
The first two parts, Bāl Kāṇḍ (Childhood Episode) and Ayodhyā
Ayodhya Episode), make up more than half of the work. The
other parts are Araṇya Kāṇḍ (Forest Episode), Kiśkindhā
Kishkindha Episode), Sundar Kāṇḍ (Pleasant Episode),
Laṅkā Kāṇḍ (
Lanka Episode), and Uttar Kāṇḍ (Later
Episode). The work is primarily composed in the Chaupai metre
(four-line quatrains), separated by the Doha metre (two-line
couplets), with occasional Soratha and various Chhand metres.
Invocations at beginning of each episode
Every chapter of the
Ramcharitmanas begins with an invocation or
Mangalācharaņ. It is customary of the Indian tradition of writing
that the author begins a new book with invocation to the Gods to
ensure that the sankalpa is finished unhindered. The first three or
four verses of each Kānd are typically in the form of invocations.
Bāl Kāṇḍ begins with a hymn honouring the goddess
the god Ganesha, the deities related to knowledge, wisdom, speech and
Ayodhyā Kāṇḍ begins with the famous verse dedicated to the god
Shiva: May He in whose lap shines forth the Daughter of the mountain
king, who carries the celestial stream on His head, on whose brow
rests the crescent moon, whose throat holds poison and whose breast is
support of a huge serpent, and who is adorned by the ashes on His
body, may that chief of gods, the Lord of all, the Destroyer of the
universe, the omnipresent Śhiva, the moon-like Śańkara, ever
Araṇya Kāṇḍ's first verse again extols Shiva: I reverence
Bhagavan Śańkara, the progeny of Brahmā, the very root of the tree
of piety, the beloved, devotee of King Śri Rama, the full moon that
brings joy to the ocean of wisdom, the sun that opens the lotus of
dispassion, the wind that disperses the clouds of ignorance, who
dispels the thick darkness of sin and eradicates the threefold agony
and who wipes off all calumny and obloquy.
Kiśkindhā Kāṇḍ commences with the following verse: Lovely as a
jasmine and a blue lotus, of surpassing strength, repositories of
wisdom, endowed with natural grace, excellent bowmen, hymned by the
Vedas, and lovers of the cow and Brāhmaņas, who appeared in the form
of mortal men through their own Māyā (deluding potency) as the two
noble scions of Raghu, the armours of true dharma, friendly to all and
journeying in quest for Sita, may they both grant us Devotion.
Sundar Kāṇḍ begins with a hymn in the praise of Rama: I adore the
Lord of the universe bearing the name of Rama, the chief of the
Raghu's line and the crest-jewel of kings, the mine of compassion, the
dispeller of all sins, appearing in human form through His Māyā
(deluding potency), the greatest of all gods, knowable through
Vedānta (the Upanishads), constantly worshipped by Brahmā (the
Creator), Śhambhu (Śivā), and Śeşa (the serpent-god), the one who
bestows of supreme peace in the form of final beatitude, placid,
eternal, beyond the ordinary means of cognition, sinless and
Laṅkā Kāṇḍ begins with this hymn: I adore Śri Rama, the
supreme Deity, the object of worship even by Śivā (the destroyer of
God of Love), the Dispeller of the fear of rebirth, the
lion to quell the mad elephant in the form of Death, the Master of
Yogīs, attainable through immediate knowledge, the storehouse of good
qualities, unconquerable, attributeless, immutable, beyond the realm
of Māyā, the Lord of celestials, intent on killing the evil-doers,
the only protector of the Brāhmaņas, beautiful as a cloud laden with
moisture, who has lotus like eyes and appeared in the form of an
Uttar Kāṇḍ begins with the following hymn: I unceasingly extol
Śri Ramā, the praiseworthy lord of Jānakī (Sītā, Janakā's
daughter and the wife of Rama), the chief of Raghu's line, possessed
of a form greenish blue, the color of the neck of a peacock and
adorned with an insignia of Brahmā pada, the lotus-foot, which
testifies to His being the greatest of all gods-rich in splendour,
clad in yellow robes, lotus-eyed, ever-propitious, holding a bow and
arrow in His hands, riding an aerial car named Puşpakā, accompanied
by a host of monkeys and waited upon by His own brother
Tulsidas ends every chapter in a similar manner describing the ending
Every Kānd is formally concluded by Goswami Tulsidas. The following
is an example of the ending of Kiśkindhā Kāṇḍ:
"Iti Srimad ramacharitamanase sakala kali kalusavi dhvamsane caturthah
Translation: "Thus ends the fourth descent into the Mānasa lake of
Sri Rama's exploits, that eradicates all the impurities of the kali
age." All the other Kāndas are concluded in the same way where the
word caturthah is substituted, according to the Kānd being concluded.
Ramcharitmanas is structured around three separate conversations. The
conversations happen between
Shiva and Parvati, Sages
Yajnavalkya and finally Kakbhushundi and the king of birds, Garuda.
Some scholars are of the opinion that there is also an underlying
personal conversation between
Tulsidas and Lord
Rama all through the
text of Ramcharitmanas.
The Child Episode
Tulsidas begins the story with an invocation to various deities, his
guru, and saints who have preceded him and those who will succeed him
in the future. Homage is paid to
Valmiki for bringing the
the devotees of Rama. Next are introduced and praised the various
characters of the epic beginning with the birthplace of Rama, the holy
city of Ayodhya. Praises are bestowed on Dasharatha, the king of
Ayodhya and Rama's father, and his queens Kausalya,
Tulsidas then praises King Janaka, the father-in- law of
Rama), and his family. He goes on to praise the brothers of
Shatrughna and sings the glories of Hanuman,
the constant companion to Rama, Sugriva, the monkey king and Jambavan,
the leader of bears. Next, the characters of
The birth of the four sons of Dasharatha.
The story of
Ramcharitmanas is then underway. It begins with the
meeting of two sages -
Bharadwaj and Yajnavalkya.
Yajnavalkya to narrate in detail the story of Rama.
Shiva came about retelling the story of
Rama to his wife
Parvati. (The great story of Sati's self-immolation, the destruction
of her father Daksha's sacrifice, the rebirth of Sati as
her marriage to Shiva).
Shiva explains five different reasons as to
Rama incarnated on earth in different ages Kalpa (aeon). Each of
these stories is discussed in detail, with the primary message being
Rama incarnated on earth to protect the righteous who follow the
path of Dharma. The story then moves to the birth of
Ravana and his
brothers. Post this point, the narration is done at different times by
Shiva, Yajnavalkya, Kakbhushundi and Tulsidas.
The story now moves to the abode of
Brahma and the other
Hindu Devas are found mulling on the ways to rid the earth of Ravana
and his excesses. Unable to find a solution, they pray to
ask him for his guidance on where to find the supreme
God who will
come to their rescue.
Shiva tells them that they don't need to go
anywhere to find the Supreme
God for He resides in the hearts of his
devotees. All the Devas then Pray to the supreme
Brahman to rid the
earth of the demons wreaking havoc on men as well as Devas. Brahman
shows compassion to all and announces in an Akashvani that He will be
born in the Sun Dynasty to save the Devas and His devotees from the
The story then moves to Ayodhya. One fine day, Dasharatha, the king of
Ayodhya, realizes that he has become old and still issueless. He
conveys his distress to sage Vasistha, the family guru, and seeks the
Dasharatha and tells him that he will
have four sons.
Vasistha requests Shringi
Rishi to perform the
Putrakām yajna (vedic yajna for the birth of sons).
that the birth of
Rama and his brothers took place on the ninth day of
Chaitra month. It was the fortnight of the moon, known as the
The story then moves on and
Rama and His brothers are now grown-up
boys. The sage
Vishvamitra arrives at Dashratha's royal court where
the King receives his eminent guest with great honour. Sage
Vishvamitra lived in the forest and was performing great sacrifices.
However, the demons
Subahu would always desecrate the
ceremonial offerings. He knew that
Rama had taken birth on earth to
protect his devotees and so he decided to visit Dashratha to ask him a
favour. The sage asks the king to let his sons accompany him to the
forest. Reluctantly the king agrees.
Rama knew before hand the
Vishvamitra in asking him to come along with him.He
asures the sage that he would obey his commands.
Lakshman kills Subahu
Rama kills Maricha, the dreaded demons.
Vishvamitra looks as Ram breaks the bow, to win the hand of
The story then moves to the deliverance of Ahalya. Rama,
Vishvamitra venture on a journey and reach the beautiful kingdom of
the Videhas, Mithila. The king of Mithila, Janaka, welcomes the
great sage and asks him who are the two boys accompanying him.. Janaka
is overcome by great emotion as he is able to sense the true nature of
their mission. . The brothers then set out to discover the beautiful
city and visit Janaka's garden. This is an important section of the
manās as it portrays the first meeting of
In the meanwhile, King
Janaka arranges a swayamvara ceremony for his
daughter Sita. A swayamvara ceremony is a
Vedic ritual in which a
prospective bride selects her groom from among a group of suitors who
attend the ceremony.
Sita falls in love with
Rama at first sight in
Janaka's garden and prays to Gauri that she may get
Rama as her
Janaka sends a messenger to invite Rama,
Vishvamitra to attend the swayamvara.
Janaka puts a condition to
identify the right groom for Sita. The great bow of
Shiva by the name
of Pinaka was kept in the arena. Any suitor who would be able to
string Pinaka would be married to Sita. Many princes try but fail to
even nudge the mammoth bow. This causes great distress to
wonders aloud if the earth has become devoid of brave men. This
Lakshman who retorts that no one talks in
this vein, when a gathering like this, has the presence of scions of
the Sun Dynasty.
Rama gently nudges him to keep calm as Vishwamitra
asks him to break the bow and make
Janaka happy once again. .
Rama steps in and effortlessly lifts and strings
the divine bow. In a swift move, he breaks the bow. The breaking of
Pinaka causes a great noise that disturbs the great sage Parashurama
in his meditation and he storms into the swayamvara arena in great
anger vowing to kill whoever had dared to break the bow of lord Shiva.
Lakshman enters into an argument with Parashurama, paying scant
respect to the sage who was known for his bursts of anger and was
known to slay whoever dared to oppose him. Ultimately,
Rama brings him
Parashurama comes to know the real nature of Lord
Rama as the
ultimate Brahman, pays his respects and leaves for the forests for
Sita places the wreath of victory around the neck of Rama
in accordance with the rules of the swayamvara and is thus wedded to
Sita being his beloved daughter,
Janaka desires to conduct a
grand marriage of
Rama in accordance with both
laukik (traditional) customs.
Janaka dispatches messengers to Ayodhya
to inform Dashratha and his family about the marriage of
Rama and Sita
and invites them for the formal consummation of marriage ceremony.
Dashratha starts with a great marriage procession, consisting of
Rama's family, friends and well wishers in addition to Shiva, Vishnu,
Brahma and all Devas who take up human form and depart for Mithila.
After a grand wedding, the kind of which had never been witnessed in
Sita return to
Ayodhya where there was a great
celebration and much rejoicing.
Ayodhya was described as being like a heaven on earth ever since Rama
Sita came back from Mithila. As King Dasaratha was getting old, he
wanted to install his son
Rama as Prince Regent. He decided to start
the ceremonies for his coronation the very next day. The Devas however
became very concerned at the prospect of
Rama remaining in Ayodhya,
and not pursuing the wicked Ravana, and vanquishing him. Something had
to happen if
Rama was to embark on his mission to rid the world of
Ravana. They approached Goddess
Saraswati for help.
King Dashratha has three wives. Queen
Kaushalya is the principal queen
and the mother of Rama. Queen
Kaikeyi is the mother of Bharata and
Sumitra is the mother of
Lakshman and Shatrughna. Saraswati
decides to influence the mind of one of Queen Kaikeyi's maid servants
named Manthara. Manthara's mind harbors evil intentions and she begins
to talk to Queen
Kaikeyi in harsh and conceited tones. She finds fault
Kaikeyi for being supportive of the king's plan of installing
Rama, as Prince Regent when her own mind tells her that Bharata would
clearly be a greater king. At that time Bharata is in Kaikeya country
visiting his uncle and so he is unaware of what is happening in
Ayodhya. Slowly Queen Kaikeyi's mind is poisoned.
Kaikeyi of the two boons that the King had promised her. Kaikeyi
enters the private room in the royal palace, where the King gives
audience to his queens, and awaits Dashratha. Dashratha is greatly
alarmed and concerned that
Kaikeyi is sitting in the sulking chamber,
while the entire population of
Ayodhya is greatly happy and eagerly
anticipating the coronation of Rama. Queen
Kaikeyi speaks harshly to
Dashratha, which surprises the king. She reminds him of the two boons
he promised her and to his bewilderment, asks him to install her son
Bharata as Prince Regent and send
Rama into the forest for 14 years.
Kaikeyi is unmoved by Dashratha's lamentations and finally the
king emotionally breaks down. The king's assistant Sumantra sends for
Rama with a request to meet his father.
Kaikeyi speaks to
Rama and explains to him the boons that she
had asked of His father.
Rama is actually the Supreme Personality of
Godhead incarnated on earth, yet He accepts His stepmother's request
and decides to leave the kingdom as it serves his purpose as well. The
Ayodhya remonstrate against Queen
Kaikeyi who firmly
believes that she is doing the right thing.
Rama attempts to dissuade
Sita from joining him but is unable to do so. The scene
becomes very emotional as Rama,
Lakshman greet their mothers
before finally going to Dashratha to take leave of him. Dashratha
attempts, in vain, to try to talk
Sita out of joining
Rama in the
Lakshman meeting Sage
Bharadwaj at his ashram in
The residents of
Ayodhya can't spare the thought of being away from
Rama and decide to join him in the forest. Rama, Sita,
Sumantra go incognito and in the dead of the night leave the city and
move into the forest . They leave for a place called Sringaverapur
after which they meet Guha, the Nishad king. They arrive at Prayag,
the holy city where the Rivers Ganges,
Saraswati meet. Rama
meets with the Sage
Bharadwaj at his ashram.
Rama is overwhelmed with
the reception and love shown by the people inhabiting the banks of the
Rama then meets Sage Valmiki, the author of the
Valmiki recognises the true opulence of
sings His praises. At this point
Tulsidas takes great care to describe
the beauty of the land of Chitrakoot with some inspiring poetry.
Rama asks Sumantra to return to
Ayodhya which saddens Sumantra. He not
only wants to stay with Rama, he is also afraid of going back only to
face the anger and wrath of the citizens of Ayodhya.
him to go back. On returning to Ayodhya, Sumantra meets Dashratha, who
asks him the whereabouts of Rama. The pain of separation from
too much for Dashratha who passes away crying Rama's name.
Vashishtha knows that
Rama will not return to the kingdom and so
immediately sends an envoy to call Bharata and
Shatrughna back to
Ayodhya. Bharata learns of all that has happened and chastises his
mother, Queen Kaikeyi. He is greatly pained and blames himself for
Rama leaving Ayodhya. He accuses her of bringing ruin to the family.
Shatrughna comes across
Manthara and beats her in rage. They approach
Kaushalya and see her in a sorry state. Bharata begs for her
forgiveness and loudly laments while the Queen attempts to pacify him.
She asks him to carry out his duty and rule Ayodhya, but Bharata
cannot bear the thought of sitting on the throne with his father dead
and his brothers in exile in the forest. The cremation of King
Dashratha takes place. Bharata and
Shatrughna decide to go into the
forest and ask
Rama to return to
Ayodhya and take the throne. Many
citizens as well as the royal family, who have been grieving ever
Rama had left them, decide to join the brothers.
Bharata asks for Rama's paduka (footwear).
The Nishads see the approaching royal party and become suspicious.
Guha approaches Bharata to understand his motive for bringing such a
large party to the forest. He assumes that Bharata has some sinister
motive. Bharata shows his love for
Rama and Guha is moved to tears by
his love for his brother. The royal procession then moves forward to
Lakshman sees the huge army of people with Bharata and
immediately begins to chastise Bharata.
Rama counters this by praising
the greatness of Bharata, leaving
Lakshman feeling sorry for his harsh
words. Bharata finally arrives at Chitrakoot where the brothers are
all reunited once again. They collectively mourn the passing of their
father and perform his Shraddha (obsequies) along with Sage Vashistha
leading the ceremony.
Despite all of Bharata's convincing,
Rama is true to the word given to
his father and step mother Kaikeyi, and vows that he will fulfill her
wish. Bharata says that he simply cannot sit on the throne while Rama
wanders in the forest. He asks
Rama for his sandals, which he would
place at the throne and would only act as Rama's representative and
not as a full-fledged king. With much sorrow and hurt, Bharata leaves
Rama and returns to Ayodhya. He decides that he would not live in the
Rama is in exile and so lives like a hermit in a nearby
town called Nandigram.
Araṇya-Kāṇḍa (The forest episode)
The Forest Episode
Jatayu as he carries off the kidnapped Sita.
Lakshman wander in the forest and come across the
hermitage of a sage called Atri.
Atri sees them approaching and is
overcome with great joy.
Sita is embraced by Atri's wife, Anasuya.
Anusuya talks to
Sita at length about the duties of a devoted wife.
Lakshman venture further into the forest and encounter
Viradha attempts to capture Sita.
Rama kills him by burying
him in a ditch. They then visit the ashram of Sage Sarabhanga. Rama
asks him of where he should go for shelter in the forest. He is
advised to visit the sage Sutiksna. As
Rama approaches Sutiksna, the
latter comes out of his meditation. He tells
Rama that he had been
awaiting his arrival, and had even turned down the offer of entering
the heavenly planets.
Continuing on their journey through the forest, they meet with Sage
Rama pays his respect to the sage.
Agastya gifts divine
Rama and advises him to venture further into the forest and
into the region of Dandaka.
Rama meets with the eagle, Jatayu. Rama,
Lakshman take up abode at Panchavati and build a beautiful
ashram, as per the advice of Agastya.
Laksman becomes nostalgic of the
past and begins to talk harshly about Kaikeyi.
Rama pacifies him and
explains that it is sinful to speak of his mother in such a way.
The story takes a new turn, as Rama,
Lakshman are approached
by the sister of the demon-king Ravana, called Surpanakha. She
immediately takes a liking to
Rama and falls in love with him. She
disguises herself and talks to
Rama in sweet tones.
Rama rejects her
advances explaining that he is already married and advises her to
Laksman as he is unmarried. However,
Laksman also rejects her
Surpanakha takes it as a great insult to be spurned like
this, and attempts to hurt Sita.
Laksman takes hold of his sword and
lops off Surpanakha's ear lobes and nose. Feeling humiliated,
Surpanakha leaves the forest and goes to the abode of her brothers
Khara, Dusana and Trisira. They are angry at the treatment meted out
to their sister and leave with the intention of killing Rama. All
three brothers are vanquished by Rama.
Surpanakha is greatly upset and visits
Ravana at his residence in
Lanka. She explains all that has happened, after which
for his old friend Maricha.
Ravana hatches a plot and asks
disguise himself as a golden deer, so that
Ravana may then kidnap
Maricha has already felt the power of
Rama (as mentioned in
Bālakāṇḍa) and is apprehensive, however, he thinks that he is
going to die either way since
Ravana will kill him in rage for
Ravana and Marich immediately leave for Rama's forest
Maricha takes his position and instantly
Sita is attracted by
his deer form.
Rama knows that Ravana's intentions and orders
place her shadow (Maya Sita) in her place, while she would hide in the
fire. She asks
Rama time and time again to hunt for the deer and bring
it to her.
Rama runs after the deer and is soon quite a far distance
away from the ashram.
Rama releases an arrow and hits the deer.
Impersonating Rama's voice, Marich shouts out to
Laksman to help him.
Sita (hereafter called simply Sita) hears the cry and orders
Laksman to go help his brother. Ravana, while posing as a begging
minstrel, uses this opportunity to forcibly kidnap
Sita from the
ashram. Jatayu, the eagle, sees Ravana's sinful act and attempts to
fight with him, but
Ravana has too much power and cuts off Jatayu's
wings and leaves him for dead.
Lakshman return to find the
ashram empty. They anxiously set out to find
Sita and find the
severely wounded eagle.
Jatayu dies in Rama's lap and receives
liberation. As they continue to look for
Sita they come across the
hermitage of Shabari.
Tulsidas says that
Shabari washes the feet of
Ram with tears from her eyes and feeds him half eaten wild berries to
ensure he gets only sweet ones. She is given liberation by Rama.
The brothers then head towards the Pampasarovar lake.
The Kiśkindhā Region Episode
Laksman meets with Tara, Sugriva, and
Hanuman in the Palace of
High up in the Rishyamuk mountains,
the foothills. He consults
Hanuman as to whether he thinks they have
been sent by his brother Bali.
Hanuman disguises himself as a Brahmin
and approaches the brothers.
Hanuman recognises the true nature of
Rama as God-incarnation and surrenders himself to his Holy feet. He
tells the brothers that his king, Sugriva, wishes to extend his
friendship to Them and will help Them to find Sita.
Rama asks Sugriva
why he resides in the mountains instead of Kishkindha, where Sugriva
tells of his feud with his brother Bali.
Rama sympathises with Sugriva
and decides to help
Sugriva in return for the latter's help in finding
Sita. Ram kills Bali and installs
Sugriva as king of
Angada, Bali's son, as prince regent.
Sugriva becomes too attached to
his new regal lifestyle and forgets about his agreement with Rama,
Rama with great anger.
Laksman to bring Sugriva
Laksman enters the royal court and threatens to burn the
entire city to ashes.
Sugriva is gravely worried and asks
Rama and upon seeing Him,
Sugriva falls as His feet and begs forgiveness.
Sugriva immediately orders the gathering of the region's bear and
monkey community. Armies of bears and monkeys are dispatched north,
south east and west to search for Sita.
Rama knew that only Hanuman
was really capable of finding Sita. He asks
Hanuman to narrate the
agony of separation from her and then hands over his ring.
joined by Angad, Nala, Kesari and
Jambavan as well as many others as
they head to the south. As the army approach the coast,
Angad see a cave by the shore of the ocean. The cave is occupied by
Sampati (who is actually Jatayu's older brother). There is a
conversation during which
Angad explains that
Jatayu died serving Rama
Sampati narrates his biography. He tells the monkeys
that he is sure that
Sita is captive in
Ashok Vatika in Lanka. The
island is 400 miles away and requires someone who is able to jump the
Jambavan deduces that
Hanuman is the only one capable of the
The Pleasant Episode
Rama and the monkey chiefs.
Hanuman takes Jambavan's suggestion and immediately takes off for
Lanka. He climbs onto the mountain and using it as a pivot, launches
himself into the air. He meets Surasa, the mother of serpents and
passes her test. The ocean demoness tries to capture Hanuman, thinking
of him as a bird. He quickly kills her and then lands on the shore of
the ocean in Lanka. He sees beautiful lush gardens, groves, lakes and
Hanuman takes a minute form and, remembering Rama, enters
Lanka. He is accosted by the demon
Lankini whom he hits with his fist
and causes her to fall to the ground.
Hanuman flies through the various palaces and gardens for his search
of Sita, and amongst all the demonic activities going on in Lanka,
Hanuman sees a palace where Sri Hari's name is being chanted. He is
drawn towards the palace and decides to visit the inhabitant. The
palace belongs to Ravana's brother, Vibhishan.
Hanuman narrates Rama
katha (story) and then introduces himself.
Hanuman proceeds to Ashok
Vatika where he finally sees Sita. He positions himself on a branch of
a tree, under which
Sita was sitting, and contemplates his next move.
Ravana walk towards
Sita and beg her to glance at least once
toward him. She simply looks at a blade of grass to insult him. Ravana
threatens to behead
Sita but is calmed down by his wife, Mandodari.
Hanuman has to use all his powers of calm not to react to Ravana's
threats. When all is quiet again,
Hanuman begins to sing the glory of
Rama in sweet tones. He then approaches
Sita and explains who he is.
He presents the ring lord
Rama had given him and
Sita is overjoyed.
Hanuman with many kind words and boons.
Sita that he is hungry and asks for her permission to
eat fruits from the grove. He not only eats but manages to destroy
large parts of it. He easily kills one of Ravana's sons, prince
Indrajit arrives in the grove and
Hanuman allows himself to be
captured. He is brought in front of the king of Lanka, Ravana. Ravana
orders his death, however,
Vibhishan reminds him that
Hanuman is an
envoy and cannot be killed according to religious principle. Ravana
decides to humiliate
Hanuman by setting his tail on fire. Large
amounts of clothes are tied to his tail and soaked in oil. Hanuman
chants the name of
Rama and his tail begins to get longer, and more
cloth and oil is used. He changes from his small form into a gigantic
form and decides to torch alight the whole of Lanka.
He returns to the ocean to extinguish his tail and then goes to Sita
to reassure her that the next time she sees him, it will be with Rama.
He bids farewell to
Sita and leaps back towards
Angad and Jambavan.
The monkey army then ventures back to where Sugriva,
Rama and Lakshman
are waiting. On arrival
Hanuman explains all that happened and
immediately an army is prepared to go south towards Lanka.
Meanwhile, in Lanka, both
Ravana to hand
Sita back to Rama.
Ravana takes great exception to this suggestion and
begins to insult
Vibhishan particularly. He tells him he has no need
for a weakling like him and that he is no longer needed. Vibhishan
decides to join
Rama at Kishkindha.
Vibhishan falls at Ram's feet and
asks him for protection. The army deliberate over how to cross the
ocean to Lanka. The deity of the seas tells
Rama of the boon obtained
by the monkey brothers Nila and Nala, and that they have the power to
build a bridge to link the seashore to Lanka.
Rama Setu Bridge to Lanka.
Jambavan asks the monkeys
Nala and Nila to begin work on building the
bridge across the sea. The Mānas states that entire mountain ranges
were used by
Nala and Nila to complete their objective.
Shiva and decides to install a shrine for Rameswaram. Upon
completion, the army of
Rama begins to cross the bridge and arrives at
Lanka, taking camp on Mount Suvela.
Ravana hears of the advances of
Rama's army and feels greatly agitated.
Rama as she fears for her husband's life.
dismissive of Rama's power and pacifies his wife. Next, Ravana's son
Prahasta attempts to reinforce his mothers sentiments, but all to no
Rama fires a warning shot from his retreat in Suvela. The arrow
strikes Ravana's crown and royal umbrella.
Mandodari once again
attempts to convince
Ravana of handing
Sita back to Rama. Meanwhile,
Jambavan what should be done.
Jambavan suggests that they
send Angada, as messenger, to give
Ravana a chance to return Sita. On
reaching Ravana's court,
Angada explains he is the ambassador of Rama,
Ravana that he still has time to save himself from
Angada and his refusal to comply makes war
The war begins with great ferocity as
Ravana loses half of his army on
the first day. Indrajit, Ravan's son, is required to enter the battle
far earlier than he expected. He severely wounds
Lakshman with his
special weapon, the Saang. Hanumanji is ordered to fetch the doctor of
Lanka called Sushena. Sushena tells
Rama that there exists a herb
called Sanjivani which can only be found in the Himalayan mountains.
It is the only hope to save Lakshman.
Hanuman immediately reassures
Rama that he shall find this herb. As
Hanuman is about to leave,
Ravana orders the demon Kalanemi to impede him. However,
Kalanemi with ease.
Hanuman reaches the mountain and can't find the
herb. In his frustration he decides to take the entire mountain to
Hanuman searching for the Sanjivani herb.
Hanuman makes good speed towards
Lanka when suddenly he is shot by an
arrow as he approaches Nandigram.
Hanuman is mistaken to be a demon by
Hanuman falls to the ground together with the great hill.
Hanuman regains consciousness and recognizes that Bharata is Rama's
brother. He continues on to
Lanka where he delivers the Sanjivani herb
and Sushena treats Lakshman.
Hanuman with great pride
Ravan takes the news of Lakshman's recovery very badly
and decides to awaken his brother Kumbhakarna.
indiscriminantly and wreaks much havoc.
Rama releases an arrow which
kills him instantly. The death of his brother scares
Indrajit hastily tries to arrange a ceremony to receive great boons
and powers but is interrupted by
Hanuman and Angada.
Lakshman takes up
Indrajit and kills him.
Rama throws numerous arrows at
Ravana but is unable to kill him. He asks
Vibhishan on how to kill his
brother after which
Rama finally kills Ravana. The war is over.
Ravana's funeral takes place and
Vibhishan is crowned the king of
Hanuman carries the happy news to
Sita in Ashok vatika. Finally
Sita are reunited.
Rama and the army prepare to depart Lanka
and return towards Ayodhya. Rama, Sita,
Lakshman and the senior
monkeys travel back in Ravana's flying vehicle, Pushpak Vimaan.
The Family of Rama
It is now the day before
Rama is to return to
Ayodhya after serving
his exile. Bharata is anxious that his brother still hasn't arrived.
The Mānas mentions that Bharata had passed his days shedding tears
for fourteen years in Nandigram.
Hanuman meets Bharata telling him of
the arrival of Rama,
Sita and Laksman. Bharata rushes to
tell the citizens of the great news. As the Pushpak Vimaan landed in
Ayodhya the citizens shouted chants of 'Glory be to Ramchandra'. Rama,
Laksman collectively touch the feet of the sage
Ayodhya and thereafter greet all that have gathered in the
Rama meets Bharata with great affection and love.
Rama's coronation takes place and he is finally crowned king of
Shiva arrives to glorify the festivities further and asks
Rama of the boon that he may have firm and undeviating devotion of
In conclusion to the tale,
Rama has twin sons named Lava and Kusha.
The other brothers each have two sons as well. It is mentioned that
great sages like Nārad and Sanaka visit
Ayodhya to meet with
to see his great city.
In the subsequent passages of Uttar Kānd the biography of Saint
Kakbhushundi is given, followed by a description of what is to be
expected in the current age of Kaliyuga.
Shiva ends his narration of
Rama Katha to
Parvati as does Kakbhushundi to Garuda. It is not
Yajnavalkya finishes his recitation to Bharadwaj.
Tulsidas concludes his retelling of the Shri
Sanskrit is a part of this
Stories behind the incarnation of Rama
During the Bālakāṇḍa, it is mentioned that
Shiva is retelling
the story of
Rama Katha) to his spouse Parvati. During this
Shiva explains as many as five reasons why
Jay and Vijay
The brothers Jay and Vijay are the two favoured gate keepers of Hari.
Due to a curse, by the
Brahmin Sanaka and his three brothers, Jay and
Vijay were born in the species of the demons. One took the birth of
Hiranyakashipu and the other was born as Hiranyaksha. The Supreme
incarnated Himself as
Varaha in order to kill Hiranyaksha, while
Narasimha to kill Hiranyakashipu. Even though these
brothers are killed by
Hari Himself, they do not attain liberation as
the Brahman's had cursed them to three births and so were reborn as
the powerful demons
Ravana and Kumbhakarna.
Hari took a human
incarnation, as Rama, to kill
Ravana and Kumbhakarna.
The curse of Nārad Muni
Nārad Muni was wandering in Himalayan mountains and begins to think
about Vishnu. He instantly falls into a deep meditative trance. Seeing
the sage's state,
Indra becomes apprehensive as he sees Nārad's
trance as a threat to his own position as the chief of demigods in
Kamadeva to disturb Nārad's trance. He creates an
illusion of fragrant flowers, delightful breezes and such. Heavenly
damsels are called but all this has no effect on the sage. Kamadeva
accepts defeat and falls at Nārad's feet, addressing him with deep
humility. He recalls all that happened to
Shiva and becomes puffed up
with pride of his defeating of Kamadeva.
Shiva admonishes him not to
repeat the story to Hari.
Vishnu at his abode, and unable to control his pride,
re-tells his episode with Kamadeva, ignoring all that
Vishnu further fans Nārad's pride by telling him that his
steadfast vow of celibacy is so strong that he can never be smitten.
Nārad then departs Vishnu's abode.
Laksmi that he has a
plan and sets his illusory powers (maya) into operation. As Nārad
Vishnu creates a beautiful illusory city with
illusionary inhabitants. The city is ruled by King Sheelanidhi, who
has a beautiful daughter called Vishvamohini. Nārad is intrigued with
the city and decides to visit the king. Nārad sees the king's
daughter and falls in love with her. The king explains that he wishes
to marry his daughter to a suitable man. Nārad devises a plot to get
the princess to choose him.
Hari and asks him for the gift of great beauty.
Vishnu says that he will do only that which is beneficial to Nārad.
The sage is glad at heart and thinks that with Vishnu's favour, the
princess will surely choose him. In reality the
Hari had made Nārad
look hideous. The entire royal court is aware of Nārad's appearance,
but says nothing. The princess filled with rage as soon as she sees
Nārad's ugly form and completely ignores him. He sees a reflection of
his face in water and is consumed with rage. He instantly goes back to
Vaikuntha and begins to speak to
Hari in ugly tones. He curses Hari,
"You made me look like a monkey; therefore You shall have monkeys for
Your mates. And as You have grievously wronged me, so shall You suffer
the pangs of separation from Your wife".
Hari accepts Nārad's curse
and instantly withdraws his illusionary spell.
Nārad realises that there is no city and there is no Visvamohini, and
is dismayed at what he has done. He begs
Vishnu to invalidate his
Hari explains that it was His will and advises Nārad to chant
his name to absolve himself of any sin. Nārad returns to his abode
chanting the praises of Ram.
Svayambhuva Manu and Shatarupa
Svayambhuva Manu had Shatarupa as his wife. Manu ruled the earth for
many years and carried out the Lord's commandments. He longed to
Hari and decides to give up rulership to his son so that
he can retire to the forest with Satarupa and meditate upon the Lord.
Manu and Satarupa settle at the banks of the
Sarayu river and devoutly
repeat the twelve-syllable Mantra, calling out to who is the source of
many Brahmas, Vishnus and Shivas emanate. Some commentators
indicate that the twelve-syllable mantra is the
Vishnu mantra (Oṃ
Namo Bhagavate Vāsudevāya). Rambhadracharya comments that the
twelve-letter mantra is the coupled mantra for
Sita and Rama.
Manu and Shatarupa first sacrifice food and then water and are finally
willing to sacrifice air. Brahma,
Shiva call on Manu but Manu
and Satarupa are resolute and do not swerve on their sacrifices. A
great voice from the heavens tells Manu, in sweet tones, to ask for a
Sita approach Manu in a beautiful form, which
leaves Manu overcome with emotion. Manu explains now that he and
Satarupa have seen the Lord's lotus feet, all their desires have been
met. Manu has one longing but doesn't know how to ask the Lord.
Finally he asks, "O gracious Lord, I tell You my sincere wish: I would
have a son like You. I have nothing to conceal from You."
The Lord announces that it shall be, however, where would he find a
son like Himself? The Lord tells Manu that He Himself would be a son
to him. The Lord then asks Satarupa of her wish. She says that she
greatly likes the boon received by her husband and wants the same.
Bowing at the Lord's feet, Manu then asks one more favour. He asks
that he be dependent on which is granted. The Lord then commands the
couple to dwell in Indra's capital in heaven.
The Lord explains that after some time Manu would be born as the king
of Ayodhya, Dashrath and Satarupa as Kausalya. He would then manifest
Himself in the royal household as their son. He reassured the couple
that their desire would be accomplished.
Tale of King Pratapbhanu
Prior to the birth of Rama, Muni
Bharadwaja is told the story of King
Pratapbhanu by Yajnavalkya. There is a kingdom called Kaikay where
Satyaketu is king. He has two sons, Pratapbhanu and Arimardana and
rules his kingdom with his prime minister Dharamaruchi. Satyaketu
abdicates and hands the reign to Pratapbhanu, who becomes conqueror of
Once Pratapbhanu goes into the forest to hunt and sees a wild boar.
The boar is actually the demon Kalaketu in disguise who runs away from
the king. Pratapbhanu gives chase deeper into the forest. Pratapbhanu
chases for many miles and becomes thirsty. He approaches a fake saints
ashram, where the resident fake saint wants to hurt and insult
Pratapbhanu due to a previous incident. Pratapbhanu doesn't recognise
the saint, who begins to sweet talk the king and says that by pure
love, he wishes to impart boons onto the king. The king asks to be
invicible and never ageing, which the fake saint grants, but with the
condition that he needs to win favour of all Brahmans. The fake saint
advises that the king arrange the cooking of holy food (prasadam) to
feed the bramanas, who would surely be in his favour for such an act
of kindness. The fake saint's real intention is to trap the king and
repay him for his old grievances.
The fake saint asks the king to go rest, and that he would arrange the
feast for the bramanas using his mystic powers. Pratapbhanu waits for
three days for the fake saint. Kalaketu, now disguised as a priest,
approaches the King in his court and says that he has been sent to
cook the holy food. The entire brahmana community is invited. A
heavenly voice from above warns the brahmanas that the food is unpure
and they should run away immediately. They curse the king that he, his
kingdom and entire family are wiped from the face of earth. They also
curse that he be born a demon in his next life. The heavenly voice
says that the brahmana's curse is ill thought, as Pratapbhanu is not
to blame. Since their curse cannot be taken back, the voice says that
it is the
Brahmana community that will bare the brunt of the evil of
his next life.
Pratapbhanu is distraught and quickly goes to his kitchen to find
Kalaketu. The king is pained and cries as he realises Kalaketu has
vanished. The brahmanas feel sorry for Pratapbhanu and tell him that
his evil next life will be ended by Supreme
Vishnu himself. As per the
curse, Pratapbhanu, Arimardam and Dharmaruchi are all killed as other
neighbouring kings invade Kaikay.
Pratapbhanu is reborn as Ravan, Arimardam is reborn as Kumbhkarna and
Dharmaruchi as Vibhishan. All three take great penances and are
Shiva and are asked for any boon.
that no one should be able to kill me except the tribes of man and
monkeys. Kumbhkarna asks for uninterrupted sleep for periods of six
Vibhishan asks for unshakeable love for the feet of
The immolation of Sati and the incarnation of Parvati
The story of how
Shiva came about retelling Ramkatha to his consort
Parvati is retold in great detail within the Bālakāṇḍa. This
part of the story is narrated by Sant
Yajnavalkya to Bharadvaj Muni.
In the age of Treta, Shiva, accompanied by His consort Bhavani Sati,
went to visit
Rishi Agastya. The
Rishi being pleased with Shiva's
visit, began to narrate the eternal story of Ram.
Shiva listens with
great pleasure and then they return towards Their abode. Around these
exact days Ram had descended on earth and was wondering the Dandaka
Sita and Lakshman.
Shiva ponders how he can catch sight of
Ram. He finally sees Ram, who is frantically searching for Sita, and
instantly joins his palms and prays "Glory to the Redeemer of the
universe, who is Truth, Consciousness and Bliss". Sati cannot
recognise Ram and wonders why her Supreme
Shiva is praising a mortal.
Shiva is the knower of all truth and instantly reads Sati's thoughts.
He advises her to not harbour such doubts and accept that she had seen
Agastya had praised earlier. He finally says that if she is
still not convinced then she should seek to verify this truth herself.
Shiva observes as Sati takes the guise of Sita. Ram and Lakshman
instantly see through Sati's disguised and asks about Shiva's
whereabouts. Sati feels very uncomfortable and heads towards Shiva,
thinking of how she is going to explain her folly of questioning His
Shiva asks her to tell the truth of how she tested Ram. Sati is unable
to tell the truth and says that she did not test Ram, but praised his
as You had. Sati forgets that
Shiva knows all that has happened and is
disappointed that she was disguised as his Sita. He decides that Sati
is too chaste to abandon and it is a sin to continue to be her Husband
and so from then he has no connection with Sati in her current body.
Sati concludes that
Shiva has come to know everything and feels very
foolish for having tried deceiving Him.
Shiva sits under a banyan tree
and enters into a long trance. Sati feel extremely sorry but accepts
that providence is repaying her for her sins. Many years pass and
Shiva finally ends his trance whilst praising Ram. Sati bows down at
Shiva's feet, after which he seats Sati opposite him and he begins to
tell stories of Vishnu's exploits.
Shiva is narrating the stories of Vishnu, the air is filled with
celestial beings. Sati asks
Shiva what the occasion is.
that Her father
Daksha has organised a great sacrifice where many
demigods were invited. All except Brahma,
Daksha had developed a hatred towards the Gods. Sati thinks
of Her father and asks if She may visit him at this time.
that they have no formal invite and that all of Sati's sisters are
invited but because of his animosity towards Shiva, Her father has not
Shiva tries to reason with Sati, that no good can come of
Her attending, but
Tulsidas explains that a daughters ties to her
father are very strong.
When she reaches her father's abode, no one welcomes Her apart from
Daksha does not even acknowledge Her and actually burns
with anger that She has turned up uninvited. Sati looks around and
sees no oblations set apart for
Shiva and the lack of respect of her
father causes Her mind to rage with great anger. She faces Her
father's court and announces that
Shiva is the father of the universe
and the beneficent of all. It is the same
Shiva that Her father
vilifies. She burns Her body with the fires of Yoga.Her guards are
beaten and thrashed.When
Shiva came to know this, he sends Virabhadra,
who wreaks havoc of the sacrifice and
Daksha is slain. As Sati is
about to die, She asks Lord
Hari of the boon that she be devoted to
Shiva's feet in successive births. She is reborn as Parvati, the
daughter of Himachal and Mena.
Parvati and Nārad's prophecy
Years after the birth of Parvati, Nārad Muni visits her parents
Himachal and Mena. Himachal asks Nārad what the future holds for his
daughter. Nārad says that
Parvati will be adorned with good traits
and win unfailing love of her husband. She will remain ever united
with him and bring great glory upon her parents. The only drawback is
that her husband will be an ascetic with matted hair who is naked and
of hideous accoutrements. Himachal and Mena become disconsolate while
Parvati is greatly pleased, as she senses from Nārad's words that her
Vishnu is coming true. Nārad explains to Himachal that the
only person who shows the virtues as described by him is Shiva.
Parvati's parents are immediately uplifted and as Nārad leaves, he
Parvati to fix Her thoughts on
Hari and practice austerity. The
Parvati enters the forest and performs great penances in order
to obtain Shiva. Her body thins greatly due to her self-mortification
Brahma declares that she should cease her severe penances
Shiva would soon be hers. History had produced many great sages,
but none had performed such penances as this.
Brahma instructs that
her father would soon come for her and that she should return home
Ever since Sati had quit her body,
Shiva had begun chanting Ram's name
and entered into a great trance. Through his mystic power, Ram asks
Shiva to marry Parvati.
Shiva says that this is not a justifiable
request but the word of a master cannot be set aside and must be
Shiva remains in his great trance. Around that time the demon
Tāraka was causing distress and was in full flourish.
that the son of
Shiva will kill Tāraka, but for this to happen His
Parvati needs to be arranged and for that to happen,
Shiva's trance has to be broken. It is decided that the
God of Love
should be sent to awaken Shiva. He fires five arrows of flowers at
Shiva's breast, the trance is broken and
enraged and, through his third eye, reduces Love to ashes. Love's
consort Rati faints as soon as she hears of her husband's demise.
Seeing the helpless woman,
Shiva foretells that her husband will now
be called bodiless and shall dominate all without a body form. When
Krishna descends on earth, her husband would be born as His son
Brahma and other gods approach
Shiva and declare
that they wish to witness His wedding with their own eyes. Remembering
Vishnu's early request,
Shiva gladly agrees and
Brahma proceeds to
arrange the marriage.
The wedding of
Shiva and Parvati
Shiva has no real family and so his attendants begin to adorn Him for
His wedding to Parvati. His hair is formed into a crown with serpents
forming a crest. Serpents form His earrings, bracelets and adorn his
neck and He is smeared in ashes and has lion's skin wrapped around His
loins. He heads the wedding procession and
Vishnu and Brahma, as well
as a host of spirits, gandharavs and danavs follow behind. After the
Shiva return to Kailash where
questions around Rama's divinity. Here
Shiva begins his narration of
The divinity of Ram in the Manas
Ram's divine birth
On the ninth day of the
Chaitra month, the Manas describes that the
Sun is at its meridian and the climate is neither cold nor hot. There
is a cool, soft and fragrant breeze. The woods are full of blossom and
the rivers or in full flow.
Brahma deduces that the time for Ram's
birth is approaching and the heavenly beings all crowd over the skies
to glimpse sight of the auspicious moment. The sky resounds of music
and song as the heavenly beings offer their praises to the Supreme
Personality of Godhead.
Here begins one of the most famous chhands from the Manas, the Ram
Janam Stuti. The stuti begins with the appearance of Ram. Mother
Kaushalya's is filled with joy as she marvels over Ram's dark
complexion and his four armed form. He is adorned with jewels and a
garland of Sylvan flowers and is described as being an ocean of
Kaushalya joins her palms and prays. "O Infinite, How can I
praise You! The
Puranas reveal you to be the repository of
all virtues. You are the Lord of
Laksmi and the lover of all of Your
devotees and have appeared for my good. Every pore of Your body
contains multitudes of universes and the thought that You stayed in my
womb is truly staggering." Ram smiles and exhorts
Kaushalya by telling
her the charming account of her previous birth so that she can accept
Him as her own child.
Kaushalya asks Ram to give up His current
superhuman form and to start to indulge in childish sports that are
dear to a mother's heart. Ram, described as the Lord of immortals,
immediately becomes an infant and begins to cry.
Tulsidas concludes that whoever sings this Stuti attains the abode of
Vishnu and never falls into the well of mundane existence. The
Stuti has therefore been immortalised and it is a popular prayer sung
on the occasion of Ram's birthday.
Deliverance of Ahalya
Ahalya, the wife of
Rishi Gautam, was a beautiful woman. Indra, king
of the gods, was tempted and decided to seduce her with trickery.
Rishi Gautam when the dawn had arrived go down to the
Ganges for his usual morning bath. While the
Rishi was bathing
at the river,
Indra assumed Gautam's form and visited Ahalya, fooling
her into thinking he was her husband. When Gautam returned, he
encountered Indra, emerging from his hut in his (Gautam's) form.
Spiritually powerful, Gautam employed his divine vision to see the
whole episode. Enraged, he cursed
Indra with impotence. Losing his
Indra lost heaven to demons and sat prayerfully in a lotus
flower for thousands of years in order to repent.
Rishi Gautam, in a
blind rage, also cursed his wife, Ahalya, to turn into a boulder.
Innocent of any intentional wrongdoing,
Ahalya begged for forgiveness.
Gautam relented somewhat and said that when Ram is incarnated, he will
bless her and break her curse.
Ram, while going to Mithila for
Sita Svayamvar along with Sage
Vishwamitra and Laksman, stopped at the, then-uninhabited, hermitage
Vishwamitra narrated Ahalya's story to Ram, and asked
him to free her. Ram touched the boulder with his foot and
immediately released from the curse. She fell to Ram's feet and washed
his feet with her tears. She felt that her curse had become her
fortune as she got the opportunity to seek Ram's refuge in person. She
then returned to her husband's place.
The abrupt ending
Many scholars have commented on the sudden ending to the Manas.
Valmiki's Uttar Kānd goes into great detail about
Sita going into the
forest, as a result of disapproving gossip of the citizens of Ayodhya,
during the rule of Ram over Ayodhya. Sitaji asks mother Earth to
receive her and Ram leaves His human form and returns to His celestial
Tulsidas decides not to mention these at all. The Katha Kar
Morari Bapu has mentioned in many of his retellings of Ram Katha, that
Tulsidasji didn't want to end the Manas in heartache for Sita.
Tulsidas refers to
Sita as his mother (as well as the mother of the
entire universe) many times in the poem and so, on an emotional level,
this becomes very understandable. She has endured enough pain
throughout the Manas and so ends his retelling at a relatively happy
moment. It is said that there are some Vaishnav devotees who will only
recite the Bālakāṇḍa of the Manas, as this is seen as the
happiest period of Ram and Sita's lila on earth. However,
Ramchritmans at few places do make reference of Sita's abandonment,
birth of lav-kush and Ram's demise to his abode. These stories thus
can be said to have mentioned in brief.
An unpublished English poetic translation of
provided by (Late) Binda Prasad Khattri of New Market, Banda, Uttar
Pradesh. Apparently, the translation can be sung essentially in the
same way and with the same rhythm as the original
Frederick Growse translated the
Ramcharitmanas into English under the
Tulsidas during the nineteenth century. His
translation remains in print.
The English commentary by Morari Bapu, Mangal Ramayan, is an English
composition of one of his orrated Ram Katha commentaries. The book
contains all the translations of prayers, Doha, Chaupais, and Chandan
sung by Bapu, as well as an in-depth disccusion behind the meanings of
Tulsi Manas Mandir
Notes and references
^ Tulsidas, Kabir, Mirabai, and
Surdas are considered the greatest
devotional poets of
^ In verse 1.33.2 of Bālkānd, the first chapter of
Tulsidas mentions 1631, Tuesday, as the date according
Vikram Samvat calendar, which is 1574 in
Gregorian calendar or
^ Pronounced as tool-see-DAHSS 
Tulsidas was a contemporary of Akbar, Maharana Pratap, and William
^ K.B. Jindal (1955), A history of
Hindi literature, Kitab Mahal, ...
The book is popularly known as the Ramayana, but the poet himself
called it the
Ramcharitmanas or the 'Lake of the Deeds of Rama' ...
the seven cantos of the book are like the seven steps to the lake
^ Lutgendorf 1991, p. 1.
^ a b Subramanian 2008, p. 19
^ McLean 1998, p. 121
^ Puri & Das 2003, p. 230
^ Lele 1981, p. 75
^ Lorenzen 1995, p. 160
^ Lutgendorf 2006, p. 92
^ Sadarangani 2004, p. 78
^ Kumar 2001, p. 161
Tulsidas 1574, p. 45
Saraswati 2001, p. 485
^ a b O.P. Ralhan (1997), The Great Gurus of the Sikhs, Volume 1,
Anmol Publications Pvt Ltd, ISBN 978-81-7488-479-4, ... It was on
a Tuesday, the ninth day of
Chaitra in the Samvat year 1631, that
Tulsidas started writing the
Ramcharitmanas in the city of
the banks of the sacred Saryu. The place and date are significant,
Ayodhya being the birthplace and the day being the birthday of Sri
^ Rambhadracharya, Swami (2008).
Ramcharitmanas Bhavarthbodhini Hindi
Tika. Page No. xxxi
^ Duiker 2012, p. 3.1
^ Pant 2012, p. 64
^ Singh 1990, p. 121
^ Mathew 2012, p. H-39
^ Ghosh 2002, p. 104
^ Lochtefeld 2002, p. 713
^ Coogan 2003, p. 141
^ Richman 2001, p. 9
^ Agarwal 2005, p. 114
^ MacFie 2004, p. 115
^ Bakker 2009, p. 122
^ Rajagopal 2001, p. 99
^ Lallan Prasad Vyas (1992), Ramayana, its universal appeal and global
role, Har-Anand Publications, ... Its original name is Ram Charit
Manas, but people call it Tulsi Krit Ramayan. (This has been the
custom to name the
Ramayan after its author). Tulsi Krit
written in the 16th Century AD. This is the most popular and a work by
a world renowned ...
^ Miller 2008, p. 161
^ Lamb 2002, p. 39
^ Ascher & Heffron 2010, p. 27
^ Mehta 1992, p. 243
^ Sanujit Ghose (2004), Legend of Ram: Antiquity to Janmabhumi Debate,
Bibliophile South Asia, ISBN 978-81-85002-33-0, ... Lake of the
Deeds of Ram. He says that the seven cantos or sections of the work
are like the beautiful flights of steps to the holy water of a lake,
which purifies the body and the soul at once ...
^ Olive Classe (2000), Encyclopedia of literary translation into
English: M-Z, Volume 2, Taylor & Francis,
ISBN 978-1-884964-36-7, ... Rāmcāritmānas, composed in the
Avadhi dialect of Hindi, is an epic of some 13,000 lines divided into
seven kandas or 'books.' The word mānas (which
Hindi speakers often
use as an abbreviation of the longer title) alludes to a sacred lake
in the Himalayas, and so the title may be rendered 'the divine lake of
Ram's deeds' ...
^ Impact of
^ a b c d e f g Shri Ramacharitamanasa, A Romanized Edition (1968
ed.). Gorakhpur: Gita Press.
^ Gita press Shri
Ramcharitmanas - End of each Kānd of Gitapress
Morari Bapu 2000, pp. 58, 59, 134.
^ Cite error: The named reference Raychaudhuri 1972 was invoked but
never defined (see the help page).
^ Bālakāṇḍa section of Gitapress version
Ayodhya Kānd section of Gitapress version
^ Aranya Kānd section of Gitapress version
^ Kishkinha Kānd section of Gitapress version
^ Sunder Kānd section of Gitapress version
Lanka Kānd section of Gitapress version
^ Uttar Kānd section of Gitapress version
^ Jay and Vijay, the gatekeepers -
Morari Bapu 2000, pp. 159–161
^ Nārad Muni's curse - http://www.boloji.com/hinduism/109.htm
^ Śrīrāmacaritamānasa (Gita Press) 2004, pp. 107–108:
संभु बिरंचि बिष्नु
भगवाना। उपजहिं जासु अंस ते
नाना॥ ... ... and from a particle of whose emanate a number
of Śambhus, Virañcis and Viṣṇus.
^ Śrīrāmacaritamānasa (Gita Press) 2004, p. 105: They further
devoutly repeated the twelve-letter formula (ॐ नमो
^ Rambhadracharya 2008, p. 127: मनु शतरूपा
श्रेष्ठ बारह अक्षरों वाले
श्रीसीताराम के युगलमंत्र
का प्रेमपूर्वक जाप करने
^ Śrīrāmacaritamānasa (Gita Press) 2004, pp. 107–108:
भृकुटि बिलास सृष्टि लय
होई। राम बाम दिसि सीता सोई
॥ ... Sītā, who stood to the left of Śrī Rāma, was the same was
the same ... the mere play of whose eyebrows brings the cosmos into
Morari Bapu 2000, pp. 173–180
^ Pratapbhanu's tale - (Reason v) "Archived copy". Archived from the
original on 4 May 2010. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
^ Ram Janam Stuti from the Manas -
Morari Bapu 2000, p. 635
^ J. M. Macfie, The
Tulsidas Or the Bible of Northern
India, Kessinger Publishing, 2004, ISBN 978-1-4179-1498-2, ...
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sixth edition, 1914, published by Ram Narayan, Allahabad). Another
admirer of the poet whose studies in the Indian Antiquary, 1893, and
in the Indian Gazetteer are of much value, is Sir George Grierson, who
speaks of the
Ramcharitmanas as worthy of the greatest poet of any age
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