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Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov (Russian: Пётр Николаевич Краснов; September 22 (September 10 old style), 1869 – January 17, 1947), sometimes referred to in English as Peter Krasnov, was a Don Cossack
Cossack
historian and officer, promoted to Lieutenant General of the Russian army when the revolution broke out in 1917, and one of the leaders of the counter-revolutionary White movement afterwards.

Contents

1 Russian Army 2 Russian Civil War 3 Exile in France
France
and Germany 4 Repatriation and death 5 Personal 6 Honours and awards 7 See also 8 Writings 9 References

Russian Army[edit] Pyotr Krasnov
Pyotr Krasnov
was born in 1869 in Saint Petersburg, son to lieutenant-general Nikolay Krasnov and grandson to general Ivan Krasnov. In 1888, Krasnov graduated from Pavlovsk Military School and later served in the Ataman
Ataman
regiment of the Life Guards. During World War I, he commanded a Cossack
Cossack
brigade and a division, in August–October 1917, of the 3rd Cavalry Corps. During the October Revolution, Alexander Kerensky
Alexander Kerensky
appointed Krasnov commander of the army, which was sent to Petrograd
Petrograd
from the front to suppress the Bolshevik revolution (see Kerensky-Krasnov uprising). However, Krasnov was defeated and taken prisoner. He was released by the Soviet authorities after falsely promising to end his struggle against the revolution. Russian Civil War[edit] Krasnov fled to the Don region and in May 1918, in Novocherkassk, was elected Ataman
Ataman
of the Don Cossack
Cossack
Host. With support from Germany, he equipped the army, which would oust the Soviets
Soviets
from the Don region in May–June 1918. By the middle of June, a Don Army
Don Army
was in the field with 40,000 men, 56 guns and 179 machine-guns. In the second half of 1918, Krasnov advanced towards Povorino-Kamyshin-Tsaritsyn, intending to march on Moscow, but was defeated. After Germany's defeat in World War I, he set his sights on the Entente powers in his search for allies. In January 1919, Krasnov was forced to acknowledge General Denikin's authority over the White movement, despite animosity towards him. Exile in France
France
and Germany[edit] On February 19, 1919, Krasnov fled to Western Europe
Western Europe
after losing the election for the office of Don Ataman.[1] Arriving first in Germany, he moved to France
France
in 1923, where he continued his anti-Soviet activities. In France
France
Krasnov was one of the founders of the Brotherhood of Russian Truth, an anti-communist organization with an underground network in Russia.[2] In exile, Krasnov wrote memoirs and several novels. His famous trilogy From Double Eagle To the Red Flag, in addition to the main plot, with its hero, General Sablin, has several sub-plots which encompass many places, events, and personages. It presents a vast panorama of the Revolution and the Civil War throughout the country. Events are revealed through the fates of many characters, who, in turn, give their own interpretations of the events. Even the revolutionaries have an opportunity to express their views, although, in general, their political expositions seem to be the weakest parts of the novel. The ideology of the book is thus presented polyphonically. The author, although he tends to align himself with his conservative characters, offers no personal opinion of his own. All major themes, such as authority vs. anarchy, respect for human dignity vs. violence, creative work vs. destruction, as well as cruelty and terror, are treated in this polyphonic manner.[3] Krasnov's novels were translated into English, German, French, Serbian and other European languages. During World War II, Krasnov continued his "German orientation" by seeking an alliance with Nazi Germany. He agreed to organize and head Cossack
Cossack
units out of White emigres and Soviet (mostly Cossack) prisoners of war, to be armed by the Nazis. The Nazis, in turn, expected Krasnov to follow their political line and keep to a separatist Cossack
Cossack
orientation. In November 1944, Krasnov refused the appeal of General Andrei Vlasov
Andrei Vlasov
to join the latter's Russian Liberation Army.[citation needed] At the end of the war, Krasnov and his men voluntarily surrendered to British forces in Austria. All of them were promised upon surrender by Major Davis that they, as White Russian emigres, would not be repatriated to the Soviets.[citation needed] Repatriation and death[edit] On May 28, 1945, Pyotr Krasnov
Pyotr Krasnov
was handed over to the Soviets
Soviets
by the British authorities during Operation Keelhaul. He was sentenced to death by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR, together with General Andrei Shkuro, Timofey Domanov and Helmuth von Pannwitz. On January 17, 1947, he was hanged. Personal[edit] On January 17, 2008, Victor Vodolatsky, Ataman
Ataman
of the Don Cossacks
Don Cossacks
and a deputy of the United Russia
Russia
party in the Russian Duma
Russian Duma
proposed the creation of a parliamentary working group for rehabilitation of Pyotr Krasnov. Krasnov is the grandfather of Miguel Krassnoff, an Austrian-born Chilean citizen convicted of numerous crimes against humanity committed during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet.[4] The latter has many supporters who deny these crimes. Among others charges, Miguel Krassnoff was convicted for the "permanent kidnapping" of former communist militants, for whom there is now proof that they are dead.[5] Honours and awards[edit]

Cross of St. George
Cross of St. George
Grade 4 Order of St. Vladimir
Order of St. Vladimir
Grade 4 Order of St. Vladimir
Order of St. Vladimir
Grade 3 Order of St. Anna
Order of St. Anna
Grade 3 Order of St. Anna
Order of St. Anna
Grade 2 Order of St. Stanislaus
Order of St. Stanislaus
Grade 3 Order of St. Stanislaus
Order of St. Stanislaus
Grade Grade 2 Saint George Sword Order of the Star of Ethiopia
Order of the Star of Ethiopia
(Ethiopian Empire)

See also[edit]

Repatriation of Cossacks after World War II

Writings[edit]

From Double Eagle To Red Flag. New York, Duffield and Company, 1926. 2 vols. The Unforgiven. New York, Duffield and Company, 1928. 444 p. The Amazon of the Desert. Trans. by Olga Vitali and Vera Brooke. New York, Duffield, 1929. 272 p. Napoleon And The Cossacks. 1931. Largo: A Novel. New York, Duffield and Green, 1932. 599 p.

References[edit]

^ John Ainsworth, "Sidney Reilly's Reports from South Russia, December 1918-March 1919," Europe-Asia Studies Vol. 50, No. 8 (1998): 1447-1470 ^ SV Volkov, Tragediya Russkogo Officerstva ^ Ludmila A. Foster. The Revolution and the Civil War in Russian Emigre Novels. Russian Review, Vol. 31, No. 2 (Apr., 1972), pp. 153-162 ^ Krasnov family genealogy on Russian ^ http://miguelkrassnoff.com/mk/index.php/en

v t e

Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
/ Russian Civil War

Events

Revolution

February Revolution July Days Kornilov affair October Revolution Kerensky–Krasnov uprising Junker mutiny

Civil War

Russian Civil War Ukrainian War of Independence

Ukrainian–Soviet War Kiev Bolshevik Uprising Polish–Ukrainian War

Finnish Civil War Heimosodat Polish–Soviet War Estonian War of Independence Latvian War of Independence Lithuanian Wars of Independence Red Army invasion of Georgia Armenian–Azerbaijani War Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Siberian Intervention

Groups

Provisional Committee of the State Duma Russian Provisional Government White movement Pro-independence movements Petrograd
Petrograd
Soviet Council of the People's Commissars Military Revolutionary Committee Russian Constituent Assembly

elections

Black Guards Red Guards Group of forces in battle with the counterrevolution in the South of Russia Tsentralna Rada

Ukrainian People's Republic

Parties

Kadets Russian Social Democratic Labour Party

Bolsheviks Mensheviks

Socialist Revolutionary Party

Left SRs

Union of October 17

Figures

Monarchists

Nicholas II of Russia

Provisional Government

Georgy Lvov Pavel Milyukov Alexander Guchkov

White movement

Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel Alexander Kolchak Anton Denikin Pyotr Krasnov Nikolai Yudenich

Bolsheviks

Vladimir Lenin Lev Kamenev Grigory Zinoviev Leon Trotsky Mikhail Frunze Joseph Stalin Semyon Budyonny

Right SRs

Alexander Kerensky Stepan Petrichenko Boris Savinkov

International

Revolutions of 1917–23 German Revolution of 1918–1919 Bavarian Soviet Republic Hungarian Soviet Republic Hungarian–Romanian War Workers' Councils in Poland Polish–Ukrainian War Polish–Soviet War Slovak Soviet Republic Finnish Civil War Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 63998988 LCCN: n82115703 ISNI: 0000 0001 2136 2914 GND: 123577284 SELIBR: 230518 SUDOC: 067352928 BNF: cb11287347g (data) BIBSYS: 90249566 NDL: 00551908 NKC: jn19992000

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