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Kairouan
Kairouan
(Arabic: القيروان‎  Qeirwān, also known as al-Qayrawan), is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate
Kairouan Governorate
in Tunisia. It is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage site. The city was founded by the Umayyads
Umayyads
around 670.[1] In the period of Caliph
Caliph
Mu'awiya (reigned 661–680), it became an important centre for Sunni
Sunni
Islamic scholarship and Quranic learning,[2] and thus attracting a large number of Muslims from various parts of the world, next only to Mecca and Medina. The holy Mosque of Uqba
Mosque of Uqba
is situated in the city.[3][4] In 2014, the city had about 186,653 inhabitants.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography 3 History

3.1 History of the Jews in Kairouan

4 Climate 5 Religion 6 Main sights

6.1 Great Mosque
Mosque
of Sidi-Uqba 6.2 Mosque
Mosque
of the Three Gates 6.3 Mosque
Mosque
of the Barber 6.4 Other buildings

7 Food 8 In popular culture 9 Twin towns 10 References 11 External links

Etymology[edit] The name (Arabic: القيروان‎ Al-Qairuwân is an Arabic deformation, of the Persian word کاروان kârvân, meaning "military/civilian camp" (kâr [war/military] (akin to Latin guer, + vân [outpost]), "caravan", or "resting place" (see caravanserai).[5][6][7] Geography[edit] Kairouan, the capital of Kairouan
Kairouan
Governorate, lies south of Sousse, 50 km (31 mi) from the east coast, 75 km (47 mi) from Monastir and 184 km (114 mi) from Tunis. History[edit]

The Aghlabid
Aghlabid
Basins

Mosque
Mosque
of Oqba

A photochrome print of Kairouan
Kairouan
taken from the Great Mosque
Mosque
in 1899.

The foundation of Kairouan
Kairouan
dates to about the year 670 when the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi
Uqba ibn Nafi
of Amir Muauia selected a site in the middle of a dense forest, then infested with wild beasts and reptiles, as the location of a military post for the conquest of the West. Formerly, the city of Kamounia was located where Kairouan
Kairouan
now stands. It had housed a Byzantine garrison before the Arab
Arab
conquest, and stood far from the sea – safe from the continued attacks of the Berbers who had fiercely resisted the Arab
Arab
invasion. Berber resistance continued, led first by Kusaila, whose troops killed Uqba at Biskra
Biskra
about fifteen years after the establishment of the military post,[8] and then by a Berber woman called Al-Kahina
Al-Kahina
who was killed and her army defeated in 702. Subsequently, there occurred a mass conversion of the Berbers to Islam. Kharijites
Kharijites
or Islamic
Islamic
"outsiders" who formed an egalitarian and puritanical sect appeared and are still present on the island of Djerba. In 745, Kharijite
Kharijite
Berbers captured Kairouan, which was already at that time a developed city with luxuriant gardens and olive groves. Power struggles continued until Ibrahim ibn al-Aghlab
Ibrahim ibn al-Aghlab
recaptured Kairouan
Kairouan
at the end of the 8th century. In 800 Caliph
Caliph
Harun ar-Rashid in Baghdad
Baghdad
confirmed Ibrahim as Emir
Emir
and hereditary ruler of Ifriqiya. Ibrahim ibn al-Aghlab
Ibrahim ibn al-Aghlab
founded the Aghlabid
Aghlabid
dynasty which ruled Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
between 800 and 909. The new Emirs embellished Kairouan
Kairouan
and made it their capital. It soon became famous for its wealth and prosperity, reaching the levels of Basra
Basra
and Kufa
Kufa
and giving Tunisia one of its golden ages long sought[by whom?] after the glorious days of Carthage. The Aghlabites built the great mosque and established in it a university that was a centre of education both in Islamic
Islamic
thought and in the secular sciences. Its role can be compared to that of the University of Paris
University of Paris
in the Middle Ages. In the 9th century, the city became a brilliant focus of Arab
Arab
and Islamic
Islamic
cultures attracting scholars from all over the Islamic
Islamic
World. In that period Imam
Imam
Sahnun and Asad ibn al-Furat
Asad ibn al-Furat
made of Kairouan
Kairouan
a temple of knowledge and a magnificent centre of diffusion of Islamic
Islamic
sciences. The Aghlabids also built palaces, fortifications and fine waterworks of which only the pools remain. From Kairouan
Kairouan
envoys from Charlemagne
Charlemagne
and the Holy Roman Empire returned with glowing reports of the Aghlabites palaces, libraries and gardens – and from the crippling taxation imposed to pay for their drunkenness and sundry debaucheries. The Aghlabite
Aghlabite
also pacified the country and conquered Sicily in 827.[9]

Gold coin of the Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliph
Caliph
al-Mahdi, minted in Kairouan
Kairouan
in 912 CE.

Bab Chouhada Street in 1899

In 893, through the mission of Abdullah al Mahdi, the Kutama Berbers from the west of the country started the movement of the Shiite Fatimids. The year 909 saw the overthrow of the Sunni
Sunni
Aghlabites who ruled Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
and the establishment of the Shiite
Shiite
Fatimid
Fatimid
dynasty. During the rule of the Fatimids, Kairouan
Kairouan
was neglected and lost its importance: the new rulers resided first in Raqqada but soon moved their capital to the newly built Al Mahdiyah
Al Mahdiyah
on the coast of modern Tunisia. After succeeding in extending their rule over all of central Maghreb, an area consisting of the modern countries of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia
Tunisia
and Libya, they eventually moved east to Egypt
Egypt
to found Cairo
Cairo
making it the capital of their vast Caliphate
Caliphate
and leaving the Zirids
Zirids
as their vassals in Ifriqiya. Governing again from Kairouan, the Zirids
Zirids
led the country through another artistic, commercial and agricultural heyday. Schools and universities flourished, overseas trade in local manufactures and farm produce ran high and the courts of the Zirids
Zirids
rulers were centres of refinement that eclipsed those of their European contemporaries. When the Zirids
Zirids
declared their independence from Cairo
Cairo
and their conversion to Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
in 1045 by giving allegiance to Baghdad, the Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliph
Caliph
Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah
Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah
sent as punishment hordes of troublesome Arab
Arab
tribes ( Banu Hilal
Banu Hilal
and Banu Sulaym) to invade Ifriqiya. These invaders so utterly destroyed Kairouan
Kairouan
in 1057 that it never regained its former importance and their influx was a major factor in the spread of nomadism in areas where agriculture had previously been dominant. Some 1,700 years of intermittent but continual progress was undone within a decade as in most part of the country the land was laid to waste for nearly two centuries. In the 13th century under the prosperous Hafsids
Hafsids
dynasty that ruled Ifriqiya, the city started to emerge from its ruins. It is only under the Husainid Dynasty
Husainid Dynasty
that Kairouan
Kairouan
started to find an honorable place in the country and throughout the Islamic
Islamic
world. In 1881, Kairouan
Kairouan
was taken by the French, after which non-Muslims were allowed access to the city. History of the Jews in Kairouan[edit] Main article: History of the Jews in Kairouan Jews were among the original settlers of Kairouan, and the community played an important role in Jewish history, having been a world center of Talmudic
Talmudic
and Halakhic scholarship for at least three generations.[citation needed] The community disbanded in 1270 CE when the Hafsids
Hafsids
forbade non-Muslims from living in the city; the remaining Jews were forced to convert to Islam
Islam
or to leave.[citation needed] Climate[edit]

Climate data for Kairouan
Kairouan
(1961–1990)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 30.0 (86) 34.0 (93.2) 38.9 (102) 37.8 (100) 44.0 (111.2) 47.0 (116.6) 47.5 (117.5) 48.1 (118.6) 45.0 (113) 40.0 (104) 36.0 (96.8) 29.0 (84.2) 48.1 (118.6)

Average high °C (°F) 16.9 (62.4) 18.3 (64.9) 20.2 (68.4) 23.3 (73.9) 28.3 (82.9) 32.9 (91.2) 36.8 (98.2) 36.3 (97.3) 31.9 (89.4) 26.5 (79.7) 21.6 (70.9) 17.8 (64) 25.9 (78.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) 11.5 (52.7) 12.6 (54.7) 14.2 (57.6) 16.9 (62.4) 21.0 (69.8) 25.4 (77.7) 28.5 (83.3) 28.7 (83.7) 25.4 (77.7) 20.8 (69.4) 15.9 (60.6) 12.5 (54.5) 19.4 (66.9)

Average low °C (°F) 6.2 (43.2) 6.9 (44.4) 8.2 (46.8) 10.6 (51.1) 14.1 (57.4) 17.9 (64.2) 20.6 (69.1) 21.1 (70) 19.1 (66.4) 15.0 (59) 10.3 (50.5) 7.2 (45) 13.1 (55.6)

Record low °C (°F) −4.5 (23.9) −3.0 (26.6) −3.0 (26.6) 0.0 (32) 4.0 (39.2) 6.5 (43.7) 8.0 (46.4) 12.0 (53.6) 9.0 (48.2) 5.5 (41.9) −3.0 (26.6) −3.5 (25.7) −4.5 (23.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 24.0 (0.945) 23.9 (0.941) 33.1 (1.303) 29.8 (1.173) 18.9 (0.744) 10.5 (0.413) 6.7 (0.264) 13.3 (0.524) 39.0 (1.535) 49.2 (1.937) 28.9 (1.138) 35.4 (1.394) 312.7 (12.311)

Average precipitation days 4 5 5 5 4 2 1 2 4 5 4 4 45

Average relative humidity (%) 64 62 62 61 58 53 49 53 59 65 65 65 60

Mean monthly sunshine hours 186.0 190.4 226.3 252.0 300.7 324.0 362.7 334.8 270.0 235.6 207.0 186.0 3,075.5

Mean daily sunshine hours 6.0 6.8 7.3 8.4 9.7 10.8 11.7 10.8 9.0 7.6 6.9 6.0 8.4

Source #1: NOAA[10]

Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst
Deutscher Wetterdienst
(extremes, 1901–1990)[11]

Religion[edit]

The Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kairouan
Kairouan
also known as the Mosque of Uqba
Mosque of Uqba
(Great Mosque
Mosque
of Sidi-Uqba)

The most important mosque in the city is the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Sidi-Uqba (Uqba ibn nafée) also known as the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kairouan. It has been said that seven pilgrimages to this mosque is considered the equivalent of one pilgrimage to Mecca.[12] After its establishment, Kairouan
Kairouan
became an Islamic
Islamic
and Qur'anic learning centre in North Africa. An article by Professor Kwesi Prah[13] describes how during the medieval period, Kairouan
Kairouan
was considered the fourth holiest city in Islam
Islam
after Mecca, Medina
Medina
and Jerusalem.[14] Today, many consider the city as the fourth holiest in Islam.[15] In memory of Sufi
Sufi
saints, Sufi
Sufi
festivals are held in the city.[16]

"A street scene of Kairouan", a 1915 painting by Kazimierz Stabrowski

At the time of its greatest splendor, between the ninth and eleventh centuries AD, Kairouan
Kairouan
was one of the greatest centers of Islamic civilization and its reputation as a hotbed of scholarship covered the entire Maghreb. During this period, the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kairouan
Kairouan
was both a place of prayer and a center for teaching Islamic
Islamic
sciences under the Maliki current. One may conceivably compare its role to that of the University of Paris
University of Paris
during the Middle Ages.[citation needed] In addition to studies on the deepening of religious thought and Maliki jurisprudence, the mosque also hosted various courses in secular subjects such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine and botany. The transmission of knowledge was assured by prominent scholars and theologians which included Sahnun
Sahnun
ibn Sa'id and Asad ibn al-Furat, eminent jurists who contributed greatly to the dissemination of the Maliki thought, Ishaq ibn Imran and Ibn al-Jazzar in medicine, Abu Sahl al-Kairouani and Abd al-Monim al-Kindi in mathematics. Thus the mosque, headquarters of a prestigious university with a large library containing a large number of scientific and theological works, was the most remarkable intellectual and cultural center in North Africa during the ninth, tenth and eleventh centuries.[88][citation needed] A unique religious tradition in Kairouan
Kairouan
was the use of Islamic
Islamic
law to enforce monogamy by stipulating it in the marriage contract, a practice common among both elites and commoners. This stipulation gave a woman legal recourse in the case that her husband sought to take a second wife. Although the introduction of the 1956 Code of Personal Status rendered the tradition obsolete by outlawing polygamy nationwide, some scholars have identified it as a "positive tradition for women within the large framework of Islamic
Islamic
law." [17] Main sights[edit]

Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kairouan
Kairouan
prayer hall

Great Mosque
Mosque
of Sidi-Uqba[edit] The city's main attraction is the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Sidi-Uqba, which is said to largely consist of its original building materials. In fact most of the column stems and capitals were taken from ruins of earlier-period buildings, while others were produced locally. There are 414 marble, granite and porphyry columns in the mosque. Almost all were taken from the ruins of Carthage. Previously, it was forbidden to count them, on pain of blinding.[18] The Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kairouan (Great Mosque
Mosque
of Sidi-Uqba) is considered as one of the most important monuments of Islamic
Islamic
civilization as well as a worldwide architectural masterpiece.[19] Founded by Arab
Arab
general Uqba Ibn Nafi in 670 CE, the present aspect of the mosque dates from the 9th century.[20] The Great Mosque
Mosque
of Sidi-Uqba has a great historical importance as the ancestor of all the mosques in the western Islamic
Islamic
world.[21]

Façade of the Mosque
Mosque
of the Three Gates with its minaret.

Mosque
Mosque
of the Three Gates[edit] The Mosque
Mosque
of the Three Gates was founded in 866. Its façade is a notable example of Islamic
Islamic
architecture.[22] It has three arched doorways surmounted by three inscriptions in Kufic
Kufic
script, interspersed with floral and geometrical reliefs and topped by a carved frieze; the first inscription includes the verses 70–71 in the sura 33 of Quran.[23] The small minaret was added during the restoration works held under the Hafsid
Hafsid
dynasty. The prayer hall has a nave and two aisles, divided by arched columns, parallel to the qibla wall. Mosque
Mosque
of the Barber[edit]

Mosque
Mosque
of the Barber

The Mausoleum of Sidi Sahab, generally known as the Mosque
Mosque
of the Barber, is actually a zaouia located inside the city walls. It was built by the Muradid Hammuda Pasha Bey
Hammuda Pasha Bey
(mausoleum, dome and court) and Murad II Bey (minaret and madrasa). In its present state, the monument dates from the 17th century.[24] The mosque is a veneration place for Abu Zama' al-Balaui, a companion of the prophet Muhammad, who, according to a legend, had saved for himself three hairs of Muhammad's beard, hence the edifice's name.[25] The sepulchre place is accessed from a cloister-like court with richly decorated ceramics and stuccoes. Other buildings[edit]

Street scene

Inside Medina

Kairouan
Kairouan
is also home to:

two large water reservoirs called " Aghlabid
Aghlabid
basins" Mosque
Mosque
of Ansar (traditionally dating to 667, but totally renewed in 1650) Mosque
Mosque
Al Bey (late 17th century) The souk (market place), in the Medina
Medina
quarter, which is surrounded by walls, from which the entrance gates can be seen in the distance. Products that are sold in the souk include carpets, vases and goods made of leather.

Food[edit] Kairouan
Kairouan
is known for its pastries (e.g. zlebia and makroudh). In popular culture[edit] Kairouan
Kairouan
was used as a filming location for the 1981 film Raiders of the Lost Ark, standing in for Cairo.[citation needed] As the film is set in 1936, television antennas throughout the city were taken down for the duration of filming.[citation needed] Twin towns[edit]

Fès, Morocco, since 22 October 1965 Tlemcen, Algeria, since 28 May 1969 Córdoba, Spain, since 10 June 1969 Cairo, Egypt, since 14 March 1976

Samarkand, Uzbekistan, since 5 October 1977 Timbuktu, Mali, since 2 June 1986 Bursa, Turkey, since 26 December 1987[26] Nishapur, Iran, since 26 December 1987

References[edit]

^ Nagendra Kr Singh, International encyclopaedia of Islamic
Islamic
dynasties. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD. 2002. page 1006 ^ Luscombe, David; Riley-Smith, Jonathan, eds. (2004). The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume 2; Volume 4. Cambridge University Press. p. 696. ISBN 9780521414111.  ^ Europa Publications "General Survey: Holy Places" The Middle East and North Africa
North Africa
2003, p. 147. Routledge, 2003. ISBN 1-85743-132-4. "The city is regarded as a holy place for Muslims." ^ Hutchinson Encyclopedia 1996 Edition. Helicon Publishing Ltd, Oxford. 1996. p. 572. ISBN 1-85986-107-5.  ^ "Location and origin of the name of Kairouan". Isesco.org. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2010.  ^ "قيروان" Archived 1 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine.[1][dead link]. Dehkhoda Dictionary. ^ «رابطه دو سویه زبان فارسی–عربی». ماهنامه کیهان فرهنگی. دی 1383، شماره 219. صص 73–77. ^ Conant, Jonathan (2012). Staying Roman : conquest and identity in Africa and the Mediterranean, 439–700. Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 280–281. ISBN 0521196973.  ^ Barbara M. Kreutz, Before the Normans: Southern Italy in the Ninth and Tenth Centuries, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996, p. 48 ^ " Kairouan
Kairouan
Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 24 January 2015.  ^ "Klimatafel von Kairouan
Kairouan
/ Tunesien" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 19 October 2016.  ^ Europa Publications Limited (30 October 2003). The Middle East and North Africa. Europa Publications. p. 150. ISBN 978-1-85743-184-1. Retrieved 17 October 2010.  ^ Director, Centre for Advanced Study of African Societies, Cape Town, South Africa. ^ This was originally a paper submitted to the African Union (AU) Experts’ Meeting on a Strategic Geopolitic Vision of Afro-Arab Relations. AU Headquarters, Addis Ababa, 11–12 May 2004 Towards a Strategic Geopolitic Vision of Afro- Arab
Arab
Relations. "By 670, the Arabs had taken Tunisia, and by 675, they had completed construction of Kairouan, the city that would become the premier Arab
Arab
base in North Africa. Kairouan
Kairouan
was later to become the third holiest city in Islam in the medieval period, after Mecca
Mecca
and Medina, because of its importance as the centre of the Islamic
Islamic
faith in the Maghrib". ^ Dr. Ray Harris; Khalid Koser (30 August 2004). Continuity and change in the Tunisian sahel. Ashgate. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-7546-3373-0. Retrieved 17 October 2010.  ^ " Tunisia
Tunisia
News – Sufi
Sufi
Song Festival starts in Kairouan". News.marweb.com. 25 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-12. [permanent dead link] ^ Largueche, Dalenda (2010). " Monogamy
Monogamy
in Islam: The Case of a Tunisian Marriage Contract" (PDF). Occasional Paper of the IAS School of Social Science.  ^ Mooney, Julie (2004). Ripley's Believe It or Not! Encyclopedia of the Bizarre: Amazing, Strange, Inexplicable, Weird and All True!. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers. p. 47. ISBN 1-57912-399-6.  ^ "The Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kairouan". Kairouan.org. Archived from the original on 6 April 2010. Retrieved 12 April 2010.  ^ "Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kairouan
Kairouan
(Qantara mediterranean heritage)". Qantara-med.org. Retrieved 2010-04-12.  ^ John Stothoff Badeau and John Richard Hayes, ''The Genius of Arab civilization: source of Renaissance''. Taylor & Francis. 1983. p. 104. Books.google.fr. Retrieved 2010-04-12.  ^ Saladin, Henri (1908). Tunis
Tunis
et Kairouan. Voyages à travers l'architecture, l'artisanat et les mœurs du début du XXe siècle. Paris: Henri Laurens.  ^ Kircher, Gisela (1970). Die Moschee des Muhammad
Muhammad
b. Hairun (Drei-Tore-Moschee) in Qairawân/Tunesien. 26. Cairo: Publications de l'Institut archéologique allemand. pp. 141–167.  ^ Mausoleum of Sidi Sahbi (Qantara Mediterranean heritage) Archived 28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ K. A. Berney and Trudy Ring, International dictionary of historic places: Middle East and Africa, Volume 4. Taylor & Francis. 1996. p. 391 ^ "Kardeş Şehirler". Bursa Büyükşehir Belediyesi Basın Koordinasyon Merkez. Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Retrieved 2013-07-27. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Kairouan.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kairouan.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Kairwan.

Official website Kairouan, tourismtunisia.com Kairouan
Kairouan
World heritage Site, whc.unesco.org Kairouan
Kairouan
University Al-Qayrawan, muslimheritage.com Kairwan, jewishencyclopedia.com WorldStatesmen-Tunisia KAIROUAN, The Capital of Islamic
Islamic
Culture Panoramic virtual tour of Kairouan
Kairouan
medina

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Tunisia

Amphitheatre of El Jem Dougga/Thugga Ichkeul National Park Kairouan Medina
Medina
of Sousse Medina
Medina
of Tunis Punic Town of Kerkuane and its Necropolis Site of Carthage

List of World Heritage Sites in Tunisia

Coordinates: 35°40′N 10°06′E / 35.667°N 10.100°E / 35.667; 10.100

v t e

Communes of Tunisia

Ariana Governorate

Aryanah
Aryanah
(seat) Ettadhamen-Mnihla Kalâat el-Andalous Raoued Sidi Thabet La Soukra

Béja
Béja
Governorate

Béja
Béja
(seat) El Maâgoula Goubellat Medjez el-Bab Nefza Téboursouk Testour Zahret Mediou

Ben Arous
Ben Arous
Governorate

Ben Arous
Ben Arous
(seat) Bou Mhel el-Bassatine El Mourouj Ezzahra Hammam Chott Hammam Lif Khalidia Mégrine Mohamedia-Fouchana Mornag Rades

Bizerte
Bizerte
Governorate

Bizerte
Bizerte
(seat) Aousja El Alia Ghar El Melh Mateur Menzel Bourguiba Menzel Jemil Menzel Abderrahmane Metline Raf Raf Ras Jebel Sejenane Tinja

Gabes
Gabes
Governorate

Gabes
Gabes
(seat) Chenini Nahal El Hamma Ghannouch Mareth Matmata Métouia Nouvelle Matmata Oudhref Zarat

Gafsa
Gafsa
Governorate

Gafsa
Gafsa
(seat) El Guettar El Ksar Mdhila Métlaoui Moulares Redeyef Sened

Jendouba
Jendouba
Governorate

Jendouba
Jendouba
(seat) Ain Draham Beni M'Tir Bou Salem Fernana Ghardimaou Oued Melliz Tabarka

Kairouan
Kairouan
Governorate

Kairouan
Kairouan
(seat) Ain Djeloula Alaâ Bou Hajla Chebika Echrarda Oueslatia Haffouz Hajeb El Ayoun Menzel Mehiri Nasrallah Sbikha

Kasserine
Kasserine
Governorate

Kasserine
Kasserine
(seat) Fériana Foussana Haidra Jedelienne Magel Bel Abbes Sbeitla Sbiba Thala Thélepte

Kébili Governorate

Kébili (seat) Douz El Golâa Djemna Souk
Souk
Lahad

Kef Governorate

Le Kef
Le Kef
(seat) Dahmani Jérissa El Ksour Kalaat Senan Kalâat Khasba Menzel Salem Nebeur Sakiet Sidi Youssef Sers Tajerouine Touiref

Mahdia
Mahdia
Governorate

Mahdia
Mahdia
(seat) Bou Merdes Chebba Chorbane El Bradâa El Jem Essouassi Hebira Hiboun Kerker Ksour Essef Mellouleche Ouled Chamekh Rejiche Sidi Alouane

Manouba Governorate

La Manouba
La Manouba
(seat) Borj El Amri Den Den Douar Hicher Djedeida El Battan Oued Ellil Mornaguia Tebourba

Médenine
Médenine
Governorate

Médenine
Médenine
(seat) Ajim Ben Gardane Beni Khedache Houmt Souk Midoun Zarzis

Monastir Governorate

Monastir (seat) Amiret El Fhoul Amiret El Hojjaj Amiret Touazra Bekalta Bembla-Mnara Beni Hassen Bennane-Bodher Bouhjar Cherahil El Masdour Ghenada Jemmal Khniss Ksar Hellal Ksibet el-Médiouni Lamta Menzel Ennour Menzel Farsi Menzel Hayet Menzel Kamel Moknine Ouerdanin Sayada Teboulba

Nabeul
Nabeul
Governorate

Nabeul
Nabeul
(seat) Azmour Béni Khalled Béni Khiar Bou Argoub Dar Allouch Dar Chaabane El Haouaria El Maâmoura El Mida Grombalia Hammam Ghezeze Hammamet Kélibia Kerkouane Korba Korbous Menzel Bouzelfa Menzel Horr Menzel Temime Soliman Somâa Takelsa Tazerka Zaouiet Djedidi

Sfax
Sfax
Governorate

Sfax
Sfax
(seat) Agareb Bir Ali Ben Khélifa Bir Salah Chihia El Ain Graiba Gremda Jebiniana Kerkennah El Hencha Mahres Menzel Chaker Sakiet Eddaier Sakiet Ezzit Skhira Thyna

Sidi Bouzid
Sidi Bouzid
Governorate

Sidi Bouzid
Sidi Bouzid
(seat) Bir El Hafey Cebalet Jilma Menzel Bouzaiane Meknassy Mezzouna Ouled Haffouz Regueb Sidi Ali Ben Aoun

Siliana
Siliana
Governorate

Siliana
Siliana
(seat) Bargou Bou Arada El Aroussa El Krib Gaâfour Kesra Makthar Rouhia Sidi Bou Rouis

Sousse
Sousse
Governorate

Sousse
Sousse
(seat) Akouda Bouficha Enfida Ezzouhour Hammam Sousse Hergla Kalâa Kebira Kalâa Seghira Kondar, Tunisia Ksibet Thrayet Messaadine M'saken Sidi Bou Ali Sidi El Hani Zaouiet Sousse

Tataouine
Tataouine
Governorate

Tataouine
Tataouine
(seat) Bir Lahmar Dehiba Ghomrassen Remada

Tozeur
Tozeur
Governorate

Tozeur
Tozeur
(seat) Degache El Hamma
El Hamma
du Jérid Nefta Tamerza

Tunis
Tunis
Governorate

Tunis
Tunis
(seat) Carthage La Goulette La Marsa Le Bardo Le Kram Sidi Bou Said Sidi Hassine

Zaghouan
Zaghouan
Governorate

Zaghouan
Zaghouan
(seat) El Fahs Djebel Oust Bir Mcherga Nadhour Zriba

Authority control

GND: 4029239-3 BNF: cb1193

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