The Corporación de Radio y Televisión Española, S.A. ('Spanish
Radio and Television Corporation') is the state-owned public
corporation that assumed the indirect management of the Spanish public
radio and television service formerly called Ente Público
Radiotelevisión Española (
RTVE Public Entity) in 2007.
RTVE is the
largest audiovisual group in
Spain broadcasting in the Spanish
language. Since January 2010 it is financed exclusively by public
1 Role as a public broadcaster
3.1 President of Corporación RTVE
3.2 Director Generals of Radiodifusión y Televisión
3.3 Director General of Organismo Autónomo RTVE
3.4 Director Generals of Ente Público RTVE
4 Television channels
5 Radio stations
6 Extinct channel
8 See also
10 External links
Role as a public broadcaster
In the exercise of its public service function, among the obligations
RTVE Corporation are:
Promote dissemination and awareness of constitutional principles and
Guarantee the objectivity and truthfulness of the information
provided, while ensuring that a broad range of views is presented.
Facilitate democratic debate and the free expression of opinion.
Promote the territorial cohesion and linguistic and cultural diversity
Offer access to different genres of programming and to the
institutional, social, cultural, and sporting events that are of
interest to all sectors of the audience, paying attention to those
topics that are of special interest to the public.
To serve the widest audience, ensuring maximum continuity and
geographical and social coverage, with a commitment to quality,
diversity, innovation, and high ethical standards.
RTVE throughout its history has undergone numerous restructurings and
reorganisations, and has assumed numerous identities. The history of
RTVE begins in 1937 with the first broadcasts by Radio Nacional de
España (RNE—Spanish National Radio) from the city of Salamanca. In
these early years, RNE served as a propaganda tool for the Nationalist
forces during the Spanish Civil War; it would later be used by
Francisco Franco to inform the Spanish public.
Television was officially introduced in
Spain in October 1956, and in
October 1973 the two broadcasting networks, RNE and Televisión
Española (TVE—Spanish Television) were consolidated into the
Servicio Público Centralizado Radio
Televisión Española (RTVE
Centralised Public Service).
Further consolidations followed in 1977, at which time
RTVE became an
autonomous organisation. In 1979 TVE, RNE were joined by RCE an old
radio service which, unlike RNE, could broadcast commercials. In 1980,
RTVE was configured, by statute, as a legal public entity with its own
jurisdiction. According to RTVE's annual report (2003): "This law
arose from the Spanish Constitution and the political pluralism which
the constitution asserts as a fundamental value of the rule of law;
and in this spirit granted
RTVE the right to function as a democratic
organisation." The former cinema newsreels service
NO-DO was merged
RTVE to be dismantled in 1981. Since then, the
NO-DO archives are
RTVE and its conservation is on their hands and Filmoteca
Nacional's. In 1989, RCE was dismantled and its radio service was
merged into RNE.
In accordance with the Law of State Radio and Television of 5 June
2006, and in the face of an enormous deficit, the
RTVE Public Body
and the companies TVE, S.A. and RNE, S.A were dissolved, and on 1
January 2007 the Corporación
RTVE came into existence. This change
in the law put Corporación
RTVE in control of Spain's public radio
and television service.
As part of the 2007 restructuring, a controversial plan was put into
action to reduce the workforce by 4,855 through attrition and
retirement incentives, in spite of the fact that
RTVE is the European
public broadcasting service with the smallest workforce.
In 2012 political tensions associated with the austerity program of
the conservative ruling party, Partido Popular (PP) resulted in
personnel changes which displaced journalists interviewed by the
The Guardian interpreted as an effort to remove critical
political comment from RTVE's content. In 2012 the PP began staffing
RTVE with party veterans. Considerable controversy was caused when
Ana Pastor was fired.
On 11 June 2013,
RTVE was one of the few known European broadcasters
to condemn and criticise the closure of Greece's state broadcaster
RNE's headquarters, Casa de la Radio (Radio's house) in Pozuelo
Studio of TVE's flagship show, Los Desayunos de TVE
Pursuant to the 2006 Law of State Radio and television, management
of the national public service is entrusted to Corporación RTVE.
The Administrative Council (Consejo de Administración) of the
the main body of RTVE, and appoints the executive officers of
its companies, approves its organisation, and approves most major
activities. The Administrative Council is composed of 12
members; 8 members are chosen by Congress and 4 by the Senate, each by
two-thirds majority and each for a non-renewable mandate of 6 years,
and 2 members appointed by Congress must be proposed by the 2 main
trade unions at RTVE.
The President has operational control of day-to-day operations, in
order to execute the decisions and guidance of the Administrative
Council. The President is appointed by, and may be dismissed by,
Congress. Before the 2006 Act, this position was filled by the role
of the Director General, which had a de facto total control of
RTVE. In practice, the Director General had been chosen by the
Government for their political profile.
RTVE is described as a "state mercantile society"
(sociedad mercantil estatal) with special autonomy and independence
from the government and the general state administration, and it
performs its functions through TVE and RNE.
Most staff are civil servants. The News Council is an internal
supervisory body composed of
RTVE journalists with the aim of
safeguarding RTVE's independence. Several supervisory functions are
currently exercised by The Secretariat of State of Communication
within the Ministry of Presidency.
President of Corporación RTVE
Luis Fernández Fernández (2007–2009).
Alberto Oliart Saussol (2009–2011).
Leopoldo González-Echenique (2011–2014).
José Antonio Sánchez (2014-).
Director Generals of Radiodifusión y Televisión
José María Revuelta Prieto (1957–1962).
Roque Pro Alonso (1962–1964).
Jesús Aparicio-Bernal Sánchez (1964–1969).
Adolfo Suárez (1969–1973).
Rafael Orbe Cano (1973–1974).
Juan José Rosón Pérez (1974).
Jesús Sancho Rof (1974–1975).
Gabriel Peña Aranda (1975–1976).
Rafael Anson Oliart (1976–1977).
Director General of Organismo Autónomo RTVE
Fernando Arias-Salgado Montalvo (1977–1981).
Director Generals of Ente Público RTVE
Fernando Castedo Álvarez (1981).
Carlos Robles Piquer (1981–1982).
Eugenio Nasarre Goicoechea
Eugenio Nasarre Goicoechea (1982).
José María Calviño Iglesias (1982–1986).
Pilar Miró Romero (1986–1989).
Luis Solana Madariaga (1989–1990).
Jordi García Candau (1990–1996).
Mónica Ridruejo Ostrowska (1996–1997).
Fernando López-Amor (1997–1998).
Pío Cabanillas Alonso (1998–2000).
Javier González Ferrari (2000–2002).
José Antonio Sánchez Domínguez (2002–2004).
Carmen Caffarel Serra (2004–2007).
RTVE's own television service comes under the Televisión Española
(TVE) division of RTVE. All of TVE's channels broadcast in Spanish,
with the exception of TVE
Catalonia (branded as TVE Catalunya) which
is principally in Spanish with certain programming in Catalan.
Type of programming
La 1: Colloquially known as La Uno (The One) and formerly as TVE1, La
Primera (The First). La 1 is a generalist channel which mainly
broadcasts news reports, news programmes, documentaries, magazine
programmes, Spanish and Hispanic America TV series, films
(particularly Spanish and American films) and some popular sports
competitions. It was Spain's first TV channel and is currently its
third most watched.
La 2: Colloquially known as La Dos (The Two) and formerly as TVE2,
Segunda Cadena (Second Channel), or UHF. La 2 mainly broadcasts
cultural programming, North American TV series, documentaries, Spanish
and European films, news reports, debates and musicals. It offers a
different aspect from its generalist sister channel, La 1.
Clan: Formerly known as Clan TVE. Clan a children's channel, but also
offers some programming aimed at teenagers during the evening and
repeats TVE content from other channels during the early hours.
Teledeporte broadcasts sporting competitions that can not
be broadcast on La 1 and La 2 due to lack of interest from the
24h: 24 horas is RTVE's 24-hour news channel created in 1997. It
broadcasts news reports, debates, analyses, interviews as well as
rolling news. It was Spain's first 24-hour news channel.
La 1 HD (es): La 1 in High-definition.
La 2 HD: La 2 in High-definition.
Clan HD: Clan in High-definition.
Teledeporte in High-definition.
RTVE international television channel. It was
created in 1989 and broadcasts TVE content throughout the world.
Star TVE HD (es): International entertainment television channel,
broadcast by satellite to Latin America. Launched in 2016.
RTVE's radio stations come under the Radio Nacional de España
division of RTVE.
Type of programming
Radio Nacional: (formerly known as Radio 1)
RNE Radio Nacional
RNE Radio Nacional is
RTVE's generalist radio station. Its programming is mainly news and
other programmes. It started broadcasting in 1937.
Radio Clásica: (formerly known as Radio 2)
Radio Clásica mainly
broadcasts classical music. It started broadcasting in 1965.
Radio 3: Radio 3 broadcasts cultural and alternative programming aimed
at young people. It started broadcasting in 1979.
Ràdio 4: Ràdio 4 is RTVE's Catalan-language station aimed at people
Catalonia and other Catalan-speaking territories. It was
created in 1988 after the closure of Radiocadena Española.
Radio 5: (formerly known as Radio 5 Todo Noticias) is RTVE's 24-hour
radio news station. It started broadcasting in 1994.
Radio Exterior de España: International broadcasting service on short
wave, with an audience of 80 million listeners (surpassed only by the
BBC and Vatican Radio). This station is also transmitted via DAB for
Spain and by satellite. Transmissions are in Spanish, French, Arabic,
Ladino, Portuguese, Russian and English.
RTVE is also responsible for the Instituto Oficial de Radio y
Televisión (IORTV, Official Institute of Radio and TV) and the
Orquesta Sinfónica y Coro de
RTVE Symphony Orchestra
RTVE Symphony Orchestra and
RTVE (as RNE) was admitted to full active membership of the
European Broadcasting Union
European Broadcasting Union in 1955. TVE joined the Eurovision Network
in 1960. The corporation has contributed to the production of more
than 300 films, many of which have received awards at international
film festivals around the world. From 1979 to 1987, a second radio
network known as Radiocadena Española was also a part of RTVE.
RCE stations, unlike RNE, showed advertising. RCE was merged into RNE
between 1987 and 1989.
NO-DO was also merged into
RTVE in 1980.
Since NO-DO's closure in 1982,
Filmoteca Española are
responsible for maintaining NO-DO's archives.
RTVE offers an online portal at rtve.es. The website is managed by
RTVE's Interactive Media department and allows users to listen and
watch live feeds of the network's radio and television stations. The
portal also features blogs, news stories and offers an online catch-up
service called "A la carta".
Radio Nacional de España
^ "RTVE". Rtve.es. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
^ Ley 4/1980, de 10 de enero, de Estatuto de la Radio y la Televisión
– Radio and Television Statute passed on 10 January 1980 (in
^ Ente Público Radio
Televisión Española (2004). Informe Anual sobre
el Cumplimiento de la Función de Servicio Público del Grupo
Radiotelevisión Española en 2003. Madrid: Dirección Gerencia
Internacional y Corporativa de
RTVE Subdirección de Estudios
Corporativos de RTVE[permanent dead link](last accessed on 15 April
2007; see page 14) (in Spanish)
^ a b Ley 17/2006, de 5 de junio, de la radio y la televisión de
titularidad estatal, BOE n. 134, 6 June 2006.
^ El mayor grupo audiovisual (The Biggest Audiovisual Group) – press
release issued by
RTVE on 1 January 2007 introducing the new
corporation (in Spanish)
^ a b Stephen Burgen (5 August 2012). "Spanish government accused of
purging critics from national radio and TV: Journalists who have
questioned party's austerity policy have lost jobs at RTVE". The
Guardian. Barcelona. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
^ a b c d e Perez 2009, p. 67.
^ a b Perez 2009, p. 66.
^ a b Statement on
RTVE website about the creation of Corporación TVE
^ Perez 2009, pp. 67–68.
^ Perez 2009, p. 68.
^ "El Congreso designa a José Antonio Sánchez nuevo presidente de
RTVE". elpais.com. El Pais. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
^ "Radiocadena Española y No-Do se integran en
impresa EL PAÍS". Elpais.com. 5 December 1978. Retrieved 16 August
^ "Aprobada la fusión de
Radio Nacional de España
Radio Nacional de España y Radiocadena
Española Edición impresa EL PAÍS". Elpais.com. 21 July 1988.
Retrieved 16 August 2013.
^ "Ley 4/1980, de 10 de enero, de Estatuto de la Radio y la
Televisión. (Vigente hasta el 7 de junio de 2006)".
Noticias.juridicas.com. 23 April 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
Pérez Gómez, Alberto (2007). Nikoltchev, Susanne, ed. Iris Special:
The Public Service Broadcasting Culture. Strasbourg: European
Audiovisual Observatory. ISBN 978-92-871-6188-8.
Official website (in Spanish)
Televisión Española (RTVE)
La 1 (HD)
La 2 (HD)
Star TVE HD
Radio Nacional de España
Radio Exterior de España
Canal AluCine (es)
Canal Toros (es)
TVE 50 Años
Instituto Oficial de Radio y Televisión
Orquesta Sinfónica y Coro de RTVE
Television in Spain
Members of the European Broadcasting Union
Associate members and
ABC (United States)
All India Radio
Canal 13 (Chile)