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Qin dynasty or the Qin
Empire (/tʃɪn/; Chinese: 秦朝;
pinyin: Qín Cháo; Wade–Giles: Ch'in2 Ch'ao2) was the first dynasty
of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC. Named for its heartland
in Qin state (modern
Gansu and Shaanxi), the dynasty was founded by
Qin Shi Huang, the First Emperor of Qin. The strength of the Qin state
was greatly increased by the Legalist reforms of
Shang Yang in the
fourth century BC, during the Warring States period. In the mid and
late third century BC, the Qin state carried out a series of swift
conquests, first ending the powerless Zhou dynasty, and eventually
conquering the other six of the Seven Warring States. Its 15 years was
the shortest major dynasty in Chinese history, consisting of only two
emperors, but inaugurated an imperial system that lasted, with
interruption and adaptation, until 1912.
The Qin sought to create a state unified by structured political power
and a large military supported by a stable economy. The central
government moved to undercut aristocrats and landowners to gain direct
administrative control over the peasantry, who comprised the
overwhelming majority of the population and labour force. This allowed
ambitious projects, such as connecting walls along the northern border
eventually developed into the Great Wall of China. These projects
involved three hundred thousand peasants and convicts. The Qin
introduced a range of reforms such as standardized currency, weights,
measures, and a uniform system of writing, which aimed to unify the
state and promote commerce. Additionally, its military used the most
recent weaponry, transportation, and tactics, though the government
was heavy-handedly bureaucratic.
Han dynasty Confucians portrayed the
dynasty as a monolithic tyranny, but this view has been rejected by
modern scholars. There was indeed an attempt to restrict criticism and
purge traces of old dynasties, but not the alleged burning of books
and burying of scholars. Recently excavated Qin texts show a more
pragmatic and eclectic approach in contrast with descriptions in
traditional texts. Qin administration has been judged to be no harsher
than was prevalent at the time. The Qin were not doctrinaire:
Confucian and Legalist philosophies coexisted during the reign of the
When the first emperor died in 210 BC, two of his advisers placed an
heir on the throne in an attempt to influence and control the
administration of the dynasty. These advisors squabbled among
themselves, resulting in both of their deaths and that of the second
Qin Emperor. Popular revolt broke out and the weakened empire soon
fell to a Chu general, Xiang Yu, who was proclaimed Hegemon-King of
Western Chu, and Liu Bang, who later founded the Han dynasty. Despite
its short reign, the dynasty greatly influenced the future of China,
particularly the Han, and its name is thought to be the origin of the
European name for China.
1.1 Origins and early development
1.2 Growth of power
1.3 Conquest of the Warring States
1.4 Southward expansion
1.5 Campaigns against the Xiongnu
1.6 Fall from power
2 Culture and society
2.1 Domestic life
2.3 Philosophy and literature
2.4 Government and military
2.6 Etymology of China
3 Sovereigns of Qin dynasty
4 Imperial family tree
5 See also
8 Further reading
9 External links
See also: Qin (state)
Origins and early development
In the 9th century BC, Feizi, a supposed descendant of the ancient
political advisor Gao Yao, was granted rule over Qin City. The modern
Tianshui stands where this city once was. During the rule of
King Xiao of Zhou, the eighth king of the Zhou dynasty, this area
became known as the state of Qin. In 897 BC, under the regency of
Gonghe, the area became a dependency allotted for the purpose of
raising and breeding horses. One of Feizi's descendants, Duke
Zhuang, became favoured by King Ping of Zhou, the thirteenth king in
that line. As a reward, Zhuang's son, Duke Xiang, was sent eastward as
the leader of a war expedition, during which he formally established
The state of Qin first began a military expedition into central China
in 672 BC, though it did not engage in any serious incursions due to
the threat from neighbouring tribesmen. By the dawn of the fourth
century BC, however, the neighbouring tribes had all been either
subdued or conquered, and the stage was set for the rise of Qin
Growth of power
Map of the Warring States. Qin is shown in pink
Lord Shang Yang, a Qin statesman of the Warring States period,
advocated a philosophy of Legalism, introducing a number of militarily
advantageous reforms from 361 BC until his death in 338 BC. Yang also
helped construct the Qin capital, commencing in the mid-fourth century
BC Xianyang. The resulting city greatly resembled the capitals of
other Warring States.
Notably, Qin Legalism encouraged practical and ruthless warfare.
During the Spring and Autumn period, the prevalent philosophy had
dictated war as a gentleman's activity; military commanders were
instructed to respect what they perceived to be Heaven's laws in
battle. For example, when Duke Xiang of Song[note 1] was at war
with the state of Chu during the Warring States period, he declined an
opportunity to attack the enemy force, commanded by Zhu, while they
were crossing a river. After allowing them to cross and marshal their
forces, he was decisively defeated in the ensuing battle. When his
advisors later admonished him for such excessive courtesy to the
enemy, he retorted, "The sage does not crush the feeble, nor give the
order for attack until the enemy have formed their ranks."
The Qin disregarded this military tradition, taking advantage of their
enemy's weaknesses. A nobleman in the state of Wei accused the Qin
state of being "avaricious, perverse, eager for profit, and without
sincerity. It knows nothing about etiquette, proper relationships, and
virtuous conduct, and if there be an opportunity for material gain, it
will disregard its relatives as if they were animals." It was this
Legalist thought combined with strong leadership from long-lived
rulers, openness to employ talented men from other states, and little
internal opposition that gave the Qin such a strong political
Another advantage of the Qin was that they had a large, efficient
army[note 2] and capable generals. They utilised the newest
developments in weaponry and transportation as well, which many of
their enemies lacked. These latter developments allowed greater
mobility over several different terrain types which were most common
in many regions of China. Thus, in both ideology and practice, the Qin
were militarily superior.
Finally, the Qin
Empire had a geographical advantage due to its
fertility and strategic position, protected by mountains that made the
state a natural stronghold.[note 3] Its expanded agricultural output
helped sustain Qin's large army with food and natural resources;
Wei River canal built in 246 BC was particularly significant in
Conquest of the Warring States
Main article: Qin's wars of unification
Map showing the unification of Qin during 230–211 BC
Warring States period
Warring States period preceding the Qin dynasty, the major
states vying for dominance were Yan, Zhao, Qi, Chu, Han, Wei and Qin.
The rulers of these states styled themselves as kings, rather than
using the titles of lower nobility they had previously held. However,
none elevated himself to believe that he had the "Mandate of Heaven",
as the Zhou kings had claimed, nor that he had the right to offer
sacrifices—they left this to the Zhou rulers.
Before their conquest in the fourth and third centuries BC, the Qin
suffered several setbacks.
Shang Yang was executed in 338 BC by King
Huiwen due to a personal grudge harboured from his youth. There was
also internal strife over the Qin succession in 307 BC, which
decentralised Qin authority somewhat. Qin was defeated by an alliance
of the other states in 295 BC, and shortly after suffered another
defeat by the state of Zhao, because the majority of their army was
then defending against the Qi. The aggressive statesman Fan Sui
(范雎), however, soon came to power as prime minister even as the
problem of the succession was resolved, and he began an expansionist
policy that had originated in Jin and Qi, which prompted the Qin to
attempt to conquer the other states.
The Qin were swift in their assault on the other states. They first
attacked the Han, directly east, and took their capital city of
Xinzheng in 230 BC. They then struck northward; the state of Zhao
surrendered in 228 BC, and the northernmost state of Yan followed,
falling in 226 BC. Next, Qin armies launched assaults to the east, and
later the south as well; they took the Wei city of Daliang (now called
Kaifeng) in 225 BC and forced the Chu to surrender by 223 BC. Lastly,
they deposed the Zhou dynasty's remnants in
Luoyang and conquered the
Qi, taking the city of Linzi in 221 BC.
When the conquests were complete in 221 BC, King Zheng – who
had first assumed the throne of the Qin state at age 9 –
became the effective ruler of China. The subjugation of the six
states was done by
King Zheng who had used efficient persuasion and
exemplary stratagem. He solidified his position as sole ruler with the
abdication of his prime minister, Lü Buwei. The states made by the
emperor were assigned to officials dedicated to the task rather than
place the burden on people from the royal family. He then combined
the titles of the earlier
Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors
Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors into his
Shi Huangdi (始皇帝) or "First Emperor".[note 4] The
newly declared emperor ordered all weapons not in the possession of
the Qin to be confiscated and melted down. The resulting metal was
sufficient to build twelve large ornamental statues at the Qin's newly
declared capital, Xianyang.
Main article: Qin's campaign against the southern tribes
In 214 BC,
Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang secured his boundaries to the north with a
fraction (100,000 men) of his large army, and sent the majority
(500,000 men) of his army south to conquer the territory of the
southern tribes. Prior to the events leading to Qin dominance over
China, they had gained possession of much of
Sichuan to the southwest.
The Qin army was unfamiliar with the jungle terrain, and it was
defeated by the southern tribes' guerrilla warfare tactics with over
100,000 men lost. However, in the defeat Qin was successful in
building a canal to the south, which they used heavily for supplying
and reinforcing their troops during their second attack to the south.
Building on these gains, the Qin armies conquered the coastal lands
surrounding Guangzhou,[note 5] and took the provinces of
Guilin. They struck as far south as Hanoi. After these victories in
Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang moved over 100,000 prisoners and exiles to
colonize the newly conquered area. In terms of extending the
boundaries of his empire, the First Emperor was extremely successful
in the south.
Campaigns against the Xiongnu
Main article: Qin's campaign against the Xiongnu
However, while the empire at times was extended to the north, the Qin
could rarely hold on to the land for long. The tribes of these
locations, collectively called the Hu by the Qin, were free from
Chinese rule during the majority of the dynasty. Prohibited from
Qin dynasty peasants, the
Xiongnu tribe living in the
Ordos region in northwest China often raided them instead, prompting
the Qin to retaliate. After a military campaign led by General Meng
Tian, the region was conquered in 215 BC and agriculture was
established; the peasants, however, were discontented and later
revolted. The succeeding
Han dynasty also expanded into the Ordos due
to overpopulation, but depleted their resources in the process. Owen
Lattimore said of both dynasties' attempts to conquer the Ordos,
"conquest and expansion were illusory. There was no kind of success
that did not create its own reaction." Indeed, this was true of
the dynasty's borders in multiple directions; modern Xinjiang, Tibet,
Manchuria, Inner Mongolia, and regions to the southeast were foreign
to the Qin, and even areas over which they had military control were
Fall from power
A stone rubbing of a carved relief from the
Han dynasty depicting Jin
Ke's assassination attempt on Qin Shi Huang;
Jing Ke (left) is held by
one of Qin Shi Huang's physicians (left, background). The dagger used
in the assassination attempt is seen stuck in the pillar. Qin Shi
Huang (right) is seen holding an imperial jade disc. One of his
soldiers (far right) rushes to save his emperor.
Three assassination attempts were made on Qin Shi Huang's life,
leading him to become paranoid and obsessed with immortality. He died
in 210 BC, while on a trip to the far eastern reaches of his empire in
an attempt to procure an elixir of immortality from Taoist magicians,
who claimed the elixir was stuck on an island guarded by a sea
monster. The chief eunuch, Zhao Gao, and the prime minister, Li Si,
hid the news of his death upon their return until they were able to
alter his will to place on the throne the dead emperor's most pliable
son, Huhai, who took the name of Qin Er Shi. They believed that
they would be able to manipulate him to their own ends, and thus
effectively control the empire.
Qin Er Shi
Qin Er Shi was, indeed, inept and
pliable. He executed many ministers and imperial princes, continued
massive building projects (one of his most extravagant projects was
lacquering the city walls), enlarged the army, increased taxes, and
arrested messengers who brought him bad news. As a result, men from
all over China revolted, attacking officials, raising armies, and
declaring themselves kings of seized territories.
During this time,
Li Si and
Zhao Gao fell out, and
Li Si was executed.
Zhao Gao decided to force
Qin Er Shi
Qin Er Shi to commit suicide due to Qin Er
Shi's incompetence. Upon this, Ziying, a nephew of Qin Er Shi,
ascended the throne, and immediately executed Zhao Gao. Ziying,
seeing that increasing unrest was growing among the people[note 6] and
that many local officials had declared themselves kings, attempted to
cling to his throne by declaring himself one king among all the
others. He was undermined by his ineptitude, however, and popular
revolt broke out in 209 BC. When Chu rebels under the lieutenant Liu
Bang attacked, a state in such turmoil could not hold for long. Ziying
was defeated near the
Wei River in 207 BC and surrendered shortly
after; he was executed by the Chu leader Xiang Yu. The Qin capital was
destroyed the next year, and this is considered by historians to be
the end of the Qin Empire.[note 7]
Liu Bang then betrayed and
defeated Xiang Yu, declaring himself Emperor Gaozu[note 8] of the new
Han dynasty on 28 February 202 BC. Despite the short duration of
the Qin dynasty, it was very influential on the structure of future
Culture and society
The aristocracy of the Qin were largely similar in their culture and
daily life. Regional variations in culture were considered a symbol of
the lower classes. This stemmed from the Zhou and was seized upon by
the Qin, as such variations were seen as contrary to the unification
that the government strove to achieve.
Commoners and rural villagers, who made up over 90% of the
population, very rarely left the villages or farmsteads where they
were born. Common forms of employment differed by region, though
farming was almost universally common. Professions were hereditary; a
father's employment was passed to his eldest son after he died.
The Lüshi Chunqiu[note 9] gave examples of how, when commoners are
obsessed with material wealth, instead of the idealism of a man who
"makes things serve him", they were "reduced to the service of
Peasants were rarely figured in literature during the
Qin dynasty and
afterwards; scholars and others of more elite status preferred the
excitement of cities and the lure of politics. One notable exception
to this was Shen Nong, the so-called "Divine Father", who taught that
households should grow their own food. "If in one's prime he does not
plow, someone in the world will grow hungry. If in one's prime she
does not weave, someone in the world will be cold." The Qin encouraged
this; a ritual was performed once every few years that consisted of
important government officials taking turns with the plow on a special
field, to create a simulation of government interest and activity
Dujiangyan, an irrigation project completed in 256 BC during the
Warring States period
Warring States period of China by the State of Qin. It is located on
the Min River (Chinese: 岷江; pinyin: Mínjiāng) in Sichuan, China,
near the capital Chengdu. Although a reinforced concrete weir has
replaced Li Bing's original weighted bamboo baskets, the layout of the
infrastructure remains the same and is still in use today to irrigate
over 5,300 square kilometers of land in the region.
Warring States-era architecture had several definitive aspects. City
walls, used for defense, were made longer, and indeed several
secondary walls were also sometimes built to separate the different
districts. Versatility in federal structures was emphasized, to create
a sense of authority and absolute power. Architectural elements such
as high towers, pillar gates, terraces, and high buildings amply
Philosophy and literature
Stone slab with twelve small seal characters. Qin Dynasty (221 – 207
BC). The 12 characters on this slab of floor brick affirm that it is
an auspicious moment for the First Emperor to ascend the throne, as
the country is united and no men will be dying along the road. Small
seal scripts were standardized by the First
Emperor of China
Emperor of China after he
gained control of the country, and evolved from the larger seal
scripts of previous dynasties. The text on it is
The written language of the Qin was logographic, as that of the Zhou
had been. As one of his most influential achievements in life,
Li Si standardized the writing system to be of uniform
size and shape across the whole country. This would have a unification
effect on the Chinese culture for thousands of years. He is also
credited with creating the "lesser-seal" (Chinese: 小篆, Pinyin:
xiǎozhuàn) style of calligraphy, which serves as a basis for modern
Chinese and is still used in cards, posters, and advertising.
During the Warring States period, the Hundred Schools of Thought
comprised many different philosophies proposed by Chinese scholars. In
221 BC, however, the First Emperor conquered all of the states and
governed with a single philosophy, Legalism. At least one school of
thought, Mohism, was eradicated, though the reason is not known.
Despite the Qin's state ideology and
Mohism being similar in certain
regards, it is possible that Mohists were sought and killed by the
state's armies due to paramilitary activities.
Confucius's school of thought, called Confucianism, was also
influential during the Warring States period, as well as throughout
much of the later
Zhou dynasty and early imperial periods.[note 10]
This school of thought had a so-called
Confucian canon of literature,
known as the "six classics": the Odes, Documents, Ritual, Music,
Spring and Autumn Annals, and Changes, which embodied Chinese
literature at the time.
During the Qin dynasty, Confucianism—along with all other
non-Legalist philosophies—was suppressed by the First Emperor; early
Han dynasty emperors did the same. Legalism denounced the feudal
system and encouraged severe punishments, particularly when the
emperor was disobeyed. Individuals' rights were devalued when they
conflicted with the government's or the ruler's wishes, and merchants
and scholars were considered unproductive, fit for elimination.
One of the more drastic allegations, however the infamous burning of
books and burying of scholars incident, does not appear to be true, as
it was not mentioned until many years later. The Han dynasty
Sima Qian wrote that First Emperor, in an attempt to
consolidate power, in 213 BC ordered the burning of all books
advocating viewpoints that challenged Legalism or the state, and also
stipulated that all scholars who refused to submit their books to be
burned would be executed by premature burial. Only texts
considered productive were to be preserved, mostly those that
discussed pragmatic subjects, such as agriculture, divination, and
medicine. However, Sinologists now argue that the "burying of
scholars" is not literally true, as the term probably meant simply
"put to death".
Government and military
The Qin government was highly bureaucratic, and was administered by a
hierarchy of officials, all serving the First Emperor. The Qin put
into practice the teachings of Han Feizi, allowing the First Emperor
to control all of his territories, including those recently conquered.
All aspects of life were standardized, from measurements and language
to more practical details, such as the length of chariot axles.
Terracotta Army, museum of the grave of Qin Shi Huang.
Qin warriors of the Terracotta Army.
The states made by the emperor were assigned to officials dedicated to
the task rather than place the burden on people from the royal family.
Zheng and his advisers also introduced new laws and practices that
ended feudalism in China, replacing it with a centralized,
bureaucratic government. The form of government created by the first
emperor and his advisors was used by later dynasties to structure
their own government. Under this system, both the military and
government thrived, as talented individuals could be more easily
identified in the transformed society. Later Chinese dynasties
emulated the Qin government for its efficiency, despite its being
Confucian philosophy. There were incidences of
abuse, however, with one example having been recorded in the "Records
of Officialdom". A commander named Hu ordered his men to attack
peasants in an attempt to increase the number of "bandits" he had
killed; his superiors, likely eager to inflate their records as well,
Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang also improved the strong military, despite the fact that
it had already undergone extensive reforms. The military used the
most advanced weaponry of the time. The invention of the sword during
Warring States period
Warring States period was a great advance. It was first used
mostly in bronze form, but by the third century BC, the Qin were using
stronger iron swords. The demand for this metal resulted in improved
bellows. The crossbow had been introduced in the fifth century BC and
was more powerful and accurate than the composite bows used earlier.
It could also be rendered ineffective by removing two pins, which
prevented enemies from capturing a working crossbow.
Qin dynasty composite bow arrows (top) and crossbow bolts (bottom)
Credit: Liang Jieming
The Qin also used improved methods of transportation and tactics. The
state of Zhao had first replaced chariots with cavalry in 307 BC, but
the change was swiftly adopted by the other states because cavalry had
greater mobility over the terrain of China.
The First Emperor developed plans to fortify his northern border, to
protect against nomadic invasions. The result was the initial
construction of what later became the Great Wall of China, which was
built by joining and strengthening the walls made by the feudal lords,
which would be expanded and rebuilt multiple times by later dynasties,
also in response to threats from the north. Another project built
during Qin Shi Huang's rule was the Terracotta Army, intended to
protect the emperor after his death. The
Terracotta Army was
inconspicuous due to its underground location, and was not discovered
Floating on high in every direction,
Music fills the hall and court.
The incense sticks are a forest of feathers,
The cloudy scene an obscure darkness.
Metal stalks with elegant blossoms,
A host of flags and kingfisher banners.
The music of the "Seven Origins" and "Blossoming Origins"
Are intoned as harmonious sounds.
Thus one can almost hear
The spirits coming to feast and frolic.
The spirits are seen off to the zhu zhu of the musics,
Which purifies and refines human feelings.
Suddenly the spirits ride off on the darkness,
And the brilliant event finishes.
Purified thoughts grow hidden and still,
And the warp and weft of the world fall dark.
Han shu, p. 1046
The dominant religious belief in China during the reign of the Qin,
and, in fact, during much of early imperial China, was focused on the
shen (roughly translating to "spirits" or "gods"), yin ("shadows"),
and the realm they were said to live in. The Chinese offered animal
sacrifices in an attempt to contact this other world, which they
believed to be parallel to the earthly one. The dead were said to
simply have moved from one world to the other. The rituals mentioned,
as well as others, served two purposes: to ensure that the dead
journeyed and stayed in the other realm, and to receive blessings from
the spirit realm.[note 11]
Religious practices were usually held in local shrines and sacred
areas, which contained sacrificial altars. During a sacrifice or other
ritual, the senses of all participants and witnesses would be dulled
and blurred with smoke, incense, and music. The lead sacrificer would
fast and meditate before a sacrifice to further blur his senses and
increase the likelihood of perceiving otherworldly phenomena. Other
participants were similarly prepared, though not as rigorously.
Such blurring of the senses was also a factor in the practice of
spirit intermediaries, or mediumship. Practitioners of the art would
fall into trances or dance to perform supernatural tasks. These people
would often rise to power as a result of their art—Luan Da, a Han
dynasty medium, was granted rule over 2,000 households. Noted Han
Sima Qian was scornful of such practices, dismissing them as
Divination—to predict and/or influence the future—was yet another
form of religious practice. An ancient practice that was common during
Qin dynasty was cracking bones or turtle shells to gain knowledge
of the future. The forms of divination which sprang up during early
imperial China were diverse, though observing natural phenomena was a
common method. Comets, eclipses, and droughts were considered omens of
things to come.
Etymology of China
The name 'Qin' (pronounced as 'Chin') is believed to be the
etymological ancestor of the modern-day European name of the country,
China. The word probably made its way into the Indo-Aryan languages
first as 'Cina' or 'Sina' and then into Greek and
Latin as 'Sinai' or
'Thinai'. It was then transliterated into English and French as
'China' and 'Chine'. This etymology is dismissed by some scholars, who
suggest that 'Sina' in
Sanskrit evolved much earlier before the Qin
dynasty. 'Jin' (pronounced as 'Zhin'), a state controlled by the Zhou
dynasty in seventh century BC, is another possible origin. Others
argued for the state of Jing (荆, another name for Chu), as well
other polities in the early period as the source of the name.
Sovereigns of Qin dynasty
An edict in bronze from the reign of the second Qin Emperor
King Zhaoxiang of Qin (秦昭襄王) had already been ruling Qin
for 51 years when Qin annihilated the Zhou dynasty; however the other
six warring states were still independent regimes. Some Chinese
historiographers thus used the next year (the 52nd year of King
Zhaoxiang of Qin) as the official succession from the Zhou dynasty.
Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang was the first
Chinese sovereign to proclaim himself
"Emperor", after unifying China in 221 BC. That year is therefore
generally taken by Western historians to be the start of the "Qin
dynasty" which lasted for fifteen years until 207 when it was cut
short by civil wars.
Posthumous names / title
Chinese family names and given names
Period of Reigns
Convention: "Qin" + posthumous name
Zhaoxiang (昭襄 Zhāoxiāng)
Ying Ze (嬴則 yíng zé) or Ying Ji (嬴稷 yíng jì)
306 – 250 BC
Xiaowen (孝文 Xiàowén)
Ying Zhu (嬴柱 yíng zhù)
Zhuangxiang (莊襄 Zhuāngxiāng)
Ying Zichu (嬴子楚 yíng zǐ chǔ)
249 – 247 BC
Qin dynasty (221 – 207 BC)
Shi Huangdi (始皇帝 Shǐ Huángdì)
Ying Zheng (嬴政 yíng zhèng)
246 – 210 BC
Shi Huangdi (二世皇帝 Èr Shì Huángdì)
Ying Huhai (嬴胡亥 yíng hú hài)
210 – 207 BC
Ziying was often referred using personal name or
Ziying, King of Qin (秦王子嬰 qín wáng zi yīng)
Did not exist
Ziying (嬴子嬰 yíng zi yīng)
Imperial family tree
See: family tree of
the Kings of Qin
Zheng 政 259–210 BC
King of Qin 秦王 247–221 BC
Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang 秦始皇
18 or 25 (disputed)
d. 210 BC
Huhai 胡亥 229–207 BC
Qin Er Shi
Qin Er Shi 秦二世
Ziying 子嬰 d. 206 BC
Qin San Shi 秦三世
Emperor of China
The Legend of Qin
^ Not to be confused with any Duke of the
Song dynasty of a later
^ This was due to the large workforce available as a result of their
landowning policies (implemented by Shang Yang), described in the
culture and society section.
^ This was the heart of the
Guanzhong region, as opposed to the region
Yangtze River drainage basin, known as Guandong. The warlike
nature of the Qin in
Guanzhong evolved into a
Han dynasty adage:
Guanzhong produces generals, while Guandong produces ministers."
(Lewis 2007, p. 17)
^ As the modern Chinese habit is to include dynasty names as a
surname, this became Qin Shi Huangdi. Later, this was abridged to Qin
Shi Huang, because it is uncommon for Chinese names to have four
^ Formerly known as Canton.
^ This was largely caused by regional differences which survived
despite the Qin's attempt to impose uniformity.
^ The first emperor of the Qin had boasted that the dynasty would last
10,000 generations; it lasted only about 15 years. (Morton 1995, p.
^ Meaning "High Progenitor".
^ A text named for its sponsor Lü Buwei; the prime minister of the
Qin directly preceding the conquest of the other states.
^ The term "Confucian" is rather ill-defined in this context—many
self-dubbed Confucians in fact rejected tenets of what was known as
"the Way of Confucius", and were disorganized, unlike the later
Confucians of the Song and Yuan dynasties.
^ Mystics from the state of Qi, however, saw sacrifices
differently—as a way to become immortal.
^ "Qin". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
^ Tanner 2010, p. 85-89
^ Beck, B, Black L, Krager, S; et al. (2003). Ancient World
History-Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL: Mc Dougal Little.
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^ Lewis 2007, p. 17
^ "Chinese surname history: Qin". People's Daily. Archived from the
original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 28 June 2008.
^ Lewis 2007, pp. 17–18
^ Lewis 2007, p. 88
^ a b Morton 1995, p. 45
^ Origins of Statecraft in China
^ a b Morton 1995, p. 26
^ Morton 1995, pg. 26
^ Time-Life Books 1993, p. 86
^ a b Kinney and Clark 2005, p. 10
^ a b Lewis 2007, pp. 18–19
^ Morton 1995, p. 25
^ Lewis 2007, pp. 38–39
^ Lewis 2007, p. 10
^ a b Bai Yang. Records of the Genealogy of Chinese Emperors,
Empresses, and Their Descendants
(中国帝王皇后亲王公主世系录) (in Chinese). 1. Friendship
Publishing Corporation of China (中国友谊出版公司).
^ a b c "China's First
Empire History Today". www.historytoday.com.
Archived from the original on 17 April 2017. Retrieved 17 April
^ a b c World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia, p. 36
^ a b c Morton 1995, p. 47
^ Lewis 2007, p. 129
^ Breslin 2001, p. 5
^ Lewis 2007, p. 5
^ Borthwick, p. 10
^ a b Kinney and Hardy 2005, p. 13-15
^ Bodde 1986, p. 84
^ Morton 1995, pp. 49–50
^ Lewis 2007, p. 11
^ Lewis 2007, p. 102
^ a b Lewis 2007, p. 15
^ Lewis 2007, p. 16
^ Lewis 2007, p. 75–78
^ World and its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia, p. 34
^ Bedini 1994, p. 83
^ Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy, p. 61
^ Lewis 2007, p. 206
^ Borthwick, p. 17
^ Nylan, Michael (2001), The five "Confucian" classics (PDF), Yale
University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-08185-5, archived from the
original (PDF) on 11 June 2014. pp. 29-30.
^ Borthwick, p. 11
^ Bodde (1986), p. 72.
^ Borthwick 2006, pp. 9–10
^ Chen, pp. 180–81
^ a b Borthwick 2006, p. 10
^ Morton 1995, p. 27
^ "Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor". UNESCO. Archived from the
original on 7 August 2008. Retrieved 3 July 2008.
^ Lewis 2007, p. 178
^ Lewis 2007, p. 186
^ Lewis 2007, p. 180
^ Lewis 2007, p. 181
^ Keay 2009, p. 98.
^ Wade, Geoff (May 2009). "The Polity of Yelang and the Origin of the
Name 'China'" (PDF). Sino-Platonic Papers. 188. Archived (PDF) from
the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
"This thesis also helps explain the existence of Cīna in the Indic
Laws of Manu and the Mahabharata, likely dating well before Qin
^ Bodde 1986, p. 20
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