Qingdao ([tɕʰíŋtàu]; also spelled Tsingtao) is a city in
Shandong Province on the east coast of China. It is the
largest city in its province. Administered at the sub-provincial
Qingdao has jurisdiction over six districts and four
county-level cities. As of 2014[update]
Qingdao had a population of
9,046,200 with an urban population of 6,188,100. Lying across the
Shandong Peninsula and looking out to the Yellow Sea, it borders
Yantai to the northeast,
Weifang to the west and
Rizhao to the
Qingdao is a major seaport, naval base, and industrial centre. The
world's longest sea bridge, the
Jiaozhou Bay Bridge, links the main
urban area of
Huangdao district, straddling the Jiaozhou
Bay sea areas. It is also the site of the Tsingtao Brewery, the
second largest brewery in China.
Qingdao ranks 38th in the Global Financial Centres Index
published by the
Z/Yen Group and
Qatar Financial Centre
Qatar Financial Centre Authority, the
other Chinese cities on the list being Hong Kong, Shanghai, Shenzhen,
Beijing and Dalian. In 2007,
Qingdao was named as among China's top
ten cities by the Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, which was
released at the 2007
Beijing Summit of
China Cities Forum. In 2009,
Qingdao was named China's most livable city by the Chinese Institute
of City Competitiveness.
1 Other names
2.1 Ancient times
2.2 German colonial period and Japanese occupations
Qingdao city planning and development
2.4 Post–World War II
3 Administrative divisions
5.1 Industrial zones
6.4 Intercity rail
6.5 Public transport
8.2 Notable people
8.3 Movies shot in Qingdao
10.1 Western Shinan district
10.2 Eastern Shinan district
10.3 Laoshan district (崂山区)
10.4 Other districts of Qingdao
11.1 Post-secondary educational institutions
11.2 International schools
11.3 Secondary schools
12.2 2008 Olympic Summer Games
12.6 Arena Football
13 See also
16 External links
Jiāo'ào: (胶澳): former name during the Qing dynasty.
Qindao: (琴岛, lit. "Stringed Instrument Isle"): additional modern
name for the area, refers according to locals to the shape of the
Tsingtao: Postal romanization
Tsingtau: German name during their concession period (1898-1914),
written in German romanization of Chinese (Lessing-Othmer).
Jiaozhou: a historical name which refers to the Jiaozhou Bay.
Kiaochow, Kiauchau, Kiautschou: romanizations of Jiaozhou.
Human settlement in the area dates back 6,000 years. The Dongyi
nationality, one of the important origins of the Chinese nation, lived
here and created the Dawenkou, Longshan and Dongyeshi cultures. In the
Eastern Zhou Dynasty
Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770 B.C. – 256 B.C.), the town of
established, which was then the second largest one in the Shandong
region. The area in which
Qingdao is located today was named Jiao'ao
(胶澳) when it was administered by the Qing Dynasty on 14 June 1891.
German colonial period and Japanese occupations
Sketch map of Tsingtao, circa 1906
Main gate of former Chinese munitions depot, taken over by the
Imperial German Navy, Kiautschou Bay,
Shandong peninsula, 1898
Further information: Kiautschou Bay concession
In 1891, the
Qing dynasty Imperial Chinese government decided to make
coastal Tsingtao (Jiao'ao) a defense base against naval attack and
began to improve Qingdao's existing fortifications. Imperial German
naval officials observed and reported on this Chinese activity during
a formal survey of
Jiaozhou Bay in May 1897. Subsequently, German
troops seized and occupied the fortification. The unmodernized and
ineffective Qing Empire was forced to concede the area to
following year, and the Kiautschou Bay concession, as it became known,
existed from 1898 to 1914 (Li 2005, p. 81). With an area of 552
square kilometres (136,000 acres; 213 sq mi), it was located
in the imperial province of
Shandong (alternately romanized as
Shantung or Shan-tung) on the southern coast of the
in northern China. Jiaozhou was romanized as Kiaochow, Kiauchau or
Kiao-Chau in English and Kiautschou in German.
Qingdao was its
administrative center. "The so-called Marktstrasse (Market street) was
nothing more than the old main street of the Chinese village of
Tsingtao, and the buildings lining it were the former homes of
fishermen and farmers. Having sold their property, they resettled
their homes and fields in the villages further east." Upon gaining
control of the area, the Germans outfitted the impoverished fishing
village of "Tsingtao" (Qingdao) with wide streets, solid housing
areas, government buildings, electrification throughout, a sewer
system and a safe drinking water supply, a rarity in large parts of
Asia at that time and later. The area had the highest school
density and the highest per capita student enrollment in all of China,
with primary, secondary and vocational schools funded by the Imperial
German treasury and Protestant and
Roman Catholic missions.
Commercial interests established the Germania Brewery in 1903, which
later became the world-famous Tsingtao Brewery. German cultural
and commercial influences extended to other areas of Shandong
Province, including the establishment of diverse commercial
Identified by the German authorities as a strategically important
Qingdao was administered by the Imperial Department of the Navy
(Reichsmarineamt) rather than the Imperial Colonial Office
(Reichskolonialamt). The growing Imperial German Navy based their Far
East Squadron there, allowing the warships to conduct operations
throughout the western Pacific. Beginning January 1898, the marines of
Seebataillon were based at Tsingtao. Construction of the Jiaoji
Railway began on September 23, 1899, and was completed in 1904.
Japanese military currency
Siege of Tsingtao
10 sen (1914)
Before the outbreak of
World War I
World War I (1914-1918), ships of the German
naval forces under Admiral Count von Spee were located at central
Pacific colonies on routine missions. The fleet then rendezvoused in
Marianas Islands to plan a transit back to
Germany rather than be
trapped in the Pacific by more powerful and numerous Allied fleets
(British and Japanese).
After a minor British naval attack on the German colony on
Japanese Empire troops occupied the city and the surrounding
province during the
Siege of Tsingtao
Siege of Tsingtao after Japan's declaration of war
Germany in accordance with the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. China
protested Japan's violation of her neutrality but did and was not able
to interfere in the military operations. The decision of the Paris
Peace Conference and the
Versailles Treaty negotiations not to restore
Chinese rule over the previous foreign concessions in
the Great War triggered the
May Fourth Movement
May Fourth Movement (May 4, 1919) of
anti-imperialism, nationalism and cultural identity in China.
Qingdao in 1912
The city reverted to Chinese rule in December 1922, under control of
the Republic of
China (R.O.C.) established 1912 after the Chinese
Revolution the year before. However, Japan maintained its economic
dominance of the railway and the province as a whole. The city
became a direct-controlled municipality of the ROC Government in July
Qingdao in 1938, a year after its expansion of the
Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), (a precursor to World War II,
1939-1945) with its plans of territorial expansion into China's coast.
Nationalist (Kuomintang) ROC forces returned after the Japanese
surrender in September 1945. On June 2, 1949, shortly before the
founding of the communist People’s Republic of
China on October 1,
1949 the city was taken by Chairman Mao Zedong and his troops.
Qingdao city planning and development
The development of Tsingtao urban space during Germany-occupied period
(1891–1914) originated from the port area. Large scale urban
construction began in 1898 with the relocation of Chinese dwellers
along the coast. With the completion of such series of projects as
Jinan Railway Line, Tsingtao Railway Station and
locomotive works, a city was starting to take shape. The area had the
highest schools density and highest per capita student enrollment in
all of China, with primary, secondary and vocational schools funded by
the Berlin treasury and Protestant and
Roman Catholic missions. In
the year of 1910, the Germans drew up for the second time the city
planning of Tsingtao (Warner 2001, p. 33). As a result, the
former urban area was extended for four times highlighted by the
emphasis on the development of commerce and trade. Sun Yat-sen
(1866-1925), leader of the Chinese Revolution of 1911 and subsequent
first president of the Republic of China, visited the Tsingtau area
and stated in 1912, "I am impressed. The city is a true model for
The development of Tsingtao urban space during the first
Japan-occupation period (1914–1922). In 1914, Tsingtao was taken
over by Japanese and served as a base for the exploitation of natural
Shandong and northern China. With the development of
industry and commerce, a "New City District" was established to
furnish the Japanese colonists with commercial sections and living
quarters, which suggested a striking contrast to the shabby houses in
the local Chinese zones(Li 2007, p. 133). In the meantime, a
number of schools, hospitals and public buildings were constructed,
followed by urban streets and intercity highways as well. The urban
spatial layout continued to expand northward along the eastern bay
The development of Tsingtao urban space during the ROC-ruled period
(1922–1938). This period saw the substantial progress of the urban
development of Tsingtao. The government engaged itself in mass
construction that gave birth to villa districts at the beach and bank
groups in CBD. Plenty of public buildings and facilities for the
purpose of entertainment and sports were completed. By the year of
1937, the urban population numbered 385,000(Lu 2001, p. 327).
Tsingtao consequently distinguished itself as a prominent holiday
resort and summer retreat.
The development of Tsingtao urban space during the second
Japan-occupied period (1938–1945). Japan staged a comeback to
Tsingtao in 1938 and started to strive for the construction of the
Greater Tsingtao in the following June. Accordingly, they worked out
the City Planning of the Greater Tsingtao and the City Planning of the
Mother Town (Tsingtao City Proper), even though they had not had the
opportunity to realize them respectively. The period in question did
not witness much urban progress except for the logical construction of
No. 6 Wharf, some Japanese residences and a small number of roads and
streets(Lu 2001, p. 339).
Post–World War II
World War II
World War II the KMT allowed
Qingdao to serve as the
headquarters of the Western Pacific Fleet of the
US Navy in 1945. On 2
June 1949, the CCP-led Red Army entered
Qingdao and the city and
province have been under PRC control since that time.
Since the 1984 inauguration of China's open-door policy to foreign
trade and investment, western
Qingdao developed quickly as a port
city. It is now the headquarters of the Chinese navy's northern fleet.
An early example of the open-door policy occurred on 5 November 1984,
when three United States Naval vessels visited Qingdao. This was the
first US port call in more than 37 years to China. USS Rentz,
USS Reeves, and USS Oldendorf and their crews were
officially hosted by the Chinese
People's Liberation Army Navy
People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN).
Northern Qingdao, particularly Shibei, Licang, and Chengyang
districts, are now major manufacturing centers. The city has recently
experienced a strong growth period, with a new central business
district created to the east of the older business district. Outside
of the center of the city, there is a large industrial zone, which
includes chemical processing, rubber and heavy manufacturing, in
addition to a growing high-tech area. Numerous local and national
service companies, rather than manufacturers, are based in the city's
southern district; this, as well as local wind patterns, allows
Qingdao to enjoy clean, clear air year round.
The sub-provincial city of
Qingdao has 7 districts (区 qu) and 3
county-level cities (市 shi):
Population ('000s, 2010)
Shinan District (city seat)
Geographically, there are four districts (Shinan, Shibei, Licang and
Laoshan) constituting a peninsula on the east coast of the Jiaozhou
Bay as the core urban area, one (Chengyang) on the north coast and one
(Huangdao) on the west coast of the Yellow Sea.
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Hong Kong Observatory
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Qingdao is located on the south facing coast of the
(German: Schantung Halbinsel). It borders three prefecture-level
Yantai to the northeast,
Weifang to the west, and
Rizhao to the southwest. The city's total jurisdiction area occupies
10,654 square kilometres (4,114 sq mi), and stretches in
latitude from 35° 35' to 37° 09' N and in longitude from 119° 30'
to 121° 00' E. The populated sections of the city are relatively flat
while mountains spur up within city limits and nearby. The highest
elevation in the city is 1,133 metres (3,717 ft) above sea level.
Of the total area of Qingdao, 15.5% is highland, while the foothill,
plain and lowland areas constitute 25.1%, 37.8% and 21.7%. The city
has a 730.64 kilometres (454.00 mi) coastline. Five significant
rivers that flow for more than 50 kilometres (31 mi) can be found
in the region.
Qingdao has a temperate, four-season, monsoon-influenced climate
that lies in the transition between the humid subtropical (Köppen
Cwa) and humid continental (Köppen Dwa) regimes, but favouring the
former. Winter is cool to cold and windy, but generally dry, with a
January average of −0.5 °C (31.1 °F). Summer is
generally hot and humid, but very hot days are rare, with an August
average of 25.3 °C (77.5 °F). Due to its proximity to the
coast and being on a peninsula, it experiences a one-month delayed
spring compared to most inland areas of China, and the annual
diurnal temperature variation is only 6.3 °C (11.3 °F).
Conversely, autumn is milder than inland areas in Shandong. The water
temperature peaks at about 25 °C (77 °F) in late August,
with swimming possible two months on either side. The annual mean
temperature is 12.6 °C (54.7 °F). Extremes since 1951 have
ranged from −15.5 °C (4 °F) on 16 January 1958 to
38.9 °C (102 °F) on 15 July 2002.
During the summer months, the beaches of
Qingdao are afflicted by
massive algal blooms. The decomposing algae release large amounts of
hydrogen sulfide gas, which gives off the odour of rotten eggs. The
blooms of sea lettuce, which are partially caused by seaweed farming
Jiangsu Province, led local officials to declare a "large-scale
algae disaster" in 2013.
Climate data for Qingdao
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Percent possible sunshine
China Weather (1971–2000),
Hong Kong Observatory (sun
Population size may be affected by changes on administrative
By the end of 2006,
Qingdao was estimated to be the home of about 8
million inhabitants, of which around 3 million reside in the Qingdao
urban area. Another estimated 5 million live in other cities under
Qingdao's jurisdiction. The annual birth rate is calculated around
76,507, with a birth rate of 10.15 per year per thousand, and a death
rate of 6.32, both calculated on an annual basis. Living standards are
among the highest of leading Chinese cities due to the strong export
economy and relatively high family wages.
Qingdao is home to 38 Chinese ethnic minorities, which account for
0.14% of the city's total population.
There is a large Korean community in Qingdao. By 2009, there are
approximately 100,000 Koreans working, studying and living in Qingdao,
Qingdao the second in terms of Korean population in China,
Beijing which has about 200,000 Koreans.
Qingdao based Tsingtao beer. It's China's second largest domestic and
the largest export brand.
Qingdao TV Tower
An important region in Eastern China,
Shandong Province has seen
substantial change in its economic landscape in recent years. Much of
this development has been concentrated in Qingdao.
seen rapid development. With an annual growth rate of 18.9 percent in
2006, the city's
GDP reached 42.3 billion, ranking first in Shandong
Province and tenth out of China's top 20 cities.
GDP per capita
comprised ¥52,895 (US$7,616) in 2008. The
GDP has grown steadily at
an average pace of 16% annually. In 2006,
Qingdao was ranked one of
six "golden cities" by the World Bank, out of 120 Chinese cities
assessed on factors including investment climate and government
Qingdao is perhaps best known for its Tsingtao
Brewery, founded by a German-British joint venture in 1903 that
produces Tsingtao beer, the best-known Chinese export beer. It is also
home to Haier, a large white goods manufacturer, and Hisense, a major
electronics company. In 2002 guitar manufacturers
Epiphone opened a
factory in Qingdao.
In 1984 the Chinese government named a district of
Qingdao a Special
Economic and Technology Development Zone (SETDZ). Along with this
district, the entire city had gone through amazing development of
secondary and tertiary industries. As an important trading port in the
Qingdao flourishes with foreign investment and international
South Korea and Japan in particular made extensive investment
in the city. Approximately 80,000 South Korean citizens reside there.
Construction proceeds at a relatively Template:Weasal-inline fast pace
In terms of primary industry,
Qingdao has an estimated 50,000 acres
(200 km2) of arable land.
Qingdao has a zigzagging pattern
coastline, and thus possesses an invaluable stock of fish, shrimp, and
other sea resources.
Qingdao is also home to a variety of mineral resources. Up to thirty
different kinds have been mined.
Qingdao's wind power electricity generation performs at among the
highest levels in the region.
Special Economic & Technological Development Area
Qingdao Free Trade Zone
Qingdao High-tech Industrial Zone
Qingdao University Industrial Zone
There are a total of 1,145 km (711 mi) of roads in the
Qingdao area, with nearly 500 km (310 mi) of expressways.
These National Trunk Highway System (NTHS) Expressways begin or pass
through in Qingdao. Expressways that begin in
Qingdao are in Bold:
Shenhai Expressway (Shenyang, Liaoning-Haikou, Hainan)
G18 Rongwu Expressway (Rongcheng, Shandong-Wuhai, Inner Mongolia)
G20 Qingyin Expressway (Qingdao-Yinchuan, Ningxia)
Spur Route: G2011 Qingxin Expressway (Qingdao-Xinhe, Pingdu, Shandong)
G22 Qinglan Expressway (Qingdao-Lanzhou, Gansu)
These provincial expressways begin in or pass through Qingdao.
Expressways that begin in
Qingdao are in Bold:
S16 Rongwei Expressway (Rongcheng-Weifang)
S19 Longqing Expressway (Longkou-Qingdao)
S21 Xinwei Expressway (Xinhe-Weifang)
S24 Weiqing Expressway (Weihai-Qingdao)
Other than Expressways, there are also National Highways that pass
through or begin in Qingdao. National Highways that begin in Qingdao
are in bold:
On June 30, 2011, the longest bridge over water opened in Qingdao. The
bridge, Haiwan Bridge, is 26.4 miles (42.5 km) long and connects
Qingdao to an offshore island, Huangdao. It would easily cross the
English Channel and is almost three miles (4.8 km) longer than
the previous record-holder, the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in the
American state of Louisiana. Haiwan Bridge is supported by more than
5,000 pillars and costs about 10 billion yuan which is about 1.5
billion dollars. The bridge was designed by the
Shandong Gausu Group
and the construction lasted for four years. Haiwan Bridge cut the
commute between the city of
Qingdao and the sprawling suburb of
Huangdao by 30 minutes. At least 10,000 workers toiled in two teams
around the clock to build the bridge, which was constructed from
opposite ends. On the same day, the
Jiaozhou Bay Tunnel opened.The
tunnel brought much convenience to people by supporting public buses
and making transport between the two areas more convenient.
Also see Port of Qingdao
Qingdao (official name:
Qingdao port international co. ltd.) hosts one
of the world's busiest seaports. Cooperative relations have been
established with 450 ports in 130 countries worldwide. In 2003, the
annual cargo handling capacity exceeded 100 million tons for the first
time. The number of containers reached 3.41 million twenty-foot
equivalent units (TEU) of cargoes. By 2011, the port had
become the world’s sixth-busiest by Total Cargo Volume, having
handled 372 million tonnes of cargo in that year. As of 2016, it was
the 8th in the world in terms of TEUs (Twenty Foot Equivalent
The Orient Ferry connects
Qingdao with Shimonoseki, Japan. There are
two ferry lines connecting
Qingdao with South Korea. The New Golden
Bridge II operates between
Qingdao and Incheon, and the Blue Sea Ferry
Qingdao and Gunsan.
Qingdao port also includes a number of large adjacent ports including
Qingdao Liuting International Airport, 23 km (14 mi)
away from city centre, is served by 13 domestic and international
airlines, operating 94 routes, 12 of which are international and
regional. In 2011,
Qingdao Liuting International Airport
Qingdao Liuting International Airport was the 16th
busiest airport in the People's Republic of
China with 11,716,361
passengers. A new civil aviation airport with much larger capacities
will be built in Jiaozhou District.
Qingdao railway station
Qingdao's railway development was picked up during the late 1990s. It
is at the beginning of the Jiaoji Railway. Qingdao's city proper has
some major railway stations,
Qingdao Station, Sifang Station,
Cangkou Station, Great-
Seaport Station, etc.
D and G series High speed trains travel on the Jiaoji High Speed
Railway and reach speeds of 200 km/h (120 mph) on the
Qingdao Section. Services go to Beijing, Shanghai, Hefei,
Jinan and Tianjin.
Domestic rail lines connect
Qingdao with many cities in China
including Beijing, Lanzhou, Chengdu, Xi'an, Zhengzhou,
Qingdao's public traffic owns 5283 large and medium-sized buses, CNG
buses as of 2012[update].There are also 136 trolleybuses as of
2012[update]. All of the buses and trolleybuses can be accessed using
Qingdao Public Traffic
IC Card (Qin dao Card 琴岛卡), which
uses radio frequencies so the card does not have to physically touch
the scanner. Non air-conditioned busses cost 1 yuan, The volume of
road passenger transport approaches 0.8 billion per year.[citation
needed] The Public Transport Brand of 'Ri-Xin Bus (日新巴士)' is
also known in China.
There are a number of taxi companies in
Qingdao including Yiqing
Company, Zhongqing Company, Jiaoyun Company and, Huaqing Company.
After getting the approval from the State Council, the government
announced on 18 August 2009 that
Qingdao is ready to spend more than
29 billion yuan ($4.2 billion) before 2016 on its subway construction.
Construction of 54.7 km (34.0 mi) of subway line will be
completed before 2016 with a total investment of 29.2 billion yuan
($4.3 billion). Metro Line 3 is the first line in function and opened
on 16 December 2015. In the long term, the city plans to build eight
subway lines in downtown and some suburban districts, which account
for 231.5 km (143.8 mi) in future.
Qingdao is headquarters of the
North Sea Fleet
North Sea Fleet of the People's
Liberation Army Navy.
Qingdao retains many buildings with a German architectural style
There is a large number of German-style buildings in
centre, remarkable considering the German colonial period only lasted
16 years (1898–1914). The unique combination of German and Chinese
architecture in the city centre, combined with German demographic
roots and a large Korean expatriate population, gives
distinct atmosphere. An old saying described
Qingdao as a city of "red
tiles green trees, blue sky and blue sea." This saying indeed gives a
picture of birdview of Qingdao. A larger number of areas in former
foreign styles are well preserved. Although the new city area is under
large-scale reconstruction, the old city area (especially the western
part of Shinan District) still retains many traditional buildings.
St. Michael's Cathedral
Skyscrapers in Qingdao
Ma Jian (马建)
Xiao Hong (萧红)
Xiao Jun (萧军)
Duanmu Hongliang (端木蕻良)
Sun Li (孙犁)
Li Zhaoxing (李肇星)
Zhang Ruimin (张瑞敏)
Victoria Song (宋茜, f(x))
Huang Zitao (黄子韬, musician,actor)
Huang Bo (黄勃)
Zhang Jike (张继科)
Other notable people include:
Gao Fenghan (高凤翰)
Toshiro Mifune (was born in Qingdao)
Li Cunxin (李存信)
Huang Xiaoming (黄晓明)
Chen Hao (陈好)
Xia Yu (夏雨)
Fan Bingbing (范冰冰,was born in Qingdao)
Hao Haidong (郝海东)
Wang Dong (王栋, Chinese Footballer)
Zhang Juanjuan (张娟娟,archer)
Movies shot in Qingdao
A Better Tomorrow 2018
A Better Tomorrow 2018 （英雄本色2018）2016
The Great Wall （长城）2016
Underdog Fight （硬汉）2008
Underdog Fight II （硬汉 II）2013
Ocean Heaven （海洋天堂）2010
Beauty Remains （美人依旧）2005
During the city's colonial days, German was the official language and
rigorously taught and promoted. Since the demise of Germany's colonial
empire during World War I, the
German language is virtually dead here
and left little impact on the local languages. A local accent known as
Qingdao dialect (青岛话, pinyin qingdao hua) distinguishes the
residents of the city from those of the surrounding
Due to the efforts by the city government to promote standard
Mandarin, most educated people can speak standard Mandarin in addition
to their native dialect. With reform policies and English teaching,
some young citizens have been taught English and many can converse
with English-speaking foreigners. Business and traffic signs in
English are becoming more and more common.
Seafood is a typical delicacy of the coastal city, divided into two
categories: "Great Seafood" including sea cucumbers, abalones, shark's
fin, prawns, crabs, conch, and some big fish, and "Little Seafood"
comprising squid, shrimps, octopus, oysters, razor clams, clams,
periwinkles, yellow croakers, etc.
The distinctive cuisine of the area is Lu Cai, the
Qingdao in 1913
Notable festivals include:
Qingdao International Horticultural Exposition 2014
Qingdao International Horticultural Exposition 2014 is the biggest
international fair that has been held in the history of the city.
Qingdao International Beer Festival（青岛国际啤酒节） in
August/September, held annually since 1991
Tsingtauer Neueste Nachrichten
Qingdao previously had a large German community and a German garrison,
so three German newspapers operated in Qingdao. German papers
included Deutsch-Asiatische Warte (T: 泰東古今鑑, S:
泰东古今鉴, P: Tàidōng Gǔjīn Jiàn; weekly newspaper
published until 1906, included Die Welt des Ostens, Altes und Neues
aus Asiens drei Kaiserreichen, a cultural supplement), the
Tsingtauer Neueste Nachrichten
Tsingtauer Neueste Nachrichten and the Kiautschou Post (a daily paper
published from 1908 to 1912, referring to the Kiautschou (Jiaozhou)
Bay concession). German publishing in
Qingdao ended after World War I
and the beginning of the Japanese administration.
A 1912 publication of the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau
of Foreign and Domestic Commerce said that the Tageblatt für
Tianjin was read in Qingdao, and that major newspapers
Shanghai were also read in Qingdao.
Qingdao attracts many tourists due to its seaside setting and
temperate weather. Parks, beaches, sculptures and unique German and
modern architecture line the shore. The central tourist information,
Qingdao Information Centre for International Visitors, is located
Hong Kong Road (香港中路).
Qingdao's major attractions include:
Western Shinan district
Zhan Qiao (Pier, 栈桥)
Qingdao Isle (小青岛)
Tian Hou Temple (天后宫),
Qingdao Folk Museum
Ba Da Guan
Ba Da Guan (Eight Great Passes, 八大关), the older area of town
with some surviving German and Japanese architecture.
Lu Xun Park, named after
Lu Xun (鲁迅), modern Chinese writer and
critic, who lived and taught in the 1930s.
Zhongshan Park, named after the style name 'Zhongshan' of Sun Yat-sen
(孙文，字中山), a famous modern Chinese politician.
Xiao Yu Shan
Xiao Yu Shan (Little Fish Hill, 小鱼山)
The twin-spired St. Michael's Cathedral (Kathedrale St. Michael)
(天主教堂), one piece of the famous
Neo-romanesque architecture in
Qingdao, designed by German architect Alfred Fräbel, completed in
Qingdao Aquarium (青岛水族馆)
Jiaozhou Governor's Hall
Jiaozhou Governor's Hall (提督府), office building of former German
governors (Gouverneurspalast) and former municipal government
Xinhao Hill (信号山)
Photographs of Historic Euro-Asian Area
Hua Shi Lou in the Eight Great Passes
Former site of the headquarters of the German Administration
The protestant Church (Evangelische Kirche) (基督教堂)
The pier on the seafront
A view of Qingdao
Eastern Shinan district
May Fourth Square
May Fourth Square (Mai vierten Platz), Coastal plaza with the Wind of
Tsingtao Brewery (Tsingtao-Brauerei), founded by Germans and the most
exported beer from China.
Zhanshan Temple (Dschanschan Tempel), Qingdao's oldest Buddhist
Laoshan district (崂山区)
Lao Shan (Mount Lao, Lauschan, 崂山), 40 km (25 mi) east
of Qingdao, the most famous Taoist mountain with Taoist retreat –
Great Purity Palace (太清宫).
Other districts of Qingdao
Jiaozhou Governor's Hall
Jiaozhou Governor's Hall (Gouverneurspalast), former seat of the
present and previous two governments.
Post-secondary educational institutions
Old Main Building of
Qingdao University of Science and Technology
Qingdao is home to a large number of higher education institutions.
Ocean University of China, formerly called Ocean University of
Qingdao, is the most important university of maritime sciences in
China. In addition, the
Qingdao University, the
Qingdao University of
Science and Technology as well as the
Qingdao Technological University
have also been integral parts of higher education in
decades. Other institutions include:
China University of Petroleum, completed its relocation from Dongying
Qingdao in 2012
Shandong University of Science and Technology, main campus is based in
Qingdao since 2003
Qingdao Agricultural University, main campus is based in
Qingdao Technical College
Qingdao Binhai University, located at Huangdao.
Shandong University was located in
Qingdao from 1909 to 1936. A new
branch campus of the university is under construction in Aoshanwei
Korean International School of Qingdao
Malvern College Qingdao
Pegasus California School, Qingdao
Qingdao MTI International School
Qingdao Amerasia International School
Qingdao No.1 International School
Qingdao Oxford International College
Yew Chung International School of Qingdao
Qingdao No. 2 High School
Qingdao No. 58 School
Qingdao No. 9 High School
Qingdao No. 1 High School
Qingdao has long been a hub of professional sports in The People's
Republic of China.
Guoxin Gymnasium (
Qingdao city sports center)
Yizhong Sports Center
Qingdao Tiantai Stadium
2008 Olympic Summer Games
Along with Beijing's hosting of the 2008 Summer Olympics,
the host city for the Olympic Sailing competitions which took place
along the shoreline by the city. These events were hosted at the
Qingdao International Sailing Centre and held in Fushan Bay, near the
city's central business district. A hotel and an international
broadcasting centre were built.
Qingdao is recognized as one of the "football cities" in China, due to
dozens of preeminent players it trained like Qu Bo, Zheng Long, Yu
Hao Junmin .However, due to lack of money of the sponsors of
football clubs in Qingdao, its football potential has reduced.
Qingdao Jonoon F.C.
Qingdao Jonoon F.C. (previously named
Qingdao Hainiu Football Club)
was founded in 1993. It is one of the founding members of the
second-division of Chinese professional football league. They got the
championship in their first season in 1994 and were promoted to the
Chinese Jia-A League. In 1995, they finished 11th (out of a total 12
teams) and were relegated from the top league. Only one year later,
after finishing as runner-up in the second-division, they returned to
the top league. They have been part of
Chinese Super League
Chinese Super League from its
inauguration in 2004.In 2013, they were relegated to the CHINA LEAGUE.
Qingdao Hainiu F.C.
Qingdao Hainiu F.C. was established on 29 January 2013. In their first
season in the Chinese Football Association Division Two League, they
finished the first in league and got to the
China League One. Up to
June 13, 2016, they had been on the first and had a great chance to
get into the Super League after the season. Fans in
China called them
"Chinese Leicester City".
Qingdao DoubleStar Eagles
Qingdao DoubleStar Eagles is a Chinese professional basketball team
which plays in the North Division of the Chinese Basketball
Qingdao Renzhou Badminton Club is a Chinese badminton club which plays
China Badminton Super League.
Qingdao Clipper is a professional arena football team which is a
member of the
China Arena Football League(CAFL).
IZOD IndyCar Series
IZOD IndyCar Series signed a contract with the
council to hold an
IndyCar race in
Qingdao in 2012. The race was
supposed to take place on a 6.23 km (3.87 mi) street
circuit but it was cancelled.
Qingdao is one of the few cities in northern
China where surfing is
possible. The best surfing season is during the typhoon season
(June–October). The south oriented beaches of
Qingdao are the most
appropriate to receive swells. Shinan and Laoshan districts are
reported to have the best wave and wind orientation.
List of twin towns and sister cities in China
Gottschall, Terrell D. By Order of the Kaiser: Otto von Diederichs and
the Rise of the Imperial German Navy 1865–1902. Annapolis: Naval
Institute Press. 2003. ISBN 1-55750-309-5
Schultz-Naumann, Joachim. Unter Kaisers Flagge: Deutschlands
Schutzgebiete im Pazifik und in
China einst und heute [Under the
Kaiser’s Flag, Germany’s Protectorates in the Pacific and in China
then and today]. Munich: Universitas Verlag. 1985.
Miscellaneous series, Issues 7–11. United States Department of
Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 1912.
Walravens, Hartmut. "German Influence on the Press in China". In:
Newspapers in International Librarianship: Papers Presented by the
Newspaper Section at IFLA General Conferences. Walter de Gruyter,
January 1, 2003. ISBN 3110962799, ISBN 9783110962796.
Also available at ( () the website of the
Queens Library – This
version does not include the footnotes visible in the Walter de
Also available in Walravens, Hartmut and Edmund King. Newspapers in
international librarianship: papers presented by the newspapers
section at IFLA General Conferences. K.G. Saur, 2003.
ISBN 3598218370, 9783598218378.
中编发5号". 豆丁网. 1995-02-19. Archived from the
original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-28.
^ "3-4各市人口数和总户数(2014年)-tjsql.com". www.tjsql.com.
^ A bridge too far?
China unveils world's longest sea bridge which is
five miles FURTHER than the Dover-Calais crossing Mail Online.
Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
China Beer" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-13.
Global Financial Centres Index 19". Long Finance. March
^ "China's Top 10 Most Livable Cities". hnloudi.gov.cn.
Official Government. 28 March 2012. Archived from the original on 10
April 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
^ "List of 10 Most Livable Cities in
China Issued". 2009-07-09.
^ 蔺丽瑶 (2011-07-27). "Top 10 livable cities in
China.org.cn. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
^ Gottschall, Terrell (2003). By Order of the Kaiser, Otto von
Diederichs and the Rise of the Imperial German Navy 1865–1902.
Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. p. 146.
^ Matzat, Wilhelm (May 2003). "Landmann Gottfried 1860–1926
Uhrmacher, Optiker, Bierbrauer" [Gottfried Landmann, 1860–1926:
Watchmaker, Optician, Beer Brewer]. tsingtau.org (in German). Wilhelm
Matzat. Retrieved 2010-06-09.
^ a b Schultz-Naumann, Joachim (1985). Unter Kaisers Flagge:
Deutschlands Schutzgebiete im Pazifik und in
China einst und heute
[Under the Kaiser's Flag: Germany's protected areas in the Pacific and
China then and now] (in German). Universitas. p. 183.
^ Matzat, Wilhelm (May 2003). "Germania Brauerei und ihre Angestellten
1903–1914" [Germania Brewery and its Employees]. tsingtau.org (in
German). Wilhelm Matzat. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
^ 斯, 李. "1904年06月01日 胶济铁路通车".
www.todayonhistory.com. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
^ see German East
Battle of Coronel
Battle of Coronel and Battle of the
Falkland Islands for fleet engagements
^ Duffy, Michael (22 August 2009). "Primary Documents – Count Okuma
on the Japanese Capture of Tsingtao, 15 August 1914".
firstworldwar.com. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
^ "Germans lose possessions in China". The Independent. Nov 16, 1914.
Retrieved July 24, 2012.
^ A. Whitney Griswold, The Far Eastern Policy of the United States
(1938) pp 239–68
^ Griswold, The Far Eastern Policy of the United States (1938) pp
^ Toyokichi Iyenaga (Oct 26, 1914). "What is Kiaochou worth?". The
Independent. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
^ Schultz-Naumann, p. 182
^ Schultz-Naumann, Joachim (1985). Unter Kaisers Flagge: Deutschlands
Schutzgebiete im Pazifik und in
China einst und heute (in German).
Universitas. p. 183. ISBN 978-3-8004-1094-1.
^ Schultz-Naumann, p. 184
^ "2016年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码：青岛市" (in
Simplified Chinese). 中华人民共和国国家统计局 National
Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2016.
Retrieved 1 February 2018. 统计用区划代码 名称 370201000000
市辖区 370202000000 市南区 370203000000 市北区 370211000000
黄岛区 370212000000 崂山区 370213000000 李沧区 370214000000
城阳区 370281000000 胶州市 370282000000 即墨市 370283000000
平度市 370285000000 莱西市 CS1 maint: Unrecognized language
^ a b "Climatological Normals of Qingdao".
Hong Kong Observatory.
^ a b 自然地理 [Geography] (in Chinese). Qingdao: Shinan District
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 March 2013.
Retrieved 18 February 2013.
^ Jacobs, Andrew (July 5, 2013). "Huge Algae Bloom Afflicts Coastal
Chinese City". The New York Times.
^ 青岛城市介绍 (in Chinese). Weather.com.cn. June 2011.
^ Annette S. Biener: Das deutsche Pachtgebiet Tsingtau in der Provinz
Schantung, 1897–1914. Institutioneller Wandel durch Kolonialisierung
(Studien und Quellen zur Geschichte Schantungs und Tsingtaus. Bd. 6).
Matzat, Bonn 2001, ISBN 3-924603-05-7.
^ "韩国旅客位居北京入境外国人之首". 2009-10-08.
^ a b c "
Shinan District Investment Environment Study 2007",
Report, KPMG Huazhen, 2007, retrieved 2010-06-10 [permanent dead
Qingdao Factory – All Epiphone... All The Time!".
Epiphone.com. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
^ Gardiner, Ginger. "High Wind in China". www.compositesworld.com.
^ 中国公路信息服务网－公路地图 (in Chinese).
中国公路信息服务网. Archived from the original on 16 January
2013. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
^ Eimer, David (8 January 2011). "
China builds world's longest
bridge". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-03-23.
Qingdao port sees upsurge in cargo handling capacity[permanent dead
link]. People's Daily. Retrieved on 2012-11-12.
^ "Ports & World Trade". www.aapa-ports.org.
^ Ferries Korea-China. Seat61.com. Retrieved on 2012-11-12.
^ "About Dongjiakou port". http://www.qingdao-port.com/.
International Co. Ltd. Retrieved 31 October 2017. External link
in website= (help)
Qingdao Airport Location Confirmed". World Civil Aviation Net.
29 September 2013. Archived from the original on 29 October
^ Until August 2008, travelers not from
Qingdao are often confused as
railway tickets to
Qingdao are listed as destined for "Sifang". These
trains are headed to Qingdao's Sifang district. The destination's name
will revert to "Qingdao" once renovations to the larger Qingdao
Railway Station is complete.
^ 杨传忠 (2012-10-17). 济青高铁建设近年无望
济青1小时生活圈得等等. 齐鲁晚报 (in Chinese).
access-date= requires url= (help)
^ 列车时刻 (in Chinese). 青岛火车站. Archived from the
original on 8 January 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
^ "$4.3 billion budget to boost
Qingdao subway construction".
^ a b Walravens, p. 90.
^ a b Walravens, p. 91.
^ United States Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, p. 188.
"Tageblatt für Nord China, a German paper published in Tientsin, and
the leading papers published in
Shanghai are also largely read in
IndyCar (10 November 2011). "INDYCAR: Series Confirms
SPEED Channel. Fox Sports. Archived from the original on 13 November
2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
IndyCar scheduled August race in
China has been canceled".
Washington Posts. Archived from the original on 2012-06-14. Retrieved
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Qingdao.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Qingdao.
Qingdao Government website (in Chinese)
Grand Canal of China
Ocean University of China
China University of Petroleum
Shandong Normal University
Ji Lu Mandarin
Jiao Liao Mandarin
Moo shu pork
List of sites in Jinan
Thousand Buddha Mountain
Great Wall of Qi
Qingdao beach resort city
Temple and Cemetery of Confucius
County-level divisions of
Metropolitan cities of China
Major Metropolitan regions
Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta (PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area
Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta (YRD)
Central Plain (Zhongyuan)
Cross-Strait Western Coast
Yangtze River Mid-Reaches (Yangtze River Valley)
National Central Cities
Special Administrative Regions
Regional Central Cities
Autonomous regional capitals
Comparatively large cities
Prefecture-level cities by Province
Other cities (partly shown below)
(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot
Xinjiang - XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi
Former Prefecture-level cities
Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia
Erenhot, Inner Mongolia
County-level cities by Province
* Indicates this city has already occurred above.
aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as
provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special
Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities.
3Prefecture capital status established by
Heilongjiang Province and
not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen
Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir,
Inner Mongolia as part of it.
4Only administers islands and waters in South
China Sea and have no
urban core comparable to typical cities in China.
5The claimed province of Taiwan no longer have any internal division
announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual
jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of
All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by
Economic Development Zones of China
Special Economic Zones
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Largest cities or towns in China
Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
Former German colonies and protectorates
New Swabia (claimed by Nazi Germany)