Raipur (/ˈrpʊər/ About this sound pronunciation ) is a city in Raipur district in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. It is the largest city and the erstwhile capital of Chhattisgarh. It was formerly a part of Madhya Pradesh before the state of Chhattisgarh was formed on 1 November 2000.


Swami Vivekanada's Statue at Vivekanand Sarovar
Jagannath tample of Raipur

Raipur has been in existence since the 9th century; the old site and ruins of the fort can be seen in the southern part of the city. Raipur district is important historically and as a point of interest archaeologically. This district was once part of the Dakshina Kosala Kingdom and later became part of the Maurya Empire. In the 4th century CE, Gupta king Samudragupta conquered this region and established Gupta domination in the region until the fifth and sixth centuries when the area came under the rule of Sharabhpuriya kings. For some time in the fifth and sixth centuries, Nala kings dominated this area. Later on Somavanshi kings took control and ruled with Sirpur as their capital. Mahashivgupta Balarjun was the mightiest emperor of this dynasty. His mother, the widow queen of Harshgupta of the Somavansh, Rani Vasata built the brick temple of Lakshman.

The Kalachuri dynasty of Tumman ruled the area for a long period, making Ratanpur their capital. The old inscriptions of Ratanpur, Rajim and Khallari refer to the reign of Kalachuri kings. Raipur was the capital of a branch of the Kalachuri dynasty, whose rulers controlled the forts of Chhattisgarh for a considerable period.

It is believed that King Ramachandra established the city of Raipur and subsequently made it the capital of his kingdom. Another story about Raipur is that King Ramachandra's son Brahmdeo Rai had established Raipur, where Raipur means King's City, from Sankrit Rai[3] for King and Pur for city. His capital was Khalwatika (now Khallari). This region had become the domain of Bhosle kings after Amarsingh Deo's death. With the death of Raghuji III, the territory was assumed by the British government from Bhonsla'a of Nagpur and Chhattisgarh was declared a separate division, the Chhattisgarh Division of the Central Provinces, with its headquarters at Raipur in 1852. At the time of the independence of India Raipur district was included in the Central Provinces and Berar.


As of the 2011 census, Raipur Municipal Corporation had a population of 1,010,087, of which 519,286 are males and 490,801 are females —a sex ratio of 945 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000.[4] 124,471 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 64,522 are boys and 59,949 are girls —a ratio of 929 girls per 1000 boys. There are 769,593 literates (420,155 males, 349,438 females). The effective literacy was 86.90%; male literacy was 92.39% and female literacy was 81.10%, significantly higher than the national average of 73.00%.[1][5]

The urban agglomeration had a population of 1,122,555, of which males constitute 578,339, females constitute 544,216 —a sex ratio of 941 females per 1000 males and 142,826 children are in the age group of 0–6 years. There are a total of 846,952 literates with an effective literacy rate of 86.45%.[2]

As an important regional centre and a city with a history stretching back more than a thousand years, Raipur has attracted people from different parts of Madhya Pradesh and neighbouring states. The population includes local ethnic Chhattisgarhis, North Indians, South Indians, and a few people from the North East. Local ethnic Chhattisgarhi comprises Kalar, Kurmi, Swarnkar, Teli, Koshta and Satnami communities. The city is also inhabited by the trading communities like Jayaswals, Baniyas, Agarwals, Jains, Gujaratis, and Marwaris. Due to close proximity with Odisha there are large numbers of Odia speaking population found in the city as well as in the state. The city is also home to an immigrant population that includes Sindhis. It also has a sizeable Bengali, Telugu, Malayalee and Maharashtrian population. Majority of the population in Raipur is Hindu. Muslims, Sikhs and Christians are minorities.

Geography and climate

Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: IMD


Raipur is located near the centre of a large plain, sometimes referred as the "rice bowl of India", where hundreds of varieties of rice are grown.[6] The Mahanadi River flows to the east of the city of Raipur, and the southern side has dense forests. The Maikal Hills rise on the north-west of Raipur; on the north, the land rises and merges with the Chota Nagpur Plateau, which extends north-east across Jharkhand state. On the south of Raipur lies the Deccan Plateau.


Raipur has a tropical wet and dry climate, temperatures remain moderate throughout the year, except from March to June, which can be extremely hot. The temperature in April–May sometimes rises above 48 °C (118 °F).These summer months also have dry and hot winds. In summers, the temperature can also go up to 50 °C. The city receives about 1,300 millimetres (51 in) of rain, mostly in the monsoon season from late June to early October. Winters last from November to January and are mild, although lows can fall to 5 °C (41 °F) making it reasonably cold.

Climate data for Raipur (1901–1998)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 28.0
Average low °C (°F) 13.1
Average precipitation mm (inches) 11.3
Source: IMD[7]


Raipur Railway Station Entrance


Raipur Junction railway station is situated on the Howrah-Nagpur-Mumbai line of the Indian Railways (via Bhusawal, Nagpur, Gondia, Bilaspur, Rourkela, Kharagpur) and is connected with most major cities. Raipur still lacks direct rail connectivity with Indore, Ujjain, Ratlam, Kolhapur, Jodhpur, etc. A branch line from Raipur to Vizianagaram via MahasamundTitlagarh originates from here and most of the produce of Chhattisgarh reaches Vishakhapatnam by this railway line. There is also a narrow gauge line connecting Raipur to Rajim and Dhamtari via Abhanpur, which is being converted to broad gauge and realigned to serve the city of Naya Raipur as well.

Suburbs Of Raipur


Raipur is surrounded by many National Highways and Expressway

1) Raipur Bilaspur Expressway

2) Raipur-Naya Raipur Expressway

National Highways connecting Raipur to various cities:[8]

S. No National Highway "[1] Connecting Cities Length (KM)
1 NH 53 Dhule (MH)-Nagpur (MH)-Raipur (CG) -Sambalpur(OD) 322.00
2 NH 153 Saraipali (CG)- Sarangad (CG)- Raigad (CG) 86.60
3 NH 353 Godhari (CG)- Mahasamund(CG)- Baagbahara (CG)- Khariar Road(OD) 65.00
4 NH 63 Bhopalpattanam- Geedam- Jagdalpur 236.80
5 NH 163 Bhopalpattanam (CG)- Venkatpuram (TL)- Warangal (TL)- Hydrabad (TL) 36.00
6 NH 163A Geedam (CG)- Dantewada (CG) 12.00
7 NH 43 Shadol(MP)- Manendragad(CG)- Ambikapur(CG)- Jashpurnagar (CG) 353.00
8 NH 49 Bilaspur (CG)- Chapa(CG)- Raigad (CG) 196.60
9 NH 149 Chapa (CG)- Churi (CG)- Kathgora(CG) 70.20
10 NH 243 Ambikapur (CG)- Ramanujganj (CG) 110.00
11 NH 30 Chipfi(CG)- Kawardha (CG)- Simga(CG)- Raipur(CG)- Jagdalpur(CG)- Konta(CG) 636.60
12 NH 130 Simga (CG)- Bilaspur (CG)- Kathgora (CG)- Ambikapur (CG) 292.60
13 NH 130 A Pondi(Near NH 30) to Pandariya (Near NH 130) 105.80
14 NH 130 B Raipur (Near NH 30)- Sarangad (Near NH 153) 187.50
15 NH 130 C Abhanpur (CG)- Rajim (CG)- Gariyaband (CG)- Deobhog (CG) 196.00
16 NH 130 D Kondagaon (CG)- Narayanpur (CG) 49.47
17 NH 930 Purur (CG)- Balod (CG)- Maanpur (CG) 115.40

Asian Highway Number 46 – AH46 passes through Raipur


Swami Vivekananda Airport, Raipur

Swami Vivekananda Airport or Mana Airport is primary airport serving the state of Chhattisgarh.The airport is located, 15 km (9.3 mi) south of Raipur near Naya Raipur. After recent modernisation, is one of its kind in central India and presently connects Raipur to most of the major Metro city of India.

A new integrated terminal designed to handle 700 passengers (including 200 international flyers) at a time and covering an area of 18,500 m2 (4.6 acres) was inaugurated on 7 November 2012 by President of India Pranab Mukherjee. The new terminal will be used for domestic flights, while the proposed international terminal is being renovated to handle international operations.

Local transport

A city bus service is provided by Raipur City Bus Limited (RCBL) for the intra-city travel. Raipur Municipal Corporation launched the Raipur City Bus service on 25 February 2008. The company runs 40 buses out of which 32 are low floor Tata Starbus. Paratransit in the form of auto-rickshaws and tuk-tuk are available all over the city. 200 new city buses under JNNURM have been inducted by Raipur Nagar Nigam Transport Limited (RNNTL), which serve the Raipur and connect Naya Raipur also.

Raipur and Naya Raipur BRTS is a bus rapid transit system with air-conditioned (AC) and non-AC buses. Some of these buses are equipped with services like GPS and IVR which are used to track the position of the bus with information displayed on LED displays installed at the bus stops the BRTS operation between the Raipur to Naya Raipur Prime Minister Narendra Modi launches Naya Raipur BRTS in Naya Raipur on Nov 1, 2016.


Historically, when Raipur was a part of Madhya Pradesh, it was the second major commercial centre in Madhya Pradesh after Indore. Traditionally, Raipur's economy has been based on agricultural-processing, Steel, Cement, Alloy, Poha and Rice. The city is located centrally in the state of Chhattisgarh, and now serves as a regional hub for trade and commerce for a variety of local agricultural and forest products.

The traditional face of city has changed with Raipur becoming an important regional commercial and industrial destination for the coal, power, plywood, steel and aluminium industries. Raipur is the largest market of steel in India. Raipur is among the richest cities and India’s biggest iron market; there are about 200 steel rolling mills, 195 sponge iron plants, more than 6 steel plants, more than 60 plywood factories, 500 agro-industries and more than 35 ferro-alloy plants. There are more than 800 rice milling plants, and all major and local cement manufacturing companies (Century Cement, Ambuja, Grasim, Lafarg) have a presence in the city.

Raipur also has a big chemical plant which produces formalin and distributes throughout the country.

NIT Raipur


Raipur has become the educational hub of Central India due to presence of many institutes of National importance in Engineering, Management, Medical and Law. It is the only city in India which is home to IIM, NIT, AIIMS, Hidayatullah National Law University, and IIIT.[9] IIT Chhattisgarh is proposed at Bhilai which is 30 km from Raipur.

Premier institutes

Government universities

Private universities and deemed universities

Commerce, engineering and management colleges

Medical colleges

Primary and secondary education

There are almost all major nationwide school chains in the city resulting in a sound academic environment in the city. Also, the city has almost all premier coaching institutes for competitive exams such as Resonance, FIIT-JEE, Aakash Institute, PT-Education, TIME, and Career Launcher.

The major schools include:

  • Brighton International School Raipur
  • Disha College Of Higher Secondary Studies Raipur
  • Holy Cross Senior Secondary School Kapa
  • Rajkumar College, established 1882
  • M.G.M Higher secondary School, Gayatri Nagar, Raipur
  • Adarsh Vidyalaya Devendra Nagar
  • Delhi Public School, Raipur
  • Gyan Ganga School Raipur
  • Holy Cross Byron Bazar Raipur
  • Holy Cross Pension Bada Raipur
  • Kanger Valley Academy, Raipur
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya-WRS colony, Raipur
  • Krishna Public School, Raipur
  • Radiant School Raipur
  • Rashtriya Higher Secondary School (RHSS), Kutchury Chowk, Raipur
  • Ryan International School, Raipur
  • Tilak Bharati Hr. Sec School, Tilak Nagar, Raipur

There are also several other schools affiliated to CBSE, ICSE, as well as state board in both English and Hindi medium.


News channels

Many local news channels are telecast from Raipur in Hindi:

News channels Language
CG 24 news channel CG Hindi
IBC 24 Hindi
Khabar Bharati Hindi
Grand News (Cable Network) Hindi
ETV MP Chhattisgarh Hindi
Sadhna News Hindi
Sahara Samaye Hindi
Zee MP CG Hindi
India News MP CG Hindi
Bansal News Hindi
Abhi Tak (Cable Network) Hindi


Many national and local newspapers are published from Raipur both in Hindi and English:

Newspaper Language
Dainik Bhaskar Hindi
Dainik Vishwa Pariwar Hindi
Patrika Hindi
Nava Bharat Hindi
Deshbandhu Hindi
Nai Duniya Hindi
Haribhoomi Hindi
The Central Chronicle English
The Times of India English
Hindustan Times English
Hindustan Hindi
The Hitavada English
The Pioneer English
Business Standard English, Hindi
Business Bhaskar English, Hindi


Raipur city has 6 FM Radio Stations which are-

Frequency Modulation Chennal Slogan
94.3 FM MY FM Jio Dil Se
95.0 FM FM Tadka Sound's Good
98.3 FM Radio Mirchi Mirchi Sunane Wale Always Khush
101.6 FM All India Radio Bilaspur & Vividh Bharti Desh Ki Surili Dhadkan
104.8 FM Radio Rangila Jamm ke suno


Kaivalydham Jain temple
  • Kevalya Dham: This Jain temple of white marble is on NH 6 and is one of major tourist attraction. The temple is also known as Sri Adinath Jain Shwetambar Tirth collection of 26 small and big Jain temples magnificently built with marbles. The temple enshrines the idols of all 24 Tirthankars in small temples with one large temple complex with idol of Rishabhdev. On the corner wall within the shrine carries a detailed description of Sri Shatrunjay Maha Tirtha. A dadabari is also present near this temple. This Temple also has a dharamshala equipped with all modern facilities. Tourists and devotees from far off places in India visit these temples on a regular basis.
  • shadani darbar[10]
  • Mahant Ghasidas Museum,[11] built in 1875 by Raja Mahant Ghasidas, king of the erstwhile Rajnandgaon state.
  • Guru Tegh Bahadur Museum, built in honour of Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur situated near Ghasidas museum.
Chitrakot Falls in Chhattisgarh
Laxman Temple at Sirpur

Kanha National Park, Achanakmar Wildlife Sanctuary, Amarkantak, Bhoramdeo Temple, Dongargarh, Setganga, Sirpur, Champaran, Rajim, Chitrakot Falls, Indravati National Park, Kanger Valley National Park, Gangrel Dam and Murrum Silli Dam are the other nearby attractions.

Notable people associated with Raipur

Swami Vivekananda spent 2 years of his teenage in this building at Raipur

Naya Raipur

Naya Raipur (New Raipur) is the new capital of Chhattisgarh.[17] Located between National Highways NH-6 and NH-43, it is 17 km away in the south-east direction from the older city of Raipur. Swami Vivekananda Airport separates the old and new cities. Naya Raipur serves as the administrative and Commercial capital of the State and also caters to the infrastructural needs of industry and trade in the region.

Naya Raipur spreads over an area of about 8000 hectares. Naya Raipur is India's fourth planned capital city after Gandhinagar in Gujarat, Chandigarh serving both Punjab and Harayana, and Bhubaneshwar in Odisha.

See also


  1. ^ a b "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  3. ^ "Definition of Rai [rāya]". sanskritdictionary.com. Retrieved 2018-02-18. 
  4. ^ "Sex Ratio". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  5. ^ "Chapter–3 (Literates and Literacy rate)" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  6. ^ "Chhattisgarh Details, Chhattisgarh Online, Chhattisgarh Information, Chhattisgarh State". Walkincg.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  7. ^ "Raipur Climatological Table (1971–2000)". Retrieved 18 July 2012. 
  8. ^ "National Highways and their Length" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-04. 
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  10. ^ "shadani darbar". 
  11. ^ "Mahant Ghasidas Museum", QuickSearch.in, Retrieved 2016-10-10.
  12. ^ "Reminiscences of Swami Vivekananda – Frank Parlato Jr. - Bhupendranath Datta". Vivekananda.net. Retrieved 2012-10-04. 
  13. ^ "EXECUTION OF VEER NARAYAN SINGH". indianpost.com. 
  14. ^ Veer Narayan Singh
  15. ^ Carter 1990, p. 44
  16. ^ "Songs of Lucky Ali Bollywood Songs". Jhunkar.com. Retrieved 2012-10-04. 
  17. ^ "New Raipur takes Chhattisgarh into new age". Zee News. 2012-11-02. Retrieved 2018-01-09. 

External links