Raipur (// pronunciation (help·info)) is a city in Raipur district in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. It is the largest city and the erstwhile capital of Chhattisgarh. It was formerly a part of Madhya Pradesh before the state of Chhattisgarh was formed on 1 November 2000.
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Raipur has been in existence since the 9th century; the old site and ruins of the fort can be seen in the southern part of the city. Raipur district is important historically and as a point of interest archaeologically. This district was once part of the Dakshina Kosala Kingdom and later became part of the Maurya Empire. In the 4th century CE, Gupta king Samudragupta conquered this region and established Gupta domination in the region until the fifth and sixth centuries when the area came under the rule of Sharabhpuriya kings. For some time in the fifth and sixth centuries, Nala kings dominated this area. Later on Somavanshi kings took control and ruled with Sirpur as their capital. Mahashivgupta Balarjun was the mightiest emperor of this dynasty. His mother, the widow queen of Harshgupta of the Somavansh, Rani Vasata built the brick temple of Lakshman.
The Kalachuri dynasty of Tumman ruled the area for a long period, making Ratanpur their capital. The old inscriptions of Ratanpur, Rajim and Khallari refer to the reign of Kalachuri kings. Raipur was the capital of a branch of the Kalachuri dynasty, whose rulers controlled the forts of Chhattisgarh for a considerable period.
It is believed that King Ramachandra established the city of Raipur and subsequently made it the capital of his kingdom. Another story about Raipur is that King Ramachandra's son Brahmdeo Rai had established Raipur, where Raipur means King's City, from Sankrit Rai for King and Pur for city. His capital was Khalwatika (now Khallari). This region had become the domain of Bhosle kings after Amarsingh Deo's death. With the death of Raghuji III, the territory was assumed by the British government from Bhonsla'a of Nagpur and Chhattisgarh was declared a separate division, the Chhattisgarh Division of the Central Provinces, with its headquarters at Raipur in 1852. At the time of the independence of India Raipur district was included in the Central Provinces and Berar.
As of the[update] 2011 census, Raipur Municipal Corporation had a population of 1,010,087, of which 519,286 are males and 490,801 are females —a sex ratio of 945 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000. 124,471 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 64,522 are boys and 59,949 are girls —a ratio of 929 girls per 1000 boys. There are 769,593 literates (420,155 males, 349,438 females). The effective literacy was 86.90%; male literacy was 92.39% and female literacy was 81.10%, significantly higher than the national average of 73.00%.
The urban agglomeration had a population of 1,122,555, of which males constitute 578,339, females constitute 544,216 —a sex ratio of 941 females per 1000 males and 142,826 children are in the age group of 0–6 years. There are a total of 846,952 literates with an effective literacy rate of 86.45%.
As an important regional centre and a city with a history stretching back more than a thousand years, Raipur has attracted people from different parts of Madhya Pradesh and neighbouring states. The population includes local ethnic Chhattisgarhis, North Indians, South Indians, and a few people from the North East. Local ethnic Chhattisgarhi comprises Kalar, Kurmi, Swarnkar, Teli, Koshta and Satnami communities. The city is also inhabited by the trading communities like Jayaswals, Baniyas, Agarwals, Jains, Gujaratis, and Marwaris. Due to close proximity with Odisha there are large numbers of Odia speaking population found in the city as well as in the state. The city is also home to an immigrant population that includes Sindhis. It also has a sizeable Bengali, Telugu, Malayalee and Maharashtrian population. Majority of the population in Raipur is Hindu. Muslims, Sikhs and Christians are minorities.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Raipur is located near the centre of a large plain, sometimes referred as the "rice bowl of India", where hundreds of varieties of rice are grown. The Mahanadi River flows to the east of the city of Raipur, and the southern side has dense forests. The Maikal Hills rise on the north-west of Raipur; on the north, the land rises and merges with the Chota Nagpur Plateau, which extends north-east across Jharkhand state. On the south of Raipur lies the Deccan Plateau.
Raipur has a tropical wet and dry climate, temperatures remain moderate throughout the year, except from March to June, which can be extremely hot. The temperature in April–May sometimes rises above 48 °C (118 °F).These summer months also have dry and hot winds. In summers, the temperature can also go up to 50 °C. The city receives about 1,300 millimetres (51 in) of rain, mostly in the monsoon season from late June to early October. Winters last from November to January and are mild, although lows can fall to 5 °C (41 °F) making it reasonably cold.
|Climate data for Raipur (1901–1998)|
|Average high °C (°F)||28.0
|Average low °C (°F)||13.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||11.3
Raipur Junction railway station is situated on the Howrah-Nagpur-Mumbai line of the Indian Railways (via Bhusawal, Nagpur, Gondia, Bilaspur, Rourkela, Kharagpur) and is connected with most major cities. Raipur still lacks direct rail connectivity with Indore, Ujjain, Ratlam, Kolhapur, Jodhpur, etc. A branch line from Raipur to Vizianagaram via Mahasamund – Titlagarh originates from here and most of the produce of Chhattisgarh reaches Vishakhapatnam by this railway line. There is also a narrow gauge line connecting Raipur to Rajim and Dhamtari via Abhanpur, which is being converted to broad gauge and realigned to serve the city of Naya Raipur as well.
Suburbs Of Raipur
Raipur is surrounded by many National Highways and Expressway
|S. No||National Highway "||Connecting Cities||Length (KM)|
|1||NH 53||Dhule (MH)-Nagpur (MH)-Raipur (CG) -Sambalpur(OD)||322.00|
|2||NH 153||Saraipali (CG)- Sarangad (CG)- Raigad (CG)||86.60|
|3||NH 353||Godhari (CG)- Mahasamund(CG)- Baagbahara (CG)- Khariar Road(OD)||65.00|
|4||NH 63||Bhopalpattanam- Geedam- Jagdalpur||236.80|
|5||NH 163||Bhopalpattanam (CG)- Venkatpuram (TL)- Warangal (TL)- Hydrabad (TL)||36.00|
|6||NH 163A||Geedam (CG)- Dantewada (CG)||12.00|
|7||NH 43||Shadol(MP)- Manendragad(CG)- Ambikapur(CG)- Jashpurnagar (CG)||353.00|
|8||NH 49||Bilaspur (CG)- Chapa(CG)- Raigad (CG)||196.60|
|9||NH 149||Chapa (CG)- Churi (CG)- Kathgora(CG)||70.20|
|10||NH 243||Ambikapur (CG)- Ramanujganj (CG)||110.00|
|11||NH 30||Chipfi(CG)- Kawardha (CG)- Simga(CG)- Raipur(CG)- Jagdalpur(CG)- Konta(CG)||636.60|
|12||NH 130||Simga (CG)- Bilaspur (CG)- Kathgora (CG)- Ambikapur (CG)||292.60|
|13||NH 130 A||Pondi(Near NH 30) to Pandariya (Near NH 130)||105.80|
|14||NH 130 B||Raipur (Near NH 30)- Sarangad (Near NH 153)||187.50|
|15||NH 130 C||Abhanpur (CG)- Rajim (CG)- Gariyaband (CG)- Deobhog (CG)||196.00|
|16||NH 130 D||Kondagaon (CG)- Narayanpur (CG)||49.47|
|17||NH 930||Purur (CG)- Balod (CG)- Maanpur (CG)||115.40|
Swami Vivekananda Airport or Mana Airport is primary airport serving the state of Chhattisgarh.The airport is located, 15 km (9.3 mi) south of Raipur near Naya Raipur. After recent modernisation, is one of its kind in central India and presently connects Raipur to most of the major Metro city of India.
A new integrated terminal designed to handle 700 passengers (including 200 international flyers) at a time and covering an area of 18,500 m2 (4.6 acres) was inaugurated on 7 November 2012 by President of India Pranab Mukherjee. The new terminal will be used for domestic flights, while the proposed international terminal is being renovated to handle international operations.
A city bus service is provided by Raipur City Bus Limited (RCBL) for the intra-city travel. Raipur Municipal Corporation launched the Raipur City Bus service on 25 February 2008. The company runs 40 buses out of which 32 are low floor Tata Starbus. Paratransit in the form of auto-rickshaws and tuk-tuk are available all over the city. 200 new city buses under JNNURM have been inducted by Raipur Nagar Nigam Transport Limited (RNNTL), which serve the Raipur and connect Naya Raipur also.
Raipur and Naya Raipur BRTS is a bus rapid transit system with air-conditioned (AC) and non-AC buses. Some of these buses are equipped with services like GPS and IVR which are used to track the position of the bus with information displayed on LED displays installed at the bus stops the BRTS operation between the Raipur to Naya Raipur Prime Minister Narendra Modi launches Naya Raipur BRTS in Naya Raipur on Nov 1, 2016.
Historically, when Raipur was a part of Madhya Pradesh, it was the second major commercial centre in Madhya Pradesh after Indore. Traditionally, Raipur's economy has been based on agricultural-processing, Steel, Cement, Alloy, Poha and Rice. The city is located centrally in the state of Chhattisgarh, and now serves as a regional hub for trade and commerce for a variety of local agricultural and forest products.
The traditional face of city has changed with Raipur becoming an important regional commercial and industrial destination for the coal, power, plywood, steel and aluminium industries. Raipur is the largest market of steel in India. Raipur is among the richest cities and India’s biggest iron market; there are about 200 steel rolling mills, 195 sponge iron plants, more than 6 steel plants, more than 60 plywood factories, 500 agro-industries and more than 35 ferro-alloy plants. There are more than 800 rice milling plants, and all major and local cement manufacturing companies (Century Cement, Ambuja, Grasim, Lafarg) have a presence in the city.
Raipur also has a big chemical plant which produces formalin and distributes throughout the country.
Raipur has become the educational hub of Central India due to presence of many institutes of National importance in Engineering, Management, Medical and Law. It is the only city in India which is home to IIM, NIT, AIIMS, Hidayatullah National Law University, and IIIT. IIT Chhattisgarh is proposed at Bhilai which is 30 km from Raipur.
There are almost all major nationwide school chains in the city resulting in a sound academic environment in the city. Also, the city has almost all premier coaching institutes for competitive exams such as Resonance, FIIT-JEE, Aakash Institute, PT-Education, TIME, and Career Launcher.
The major schools include:
There are also several other schools affiliated to CBSE, ICSE, as well as state board in both English and Hindi medium.
Many local news channels are telecast from Raipur in Hindi:
|CG 24 news channel CG||Hindi|
|Grand News (Cable Network)||Hindi|
|ETV MP Chhattisgarh||Hindi|
|Zee MP CG||Hindi|
|India News MP CG||Hindi|
|Abhi Tak (Cable Network)||Hindi|
Many national and local newspapers are published from Raipur both in Hindi and English:
|Dainik Vishwa Pariwar||Hindi|
|The Central Chronicle||English|
|The Times of India||English|
|Business Standard||English, Hindi|
|Business Bhaskar||English, Hindi|
Raipur city has 6 FM Radio Stations which are-
|94.3 FM||MY FM||Jio Dil Se|
|95.0 FM||FM Tadka||Sound's Good|
|98.3 FM||Radio Mirchi||Mirchi Sunane Wale Always Khush|
|101.6 FM||All India Radio Bilaspur & Vividh Bharti||Desh Ki Surili Dhadkan|
|104.8 FM||Radio Rangila||Jamm ke suno|
Kanha National Park, Achanakmar Wildlife Sanctuary, Amarkantak, Bhoramdeo Temple, Dongargarh, Setganga, Sirpur, Champaran, Rajim, Chitrakot Falls, Indravati National Park, Kanger Valley National Park, Gangrel Dam and Murrum Silli Dam are the other nearby attractions.
Naya Raipur (New Raipur) is the new capital of Chhattisgarh. Located between National Highways NH-6 and NH-43, it is 17 km away in the south-east direction from the older city of Raipur. Swami Vivekananda Airport separates the old and new cities. Naya Raipur serves as the administrative and Commercial capital of the State and also caters to the infrastructural needs of industry and trade in the region.
Naya Raipur spreads over an area of about 8000 hectares. Naya Raipur is India's fourth planned capital city after Gandhinagar in Gujarat, Chandigarh serving both Punjab and Harayana, and Bhubaneshwar in Odisha.
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