Part of a series on the
Culture of the Punjab
Punjabis (Punjabi: پنجابی, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ), or
Punjabi people, are an ethnic group associated with the Punjab region,
who speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family.
The name Punjab literally means the land of five waters in Persian:
panj ("five") āb ("waters"). The name of the region was
introduced by the
Turko-Persian conquerors of South Asia. Punjab
is often referred to as the breadbasket in both
The coalescence of the various tribes, castes and the inhabitants of
the Punjab into a broader common "Punjabi" identity initiated from the
onset of the 18th century CE. Prior to that the sense and perception
of a common "Punjabi" ethno-cultural identity and community did not
exist, even though the majority of the various communities of the
Punjab had long shared linguistic, cultural and racial
Traditionally, Punjabi identity is primarily linguistic, geographical
and cultural. Its identity is independent of historical origin or
religion, and refers to those who reside in the Punjab region, or
associate with its population, and those who consider the Punjabi
language their mother tongue. Integration and assimilation are
important parts of Punjabi culture, since Punjabi identity is not
based solely on tribal connections. More or less all
the same cultural background.
Punjabi people were a heterogeneous group and were
subdivided into a number of clans called biradari (literally meaning
"brotherhood") or tribes, with each person bound to a clan. However,
Punjabi identity also included those who did not belong to any of the
historical tribes. With the passage of time, tribal structures are
coming to an end and are being replaced with a more cohesive and
holistic society, as community building and group cohesiveness
form the new pillars of Punjabi society. In relative contemporary
Punjabis can be referred to in three most common subgroups;
Punjabi Muslims, Punjabi
Sikhs and Punjabi Hindus.
1 Geographic distribution
Sikh era Punjab
1.2 Partition of Punjab
Punjabis in Pakistan
Punjabis in India
1.5 Punjabi diaspora
1.6 Punjabi homeland
2 History of Punjab
3.1 Punjabi Muslims
3.2 Punjabi Hindus
3.3 Punjabi Sikhs
3.4 Punjabi Christians
4.1 Role of women
4.6 Wedding traditions
4.7 Folk tales
4.9 Traditional dress
5 Notable people
6 See also
9 References and further reading
10 External links
Sikh era Punjab
In the 19th century, Maharaja
Ranjit Singh established a Punjabi
kingdom based around the Punjab. The main geographical footprint
of the country was the
Punjab region to
Khyber Pass in the west, to
Kashmir in the north, to
Sindh in the south, and
Tibet in the east.
The religious demography of the Kingdom was
Hindu (13%). The population was 3.5 million, according to
Amarinder Singh`s The Last Sunset: The Rise and Fall of the Lahore
Durbar. In 1799
Ranjit Singh moved the capital to
Gujranwala, where it had been established in 1763 by his grandfather,
Punjab region was a region straddling
India and the Afghan Durrani
Empire. The following modern-day political divisions made up the
historical Punjabi kingdom:
Map showing the Punjabi
Punjab region till
Multan in south
Panjab (Punjab), Pakistan, with the capital Lahaur (Lahore)
Parts of Punjab, India
Himachal Pradesh, India
Jammu, India, annexed 1808 - 17 June 1822
Kashmir, conquered 5 July 1819 - 15 March 1846,
Gilgit, Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan. (Occupied from 1842 to 1846)
Khyber Pass, Afghanistan/Pakistan
Peshawar, Pakistan (taken in 1818, retaken in 1834)
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas,
Pakistan (documented from Hazara (taken in 1818, again in 1836) to
After Ranjit Singh's death in 1839, the empire was severely weakened
by internal divisions and political mismanagement. This opportunity
was used by the British East
India Company to launch the Anglo-Sikh
Wars. The country was finally annexed and dissolved at the end of the
Second Anglo-Sikh War
Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849 into separate princely states and the
British province of Punjab. Eventually, a Lieutenant Governorship was
Lahore as a direct representative of the British Crown.
Partition of Punjab
The Punjab region, with its rivers. The land of the Punjabi People
The 1947 independence of
India and Pakistan, and the subsequent
partition of Punjab, is considered by historians to be the beginning
of the end of the British Empire. The
UNHCR estimates 14 million
Muslims were displaced during the partition. To
date, this is considered the largest mass migration in human
Until 1947, the province of Punjab was ruled by a coalition comprising
the Indian National Congress, the Sikh-led
Shiromani Akali Dal
Shiromani Akali Dal and the
Muslim League. However, the growth of
Muslim nationalism led
to the All
Muslim League becoming the dominant party in the 1946
Muslim separatism increased, the opposition from Punjabi
Sikhs increased substantially. Communal violence on the eve
of Indian independence led to the dismissal of the coalition
government, although the succeeding League ministry was unable to form
a majority. Along with the province of Bengal, Punjab was partitioned
on religious lines – the Muslim-majority West becoming part of the
Muslim state of Pakistan, and the
Sikh East remaining in
India. Partition was accompanied by massive violence on both sides,
claiming the lives of hundreds of thousands of people. West Punjab
was virtually cleansed of its
Sikh populations, who were
forced to leave for India, while
East Punjab and
Delhi were virtually
cleansed of their
By the 1960s,
Indian Punjab underwent reorganisation as demands for a
linguistic Punjabi state increased (in line with the policy of
linguistic states that had been applied in the rest of India). The
Hindi-speaking areas were formed into the states of Himachal Pradesh
Haryana respectively, leaving a Punjabi speaking majority in the
state of Punjab. In the 1980s,
Sikh separatism combined with popular
anger against the Indian Army's counter-insurgency operations
(especially Operation Bluestar) led to violence and disorder in Indian
Punjab, which only subsided in the 1990s. Political power in Indian
Punjab is contested between the secular Congress Party and the Sikh
religious party Akali Dal and its allies, the Bharatiya Janata Party.
Indian Punjab remains one of the most prosperous of India's states and
is considered the "breadbasket of India."
Subsequent to partition, West
Punjabis made up a majority of the
Pakistani population, and the Punjab province constituted 40% of
Pakistan's total land mass. Today,
Punjabis continue to be the largest
ethnic group in Pakistan, accounting for half of the country's
population. They reside predominantly in the province of Punjab,
Kashmir and in Islamabad Capital Territory. Punjabis
are also found in large communities in the largest city of Pakistan,
Karachi, located in the
India can be found in the states of Punjab, Haryana,
Delhi and the
Union Territory of Chandigarh. Large
Punjabis are also found in the
Jammu region of Jammu
Kashmir and in Rajasthan,
Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh.
Punjabis in Pakistan
Punjabis are numbered as 110,012,442, which make 55% of the population
of Pakistan, and they are the largest ethnic group in
Punjabis found in
Pakistan belong to groups known as
biradaris. In addition, Punjabi society is divided into two divisions,
the zamindar groups or qoums, traditionally associated with farming
and the moeens, who are traditionally artisans. Some zamindars are
further divided into groups such as the Rajputs, Jats, Shaikhs or
Muslim Khatris, Gujjars, Awans, Arains and Syeds. People from
neighbouring regions, such as Kashmiris,
Pashtuns and Baluch, also
form sizeable portion of the Punjabi population. A large number of
punjabis descend from the groups historically associated with skilled
professions and crafts such as Sunar, Lohar, Kumhar, Tarkhan, Julaha,
Mochi, Hajjam, Chhimba Darzi, Teli, Lalari[disambiguation needed],
Qassab, Mallaah, Dhobi,
Mirasi etc.[page needed]
Punjabi people have traditionally and historically been farmers and
soldiers, which has transferred into modern times
with their dominance of agriculture and military fields in Pakistan.
Pakistan have been quite prominent
politically, having had many elected members of parliament. Punjabis
Pakistan have shown a predilection towards the adoption of the Urdu
language but nearly all speak Punjabi, and still identify themselves
as ethnic Punjabis. Religious homogeneity remains
elusive as a predominant
Sunni population with Shia,
Christian minorities. A variety of related sub-groups exist in
Pakistan and are often considered by many Pakistani
Punjabis to be
Punjabis including the Seraikis (who overlap and are
often considered transitional with the Sindhis).
The recent definition of Punjabi people, in Pakistani Punjab, is not
based on racial classification, common ancestry or endogamy, but based
on geographical and cultural basis.
Punjabis in India
The Punjabi-speaking people make 2.8% of India's population as of
2001. The total number of Indian
Punjabis is unknown due to the
fact that ethnicity is not recorded in the Census of India. The Sikhs
are largely concentrated in the modern-day state of Punjab forming 60%
of the population with
Hindus forming 39%. Ethnic
believed to account for at least 35% of Delhi's total population and
are predominantly Hindi-speaking Punjabi Hindus. In
Chandigarh, 80.78% people of the population are Hindus, 13.11% are
Sikhs, 4.87% are
Muslims and minorities are Christians, Buddhists and
Like the Punjabi
Muslim society, these various castes are associated
with particular occupations or crafts.
Indian Punjab is also home to small groups of
Muslims and Christians.
Most of the East Punjab's
Muslims (in today's states of Punjab,
Haryana, Himachal Pradesh,
Delhi and Chandigarh) left for West Punjab
in 1947. However, a small community still exists today, mainly in
Qadian,and Malerkotla, the only
Muslim princely state among the seven
that formed the erstwhile
East Punjab States Union
(PEPSU). The other six (mostly Sikh) states were: Patiala, Nabha,
Kapurthala and Kalsia.
The Indian censuses record the native languages, but not the descent
of the citizens. Linguistic data cannot accurately predict ethnicity:
Punjabis make up a large portion of Delhi's population
but many descendants of the Punjabi
Hindu refugees who came to Delhi
following the partition of
India now speak
Hindi as their first
language. Thus, there is no concrete official data on the ethnic
Delhi and other Indian states.:8–10
Punjab region within
India maintains a strong influence on the
perceived culture of
India towards the rest of the world. Numerous
Bollywood film productions use the
Punjabi language in their songs and
dialogue as well as traditional dances such as bhangra.
been dominated by Punjabi artists including actors such as the Kapoor
family, Dev Anand, Sunil Dutt, Pran, Prem Chopra, Manoj Kumar,
Dharmendra, Rajesh Khanna, Vinod Khanna, Kabir Bedi, Vinod Mehra,
Pankaj Kapur, Sunny Deol, Anil Kapoor, Poonam Dhillon, Juhi Chawla,
Akshay Kumar, Hrithik Roshan, Arjun Kapoor, Sonam Kapoor, Ranbir
Kapoor, Shahid Kapoor, Varun Dhawan, Priyanka Chopra, Parineeti Chopra
and Sidharth Malhotra, singers Mohammed Rafi, Mahendra Kapoor,
Narendra Chanchal, Sukhwinder Singh, Daler Mehndi, Mika Singh,
Badshah, Yo Yo Honey Singh, and Kanika Kapoor. Punjabi Prime Ministers
India include Gulzarilal Nanda,
Inder Kumar Gujral
Inder Kumar Gujral and Manmohan
Singh. There are numerous players in the Indian cricket team both past
and present including Lala Amarnath, Bishen Singh Bedi, Kapil Dev,
Rajinder Singh Ghai, Yograj Singh, Mohinder Amarnath, Navjot Sidhu,
Harbhajan Singh, Yuvraj Singh,
Virat Kohli and Shikhar Dhawan.
Main article: Punjabi diaspora
Punjabi people have emigrated in large numbers to many parts of
the world. In the early 20th century, many
Punjabis began settling in
the United States, including independence activists who formed the
Ghadar Party. The
United Kingdom has a significant number of Punjabis
Pakistan and India. The most populous areas being London,
Birmingham and Glasgow. In
Vancouver and Toronto)
and the United States, (specifically California's Central Valley). In
the 1970s, a large wave of emigration of
Punjabis (predominately from
Pakistan) began to the Middle East, in places such as the UAE, Saudi
Arabia and Kuwait. There are also large communities in East Africa
including the countries of Kenya,
Uganda and Tanzania.
also emigrated to Australia,
New Zealand and Southeast Asia including
Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore and Hong Kong. Of recent times many
Punjabis have also moved to Italy.
According to Pippa Virdee, the 1947 partition of
India and Pakistan
has shadowed the sense of loss of what used to be a homeland nation
Punjabi people in
South Asia and its diaspora. Since the
mid 1980s, there has been a drive for Punjabi cultural revival,
consolidation of Punjabi ethnicity and a virtual Punjabi nation.
According to Giorgio Shani, this is predominantly a Sikh
ethno-nationalism movement led by some
Sikh organizations, and a view
that is not shared by
Punjabi people organizations belonging to other
History of Punjab
Main article: History of Punjab
One of the first known kings of ancient Punjab,
King Porus who fought
Indigenous population flourished in this region, leading to a
developed civilisation in 5th to 4th millennium BC, the ancient
Indus Valley Civilization. Also
Buddhism remnants have been found like
Mankiala which corroborate the Buddhist background of this region as
well.The remains of the ancient city of Taxila, and many ornaments
that have been found in this region, suggests that, one of the
Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization was established at many parts of
Punjab, most notably
Taxila and Harappa, Punjab became a center of
early civilisation from around 3300 BC. During the Vedic Era The
earliest text of
Rigveda were composed in greater Punjab (northwest
India and Pakistan) region.
According to Historians this region was ruled by many small kingdoms
and tribes around 4th and 5th BCE. The earliest known notable local
king of this region was known as King Porus and he fought a
famous Battle of the Hydaspes against Alexander. His kingdom,
known as Pauravas, was situated between Hydaspes (modern Jhelum) and
Acesines (modern day Chenab). These kings fought local battles to
gain more ground.
Taxiles or Omphis another local king from Punjab,
wanted to defeat his eastern adversary Porus in a turf war and he
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great to defeat Porus. This marked the first
intrusion of the West in the Indian subcontinent and Indus valley in
general. But such was the valor of Porus and his kingdom forces in
Punjab, that despite being defeated, he was appreciated by Alexander
the Great for his skill and valor and he was granted further
territories in the North. The other local kings did
not like the fact that Porus was now an ally of Western forces. In
less than ten years an Indian king Chandragupta Maurya defeated
the forces and conquered the Northern Indian regions up to the Kabul
river (in modern-day Afghanistan). Alexander mostly ruled this land
with the help of local allies like Porus.
Centuries later, areas of the
Punjab region were ruled by local kings
followed by the Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Mughals, and others. Islam
arrived in Punjab when the
Umayyad army led by Muhammad bin
Sindh in 711 AD, by defeating Raja Dahir. Some of the
Muslims are said to have settled in the region and adopted the local
culture. Centuries later, the
Ghaznavids introduced aspects of foreign
Persian and Turkic culture in Punjab.
Map showing the sites and extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation.
Harappa was the centre of one of the core regions of the Indus Valley
Civilization, located in central Punjab. The
Harappan architecture and
Harrapan Civilization was one of the most developed in the old Bronze
The earliest written Punjabi dates back to the writing of
poets of the 11th Century. Its literature spread Punjab's unique voice
of peace and spirituality to the entire civilisation of the region.
Regions of North
India and Punjab were annexed into the Afghan Durrani
Empire later on in 1747, being a vulnerable target. However, in
1758, the Marathas captured most of Punjab including
Lahore during its
northwest expansion campaign. After conquering
Peshawar and Attock,
the Marathas defeated the
Durrani Empire in the Battle of Lahore
fought in 1759.The region was lost to the Durranis, however, after the
Third Battle of Panipat. The grandson of Ahmed Shah Durrani (Zaman
Shah Durrani), lost it to Ranjit Singh, a Punjabi Sikh. He was born in
1780 to Maha Singh and Raj Kaur in Gujranwala, Punjab. Ranjit took a
leading role in organising a
Sikh militia and got control of the
Punjab region from Zaman Shah Durrani. Ranjit started a Punjabi
military expedition to expand his territory. Under his command the
Sikh army began invading neighbouring territories outside of Punjab.
Jamrud Fort at the entry of
Khyber Pass was built by Ranjit
Sikh Empire slowly began to weaken after the death of
Hari Singh Nalwa
Hari Singh Nalwa at the
Battle of Jamrud
Battle of Jamrud in 1837. Two years later, in
Ranjit Singh died and his son took over control of the empire.
By 1850 the British took over control of the
Punjab region after
Sikhs in the Anglo-
Sikh wars, establishing their
rule over the region for around the next 100 years as a part of the
British Raj. Many
Punjabis later pledged their allegiance to
the British, serving as sepoys (native soldiers) within the Raj.
Sikhism and Sufism
In ancient and the medieval era, before the arrival of
Islam into the
Hinduism were the predominant
religion in the Punjab region. After
Islam arrived, conversions began
leading to a mixed population of
Muslims and Hindus, and Buddhism
Guru Nanak founded
Sikhism in the 15th
century, the population increasingly became a mix of Hindus, Muslims
and Sikhs, as with the contemporary Punjabis.
The region of Punjab is the birthplace of one monotheistic religion
that is known as Sikhism. Also many well known followers of
Sufism were born in Punjab.
Religion in the Punjab Province
(1941 Census of India)
Due to religious tensions, emigration between
Punjabi people started
far before the partition and dependable records. Shortly prior
to the Partition of British India, Punjab had a slight majority Muslim
population at about 53.2% in 1941, which was an increase from the
previous years. With the division of Punjab and the subsequent
Pakistan and later India, mass migrations of Muslims
Indian Punjab to Pakistan, and those of
Indian Punjab occurred. Today, the majority of Pakistani
Islam with a small
Christian minority, while the
majority of Indian
Punjabis are either
Hindus with a Muslim
minority. Punjab is also the birthplace of
Sikhism and the movement
Following the independence of
Pakistan and the subsequent partition of
British India, a process of population exchange took place in 1947 as
Muslims began to leave
India and headed to the newly created Pakistan
Sikhs left Pakistan for the newly created state of
India. As a result of these population exchanges, both parts are
now relatively homogeneous, where religion is concerned.
Population trends for major religious groups in the Punjab Province of
Other religions / No religion
See also: Punjabi Muslims
In 2017 places the total population of
Punjabi Muslims to be
110,012,442 (~75% of all Punjabis), with 97% of
Punjabis who live in
Pakistan following Islam, in contrast to Punjabi
Sikhs and Punjabi
Hindus who predominantly live in India.
A variety of
Muslim dynasties and kingdoms ruled the Punjab region,
Ghaznavids under Mahmud of Ghazni, the Delhi
Mughal Empire and finally the Durrani Empire. The
province became an important centre and
Lahore was made into a second
capital of the Ghaznavid Empire. The
Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal
Empire ruled the region.
Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the
Punjab region also played the dominant role in bringing
Sufis also comprised the educated elites of the
Punjab for many centuries. Early classical Punjabi epics, such as Heer
Ranjha, Mirza Sahiban, etc. were written by the
Sufis like Waris
Muslims established Punjabi
Shahmukhi as the predominant script of the
Punjab, as well as made major contributions to the music, art, cuisine
and culture of the region. The
Mughals controlled the region from 1524
until 1739 and would also lavish some parts of the province with
building projects such as the Shalimar Gardens and the Badshahi
Mosque, both situated in Lahore. The
Muslim establishment in the
Punjab occurred over a period of several centuries lasting until
towards the end of the
British Raj and the division of the Punjab
India in August 1947. After the
Pakistan in 1947, the minority
Hindus and Sikhs
India while the
Muslim refugees from
India settled in the
Muslims constitute only 1.53% of Eastern
India as now the majority of
Muslims live in Western Punjab
The vast majority of Pakistan's population are native speakers of the
Punjabi language and it is the most spoken language in Pakistan. The
majority of Pakistani
Punjabis speak the standard Punjabi dialect of
Majhi, which is considered the Punjabi dialect of the educated class,
as well as
Hindko and Saraiki).
Pakistan use the Persian script to write the Punjabi language.
See also: Punjabi Hindus
Punjabi Hindus are mostly found in
Indian Punjab and in
neighboring states like Haryana,
Himachal Pradesh and Delhi, which
together forms a part of the historical greater Punjab region. Many of
Punjabis from the Indian capital
Delhi are immigrants and
their descendants, from various parts of Western Pakistani Punjab.
Punjabi Hindus can also be found in the surrounding areas as well
as the recent cosmopolitan migrants in other big cities like Mumbai.
There has also been continuous migration of
Punjabi Hindus to western
countries like USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, European Union,
UAE and UK.
Punjabis speak different dialects including Lahnda, as well
as Majhi (Standard Punjabi) and others like
Doabi and Malwi. Some
still have managed to retain the
Punjabi dialects spoken in Western
Punjab, but many have also adopted Hindi. The
Punjabis in India
use the Gurmukhi or
Nāgarī script to write the Punjabi language.
See also: Sikhs
Sikhi from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner", is a
monotheistic religion and nation originated in the
Punjab region of
South Asia during the 15th century. The fundamental beliefs of
Sikhi, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include
faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, unity and
equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for
social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest
conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life.
Being one of the youngest amongst the major world religions, with
25-28 million adherents worldwide, Sikhi is the fifth- largest
religion in the world.
Sikhs form a majority of close to 58% in the modern day Punjab, India.
Gurmukhi is the writing script used by
Sikhs and for scriptures of
Sikhism. It is used in official documents in parts of
elsewhere. The tenth living Guru of Sikhs,
Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh (1666
– 1708) established the Khalsa Brotherhood, and set for them a code
Christianity in Punjab,
Christianity in Punjab,
Sadhu Sundar Singh, an influential Punjabi
Christian missionary from
Missionaries accompanied the colonising forces from Portugal, France,
and Great Britain.
Christianity was mainly brought by the British
India in the later 18th and 19th century.
The total number of Punjabi Christians in
Pakistan is approximately
2,800,000 and 300,000 in Indian Punjab. Of these, approximately half
Roman Catholic and half Protestant. Many of the modern Punjabi
Christians are descended from converts during British rule; initially,
Christianity came from the "upper levels of Punjab
society, from the privileged and prestigious", including "high caste"
Hindu families, as well as
Muslim families. However, other
modern Punjabi Christians have converted from Churas. The Churas were
largely converted to
Christianity in North
India during the British
raj. The vast majority were converted from the
communities of Punjab, and to a lesser extent
Hindu Churas; under the
influence of enthusiastic British army officers and Christian
missionaries. Consequently, since the independence they are now
Pakistani Punjab and Indian Punjab. Large numbers of
Sikhs were also converted in the
Moradabad district and the
Bijnor district of Uttar Pradesh.
Rohilkhand saw a mass conversion
of its entire population of 4500
Sikhs into the Methodist
Sikh organisations became alarmed at the rate of
conversions among high caste
Sikh families, and as a result, they
responded by immediately dispatching
Sikh missionaries to counteract
the conversions.
Main article: Punjabi culture
Punjabi culture is the culture of the Punjab region. It is one of the
oldest and richest cultures in world history, dating from ancient
antiquity to the modern era. The
Punjabi culture is the culture of the
Punjabi people, who are now distributed throughout the world. The
scope, history, sophistication and complexity of the culture are vast.
Some of the main areas include Punjabi poetry, philosophy,
spirituality, artistry, dance, music, cuisine, military weaponry,
architecture, languages, traditions, values and history. Historically,
the Punjab/Punjabis, in addition to their rural-agrarian lands and
culture, have also enjoyed a unique urban cultural development in two
great cities, Lahore and Amritsar.
Role of women
Sophia Duleep Singh, a prominent
granddaughter of Maharaja
Ranjit Singh of Punjab (1876–1948)
In the traditional
Punjabi culture women look after the household and
children. Also women in general manage the finances of the household.
Moreover, Punjabi women fought in the past along with the men when the
time arose. Majority of Punjabi women were considered as warriors upon
a time, they excelled in the art of both leadership and war. They are
still considered and treated as leaders among many Punjabi villages.
In Sikhism, it is stated that women are to be equal to men in all
aspects of life.
Mai Bhago is a good example in this regard. Punjabi
Sikh women also have a strong artistic tradition.
Amrita Pritam was a
notable poet in the 20th century.
Amrita Shergill was a renowned
Rupi Kaur is a modern-day example of this as well.
She was followed by many other women of repute.
Main article: Punjabi language
Punjabi is the most spoken language in
Pakistan and eleventh most
spoken language in India. According to the
estimate, there are 130 million native speakers of the Punjabi
language, which makes it the ninth most widely spoken language in the
world. According to a 2008 estimate,[original research?] there
are approximately 76,335,300 native speakers of Punjabi in
Pakistan, and according to the Census of India, there
are over 29,102,477 Punjabi speakers in India. Punjabi is also
spoken as a minority language in several other countries where
Punjabis have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United Kingdom
(where it is the second most commonly used language) and Canada,
in which Punjabi has now become the fourth most spoken language after
English, French and Chinese, due to the rapid growth of immigrants
Pakistan and India. There are also sizeable communities in
the United States, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda,
Persian Gulf countries,
Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore,
Australia and New Zealand.
Punjabis are an ethno-linguistic group with Indo-Aryan roots, and
are culturally related to the other
Indo-Aryan peoples of South Asia.
There are an estimated 102 million Punjabi speakers around the
world. If regarded as an ethnic group, they are among the world's
largest. In South Asia, they are the second largest ethnic group after
the Bengali People.
The main language of the
Punjabi people is Punjabi and its associated
dialects, which differ depending on the region of Punjab the speaker
is from; there are notable differences in the
Lahnda languages, spoken
in the Pakistani Punjab. In the Pakistani Punjab, the vast majority
still speak Punjabi, even though the language has no governmental
support. In the Indian Punjab, most people speak Punjabi. English is
sometimes used, and older people who lived in the undivided Punjab may
be able to speak and write in Urdu. The Punjabi languages have always
absorbed numerous loanwords from surrounding areas and provinces (and
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Main article: Punjabi cuisine
Sarson da saag, popular vegetable dish of the Punjabi people.
Punjabi cuisine has an immense range of dishes and has become
world-leader in the field; so much so that many entrepreneurs that
have invested in the sector have built large personal fortunes due to
the popularity of
Punjabi cuisine throughout the world. Punjabi
cuisine uses unique spices. The
Punjabi cuisine has become
popular in the world, not only due to its intrinsic quality but, due
to the fact that the
Punjabi diaspora is very much visible in the
western world especially, the UK,
Canada and the U.S. The popular
dishes are Tandoori chicken, Dal makhni, chicken tikka lababdar, Saron
da saag and stuffed or un stuffed naans (a type of unleavened bread).
Music of Punjab
Music of Punjab and Folk music of Punjab
Bhangra describes dance-oriented popular music with Punjabi rhythms,
developed since the 1980s. The name refers to one of the traditional
and folkloric Punjabi dances. Bhangra music is appreciated all over
Sufi music and
Qawali are other important genres in
Main article: Punjabi dance
Owing to the long history of the
Punjabi culture and of the Punjabi
people, there are a large number of dances normally performed at times
of celebration, the time of festivals known as Melas and the most
prominent dances are at Punjabi weddings, where the elation is usually
particularly intense. Punjabi dances are performed either by men or by
women. The dances range from solo to group dances and also sometimes
dances are done along with musical instruments like Dhol, Flute, Supp,
Dhumri, Chimta etc. Other common dances that both men and women
perform are Karthi, Jindua, and Dandass. "Bhangra" dance is the
most famous aspect of
Punjabi dance tradition. Its popularity has
attained a level where a music is produced with the intent of aiding
people to carry out this form of dancing.
Main article: Punjabi wedding traditions
Punjabi wedding traditions
Punjabi wedding traditions and ceremonies are conducted in Punjabi,
and are a strong reflection of Punjabi culture. Many local songs are a
part of the wedding and are known as boliyan. While the actual
religious marriage ceremony among Muslims, Sikhs, Hindus, and Jains
may be conducted in Arabic, Punjabi, Sanskrit, by the Kazi, Pandit or
Granthi, there are also many commonalities in ritual, song, dance,
food, make-up and dress.
The Punjabi wedding has many rituals and ceremonies that have evolved
since traditional times. Punjabi receptions of all sorts are known to
be very energetic, filled with loud Bhangra music, people dancing, and
a wide variety of Punjabi food.
Main article: Punjabi folklore
The folk tales of Punjab include many stories which are passing
through generations and includes folk stories like Heer Ranjha, Mirza
Sohni Mahiwal etc. to name a few.
Punjabi festivals and Festivals in Lahore
Vaisakhi, Jashan-e-Baharan, Basant, Kanak katai da mela ( Wheat
cutting celebrations ) and many more. The jagrātā, also called
jāgā or jāgran, means an all night vigil. This type of vigil is
India and is usually held to worship a deity with
song and ritual. The goal is to gain the favour of the Goddess, to
obtain some material benefit, or repay her for one already received.
The Goddess is invoked by the devotees to pay them a visit at the
location of the jagrātā, whether it be in their own homes or
communities, in the form of a flame.
Portrait of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, dressed in the traditional male
attire of Punjab (1718–1783)
Main article: Dastar
A Dastaar is an item of headgear associated with Sikhi and is an
important part of the Punjabi and
Sikh culture. The symbolic article
of the nation represents honour, self-respect, courage, spirituality,
and piety. Wearing a
Sikh dastaar, or turban, is mandatory for all
Sikh men and women. In ancient times, two
Punjabis would exchange their turbans to show friendship towards each
other. Prior to Sikhi, only kings, royalty, and those of high stature
Main article: Shalwar kameez
A Punjabi suit that features three items - a qameez (top), salwar
(bottom) and dupatta (scarf) is the traditional female attire of
the Punjabi people. A qameez is a usually loose-fitted outer
garment from upper thigh to mid-calf length. Along with the qameez,
Punjabi women wear a salwaar that consists of long trousers drawn at
the waist and tapered to the ankle. The other complementary
feature of the Punjabi suit is the dupatta; often used to cover the
chest and head. Among the Punjabi people, the dupatta has long
been a symbol of modesty.
Main article: Kurta
Kurta pajama that comprises two items - a kurta (top) and pajama
(bottom) is the traditional male attire of the Punjabi people.
Main article: Sports in Punjab
Various types of sports are played in Punjab. They are basically
divided into outdoor and indoor sports.
Special emphasis is put to
develop both the mental and physical capacity while playing sports.
That is why recently sports like Speed reading, Mental abacus,
historical and IQ tests are arranged as well. Indoor sports are
specially famous during the long summer season in Punjab. Also indoor
sports are played by children in homes and in schools.
vary famous indigenous sports among children along with Parcheesi.
Pittu Garam is also famous among children. Stapu is famous among young
girls of Punjab. Also many new games are included with the passage of
time. The most notable are Carrom, Ludo (board game), Scrabble, Chess,
Draughts, Go Monopoly. The Tabletop games games include billiards and
Backgammon locally known as Dimaagi Baazi( Mental game) is
famous in some regions as well.
The outdoor sports include Kusti (a wrestling sport), Kabaddi, Rasa
Kashi (Tug Of War), Patang (Kite Flying) and Naiza Baazi or Tent
pegging (a cavalry sport).Gatka, is also taken as a form of sports.
Punjab being part of South Asia, the sport of cricket is very popular.
New forms of sports are also being introduced and adopted in
particular by the large overseas Punjabis, such as Ice hockey, Soccer,
Boxing, Mixed martial arts,
Rugby union as part of the globalisation
Main articles: List of Punjabis, List of Punjabi authors, List of
Punjabi-language poets, and List of Punjabi singers
Dialects of the Punjab
^ Calculation based on the percentage of
Punjabis and the 2017
estimate of the total population of
Pakistan in the CIA World
^ "Punjabi Population In
India - State wise details".
^ McDonnell, John (5 December 2006). "Punjabi Community". House of
Commons. Retrieved 3 August 2016. We now estimate the Punjabi
community at about 700,000, with Punjabi established as the second
language certainly in London and possibly within the United
^ "NHS Profile, Canada, 2011, Census Data". Government of Canada,
Statistics Canada. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
^ US Census Bureau American Community Survey (2009-2013) See Row #62
^ Top ten languages spoken at home in
Australia Archived 9 July 2017
at the Wayback Machine.
^ Strazny, Philipp (1 February 2013). "Encyclopedia of Linguistics".
Routledge – via Google Books.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 December 2013.
Retrieved 17 March 2014.
^ a b c Wade Davis; K. David Harrison; Catherine Herbert Howell
(2007). Book of Peoples of the World: A Guide to Cultures. National
Geographic. pp. 132–133. ISBN 978-1-4262-0238-4.
^ 522 Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World Check url= value
(help). Elsevier. 2010. pp. 522–523.
^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (2013). Punjab: A History from Aurangzeb to
Mountbatten. New Delhi, India, Urbana, Illinois: Aleph Book Company.
^ Canfield, Robert L. (1991). Persia in Historical Perspective.
Cambridge, United Kingdom:
Cambridge University Press. p. 1
("Origins"). ISBN 0-521-52291-9.
^ "Punjab, bread basket of India, hungers for change". Reuters. 30
^ "Columbia Water Center Released New Whitepaper: "Restoring
Groundwater in Punjab, India's Breadbasket" – Columbia Water
Center". Water.columbia.edu. 7 March 2012. Retrieved 12 July
^ Malhotra, edited by Anshu; Mir, Farina (2012). Punjab
reconsidered : history, culture, and practice. New Delhi: Oxford
University Press. ISBN 9780198078012. CS1 maint: Extra text:
authors list (link)
^ Ayers, Alyssa (2008). "Language, the Nation, and Symbolic Capital:
The Case of Punjab" (PDF). Journal of Asian Studies. 67 (3): 917–46.
^ Thandi, edited and introduced by Pritam Singh and Shinder S. (1996).
Globalisation and the region : explorations in Punjabi identity.
Coventry, United Kingdom: Association for Punjab Studies (UK).
ISBN 1874699054. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
^ Thandi, edited by Pritam Singh, Shinder Singh (1999). Punjabi
identity in a global context. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
ISBN 019-564-8641. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
^ Singh, Prtiam (2012). "'Globalisation and Punjabi Identity:
Resistance, Relocation and Reinvention (Yet Again!)'" (PDF). Journal
of Punjab Studies. 19 (2): 153–72.
^ "Languages : Indo-European Family". Krysstal.com. Retrieved 12
^ Albert V., Carron; Lawrence R. Brawley (December 2012). "Cohesion:
Conceptual and Measurement Issues". http://sgr.sagepub.com/ :
Small Group Research. 43 (6). External link in journal= (help)
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
Webpage for Group Cohesiveness
^ Mukherjee, Protap; Lopamudra Ray Saraswati (20 January 2011).
"Levels and Patterns of Social Cohesion and Its Relationship with
Development in India: A Woman's Perspective Approach" (PDF). Ph.D.
Scholars, Centre for the Study of Regional Development School of
Social Sciences Jawaharlal Nehru University New
Delhi – 110 067,
^ Thandi, edited and introduced by Pritam Singh and Shinder S. (1996).
Globalisation and the region : explorations in Punjabi identity.
Coventry, United Kingdom: Association for Punjab Studies (UK).
ISBN 1-874699-054. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
^ Gupta, S.K. (1985). The Scheduled Castes in Modern Indian Politics:
Their Emergence as a Political Context. New Delhi, India: Munshiram
Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 121–122.
^ "Ranjit Singh: A Secular
Sikh Sovereign by K.S. Duggal. (Date:1989.
ISBN 8170172446)". Exoticindiaart.com. 3 September 2015. Retrieved
^ "Ranjit Singh: A Secular
Sikh Sovereign by K.S. Duggal. (Date:1989.
ISBN 81-7017-244-6)". Exoticindiaart.com. 1 February 2009. Retrieved 9
^ World and Its Peoples: Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern
Africa. Marshall Cavendish. 2007. p. 411.
^ The Masters Revealed, (Johnson, p. 128)
^ Britain and
Tibet 1765–1947, (Marshall, p.116)
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Pakistan Princely States". Worldstatesmen.org.
Retrieved 9 August 2009.
^ The Khyber Pass: A History of Empire and Invasion, (Docherty, p.187)
^ The Khyber Pass: A History of Empire and Invasion, (Docherty,
^ Bennett-Jones, Owen; Singh, Sarina,
Pakistan & the Karakoram
Highway Page 199
^ Lloyd, Trevor Owen (1996). The British Empire 1558–1995. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0-19-873134-5. Retrieved 22 July
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^ Dr Crispin Bates (23 December 2015). "The Hidden Story of Partition
and its Legacies". BBC. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
^ Ahmed, Ishtiaq (2012). The Punjab bloodied, partitioned and
cleansed : unravelling the 1947 tragedy through secret British
reports and first-person accounts. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey Richard V. Weekes,
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^ "Census 2011: %age of
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^ indiatvnews (6 February 2015). "
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India TV News.
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^ Jupinderjit Singh. "Why
Punjabis are central to
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^ a b Sanjay Yadav (2008). The Invasion of Delhi. Worldwide Books.
^ Eltringham, Nigel; Maclean, Pam (2014). Remembering Genocide. New
York: Routledge. p. 'No man's land'. ISBN 9781317754213.
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^ Giorgio Shani (2007).
Sikh Nationalism and Identity in a Global Age.
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^ "Taxila, Pakistan: Traditional and Historical Architecture".
^ Jona Lendering (28 May 2008). "Taxila". Livius.org.
^ "Indus Valley Civilization". Harappa.com. 1 February 2010.
^ "The Ancient Indus Valley and the
British Raj in
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earliest religious poetry of India, Oxford University Press,
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^ "Alexander The Great in
Jhelum with Porus, the Indian
^ __start__ (4 April 2012). "Battle of Hydaspes ( Jhelum
Punjab)_Alexander vs Porus ( Local King in Punjab, Former North
^ "Biographies: Chandragupta Maurya :: 0 A.D." Wildfire
^ Kivisild et al. (2003)
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MAHARAJA RANJIT SINGH – The
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^ Muhammad ibn Ahmad Biruni; Edward C. Sachau (Translator) (1888).
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^ Encyclopaedia Britannica. "Historical Development of
Buddhism under the Guptas and Palas". Retrieved 13 September
^ http://www.sikhs.org/summary.htm :
Sikh Religious Philosophy
^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/sikhism/ : BBC Report
BBC report about Sufism
^ Gaur, edited by Surinder Singh, Ishwar Dayal (2009).
Punjab : mystics, literature, and shrines. Delhi: Aakar Books.
ISBN 8189833936. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
^ a b Gopal Krishan. "
Demography of the Punjab (1849–1947)" (PDF).
Retrieved 15 October 2015.
^ Jones. (2006). Socio-religious reform movements in British India
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Cambridge University Press
^ Jones, R. (2007). The great uprising in India, 1857–58: Untold
stories, Indian and British (worlds of the east
^ "Journal of Punjab Studies – Center for
Sikh and Punjab Studies
– UC Santa Barbara" (PDF).
Ahmadiyya Community – Al
Islam Online – Official
^ .South Asia: British
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^ Avari, B. (2007). India: The ancient past.
^ John Louis Esposito,
Islam the Straight Path, Oxford University
Press, 15 January 1998, p. 34.
^ Lewis (1984), pp. 10, 20
^ Ali, Abdullah Yusuf (1991). The Holy Quran. Medina: King Fahd Holy
Qur-an Printing Complex, pg. 507
^ Waqar Pirzada, Chasing Love Up against the Sun, Xlibris,
^ Peers, Gooptu. (2012).
India and the British empire (oxford history
of the British empire companion). Oxford University Press.
^ Bryant, G. (2013). The emergence of British power in India,
1600–1784 (worlds of the east
India company). BOYE6.
^ a b c Peter T. Daniels; William Bright (1996). The World's Writing
Systems. Oxford University Press. p. 395.
^ W.Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1993).
Sikhism and Christianity: A
Comparative Study (Themes in Comparative Religion). Wallingford,
United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 117.
^ Christopher Partridge (1 November 2013). Introduction to World
Religions. Fortress Press. pp. 429–.
^ Sewa Singh Kalsi. Sikhism. Chelsea House, Philadelphia.
^ William Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their
Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press.
^ Teece, Geoff (2004). Sikhism:
Religion in focus. Black Rabbit Books.
p. 4. ISBN 978-1-58340-469-0.
^ Cole, W. Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1978). The Sikhs: Their
Religious Beliefs and Practices. Routledge. p. 37.
^ John M Koller (2016). The Indian Way: An Introduction to the
Philosophies & Religions of India. Routledge. pp. 312–313.
^ Jones, Kenneth W. (1976). Arya Dharm:
Hindu Consciousness in
19th-century Punjab. University of California Press. p. 12.
Christian conversion followed patterns of
previous religious inroads, striking at the two sections of the social
structure. Initial conversions came from the upper levels of Punjab
society, from the privileged and prestigious. Few in number and won
individually, high caste converts accounted for far more public
attention and reaction to
Christian conversion than the numerically
superior successes among the depressed. Repeatedly, conversion or the
threat of conversion among students at mission schools, or members of
the literate castes, produced a public uproar.
^ Day, Abby (28 December 2015). Contemporary Issues in the Worldwide
Anglican Communion: Powers and Pieties. Ashgate Publishing.
p. 220. ISBN 9781472444158. The Anglican mission work in the
northern part of the Indian subcontinent was primarily carried out by
CMS and USPG in the Punjab Province (Gabriel 2007, 10), which covered
most parts of the present state of Pakistan, particularly Lahore,
Karachi (Gibbs 1984, 178-203). A native subcontinental
church began to take shape with people from humbler backgrounds, while
converts from high social caste preferred to attend the worship with
the English (Gibbs 1984, 284).
^ Moghal, Dominic (1997). Human person in Punjabi society: a tension
between religion and culture.
Christian Study Centre. Those Christians
who were converted from the "high caste" families both
Muslims look down upon those Christians who were converted from the
low caste, specially from the untouchables. access-date=
requires url= (help)
^ Alter, J.P and J. Alter (1986) In the Doab and Rohilkhand: north
Indian Christianity, 1815–1915. I.S.P.C.K publishing p183
^ Alter, J.P and J. Alter (1986) In the Doab and Rohilkhand: north
Indian Christianity, 1815–1915. I.S.P.C.K publishing p196
^ Chadha, Vivek (23 March 2005). Low Intensity Conflicts in India: An
Analysis. SAGE Publications. p. 174. ISBN 9780761933250. 'In
1881 there were 3,976 Christians in the Punjab. By 1891 their number
had increased to 19,547, by 1901 to 37,980, by 1911 to 163,994 and by
1921 to 315,931 persons' (see Figure 8.1). However, the
more alarmed when some of the high caste families starting
^ For various notable
Punjabis belonging to this venerable city,
please also see List of families of Lahore
^ Ian Talbot, 'Divided Cities:
Amritsar in the aftermath of
Partition', Karachi:OUP, 2006, pp.1–4 ISBN 0-19-547226-8
^ "Piro Preman".
^ Malhotra, Anshu. "Telling her tale? Unravelling a life in conflict
in Peero’s Ik Sau Saṭh Kāfiaṅ. (one hundred and sixty kafis)."
Indian Economic & Social History Review 46.4 (2009): 541–578.
^ Ethnologue. 15th edition (2005).
^ According to statpak.gov.pk Archived 17 February 2006 at the Wayback
Machine. 44.15% of the Pakistani people are native Punjabi speakers.
This gives an approximate number of 76,335,300 Punjabi speakers in
^ Census of India, 2001
^ "Punjabi Community". The
United Kingdom Parliament.
^ "Punjabi is 4th most spoken language in Canada" The Times of India
^ Jakob R. E. Leimgruber (2013). Singapore English: Structure,
Variation, and Usage.
Cambridge University Press. p. 7.
^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's
100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin. Asterisks
mark the 2010 estimates for the top dozen languages.
^ http://www.vahrehvah.com/punjab : Website for the dishes of
^ Pande, Alka (1999). Folk music & musical instruments of
Punjab : from mustard fields to disco lights. Ahmedabad [India]:
Mapin Pub. ISBN 18-902-0615-6.
^ Thinda, Karanaila Siṅgha (1996). Pañjāba dā loka wirasā (New
rev. ed.). Paṭiālā: Pabalikeshana Biūro, Pañjābī
Yūniwarasiṭī. ISBN 8173802238.
^ Folk dances of Punjab
^ Boliyan book. Infinity Squared Books. 2010.
^ Tales of the Punjab. Digital.library.upenn.edu.
^ Peelu: The First Narrator of the Legend of Mirza-SahibaN.
^ Erndl, Kathleen M. (1 June 1991). "Fire and wakefulness: the Devī
jagrātā in contemporary Panjabi Hinduism". Journal of the American
Academy of Religion: 339–360. access-date= requires url=
Sikh Theology Why
Sikhs Wear A Turban". The
Retrieved 13 November 2016.
^ Rait, Satwant Kaur (Apr 14, 2005).
Sikh Women In England: Religious,
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^ Dominique, Grele; Raimbault, Lydie (Mar 1, 2007). Discover Singapore
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^ a b Akombo, David (26 January 2016). The Unity of Music and Dance in
World Cultures. North Carolina: McFarland & Company. p. 155.
^ Mark Magnier (23 February 2010). "For Pakistani women, dupattas are
more than a fashion statement". Los Angeles Times.
References and further reading
Mohini Gupta, Encyclopaedia of Punjabi Culture & History – Vol.
1 (Window on Punjab) [Hardcover], ISBN 978-81-202-0507-9
Iqbal Singh Dhillion, Folk Dances of Punjab
Punjabi Culture: Punjabi Language, Bhangra, Punjabi People, Karva
Chauth, Kila Raipur Sports Festival, Lohri, Punjabi Dhabha,
Kamla C. Aryan, Cultural Heritage of Punjab
Shafi Aqeel, Popular Folk Tales from the Punjab
Online Book of Punjabi Folk Tales,
Colloquial Panjabi: The Complete Course for Beginners (Colloquial
Series) ISBN 978-0-415-10191-2
Gilmartin, David. Empire and Islam: Punjab and the Making of Pakistan.
Univ of California Press (1988), ISBN 0-520-06249-3.
Grewal, J.S. and Gordon Johnson. The
Sikhs of the Punjab (The New
Cambridge History of India).
Cambridge University Press; Reprint
edition (1998), ISBN 0-521-63764-3.
Latif, Syed. History of the Panjab. Kalyani (1997),
Sekhon, Iqbal S. The Punjabis : The People, Their History,
Culture and Enterprise. Delhi, Cosmo, 2000, 3 Vols.,
Singh, Gurharpal. Ethnic Conflict in India : A Case-Study of
Punjab. Palgrave Macmillan (2000).
Singh, Gurharpal (Editor) and Ian Talbot (Editor). Punjabi Identity:
Continuity and Change.
South Asia Books (1996),
Singh, Khushwant. A History of the
Sikhs – Volume 1.Oxford
University Press, ISBN 0-19-562643-5
Steel, Flora Annie. Tales of the Punjab : Told by the People
(Oxford in Asia Historical Reprints). Oxford University Press, USA;
New Ed edition (2002), ISBN 0-19-579789-2.
Tandon, Prakash and Maurice Zinkin. Punjabi Century 1857–1947,
University of California Press
University of California Press (1968), ISBN 0-520-01253-4.
This article incorporates public domain material from the
Library of Congress Country Studies website
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. Pakistan, India
DNA boundaries in South and Southwest Asia, BMC Genetics 2004, 5:26
Ethnologue Eastern Panjabi
Ethnologue Western Panjabi
"The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian
Tribal and Caste Populations" (PDF). Am. J. Hum. Genet. 72: 313–332.
2003. doi:10.1086/346068. PMC 379225 . PMID 12536373.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 February 2006.
Talib, Gurbachan (1950).
Muslim League Attack on
the Punjab 1947. India: Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak
Committee. Online 1 Online 2 Online 3 (A free copy of this book
can be read from any 3 of the included "Online Sources" of this free
The Legacy of The Punjab by R. M. Chopra, 1997, Punjabee Bradree,
Media related to
Punjabi people (ethnic group) at Wikimedia Commons
Ethnic groups in Pakistan
Ethnic groups of India
This tree diagram depicts the relationships of the major ethnic,
linguistic and religious groups in India. For example, an H under
Gujarati implies a Hindu, Gujarati-speaking Indian of Indo-Aryan
ancestry. This list excludes caste groups like the Dalits which is a
socio-political identity across linguistic, religious and racial
lines. In addition, it should be noted that the terms 'Indo-Aryan' and
'Dravidian' refer to linguistic differences that exist between both
Dogra (डोगरा / ڈوگرا)
Marathi (मराठी माणसं)
Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ / पंजाबी / پنجابی)
H, M, C, S
H, M, A
H, S, M
H, M, J
H, M, B, J
H, M, C, S
(कॉशुर / کٲشُر)
(षीना / شینا)
B, H, M
Sikkimese - Lepcha (Róng)
B, T, H
C, H, T
H, C, M, A
H, C, M, A
Pathan (پٹھان / पठान)
Ethnic groups, social groups and tribes of the Punjab
Province of Punjab topics
History of Lahore
Archaeological sites and monuments
Punjabi festivals (Pakistan)
List of cities
University of the Punjab
State of Punjab, India
Punjabi folk religion
Sakhi Sarwar Saint
Salwar (Punjabi) Suit
Punjabi Tamba and Kurta
Fairs and Festival of Punjab India
Basant Kite Festival (Punjab)
Hindu Punjabi Festivals
Kabaddi in India
Kila Raipur Sports Festival
Punjabi Suba movement
Sri Muktsar Sahib
Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar
Tarn Taran Sahib