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Radziłów
Radziłów
[raˈd͡ʑiwuf] is a village (formerly a town) in Grajewo County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, in north-eastern Poland. It is the seat of the gmina, an administrative district called Gmina
Gmina
Radziłów. It lies approximately 27 kilometres (17 mi) south of Grajewo
Grajewo
and 61 km (38 mi) north-west of the regional capital Białystok. In 2007 the village had a population of 1,267. History[edit] The history of Radziłów
Radziłów
is closely connected with the history of Masovia
Masovia
Province from before the Partitions of Poland. The first settlers arrived in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and began clearing the impenetrable forest. Masovian Dukes, who owned the area, issued the rights to enter the forest and harvest it. Among the first settlers were bee-keepers, fishermen, hunters and loggers, who sold honey, wax, fish and lumber to neighboring towns, Wizna
Wizna
and Goniądz. The lumber was also transported via Biebrza
Biebrza
and Ełk
Ełk
river waterways to Gdańsk.[1] The founding of the city took a long time. Radziłów
Radziłów
was formally established by Prince Konrad III, with Kazimierz III, Bolesław V and Janusz II, who gave it the city rights on May 9, 1466. The town began to flourish in the 16th century. Located at a trading route between Wizna
Wizna
and Wąsosz, it became a commercial center for bakers, shoemakers, tailors, butchers, blacksmiths, wheelwrights, cooper-makers and potters. The main square in Radziłów
Radziłów
at the time (180 m × 120 m in size) was bigger than in Warsaw
Warsaw
(70 m × 94 m) and in Płock
Płock
(140 m × 70 m) and held two weekly markets, on Monday and on Sunday (from 17th century on) as well as a fair on Wednesday added by king Władysław IV
Władysław IV
in 1641. The majority of inhabitants lived off farming.[1]

The Kowalski Forge in Radziłów, 1920s

During the partitions of Poland, after the suppression of the 1863 January Uprising
January Uprising
against Russia, the Tsarist authorities changed the administrative divisions of Congress Poland
Poland
placing Radziłów
Radziłów
in the Łomża province. In 1869 the town was stripped of its town charter and became the village; however the population was steadily increasing due to Russian repressions against Jews some of whom found refuge in the area. The Jewish merchants expanded local trade, established breweries, small craft and various services. Following the rebirth of Poland
Poland
after World War I, two new public schools were established employing ten teachers, and two Jewish schools.[1] In 1940, the town had a population of 2,865 people, of which 500 were Jews.[2] World War II atrocities[edit] During the German invasion of Poland, the Nazi 3rd Army entered Radziłów
Radziłów
on September 7, 1939.[3] The area was transferred to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
at the end of September in accordance with the German–Soviet Boundary Treaty and remained in Soviet hands until Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa
in July 1941. Polish administration was dismantled and replaced with local Jews some of whom abused their new position in relationships with Poles, causing other Jews to condemn this.[4] Soviet-armed Jewish militiamen helped NKVD
NKVD
agents send Polish families into exile.[5] Soon after the German attack on USSR, a few hundred Jews were massacred in the town.[6] Many were shot, but most were herded into a barn and burned alive on 7 July 1941 by the Gestapo Einsatzgruppe B (Zichenau-Schroettersburg) under SS-Obersturmführer Hermann Schaper. The war crimes committed by Schaper were investigated in 1964 by the German Judicial Centre for Prosecuting Nazi Crimes in Ludwigsburg. The prosecutors called a key witness, the German Kreiskommissar who named Hermann Schaper
Hermann Schaper
in the course of Birkner's investigation. Schaper was charged with personally directing the Einsatzkommando responsible for the mass killing of Jews in the city.

"The evidence collected by the West Germans, including the positive identification of Schaper by witnesses from Łomża, Tykocin, and Radziłów, suggested that it was indeed Schaper's men who carried out the killings in those locations. Investigators also suspected, based on the similarity of the methods used to destroy the Jewish communities of Radziłów, Tykocin, Rutki, Zambrów, Jedwabne, Piątnica, and Wizna, between July and September 1941 that Schaper's men were the perpetrators." — Alexander B. Rossino [7]

During his investigation Schaper lied to interrogators that in 1941 he had been a truck driver and used false names. The case against him for the murder of Jews in Radziłów
Radziłów
was remitted by the prosecutor in Hamburg in 1965. His case was reopened in 1974, when the Nazi German administrator, Count van der Groeben testified that indeed Schaper's men conducted mass executions of Jews in his district. In 1976 a German court in Giesen
Giesen
(Hessen), pronounced Schaper guilty of executions of Poles and Jews by the kommando SS Zichenau-Schroettersburg. Schaper was sentenced to six-years imprisonment, but was soon released for medical reasons.[8] In 2010 Polish Institute of National Remembrance
Institute of National Remembrance
conducted its own investigation of the Radziłów
Radziłów
crime and requested access to the documents of the Hamburg case but according to the German side, these were most probably destroyed after his case was terminated. The IPN investigation was suspended due to lack of hard evidence, and only a short statement issued about its initial objectives. References[edit]

^ a b c Elżbieta Czerwonka, Alina Żmijewska, "Dziedzictwo kulturowe Radziłowa" (The Cultural Heritage of Radziłów); with literature, including J. Wiśniewski, "Dzieje osadnictwa w powiecie grajewskim do połowy XVI wieku" in Studia i materiały do dziejów powiatu grajewskiego edited by M. Gnatowski and H. Majecki, volume I and II, Warsaw
Warsaw
1975 (in Polish) ^ (in Polish) D. Boćkowski. Na zawsze razem. Białostocczyzna i Łomżyńskie w polityce radzieckiej w czasie II wojny światowej (IX 1939 – VIII 1944). Neriton, Instytut Historii PAN. 2005. p. 120. ^ "Pionier-Bataillon 42". Lexikon der Wehrmacht. Retrieved May 22, 2011.   (in German) ^ Simon Dubnow. Shared history, divided memory: Jews and others in Soviet-occupied Poland. Institut für Jüdische Geschichte und Kultur. p. 348. Retrieved May 22, 2011.  ^ Dov Levin; trans. Naftali Greenwood (1995). "The Lesser of Two Evils: Eastern European Jewry under Soviet Rule, 1939-1941". Jewish Publication Society, Philadelphia. p. 63. Cited in "Polish "Neighbors" and German Invaders" by Alexander B. Rossino, Polin, Volume 16 (2003). Note 59.  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Historia Gminy Radziłów". 2011 Gimnazjum w Radziłowie. Retrieved June 7, 2011.  ^ Alexander B. Rossino, historian at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
(2003). "Polish "Neighbors" and German Invaders: Contextualizing Anti-Jewish Violence in the Białystok
Białystok
District during the Opening Weeks of Operation Barbarossa". Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, Volume 16. Cited by Bogdan Musiał
Bogdan Musiał
in: "Konterrevolutionäre Elemente sind zu erschiessen": Die Brutalisierung des deutsch-sowjetischen Krieges im Sommer 1941, (Berlin: Propyläen, 2000), pp. 32, 62. Also, cited in German archives of Birkner's postwar investigation at: Auswertung der Ereignismeldungen zu den Judenerschiessungen in Białystok
Białystok
im Juli 1941 in ZStL, 5 AR-Z 56/1960, pp. 4ff.  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help)CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Thomas Urban, reporter of the Suddeutsche Zeitung; Polish text in Rzeczpospolita, Sept 1-2, 2001

(in Polish) Instytut Pamięci Narodowej
Instytut Pamięci Narodowej
(Institute of National Remembrance), PRZEGLĄD MEDIÓW: piątek, 10 stycznia 2003 Institute of National Remembrance, Information on the Interrogation of Herman Schaper Marian Bagiński, Ph.D., A Different View on the Łomża Region in Poland
Poland
29 April 2008 Piotr Gontarczyk, Far From Truth 12-01-2008 Antoni Zambrowski, Interview with prof. Tomasz Strzembosz, TO TYLKO OGNIWO ŁAŃCUCHA NIEMIECKICH ZBRODNI Rozmowa Antoniego Zambrowskiego z prof. Tomaszem Strzemboszem Jewish history of Radziłów, memorial site by Jose Gutstein

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Gmina
Gmina
Radziłów

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Radziłów

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Coordinates: 53°24′39″N 22°24′36″E / 53.41083°N 22.41000°E / 53.41083; 22.41000

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