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Pune
Pune
(District) is situated in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
state of India. Pune
Pune
city is the district headquarters. In the most recent census on 2011, the total population of the district was 9,426,959, making it the fourth most populous district in India
India
(out of 640).[2] Its urban population comprises 58.08% of its total population.[3] The current population of Pune
Pune
urban agglomerate is over 5 million.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient and medieval history 1.2 Nizamshahi of Ahmednagar
Ahmednagar
and Bhosale family Jagir 1.3 Chattrapati Shivaji
Shivaji
Maharaj and his sons (17th century) 1.4 Peshwa rule (1714–1818)

1.4.1 City of Pune
Pune
under Peshwa rule

1.5 British rule (1818–1947)

2 Geography

2.1 Rivers and lakes and dams 2.2 Divisions 2.3 Cities and towns

3 Pune
Pune
District Court 4 Demographics

4.1 Population by language 4.2 Population by religion

5 Education

5.1 Primary and secondary education 5.2 Vocational Training 5.3 Higher Education

6 Economy

6.1 Manufacturing industry 6.2 Information Technology and Service Industry 6.3 Agriculture

7 Transport

7.1 Highways 7.2 Public transport 7.3 Air 7.4 Railway lines

8 Healthcare 9 Places of interest and tourism

9.1 Places of pilgrimage

9.1.1 Ashtavinayak
Ashtavinayak
temples

10 Forts

10.1 Other attractions

10.1.1 Bhigwan

11 Sports and recreation

11.1 Sports

12 See also 13 References 14 External links

History[edit] See also: History of Pune

Chaitygruha at Karla Caves

Many places in the district have a long history. The town of Junnar and the Buddhist
Buddhist
caves at Karla can be dated back more than two thousand years. There are records of visitors to Junnar
Junnar
in the 1400s. The area was under Islamic rule from 13th 17th century. After the 17th century, the Marathas under Shivaji
Shivaji
laid the foundation of an independent kingdom in the Pune
Pune
district area. Peshwas, the de facto rulers of the vastly expanded Maratha empire
Maratha empire
set up their headquarters in the small town of Pune
Pune
and developed it into a large city. The city and the district became part of the British empire in the 19th century. Many of the early Indian Nationalists and Marathi social reformers came from the city. Ancient and medieval history[edit] Archaeological discoveries belonging to the Jorwe
Jorwe
culture in Chandoli and Inamgaon
Inamgaon
show that areas in the district have been occupied by humans since the Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
period or copper age (5th -4th millennium BC)[4] Many ancient trade routes that linked ports of western India, or more specifically those of coastal Konkan, with places on the Deccan plateau pass through the district.The town of Junnar
Junnar
has been an important trading and political center for the last two millennia. The first mention of Junnar
Junnar
comes from the Greco -Roman travellers from the first millennium,[5][6][7] The Karla Caves
Karla Caves
located in Karli near Lonavala
Lonavala
are also close to the Western ghat near a major ancient trade route, running eastward from the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
into the Deccan.The place is a complex of ancient Indian Buddhist
Buddhist
rock-cut cave shrines.The shrines were developed over the period – from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD. The oldest of the cave shrines is believed to date back to 160 BC. Many traders and Satvahana rulers made grants for construction of these caves.[8] Buddhists, having become identified with commerce and manufacturing through their early association with traders, tended to locate their monastic establishments in natural geographic formations close to major trade routes so as to provide lodging houses for travelling traders.[9] Inscriptions discovered at Karla and Junnar
Junnar
suggest that in the early part of the common era, the area was under the control of shaka ruler, Nahapana[10] Coins found near further east in the district near Indapur
Indapur
suggest that the region may have been under the control of Traikutaka king Dahragana in 465 AD.Silver coins found at Junnar
Junnar
say that the region may also have been under the control of Andhra kings[11] The first reference to region around present day Pune
Pune
city is found in two copper plates dated to 758 and 768 A.D. issued by Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna I. The plates call it "Puny Vishaya" and "Punaka Vishaya" respectively. The Pataleshwar
Pataleshwar
rock-cut temple complex was built during this time and this area consisted of Theur, Uruli, Chorachi Alandi, Bhosari
Bhosari
etc.[12] Pune
Pune
region later became part of the Yadava Empire of Deogiri from the 9th century to 13th century. The forces of Muslim
Muslim
Khalji rulers of Delhi sultanate
Delhi sultanate
overthrew the Yadavas in 1317. This started three hundred years of Islamic control of the region.The Khalji were followed by another Delhi sultanate dynasty, the Tughlaqs.A governor of the Tughlaq for the Deccan revolted and created the independent Bahamani
Bahamani
sultanate which later broke up in to the various Deccan sultanates.In the 1400s, the Russian traveler, Afanasy Nikitin
Afanasy Nikitin
spent many months in Junnar
Junnar
during the monsoon season.He describes vividly life under Bahamani
Bahamani
rule around Junnar.[13] The fort at Chakan played an important part in the history of the Deccan sultanates.[14] The Bahamani
Bahamani
sultanate broke up in early 16th century.The Nizamshahi kingdom controlled Pune
Pune
region for most part of 16th century.The Kingdom had Junnar
Junnar
as their first capital.[15] Later in early 1600s, Malik Ambar
Malik Ambar
the Nizam Shahi
Nizam Shahi
general moved his capital there.[16]

Ruins of Chakan Fort

Nizamshahi of Ahmednagar
Ahmednagar
and Bhosale family Jagir[edit]

Malik Ambar, the influential minister of Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar who moved administration to Junnar

Shivneri
Shivneri
fort, Junnar, Birthplace of shivaji Maharaj, the founder of Maratha empire

With the establishment of the Nizamshahi rule with Ahmednagar
Ahmednagar
as its headquarters, practically the whole of the Pune
Pune
territory, perhaps with the exception of Indapur, which still continued to be under at least the nominal suzerainty of Yusuf Adil Khan of Bijapur, came under the unified control of the Nizamshahi. The territory was formed into a separate district or sarkar, with sub-divisions called paragana and smaller ranges called prant or desh. From such records as are available it appears that the revenue collection was mostly farmed amongst the important chieftains who were henchmen of the Nizamshahi. Ahmednagar
Ahmednagar
king had to bear the brunt of a heavy attack from the Mughal armies which converged on the capital in 1595. It was at this time that, with a view to enlisting the strongest possible local support against the Mughal invaders and to stabilise the administration of the territories under Ahmednagar
Ahmednagar
rule, a policy of conferring on local Maratha chieftains increasing power was initiated by the Ahmednagar
Ahmednagar
rulers. Amongst the chieftains so favoured was Maloji Bhosale, who was made a Raja in 1595, and the districts of Pune and Supa were conferred upon him as a jagir. Maloji Bhosale was also given charge of the forts of Shivneri
Shivneri
and Chakan, which have played a very important part in the early political history of the Pune territory.[17] In the year 1600, Ahmednagar
Ahmednagar
was captured by the Mughals. Thus, at the commencement of the seventeenth century, the suzerainty over the possessions of the Ahmednagar
Ahmednagar
kingdom, including the Pune
Pune
territory, passed to the Mughals. Malik Ambar, the faithful minister of Nizam Shah, raised Murtaza II to the Nizamshahi throne with its temporary headquarters at Junnar.[18] For nearly a generation, Malik Ambar
Malik Ambar
continued to guide the destinies of the Nizamshahi kingdom, and as the Pune
Pune
area was practically the seat of the Nizamshahi government, the good effects of the all-sided reforms of Malik Ambar
Malik Ambar
were witnessed in the administrative and economic life of the region. By the time Malik Ambar
Malik Ambar
died in 1626, the revenue system of the Pune
Pune
area had been put on a sound and liberal basis. The farming system which was in vogue for a long time and which raised its head again until the advent of British rule in all periods of political unsettlement was at least of the time being put a stop to. Over a large part of the seventeenth century the Pune
Pune
area continued to be administered as a jagir, first of Maloji Bhosle and then of his direct successors, Shahaji Bhosale and later Shivaji. The ultimate sovereignty of the place kept on changing according to whom the Bhosles transferred their allegiance from one to another sovereign. In fact, in 1632 Shahaji forsook the Mughals
Mughals
and accepted the friendship of the Adilshahi rulers of Bijapur, who were the traditional rivals of the Nizamshahi Sultans of Ahmednagar. After the end of the Ahmednagar kingdom, its territory were divided between the Adil Shah of Bijapur and the Mughals.In this scheme of division Pune
Pune
fell to Bijapur. Shahaji for some time refused to surrender Junnar, which was the very seat of the foundation of the Nizamshahi dynasty. But this he had ultimately to surrender. Shahaji, however, seems to have enjoyed sufficient importance with the hostile powers to be called upon even in defeat to play an important part in the administration of the new regime.Not only were his own jagirs confirmed, thus continuing the direct connection of the Pune
Pune
area with the Bhosale family, Shahaji appointed Dadoji Konddeo as administrator of the Pune
Pune
jaagir restored to him after he joined the service of Adilshahi in 1637.Shahaji himself was based in Bangalore
Bangalore
as the commander of Adilshah
Adilshah
during this period.As the administrator, Dadoji established complete control over the Maval
Maval
region, winning over or subduing most of the local Maval
Maval
Deshpandes (chiefs).[19] Dadaji also rebuilt the settlement of Pune
Pune
and got back the prominent families who had left the town during the destruction by another Adilshahi general Murar Jaggdeo in 1631.[20] Shahaji also selected Pune
Pune
for the residence of his wife, Jijabai
Jijabai
and son, Shivaji, the future founder of the Maratha empire. Dadoji also oversaw the construction of a palace in Pune, called Lal Mahal, for Jijabai
Jijabai
and Shivaji. It is of interest to note that among the reforms that Dadaji Kondadeo is said to have introduced at his time was the system of charging one-fourth of the cash equivalent of the yield of land as a permanent revenue demand. The Fasli year was also officially introduced at this time. Either because the mawals, i.e., the western portion of the Pune
Pune
district, were politically more important or because they had a comparatively secure agriculture, Dadaji is said to have given a large part of his attention to them. Dadaji died in 1647, and Shivaji
Shivaji
almost naturally took charge of all the responsibility that devolved on him as deputy of his father. The famous Bhimthadi or Deccani horse breed was developed in Pune district during Maratha rule by crossing Arabian and Turkic breeds with local ponies,[21][22] Chattrapati Shivaji
Shivaji
Maharaj and his sons (17th century)[edit]

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Chhatrapati Shivaji
Shivaji
Maharaj, the founder of Maratha Empire

Shivaji
Shivaji
commenced his rule as the jagirdar over Pune
Pune
region taking possession of Kondana fort which occupies a key situation in the Pune territory, it was easy for Shivaji
Shivaji
to consolidate his authority over the whole territory between Chakan and Nira river, that is, practically the whole of the modern day Pune
Pune
district. Shivaji
Shivaji
moved his administration to Rajgad
Rajgad
in 1648, and it was not until a year later, When Muhammad Adil Shah
Muhammad Adil Shah
of Bijapur, sensing serious danger in the movements of Shivaji, imprisoned Shahaji as a hostage, that Shivaji
Shivaji
held his hand in the progress of his expansionist schemes. To counter that, Shivaji
Shivaji
accepted the post of mansabdar under Mughal Emperor, Shah Jahan.The Bijapur sultan had to accept this submission as adequate guarantee of Shivaji's loyalty, and Shahaji was released. In a way, however, the acceptance by Shivaji
Shivaji
of a subordinate status vis-a-vis the Mughal emperor helped, at least for the time being, to strengthen Mughal rule in the Pune
Pune
district. The northern and north-western part of Pune
Pune
was still held by the Mughals, and it was only after the death of Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
and during the period of the uncertainty attending the succession to the imperial throne that Shivaji
Shivaji
was able to shake off Mughal rule in this part of the district. It was in this context that Shivaji
Shivaji
encouraged, if he did not actually lead, the Kolis in that part against Mughal rule. The revolt did not finally succeed, as Aurangzeb, who by then had moved into the Deccan, through his captains succeeded in infliction a severe defeat on the Kolis. Many of the insurgent leaders were put to the sword at Junnar, where the Kala Chabutra still stands as a monument to that terrific act of punishment. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
next made an attempt to win over Shivaji
Shivaji
to his side in his fight against his brothers. But Shivaji's policy consisted in taking advantage of rivalries among the claimants to the Delhi throne to enhance and consolidate his power in Pune
Pune
and in the wider Deccan territory and he spurned these advances. During Shivaji's stay and activities at Pune, the ordinary life of the village communities in that district continued to prosper. Not only were the indigenous crops regularly raised but such comparatively foreign plants as cotton and wheat were extensively cultivated, especially in the north-western part of the district. The period that followed the death of Sambhaji in 1689 was one of great political ferment in the Deccan, and the Pune
Pune
territory witnessed major fluctuations of administrative authority. Peshwa rule (1714–1818)[edit]

A water color painting of Pune
Pune
from the late Peshwa era as seen from the confluence of the Mula and Mutha rivers, by British artist Henry Salt. The picture clearly shows the permanent features of the place, namely, the Mula-mutha river, Parvati Hill
Parvati Hill
and the towering Sinhagad in the background

Town of Saswad
Saswad
from the Sangameshwar temple in 1813 by British artist Robert Melville Grindlay.The palace of Purandare family, influential courtiers of the Peshwa can be seen in the background

In 1714, Shivaji's grandson Chhatrapati Shahu appointed Balaji Vishwanath, a Chitpavan
Chitpavan
Brahmin, as his Peshwa. Around the same period, Balaji was gifted the area around Pune
Pune
by the grateful mother of one of Shahu's ministers, the Pantsachiv, for saving the latter's life.[23] In 1718, Balaji was sent by Shahu to Delhi to assist the Sayyads, and in return for this help Muhammad Shah, the then Mughal Emperor at Delhi, granted Shahu the Sardeshmukhi rights for Pune, Supa, Baramati, Indapur
Indapur
and Junnar. In 1720, Baji Rao I, was appointed Peshwa, as a successor to his father by Shahu.[24] Bajirao moved his administration from Saswad
Saswad
to the town of Pune
Pune
in 1728 and, in the process, laid the foundation for turning what was a kasbah into a large city.[25][26] The city grew in size and influence as the Maratha rule extended throughout the subcontinent in the subsequent decades. One of famous saying for the era before the third battle of Panipat was that the "Ponies of Bhimthadi[21] drank the water of the Indus river" City of Pune
Pune
under Peshwa rule[edit] The city further gained influence under the rule of Bajirao I 's son, Balaji Bajirao or Nanasaheb. After the disastrous Battle of Panipat in 1761, Maratha influence was reduced. At that time the Nizam of Hyderabad looted the city. The city and the empire recovered during the brief reign of Peshwa Madhavrao. The rest of the Peshwa era was full of family intrigue and political machinations. The leading role in this was played by the ambitious Raghunathrao, the younger brother of Nanasaheb who wanted power at the expense of his nephews, Madhavrao I and Narayanrao. Following the murder of Narayanrao
Narayanrao
on the orders of Raghunathrao's wife, in 1775, power was exercised in the name of the son of Narayan rao, Madhavrao II
Madhavrao II
by a regency council led by Nana Fadnavis for almost the rest of the century.[27] For most part, the Peshwa rule saw the city elites coming from the Chitpavan
Chitpavan
Brahmin community. They were the military commanders, the bureaucrats and the bankers and had ties to each other through marriage alliances.[28] Nanasaheb constructed a lake at Katraj
Katraj
on the outskirts of the city and an underground aqueduct, which is still operational, to bring water from the lake to Shaniwar Wada.[29] The city got an underground sewage system in 1782 that ultimately discharged into the river.[20][30] Pune
Pune
prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb. On the southern fringe of the city, he built a palace on the Parvati Hill, developed a garden called Heera Baug, and dug a lake close to Parvati hill with a Ganesh
Ganesh
temple on an island in the middle of it. He also developed new commercial, trading, and residential localities called Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth. The city in the 1790s had a population of 600,000. In 1781, after a city census, household tax called Gharpatti was levied on the more affluent which was one fifth to one sixth of the property value.[31] In Peshwa Pune, law and order was exercised by the office of the Kotwal. The Kotwal was both the Police chief, magistrate as well as municipal commissioner. His duties included investigating, levying and collecting of fines for various offences. The Kotwal was assisted by police officers who manned the chavdi or the police station, and the clerks collected the fines and the paid informants who provided the necessary intelligence for charging people with misdemeanor. The crimes included illicit affairs, violence and murder. Sometimes even in case of murder, only a fine was imposed. Intercaste or inter-religious affairs were also settled with fines.[32] The salary of the Kotwal was as high as 9000 rupees a month but that included the expense of employing officers mainly from the Ramoshi caste.[33] The most famous Kotwal of Pune
Pune
during Peshwa rule was Ghashiram Kotwal.The police force during this era was admired by European visitors to the city[34] The patronage of the Brahmin Peshwas resulted in great expansion of Pune
Pune
with the construction of around 250 temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on Parvati Hill.[35] Many of the Maruti, Vithoba, Vishnu, Mahadeo, Rama, Krishna and Ganesh temples were built during this era. The patronage also extended to 164 schools or pathshalas in the city that taught Hindu holy texts or Shastras.The schools were, however, open to men from the Brahmin castes only[36] The city also conducted many public festivals. The main festivals were Holi, the Deccan New year or Gudi padwa, Ganeshotsav, Dasara and Dakshina. Holi
Holi
at the Peshwa court used to be celebrated over a five-day period. The Dakshina festival celebrated in the Hindu month of Shravan, when millions of rupees were distributed, attracted Brahmins from all over India
India
to Pune.[37][38] The festivals, the building of temples and the rituals conducted at temples, led to religion being responsible for about 15% of the city's economy during this period.[39][40][41] The Peshwa rulers and the knights residing in the city also had their own hobbies and interests. For example, Madhavrao II
Madhavrao II
had a private collection of exotic animals such as lions and rhinoceros close to where the later Peshwe park zoo was situated,.[42] The last Peshwa Bajirao II
Bajirao II
was a physical strength and wrestling enthusiast. The sport of pole gymnastics or Malkhamb
Malkhamb
was developed in Pune
Pune
under his patronage by Balambhat Deodhar.[43] Many Peshwas and the courtiers were patrons of Lavani, the Maharashtrian dance. A number of composers of it such as Ram Joshi, Anant Phandi, Prabhakar and Honaji Bala come from this period. The dancers used to come from the castes such as Mang and Mahar.[44][45] Lavani
Lavani
used to be essential part of Holi celebrations in the region's Peshwa courts.[46] The Peshwa's influence in India
India
declined after the defeat of Maratha forces in the Battle of Panipat but Pune
Pune
remained the seat of power. The city's fortunes declined rapidly after the accession of Bajirao II to power in 1795. In 1802, Pune
Pune
was captured by Yashwantrao Holkar
Yashwantrao Holkar
in the Battle of Pune, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805. The Peshwa rule ended with the defeat of Bajirao II by the British East India
India
Company under the leadership of Mountstuart Elphinstone
Mountstuart Elphinstone
in 1818. British rule (1818–1947)[edit]

Poona district 1896

Khadakwasla
Khadakwasla
dam. When it was built in 1878, the dam was considered one of the largest in the world.

In 1818, Pune
Pune
region and the rest of the Peshwa territories came under the control of the British East India
India
Company. The company rule came to an end when in 1858, under the terms of Proclamation issued by Queen Victoria, the Bombay Presidency, along with Pune
Pune
and the rest of British India, came under the direct rule of the British crown.[47] The Governor of the new territories, Mountstuart Elphinstone
Mountstuart Elphinstone
appointed commissioner and left administrative boundaries of the district almost intact. Elphinstone and other British officers were quite fond of Saswad
Saswad
and the fertile valley around it.[48] During the first and second Anglo-Maratha wars, it used to take 4–5 weeks to move materials from Mumbai
Mumbai
to Pune. A military road constructed by the company in 1804 reduced the journey to 4–5 days. The company later built a Macademized road between the two cities in 1830 that allowed mail cart service to begin between the two cities.[49] Railway line from Bombay and run by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR) reached the city in 1858.[50][51] In the following decades the line was extended places further east and south of the city. In the east, GIPR extended its line to Raichur
Raichur
in 1871 where it met the line of Madras Railway and thereby connected Poona to Madras.[52] The Pune - Miraj
Miraj
line was completed in 1886. The completion of the Metre gauge Miraj
Miraj
line turned the city into an important railway junction. The Bombay-Poona line was electrified in the 1920s. This cut the travel time between the cities to three hours and made it possible to make day trips between the cities for business or leisure such as Bombay rich coming down to see the Poona races.[53] The coming of railways brought many villages in the district West, East and South such as Lonavla, Uruli Kanchan, Daund
Daund
etc. on the rail map. The first bus service was introduced in Pune
Pune
in 1941 by the Silver bus company. This caused huge uproar amongst the Tanga carriers (horse-drawn carriage) who went on strike in protest.[54] Tangas were the common mode of public transport well into the 1950s. Bicycles were choice of vehicle for private use in the 1930s.[55] Given the importance of Pune
Pune
as a major Military base, the British were quick to install the instant communication system of Telegraph to the city in 1858.[56] The Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Poona (2 pts) from 1885 reports that in 1885, the city had its own telegraph office in addition to the GIPR Railway company's telegraph service. In 1928 a beam relay station was installed in Khadki
Khadki
to beam radio telegraph signals for Imperial Wireless Chain
Imperial Wireless Chain
system. The town in 1885 was a post distribution hub for the district. There were two post offices in the city that in addition to mailing services offered money order and savings bank services. [7] Areas east of Pune
Pune
receives much less rainfall than the areas in the west of city adjacent to the Sahyadri
Sahyadri
mountains. To minimize risk of drought in the area, a masonry dam was built on the Mutha river
Mutha river
at Khadakwasla
Khadakwasla
in 1878. At that time the dam was considered one of the largest in the world. Two canals were dug on each bank of the river for irrigating lands to the east of the city. The canals also supplied drinking water to the city and the cantonment.[57] In 1890 Poona Municipality spent Rs. 200,000 to install water filtration works.[58] In the early part of the 20th century, hydroelectric plants were installed in the western ghats between Pune
Pune
and Mumbai. The Poona electric supply company, a Tata concern received power from Khopoli
Khopoli
on the Mumbai
Mumbai
side of the ghats and Bhivpuri
Bhivpuri
plants near the Mulshi dam.[59] The power was used for the electric trains running between Mumbai
Mumbai
and Pune, for industry and home use. A dam was also constructed on the Velvandi river in the then Bhor
Bhor
state of the district[60][61][62] Villages in the district saw serious rioting in 1875 by peasants against Marwari and Gujarati moneylenders.The disturbances involved peasants getting the moneylenders to burn their documents and in some cases torching of their houses[63] Geography[edit]

Natural Potholes in Kukdi river near Nighoj

Pune
Pune
District is in the western part of Maharashtra. It is bounded by Thane District
Thane District
to the northwest, Raigad District
Raigad District
to the west, Satara District to the south, Solapur District
Solapur District
to the southeast, and Ahmednagar
Ahmednagar
District to the north and northeast. Pune
Pune
district lies in the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
or Sahyadri
Sahyadri
mountain range and it extends on to the Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
on the east. Pune
Pune
stands on the leeward side of the Western Ghats. Pune
Pune
is at an altitude of 559m.(1863 ft.).The district is located between 17.5° to 19.2° North and 73.2° to 75.1° East. Nine out of the 14 talukas in the district are identified as drought-prone, occupies a total geographical area of 15.62 lakh hectares with a cropped area of 10.95 lakh hectares. Of the total cropped area, only a total of 1.16 lakh hectares is irrigated, of which nearly half is irrigated by wells and tanks and 40 percent by government canals. In 1991, the district had a total population of 4.2 million, of which 52 percent were rural. There were 1530 villages in the district.[64] Average rainfall in the district is 600 to 700 mm. This is usually during the monsoon months from July – October.Area adjacent to the western ghats get more rain than the areas further East. Areas such as Daund
Daund
Taluka and Indapur
Indapur
Taluka expect droughts more often than Maval
Maval
at the western edge of the district.Moderate temperatures are mainly observed here. The rainfall is unpredictable in tune with the Indian monsoon. Summers here begin from early March to July. Summers are dry and hot. The temperature ranges from 20 °C to 38 °C, though at the peak they may reach 40 °C. From November to February, is the winter season. Temperatures at the peak drop to single digits but usually they hover around 7 °C to 12 °C sometimes lowers up to 3 °C. January to March are the months with moderate temperatures. In year due rainfall stress in June, and up to 20 September agriculture sector come in danger.

Climate data for Pune

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 29.9 (85.8) 31.9 (89.4) 35.4 (95.7) 37.7 (99.9) 36.9 (98.4) 31.7 (89.1) 28.4 (83.1) 27.4 (81.3) 29.4 (84.9) 31.4 (88.5) 30.0 (86) 28.0 (82.4) 31.51 (88.71)

Average low °C (°F) 10.0 (50) 12.0 (53.6) 15.0 (59) 19.5 (67.1) 22.4 (72.3) 22.7 (72.9) 22.0 (71.6) 21.3 (70.3) 20.3 (68.5) 17.0 (62.6) 14.0 (57.2) 10.0 (50) 17.18 (62.93)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 0 (0) 3 (0.12) 2 (0.08) 11 (0.43) 40 (1.57) 138 (5.43) 163 (6.42) 129 (5.08) 155 (6.1) 68 (2.68) 28 (1.1) 4 (0.16) 741 (29.17)

Average precipitation days 0.1 0.3 0.3 1.1 3.3 10.9 17.0 16.2 10.9 5.0 2.4 0.3 67.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 291.4 282.8 300.7 303.0 316.2 186.0 120.9 111.6 177.0 248.0 270.0 288.3 2,895.9

Source: HKO

In Pune
Pune
district, there are two municipal corporations, namely Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) and Pimpri-Chinchawad Municipal Corporation (PCMC). Pimpri- Chinchwad
Chinchwad
is to the West of Pune
Pune
city, along the Pune- Mumbai
Mumbai
National highway. The corporation covers the area of Nigdi, Akurdi, Pimpri, Chinchwad
Chinchwad
and Bhosari.The area was zoned for industrial development by the state of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
in the early 1960s. Rivers and lakes and dams[edit] See Also List of dams and reservoirs in Maharashtra

Confluence of the Indrayani River
Indrayani River
and the Bhima River at Tulapur.

Bhima, the main tributary of Krishna rises in the Sahyadri
Sahyadri
mountain in the district and flows east. All the rivers in the district either meet Bhima or its tributaries. They are Pushpavati, Krushnavati, Kukadi river, Meena, Ghod River, Bhama, Andhra, Indrayani river, Pavna River, Mula river, Mutha river, Ambi, Mose, Shivganga, Kanandi, Gunjavni, Welvandi river, Nira river, Karha river, and Velu. Some major dams are Yedgaon (Kukadi), Pimpalgaon (Pushpavati), Manikdoh, Meena (Meena), Dimbe (Ghod), Chas-Kaman and Ujani (Bhima), Andhra (Andhra), Valvhan (Indrayani), Pavna (Pavna), Mulshi (Mula), Temghar, Khadakwasla
Khadakwasla
(Mutha), Varasgaon
Varasgaon
(Ambi), Panshet
Panshet
(Mose), Chapet (Kanandi), Bhatgar (Velvandi), Devghar, and Veer (Neera).[65] The Lonavla
Lonavla
region (Wadgaon- Maval
Maval
Taluka) can be called as the lake district of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
due to numerous lakes in this area viz, Bhushi, the Lonavla
Lonavla
lake, INS Shivaji, Pavna, Valvhan, Tungarli, Andhra, and Shirawta lake. However, the Sahyadris and its branches offer lot of opportunity for damming the streams leading to a large number of lakes in Pune
Pune
district. Divisions[edit]

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Sub-divisions or Talukas of the district

thumbAdministratively the district is divided into 15 talukas and 13 Panchayat Samitis. These are Junnar
Junnar
taluka, Ambegaon taluka, Khed taluka, Maval
Maval
taluka, Mulshi taluka, Velhe
Velhe
taluka, Bhor
Bhor
taluka, Haveli taluka, Purandar taluka, Pimpri- Chinchwad
Chinchwad
City tensil, Pune
Pune
City, Indapur
Indapur
taluka, Daund
Daund
taluka, Baramati taluka and Shirur taluka. Pune city is the administrative headquarters of the district. There are around 1,866 villages in the district. taluka There are 18 Vidhan Sabha constituencies in this district. These are Junnar, Ambegaon, Khed-Alandi, Maval, Mulshi, Haveli, Bopodi, Shivajinagar, Parvati (SC), Kasba Peth, Bhvani Peth, Pune
Pune
Cantonment, Shirur, Daund, Indapur, Baramati, Purandhar and Bhor. The 4 Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
constituencies of the district are Pune, Baramati, Shirur and Maval
Maval
(is shared by Raigad district). . Cities and towns[edit]

New housing in the outskirts of Pune
Pune
that allow high rise buildings such as this at Kharadi

Pune
Pune
city and the twin city Pimpri- Chinchwad
Chinchwad
are the major cities in the district. Pune
Pune
city is administered by the Pune
Pune
Municipal Corporation while Pimpri
Pimpri
Chinchwad
Chinchwad
is administered by the Pimpri- Chinchwad
Chinchwad
Municipal Corporation. There are three cantonment areas in the district.

Pune
Pune
Cantonment Khadki
Khadki
Cantonment Dehu Road
Dehu Road
Cantonment

There are also smaller towns in the district with Nagarpalikas or Municipal Councils.Most of these are the headquarters of or the main town in their respective Taluka.These are:

Alandi Baramati
Baramati
(also taluka headquarters) Bhigwan Bhor
Bhor
(also taluka headquarters) Chakan Daund
Daund
(also taluka headquarters) Indapur Jejuri Junnar
Junnar
(also taluka headquarters) Rajgurunagar
Rajgurunagar
(also taluka headquarters) Lonavla
Lonavla
– Khandala Narayangaon Nasrapur Pirangut Saswad
Saswad
(also taluka headquarters) Shirur (also taluka headquarters) Talegaon
Talegaon
Dabhade Wadgaon Walchandnagar Uruli Kanchan Mulshi

The relentless growth of Pune
Pune
metropolitan area has led to development of many new townships close to the city such as Magarpatta
Magarpatta
and Amanora and bigger development at a distance from the city in the mountains such as Lavasa[66] Pune
Pune
District Court[edit] Pune
Pune
District Court administers justice at the district level. It is the principal court of original civil jurisdiction in civil matters. The district court is also a court of Sessions when it exercises its jurisdiction on criminal matters. The district court is presided over by a Principal District and Sessions Judge appointed by the state Government. The decisions of the court are subject to the appellate jurisdiction of the Bombay High Court. Pune
Pune
District Court is under administrative control of the High Court. Demographics[edit] According to the 2011 census Pune
Pune
District has a population of 9,429,408,[2] roughly equal to the nation of Benin[67] or the US state of North Carolina.[68] This gives it a ranking of 4th in India
India
(out of a total of 640).[2] The district has a population density of 603 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,560/sq mi).[2] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 30.34%.[2] Pune
Pune
has a sex ratio of 910 females for every 1000 males,[2] and a literacy rate of 87.19%.[2] In the district the population was spread out with 685,022 under the age of 4; 1,491,352 from 5 to 15; 4,466,901 from 15 to 59 and 5,89,280 60 years of age or older. For every 1000 males age 6 and older, there were 919 females. Population by language[edit] According to the 2001 census, a majority of about 80 percent of the district population speaks Marathi. Significant linguistic minorities with more than 100,000 native speakers are Hindi
Hindi
(with Hindi
Hindi
dialects around 690,000 people), Urdu, Kannada
Kannada
and Telugu. Marwari (Hindi dialect with Marathi influences), Gujarati, Malayalam (47.912), Tamil (47.504), Sindhi (40.602), Vadari (a Telugu dialect, 35.282), Lamani / Lambadi ( Hindi
Hindi
dialect, 30.604), Panjabi (28,500), Bengali (22,628) and Konkani (19,594) are spoken by over 10,000 people each. The exact linguistic composition of the population is shown in the following table:

Year Marathi Hindi Urdu Kannada Telugu Marwari Gujarati Other Total

Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Total %

2001 5.742.291 79,40 % 520.089 7,19 % 170.658 2,36 % 118.648 1,64 % 118.257 1,64 % 99.850 1,38 % 82.487 1,14 % 380.275 5,26 % 7.232.555 100,00 %

Source: Census of India
India
2001

Population by religion[edit] The majority of the district population is Hindu. The district also has significant minorities of Muslims and Buddhists. The exact religious composition of the population is shown in the following table:

Year Buddhist Christian Hindus Jain Muslim Sikhs Other1 No response Total

Number % Number % Number % Number % Numberl % Number % Number % Number % Population %

2001 321.948 4,45 % 116.661 1,61 % 6.197.349 85,69 % 104.073 1,44 % 452.397 6,26 % 21.938 0,30 % 11.283 0,16 % 6.906 0,10 % 7.232.555 100,00 %

Source: Census of India
India
2001

Education[edit] Primary and secondary education[edit] State Primary Schools in the cities and the district are run by the city corporations and Zilla parishad respectively.Private schools are operated by charitable trusts. Secondary schools in the cities and the district are run by charitable trusts. All schools are required to undergo mandatory inspection by the Zilla parishad or city corporations.[69] Instruction is mainly in Marathi, English or Hindi, though Urdu
Urdu
is also used. The secondary schools are affiliated with the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), the National Institute of Open School (NIOS) or the Maharashtra
Maharashtra
State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education. Under the 10+2+3 plan, after completing secondary school, students typically enroll for two years in a junior college, also known as pre-university, or in schools with a higher secondary facility affiliated with the Maharashtra
Maharashtra
State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education or any central board. Vocational Training[edit] Pune
Pune
city and the district has many Post-secondary school Industrial training institutes (ITI) run by the government and private trusts that offer vocational training in numerous trades such as construction, plumbing, welding, automobile mechanic etc. Successful candidates receive the National Trade Certificate.[70] Higher Education[edit] Pune
Pune
District is home to Savitribai Phule Pune
Pune
University. The city calls itself Oxford
Oxford
of the East.[69] The city and the district are home to many Indian government run educational and training institutes such as National Defence Academy (India), AFMC and Film and Television Institute of India.The district has many privately run colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions. Most of the private colleges were set up in the last thirty years after the Maharashtra
Maharashtra
State Government underVasantdada Patil liberalised Education Sector in 1982.[71] Politicians and leaders involved in the huge cooperative movement were instrumental in setting up the private institutes[72][73] Well known institutions in the district include:

A.I.C.C.S. (All India
India
Centre of Correspondence Studies) - College for distance learning Abasaheb Garware College, Pune
Pune
-Affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune University Abhijit Kadam Football Development Centre Armed Forces Medical College, Pune
Pune
(AFMC) Army Institute of Technology, Pune
Pune
(AIT) - Affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune
Pune
University B. J. Medical College, Pune
Pune
-Affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune University Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Brihan Maharashtra
Maharashtra
College of Commerce, Pune
Pune
-Affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune
Pune
University College of Agriculture Pune
Pune
(COAP), Pune- Affiliated to Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth College of Engineering, Pune, Pune- Affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune
Pune
University Cummins College of Engineering D. Y. Patil college, Akurdi—Affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune University Deccan College Fergusson College, Pune
Pune
-Affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune University Film and Television Institute of India, Pune Government Polytechnic, Pune
Pune
-offers diploma courses in Engineering Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, Pune ILS Law College, Pune-Affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune
Pune
University Institute of Nursing Education Indian Naval training Colleges, Lonavala MIT ( Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Institute of Technology) Management College National Defence Academy (India), Khadakwasla, Pune National Chemical Laboratory School of Fashion Technology Sinhgad College of Architecture, Vadgoan Sinhgad College of Engineering Sir Parashurambhau College, Pune
Pune
- Affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune University SNDT Women's University, Pune
Pune
campus SIOM - Sinhgad Institute of Management, Vadgoan Smt. Kashibai Navale College of Commerce, Erandwane, Pune Symbiosis Arts & Commerce College Symbiosis International University, Pune Tolani Maritime Institute (Nautical Technology, Marine Engineering, presea, DWST) VIM – Vishwakarma Institute of Management VIT - Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune
Pune
- Affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune
Pune
University VMI – Vishwakarma Maritime Institute Wadia College, Pune- Affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune
Pune
University PICT- [ Pune
Pune
Institute of computer technology], Pune
Pune
- Affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune
Pune
University

Economy[edit] Pune
Pune
district is an industrial center but the local economy also has a significant agricultural component. Manufacturing industry[edit] Modern Industrial developments started in the 1950s in the outlining areas of the Pune
Pune
city such as Hadapsar, Bhosari, and Pimpri. The first big operation to set up shop was the government run Hindustan Antibiotics in Pimpri
Pimpri
in 1954.[74] The area around Bhosari
Bhosari
was set aside for industrial development by the newly created MIDC in the early 1960s. MIDc provided the necessary infrastructure for new businesses to set up operations.[75] Telco (now Tata Motors) started operations in 1961, which gave a huge boost to the automobile sector. After 1970, Pune
Pune
emerged as the leading engineering region of the country with Telco, Bajaj, Kinetic, Bharat Forge, Alfa Laval, Atlas Copco, Sandvik
Sandvik
and Thermax
Thermax
expanding their infrastructure. This allowed the area to vie with Chennai
Chennai
for the title of "Detroit of India" at that time[76] The growth in the former villages of Pimpri, Chinchwad
Chinchwad
and Bhosri allowed these villages and surrounding areas to incorporate as the separate city of Pimpri-Chinchwad. In light of the rapid growth, the Pune
Pune
metropolitan area was defined in 1967. it includes Pune, the three cantonment areas and villages on the fringe. Some of the villages included in the metropolitan area have now grown into fully fledged suburbs such as Kothrud, Katraj, Hadapsar, Hinjawadi, and Baner[77] In the year 2008, many Multinational automobile companies like General Motors, Volkswagen
Volkswagen
and Fiat
Fiat
set up facilities near Pune
Pune
in the Chakan MIDC and Talegaon
Talegaon
areas respectively. Newer MIDC parks set up in the 1990s in other places around the district such as Shirur taluka
Shirur taluka
and Baramati taluka have attracted many foreign companies to set up their factories in these areas Information Technology and Service Industry[edit]

Infosys at Hinjawadi

After the 1991 economic liberalization, Pune
Pune
began to attract foreign capital, particularly in the information technology and engineering industries; new businesses like floriculture and food processing begin to take root in and around the city[citation needed]. In the three years before 2000 Pune
Pune
saw huge development in the Information Technology sector, and IT Parks formed in Aundh, Hinjawadi
Hinjawadi
and Nagar road[78] By 2005 Pune
Pune
overtook both Mumbai
Mumbai
and Chennai
Chennai
to have more than 200,000 IT professionals[citation needed]. Since the city and the district has a huge number of educational establishments, services such as lodging and boarding for the large student population has become a significant component of the local economy. Agriculture[edit] Although the central part of the district around the city of Pune
Pune
is a highly industrialized area, agriculture continues to be important in the district. Since most of the cultivable land is still rain-fed, the Southwest Monsoon
Monsoon
season between June and September is critical to the food sufficiency and quality of life in the district.Any fluctuations in the time distribution, spatial distribution or quantity of the monsoon rains may lead to conditions of floods or droughts causing the agricultural sector to adversely suffer. Areas in the eastern part of the district are historically prone to drought conditions. However, Irrigation
Irrigation
facilities in recent decades with building of dams, canals and borewells have made agriculture less dependent upon rain water.[79].However,overexploitation of the groundwater has led to increased salinity of the water in the talukas of Purandhar, Baramati, Daund,Indapur, and Shirur in the eastern part of the district.This would threaten drinking water supply and agriculture in these areas[80] Principal Monsoon
Monsoon
crops include Rice, jwari, and Bajri. Other crops include Wheat, pulses, vegetables and onions.Ambemohar, a fragrant rice variety grown in Bhor taluka
Bhor taluka
and areas close to the mountainous Western ghats, is popular all over Maharashtra. Ambemohar
Ambemohar
has fragrance of mango blossom. Since it is low yielding variety many farmers grow a crossbred variety called Indrayani rice in the region[81]

Wine Barrels at Narayangaon
Narayangaon
Winery

The main Cash crops include sugarcane, several oil seeds including groundnut, and sunflower.The district has significant areas, under fruit cultivation of which mangoes, grapes, and oranges are the main ones. At Narayangaon, there is a Winery that produces sparkling wine from locally grown Thompson seedless grapes[82] Most of the Growers of Cash crops such as sugarcane and cotton in the district belong to farmers cooperatives. For example, most of the sugar production in the district takes place at mills owned by local cooperative societies. The members of the society include all farmers, small and large, supplying sugarcane to the mill.[83] Over the last fifty years, the local sugar mills have played a crucial part in encouraging political participation and as a stepping stone for aspiring politicians.[84] Transport[edit] Highways[edit]

The main Mumbai- Pune
Pune
Expressway

Total road length of Pune
Pune
district is 13,642 km. Several National Highways and State Highways criss cross Pune
Pune
district. They include:

Pune
Pune
Mumbai
Mumbai
and Pune
Pune
Bangalore
Bangalore
National Highway (NH 4) -In 1989, Dehu Road- Katraj
Katraj
bypass (Western bypass) was completed, reducing traffic congestion in Pune
Pune
city but also leading to growth in Industry as well as housing along the bypass in the decades following the opening of the road. Pune
Pune
Solapur
Solapur
Hyderabad National Highway (NH 9) Pune
Pune
Nashik
Nashik
National Highway (NH 50) Mumbai- Pune
Pune
expressway -In 1998, work on the six-lane Mumbai-Pune expressway began and completed in 2001. This toll road has significantly reduced the journey time between the two cities.

Major State Highways include

Pune
Pune
Ahmednagar
Ahmednagar
Aurangabad State Highway Pune
Pune
Alandi
Alandi
State Highway Pune
Pune
Saswad
Saswad
Pandharpur State Highway Pune
Pune
Paud Road State Highway Talegaon
Talegaon
Chakan State Highway

Public transport[edit] Public transport in form of bus service was introduced in Pune
Pune
city just before independence using a private provider. The city took over the service after independence in 1947 as Poona Municipal transport or PMT. In the 1990s the PMT and Pimpri- Chinchwad
Chinchwad
Municipal Transport (PCMT), the bus company running the service in Pimpri- Chinchwad
Chinchwad
had a combined fleet of over a thousand buses. Because the municipal transport was patchy, a number of employers from the Industrial belt near Pimpri- Chinchwad
Chinchwad
and Hadapsar, respectively also offered private bus service to their employees.[85] The number of buses belonging to these companies was many times more than the number of Municipal buses.[85] The two bus companies merged in 2007 to form the PMML. In 2006, PMC started BRT (Bus Rapid Transit System) project first among all Indian cities but due to narrow roads of the city it did not work properly. In 2008 the Commonwealth Youth Games
Commonwealth Youth Games
took place in the city, which encouraged additional development in the north-west region of the city and added a fleet of buses running on Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) to the city roads. Places in the district are also connected to other towns and cities within the district and in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
by Maharashtra
Maharashtra
State Transport buses that began operating in 1951. These buses also served villages that have now become part of the outer fringe of the Pune. From the 1960s onward, the horse drawn Tanga was gradually replaced in the urban areas of the district by the motorized three wheeler Autorickshaw
Autorickshaw
for intermediate public transport. Their number grew from 200 in 1960 to over 20,000 in 1996. From the 1930s, Pune
Pune
city was known as cycle city of India. However, the cycle was replaced by motorized two wheelers from the 1970s onwards. For example, the number of two wheelers increased from 5 per 1000 people to 118 per 1000 in the period between 1965 and 1995.[85] Air[edit] Pune
Pune
International Airport (IATA:PNQ) is a civil enclave located at Lohegaon Air Base, northeast of Pune
Pune
city. The flights to a number of domestic and international destinations are operated from this airport. As Pune's Air Traffic Control is controlled by the Indian Air Force,[86] there are at times friction between the AAI and the IAF over schedules of flights or the landing of aircraft at night. The airport's apron is also proving to be inadequate to handle the growing number of flights into Pune. when the airport was upgraded to international airport with flights to Dubai, Singapore and Frankfurt.,[87][88] In 2004–05, Pune
Pune
Airport handled about 165 passengers a day. It increased to 250 passengers a day in 2005–06. There was a sharp rise in 2006–07 when passengers reached 4,309. In 2010– 2011, the passenger number hit about 8,000 a day.[89] A new greenfield airport for the Pune
Pune
metropolitan region has been proposed and Government of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
has entrusted the responsibility to Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Airport Development Company (MADC) for executing the New Pune
Pune
International Airport project.[90] in the areas between Chakan and Rajgurunagar
Rajgurunagar
along the Pune
Pune
Nashik
Nashik
National highway, National Highway 50. Baramati
Baramati
Airport, 12 km from Baramati
Baramati
and 100 km from Pune, currently being used for Pilot training and charter flights, is being planned as a hub for private jets by Reliance Airport Developers.[91] Railway lines[edit]

Lonavla
Lonavla
EMU at Pune
Pune
platform 6

The Pune
Pune
district's two major junctions are Pune
Pune
Junction and Daund Junction. All railway lines through Pune
Pune
are broad gauge and have double track. They belong to Central Railway. The Pune- Mumbai
Mumbai
railway line connecting Pune
Pune
with the financial capital of the country, Mumbai, is the most important railway route in the district. This railway line was constructed in British colonial times. Khandala, and Lonavla, scenic places in this district are on this route. Many high-speed railway trains run daily between Pune
Pune
and Mumbai. Mumbai- Kolhapur
Kolhapur
railway line also goes through Pune
Pune
district. Several major cities of India
India
have been connected through Pune
Pune
through rail The lines are:

Pune- Mumbai
Mumbai
- Pune-Kalyan- Nashik
Nashik
City Pune-Daund Daund- Solapur
Solapur
(single track from Bhigwan
Bhigwan
to Solapur) Daund-Manmad (single track from Daund
Daund
to Manmad) Daund- Baramati
Baramati
branch line (single track) Daund-Kurduwadi- Latur Road (single track on branch line from Kurduwadi to Latur Road) Daund-Kurduwadi- Miraj
Miraj
(single track on branch line from Kurduwadi to Miraj) Pune-Miraj-Hubli (single track from Pune
Pune
to Hubli towards Bangalore) Pune-Miraj- Kolhapur
Kolhapur
branch line (single track from Miraj
Miraj
to Kolhapur)

Express trains on these routes skip many smaller stations however, slow moving "Passenger trains" stop at every train station on their respective routes in the district. A suburban rail system connects Pune
Pune
to its suburbs and neighboring villages in the district West of Pune
Pune
city It is operated by Central Railway (CR). Pune's suburban railway operates on two routes, i.e. from Pune
Pune
Junction to Lonavla
Lonavla
and from Pune
Pune
Junction to Talegaon. There are 5 trains which operate on Pune
Pune
Junction - Talegaon
Talegaon
route while 18 trains operate on Pune Junction - Lonavla
Lonavla
route.[92] There are 8 passenger trains between Pune
Pune
Junction to Daund
Daund
section. These operate as suburban trains for this route. In this way the Pune
Pune
to Daund
Daund
section becomes the third route for suburban trains. The important halts on this route are Loni Station and Urali Station. Healthcare[edit]

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Pune
Pune
District is served by three government hospitals, Sasoon Hospital, Budhrani and Dr. Ambedkar Hospital. There are also a number of big private hospitals. Sahyadri
Sahyadri
Hospital, Jahangir Hospital, Sancheti Hospital, Aditya Birla Memorial Hospital, KEM Hospital, Ruby Hall and Mangeshkar Hospital are the well known ones. Places of interest and tourism[edit]

The Principal temple of God Khandoba, the family deity for many Marathi Hindu families

A view Alandi
Alandi
on the Banks of Indrayani river

Pune
Pune
district has been at the center of the history of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
for more than four hundred years starting with the Deccan sultanates followed by the Maratha empire. The district has a number of mountain forts and buildings from these eras. A number of places revered by Marathi Hindu people are also located in the district. They include five of the eight Ashtavinayak
Ashtavinayak
Ganesh
Ganesh
temples. The Samadhi or the resting places of the two most revered Marathi Bhakti saints, namely Dnyaneshwar
Dnyaneshwar
and Tukaram
Tukaram
are located at Alandi
Alandi
and Dehu
Dehu
respectively. The main temple of Khandoba, the family deity for most Marathi Hindus is also located in the district at Jejuri.[93] The British designated Pune
Pune
as the Monsoon
Monsoon
capital of Bombay presidency and left many buildings and parks from that era. Hill stations like Lonavla
Lonavla
and Khandala
Khandala
also date back to that era and remain popular with people from Pune
Pune
and Mumbai
Mumbai
for holidays[94] The mountains, forests in the district and lakes created by river dams are popular for various recreational activities such as trekking, bird watching etc. Places of pilgrimage[edit]

Alandi[95] Bhimashankar Dehu Nira Narsingpur Jejuri Bhuleshwar temple

Ashtavinayak
Ashtavinayak
temples[edit]

Lenyandri Morgaon Ranjangaon Theur Ozar

Forts[edit]

Purandar Fort, a medieval fort that witnessed many historic events

There are many historically important hill forts and castles around the district dating back to times of the Deccan sultanates
Deccan sultanates
and Maratha empire. The forts and the surrounding mountains are popular for trekking[96]

Anaghaai Bhorgiri Chakan Fort
Chakan Fort
or Sangramgad
Sangramgad
- dates back to 15th century Bahamani
Bahamani
rule Chavand Daulatmangal Hadsar Induri Jivdhan Kaawla Kailasgad Kenjalgad Korigad
Korigad
(Korlai) Lohagad Malhargad
Malhargad
(Sonori) Morgiri Narayangad Nimgiri Purandar - historically important during Shivaji
Shivaji
and Peshwa era Rajgad
Rajgad
- headquarters of Shivaji
Shivaji
before his coronation Rajmachi Rohida Shivneri
Shivneri
- birthplace of Shivaji
Shivaji
in 1630 Sindola Sinhagad
Sinhagad
or Kondhana
Kondhana
- Tikona Torna Fort
Torna Fort
or Prachandagad - First fort captured by young Shivaji
Shivaji
in 1640s Tung Fort
Tung Fort
or Kathingad Vajrangad (Rudramal) Visapur fort

Other attractions[edit] Bhigwan[edit] Bhigwan, a catchment area of Ujani Dam, is about 95 km from Pune on the Pune- Solapur
Solapur
highway (NH-9). An area of about 18000 hectares has been proposed as a sanctuary for migratory birds. The water catchment area is spread across around the town of Bhigwan. Bhigwan
Bhigwan
is an important destination and transit point for migratory waterfowl.[citation needed] Sports and recreation[edit] Sports[edit] The Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Cricket team has its home ground in Pune
Pune
city playing at the newly built Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Cricket Association MCA Cricket Stadium in Gahunje. The Pune
Pune
Football Club of the I-Leagues are located in Pune
Pune
City The team plays in the 1st Division of the I-League. They finished 3rd in the 2009–10 season. The 1993 National Games were held in Pune
Pune
City, and the newly-built Sports City held the Commonwealth Youth Games
Commonwealth Youth Games
in 2008. Krida Prabodhini in Baner
Baner
is a sports school. The presence of water bodies has given rise to a number of boat clubs: COEP, RCBC, KPRC and MIT Alandi. Pune
Pune
has given many well-known sports personalities to the nation which includes Abhijit Kunte (chess grand master), Hrishikesh Kanitkar (cricket), Dhanraj Pille (hockey), Anwar Shaikh (athletics). Balewadi
Balewadi
is an all in one ground in Pune. From 2011–2012 Sahara Pune
Pune
Warriors had their home ground in Pune, the newly built Subrata Roy Sahara stadium. Puneri Paltan
Puneri Paltan
is one of the eight teams in the pro Kabbadi league. It has its home ground in Balewadi. See also[edit]

Pune Pune
Pune
International Airport Pune
Pune
Station Bus Stand Pune
Pune
Railway Station Roads in Pune Maharashtra Pune
Pune
University Pune
Pune
Municipal Corporation Chas Ghodegaon

References[edit]

^ http://www.census2011.co.in/census/district/359-pune.html ^ a b c d e f g "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.  ^ Census data Archived 11 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999). Ancient Indian history and civilization (Second ed.). New Delhi: New Age International. pp. 24–25. ISBN 9788122411980.  ^ Margabandhu, C. "Trade Contacts between Western India
India
and the Graeco-Roman World in the early centuries of the Christian
Christian
era." Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient/Journal de l'histoire economique et sociale de l'Orient (1965): 316-322. ^ Rath, Jayanti. "QUEENS AND COINS OF INDIA." ^ Deo, S. B. "The Genesis of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
History and Culture." Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute 43 (1984): 17-36. ^ "Later Andhra Period India". Retrieved 2007-01-24.  ^ Keay, John (2000). India: A History. New York, USA: Grove Press. pp. 123–127. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0.  ^ Reddy, K.Krishna (2006). Indian History. New Delhi: ata McGraw-Hill Education,. p. A-264. ISBN 9780070635777.  ^ Gadgil, D.R. (1945). Poona A Socio-Economic Survey Part I. Pune, India: Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics. p. 3. Retrieved 20 September 2016.  ^ Kantak, M.R. (1991–92). "Urbanization of Pune: How Its Ground Was Prepared". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 51/52: 489–495. JSTOR 42930432.  ^ Fisher, edited by Michael H. (2007). Visions of Mughal India : an anthology of European travel writing. London: I. B. Tauris. pp. 15–18. ISBN 978-1-84511-354-4. Retrieved 6 July 2016. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Eaton, Richard M. (2007). A social history of the Deccan, 1300-1761 (1. pbk. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 69–71. ISBN 978-0521716277.  ^ "Poona District Nizam Shahis, 1490-1636". Maharashtra. Government of Maharashtra. Retrieved 12 July 2016.  ^ Eaton, Richard M. (2005). The new Cambridge history of India
India
(1. publ. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 118. ISBN 0-521-25484-1. Retrieved 6 July 2016.  ^ Joseph G. Da Cunha (1900). Origin of Bombay.  ^ "Poona District Nizam Shahis, 1490-1636". Maharashtra. Government of Maharashtra. Retrieved 12 July 2016.  ^ Jadunath Sarkar (1919). Shivaji
Shivaji
and His Times (Second ed.). London: Longmans, Green and Co.  ^ a b Gadgil, D.R., 1945. Poona a socio-economic survey part I. Economics. ^ a b Porter;; ;, Valeria; Alderson, Lawrence; Hall, Stephen J. G.; Sponenburg, D. Phillip (2016). Mason's World Encyclopedia of Livestock Breeds and Breeding. : CABI. pp. 460–461. ISBN 978-1845934668. Retrieved 13 November 2017. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Bakshi, G.D. (2010). The rise of Indian military power : evolution of an Indian strategic culture. New Delhi: KW Publishers. ISBN 978-8187966524.  ^ Duff, J. G., 1990. History of the Marathas, Vol. I. Cf. MSG, p.437. ^ "पुणे जिल्हा ऐतिहासिक महत्त्वाचे". Manase.org. Archived from the original on 15 May 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014.  ^ Kosambi, Meera (1989). "Glory of Peshwa Pune". Economic and Political Weekly. 24 (5): 247.  ^ Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind (1985). "The Religious Complex in Eighteenth-Century Poona". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 105 (4): 720. JSTOR 602730.  ^ Dikshit, M. G. (1946). "EARLY LIFE OF PESHWA SAVAI MADHAVRAO (II)". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 7 (1/4): 225–248. JSTOR 42929386.  ^ Review: Glory of Peshwa Pune
Pune
Reviewed Work: Poona in the Eighteenth Century: An Urban History by Balkrishna Govind Gokhale Review by: Meera Kosambi Economic and Political Weekly Vol. 24, No. 5 (Feb. 4, 1989), pp. 247-250 ^ Khare, K. C., and M. S. Jadhav. "Water Quality Assessment of Katraj Lake, Pune
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(Maharashtra, India): A Case Study." Proceedings of Taal2007: The 12th World Lake Conference. Vol. 292. 2008. ^ Peshwas diaries Volume VIII. p. 354.  ^ Roy, Kaushik (2013). War, culture and society in early modern south asia, 1740-1849. Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Routledge. p. 99. ISBN 978-0415728362. Retrieved 2 December 2016.  ^ Feldhaus, ed. by Anne (1998). Images of women in Maharashtrian society : [papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Maharashtra: Culture and Society held in April, 1991 at the Arizona State University]. Albany, NY: State Univ. of New York Press. p. 15 51. ISBN 978-0791436608. Retrieved 4 October 2016. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ India. Police Commission and India. Home Dept, 1913. History of Police Organization in India
India
and Indian Village Police: Being Select Chapters of the Report of the Indian Police Commission, 1902-1903. University of Calcutta. ^ Jayapalan, N. (2000). Social and cultural history of India
India
since 1556. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. p. 55. ISBN 9788171568260.  ^ Preston, Laurence W. "Shrines and neighbourhood in early nineteenth-century Pune, India." Journal of Historical Geography 28.2 (2002): 203-215. ^ Kumar, Ravinder (2004). Western India
India
in the Nineteenth century (Repr. ed.). London [u.a.]: Routledge. p. 39. ISBN 978-0415330480.  ^ Adachi, K., 2001. "Dakshina Rules of Bombay Presidency (1836-1851)". Minamiajiakenkyu, 2001(13), pp. 24-51. ^ Kyosuke Adachi, "Dakshina Rules of Bombay Presidency (183(-1851): Its Constitution and Principles", Journal of the Japanese Association for South Asian Studies, 13, 2001 ^ Kosambi, Meera (1989). "Glory of Peshwa Pune". Economic and Political Weekly. 248 (5): 247.  ^ Gokhale, Balkrishna Govind (1985). "The Religious Complex in Eighteenth-Century Poona". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 105 (4): 719–724. JSTOR 602730.  ^ " Shaniwarwada
Shaniwarwada
was centre of Indian politics: Ninad Bedekar – Mumbai
Mumbai
– DNA". Dnaindia.com. Retrieved 17 October 2013.  ^ Rao Bahadur Dattatraya Balvanta Parasnis (1921). Poona in Bygone Days. Times Press, Bombay.  ^ Maguire, Joseph (2011). Sport across asia : politics, cultures and identities 7 (1. publ. ed.). New York and UK: Routledge. p. 129. ISBN 978-0415884389. Retrieved 28 September 2016.  ^ Rege, S., 1995. The hegemonic appropriation of sexuality: The case of the lavani performers of Maharashtra. Contributions to Indian Sociology, 29(1), pp.25-37.http://sharmilarege.com/resources/Hegemonic%20Appropriation%20of%20Sexuality_Rege.pdf ^ Cashman, Richard I. (1975). The myth of the Lokamanya : Tilak and mass politics in Maharashtra. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0520024076. Retrieved 22 November 2016.  ^ SHIRGAONKAR1, VARSHA; RAMAKRISHNAN, K S (2015). "LAVANI LITERATURE AS A SOURCE OF SOCIO-CULTURAL HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL MAHARASHTRA" (PDF). International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences. 3 (6): 41–48. Retrieved 22 November 2016.  ^ Hibbert, Christopher (2000). Queen Victoria: A Personal History. Harper Collins. p. 221. ISBN 0-00-638843-4.  ^ Martin, R. M., 1884. The Indian Empire: Its History, Topography, Government, Finance, Commerce, and Staple Products. Brain. pages=88-89 [1] ^ Heitzman, James (2008). The city in South Asia (1st ed.). London: Routledge. p. 125. ISBN 978-0415574266. Retrieved 4 October 2016. [2] ^ Gazetteer of The Bombay Presidency: Poona (Part 2). Government Central press. p. 156.  ^ [3] ^ Chronology of railways in India, Part 2 (1870-1899). "IR History: Early Days – II". IFCA. Retrieved 20 March 2014.  ^ Kerr, Ian J. (2006). Engines of change : the railroads that made India. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. p. 128. ISBN 0275985644. Retrieved 13 September 2016.  ^ "History of PMPML Undertaking". PUNE MAHANAGAR PARIVAHAN MAHAMANDAL LTD. Retrieved 13 September 2016.  ^ Gadgil, D .R. (1945). Poona A Socio-Economic Survey Part I. Pune, India: Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics. pp. 240–244. Retrieved 20 September 2016.  ^ Gorman, M., 1971. Sir William O'Shaughnessy, Lord Dalhousie, and the Establishment of the Telegraph System in India. Technology and Culture, 12(4), pp. 581-601. ^ Gazetteer of The Bombay Presidency: Poona (Part 2). Government Central press. pp. 16–18.  ^ Harrison, Mark (1994). Public health in British India : Anglo-Indian preventive medicine 1859-1914. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 182. ISBN 0521441277. Retrieved 22 September 2016.  ^ Narayan, Shiv (1935). Hydroelectric Plants India. Pune, India. p. 64. Retrieved 13 September 2016.  ^ Chatterji, T. D., 1935. Industrial Outlook. Future of Electrical Development in India. Current Science, 3(12), pp. 632-637. ^ Sumit Roy,, Sumit. "INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE PROCESS OF INNOVATION IN THE INDIAN AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURERS WITH REFERENCE TO PUNE AS A DYNAMIC CITY-REGION" (PDF). myweb.rollins.edu. Retrieved 13 September 2016.  ^ Sumit Roy,, Sumit. "INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE PROCESS OF INNOVATION IN THE INDIAN AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT MANUFACTURERS WITH REFERENCE TO PUNE AS A DYNAMIC CITY-REGION" (PDF). myweb.rollins.edu. Retrieved 13 September 2016.  ^ Catanach, I. J. (1970). Rural credit in western India, 1875-1930; rural credit and the co-operative movement in the Bombay Presidency. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 10–22. ISBN 9780520015951. Retrieved 22 September 2017.  ^ Pastala, V.A., 1991. Water for the people--promoting equity and sustainability through watershed developments in rural Maharashtra (Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology)[4]. ^ Statewise dams in India
India
Archived 2011-07-21 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Nallathiga, Ramakrishna, Khyati Tewari, Anchal Saboo, and Susan Varghese. "Evolution of Satellite township development in Pune: A Case Study." Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution (2015).[5] ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. Benin
Benin
9,325,032  ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 September 2011. North Carolina
North Carolina
9,535,483  ^ a b Joshi, R., Regulatory Requirements for Starting a School in Poona. Centre for Civil Society, CCS RESEARCH INTERNSHIP PAPERS 2004 [6] ^ Campbell, James (editor); Melsens, S; Mangaonkar - Vaiude, P; Bertels, Inge (Authors) (2017). Building Histories: the Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Construction History Society Conference. Cambridge UK: The Construction History Society. pp. 27–38. ISBN 978-0992875138. Retrieved 3 October 2017. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Bhosale, Jayashree (10 November 2007). "Economic Times: Despite private participation Education lacks quality in Maharashtra". Retrieved 6 October 2014.  ^ Dahiwale Vol. 30, No. 6 (Feb. 11, 1995), pp., S. M. (1995). "Consolidation of Maratha Dominance in Maharashtra". Economic and Political Weekly. 30 (6): 341–342. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Baviskar, B. S. (2007). "Cooperatives in Maharashtra: Challenges Ahead". Economic and Political Weekly. 42 (42): 4217–4219. JSTOR 40276570.  ^ "Historical Events in Pune". NIC - District-Pune. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2009.  ^ Menon, Sudha (March 30, 2002). "Pimpri- Chinchwad
Chinchwad
industrial belt: Placing Pune
Pune
at the front". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 29 January 2012.  ^ Heitzman, James (2008). The city in South Asia. London: Routledge. p. 213. ISBN 978-0415574266. Retrieved 14 November 2016.  ^ Joshi, Ashutosh (2008). Town planning regeneration of cities. New Delhi: New India
India
Pub. Agency. pp. 73–84. ISBN 9788189422820.  ^ Heitzman, James (2008). The city in South Asia. London: Routledge. p. 218. ISBN 978-0415574266. Retrieved 14 November 2016.  ^ Sengupta, S. K. "NATIONAL REGISTER OF LARGE DAMS – 2009" (PDF). Central Water Commission - An apex organization in water resources development in India. Central water Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2015.  ^ Duraiswami, Raymond A.; Maskare, Babaji; Patankar, Uday (2012). "GEOCHEMISTRY OF GROUNDWATER IN THE ARID REGIONS OF DECCAN TRAP COUNTRY, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA". MEMOIR INDIAN SOCIETY OF APPLIED GEOCHEMISTS. 1: 73.  ^ Bhosale, Jayashree (Jan 31, 2012). "Consumers pay premium price for the look alike of the regional rice varieties". Economic Times. Retrieved 13 May 2016.  ^ Verma, L.R.; Joshi, V.K.; (Editors) (2000). Postharvest technology of fruits and vegetables : handling, processing, fermentation, and waste management. New Delhi: Indus Pub. Co. p. 58. ISBN 9788173871085. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ "National Federation of Cooperative Sugar
Sugar
Factories Limited". Coopsugar.org. Retrieved 27 December 2011.  ^ Patil, Anil (9 July 2007). " Sugar
Sugar
cooperatives on death bed in Maharashtra". Rediff India. Retrieved 27 December 2011.  ^ a b c Maunder, D., C. Palmer, A. Astrop and M. Babu (1997). Attitudes and travel behaviour of residents in Pune, India. Transportation Research Board, 76th Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., January 12–17, 1997http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.572.912&rep=rep1&type=pdf. ^ AAI website, 1 November 2011, retrieved 1 February 2012  ^ " Pune
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Customs website". Retrieved 1 February 2012.  ^ " Pune
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airport accorded international status". Retrieved 14 August 2015.  ^ "Passenger traffic at Pune
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airport takes a big leap". Indian Express. 14 October 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2012.  ^ New Airport for Pune ^ "Reliance plans Baramati
Baramati
hub for pvt jets". Business Standard. 16 July 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011.  ^ New trains from Pune
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and change in suburban service for administration by central railways ^ Feldhaus, Anne (2003). Connected places : region, pilgrimage, and geographical imagination in India
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(1. ed.). New York: Palgrave macmillan. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-4039-6323-9.  ^ Incredible India, Maharashtra
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(PDF).  ^ Glushkova, Irina. "6 Object of worship as a free choice." Objects of Worship in South Asian Religions: Forms, Practices and Meanings 13 (2014). ^ Kapadia, Harish (2003). Trek the Sahyadris (5. ed.). New Delhi: Indus Publ. pp. 19–21. ISBN 9788173871511. Retrieved 3 October 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pune
Pune
district.

"Official Pune
Pune
District webpage".  Pune
Pune
– Information regarding the city, restaurants, and businesses

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Pune
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Terrorism

2010 Pune
Pune
bombing

Geography

Ghats

Bhor
Bhor
Ghat Katraj
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Ghat Malshej Ghat Naneghat Tamhini Ghat

Rivers

Indrayani River Mula River Mula-Mutha River Mutha River Pavana River

Lakes

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Dams

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Caves

Bedse Caves Bhaja Caves Ghorawadi caves Karla Caves Lenyadri
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Caves Shelarwadi Caves Shirwal Caves Shivneri
Shivneri
Caves Tulja Caves

Monuments

Aga Khan Palace Bhimashankar
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Temple Chaturshringi Temple Dagadusheth Halwai Ganapati temple Lenyadri Pataleshwar Parvati Temple Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum Maha Ganapati

Parks

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Sports venues

Nehru Stadium PCMC Hockey Stadium Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex MCA Stadium

Cities and towns

Major

Pune Pimpri-Chinchwad Daund Baramati

Alandi Bhor Chakan Dehu
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Rajgurunagar
(Khed) Sasvad Shirur Shivatkar (Nira) Talegaon
Talegaon
Dabhade Tathavade Vadgaon Sheri Vadgaon Maval Vadgaon Budruk Vadgaon Khurd Velhe Ranjangaon

Transport

By Road

Pune
Pune
Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited (PMPML) Rainbow Bus Rapid Transit System Mumbai- Pune
Pune
Expressway

By Rail

Rail (City)

Pune
Pune
Suburban Railway

Rail (Major)

Pune
Pune
Junction Daund
Daund
Junction Akurdi railway station Begdewadi railway station Chinchwad
Chinchwad
railway station Dapodi railway station Dehu Road
Dehu Road
Railway Station Ghorawadi railway station Kamshet
Kamshet
railway station Kanhe railway station Kasarwadi railway station Khadki
Khadki
railway station Khandala
Khandala
railway station Lonavla
Lonavla
railway station Malavli railway station Pimpri
Pimpri
railway station Shivajinagar railway station Talegaon
Talegaon
railway station Vadgaon railway station

Express

Deccan Queen Indrayani Express Sinhagad
Sinhagad
Express

By Air

Pune
Pune
International Airport New Pune
Pune
International Airport

Culture

Chikki Lavani Osho Pune
Pune
International Marathon Puran Poli Royal Connaught Boat Club Sawai Gandharva Music Festival 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games

Education

AFMC Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute Bharat Itihas Sanshodhak Mandal College of Engineering Deccan College Fergusson College Film and Television Institute of India Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics National Defence Academy Symbiosis International University University of Pune

Constituencies

Lok Sabha

Pune Baramati Shirur Maval

Vidhan Sabha

Ambegaon Baramati Kasba Peth Kothrud Maval Pune
Pune
Cantonment Shivajinagar Pimpri Chinchwad

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History

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Pune
Terror Attacks

Personalities

Historic

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Ganesh
Agarkar Chapekar brothers

Art and literature

Pu La Deshpande Babasaheb Purandare Mangesh Tendulkar Pralhad Keshav Atre Sandeep Khare

Music

Bhimsen Joshi Vasantrao Deshpande Rahul Deshpande Saleel Kulkarni Anand Bhate Prabha Atre Sanjeev Abhyankar Hrishikesh Ranade

Civic

Mayor Pune
Pune
Police Pune
Pune
Municipal Corporation Pune
Pune
Cantonment Board Pune
Pune
Metropolitan Region

Landmarks

Buildings

Aga Khan Palace Ruby Hall Shaniwar Wada Vishrambaug Wada Balbharti Shinde Chhatri

Temples

Chaturshringi Temple Dagadusheth Halwai Ganapati Temple Pataleshwar Kasba Ganapati Dashabhuja Ganapati Temple, Pune

Museums

Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum Mahatma Phule Museum Babasaheb Ambedkar Museum Pune
Pune
Tribal Museum National War Museum,Pune Blades of Glory Museum

Parks and zoos

Bund Garden Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park Shunyo Park Saras Baug Shahid Major Pradeep Tathawade Udyan Kamala Nehru Park Pu La Deshpane Udyan Baner- Pashan
Pashan
Biodiversity Park Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park Peshwe Park

Others

Annabhau Sathe Auditorium Babasaheb Ambedkar Sanskruti Bhavan Bal Gandharva Ranga Mandir Balasaheb Thackeray Kalamandir Babasaheb Ambedkar Sanskruti Bhavan Bhimsen Joshi
Bhimsen Joshi
Sabhagruha Tilak Smarak Ranga Mandir Yashwantrao Chavan Natya Gruha

Others

New Katraj
Katraj
Tunnel Katraj
Katraj
Ghat List of hospitals

Economy

Software companies Market Yard Mandai Magarpatta
Magarpatta
City International Convention Centre Tulsi Baug

Transport

Air

Main

New Pune
Pune
International Airport Pune
Pune
Airport

Others

Hadapsar
Hadapsar
Airport NDA Glider Airport

Rail

Service

Pune
Pune
Suburban Railway Ahmedabad - Mumbai
Mumbai
- Pune
Pune
Bullet train

Station

Ghorpuri Ghorpuri Transh Ghorpuri West Hadapsar Khadki Pune Shivajinagar

Depots

Diesel Loco Shed

Road

Bus stations

Pune
Pune
Station Bus Stand Swargate
Swargate
Bus Station Shivajinagar Bus Stand

Other

Mumbai- Pune
Pune
Expressway Old Pune– Mumbai
Mumbai
Highway Maharashtra
Maharashtra
State Road Transport Corporation Ring Road (under construction)

Internal

Rail

Pune
Pune
Metro Pune
Pune
Monorail

Road

Rainbow Bus Rapid Transit System Pune
Pune
Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited Shivajinagar Station - Swargate
Swargate
Skywalk

Roads

Katraj- Dehu Road
Dehu Road
Bypass Karve Road Jangli Maharaj Road Laxmi Road Law College Road Shankar Sheth Road Baner– Pashan
Pashan
Link Road

Culture

Meher Baba Sawai Gandharva Music Festival Vasantotsav

Education

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune College of Engineering National Defence Academy Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute Fergusson College Brihan Maharashtra
Maharashtra
College of Commerce University of Pune Film and Television Institute of India Sinhgad College of Engineering Panditrao Agashe School Chandrashekhar Agashe
Chandrashekhar Agashe
College of Physical Education Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics Stella Maris English School Symbiosis Institute of Business Management Symbiosis Institute of Management Studies Pune
Pune
Institute of Computer Technology National Chemical Laboratory Deccan College Armed Forces Medical College Bharti Vidyapeeth ILS Law College Spicer Adventist University

Sports

Events

Multi-sport

2008 Commonwealth Youth Games

World Championships

2008 BWF World Junior Championships 2009 FIVB Men's Junior World Championship FIBA Asia Under-16 Championship for Women 2009 2011 Rollball World Cup 2013 Asian Athletics Championships

Others

Pune
Pune
Marathon 2009 NECC–ITF Women's Tennis Championships KPIT MSLTA Challenger Royal Indian Open

Teams

American football

Pune
Pune
Marathas

Badminton

Pune
Pune
Pistons

Cricket

Pune
Pune
Warriors India Rising Pune
Pune
Supergiant Maharashtra
Maharashtra
cricket team Sinhagad
Sinhagad
Supremos Veer Marathi

Field hockey

Pune
Pune
Strykers

Football

FC Pune
Pune
City Pune
Pune
FC Chetak FC DSK Shivajians F.C. Deccan XI FC CMS Falcons FC Fatima XI FC Khadki
Khadki
Blues FC

Kabbadi

Puneri Paltan

Tennis

Pune
Pune
Marathas

Venues

Stadiums

CAFVD Sports Stadium Nehru Cricket Ground Rajendrasinhji Stadium Sanas Sports Ciy Shivaji
Shivaji
Stadium Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Cricket Association Stadium Pune
Pune
District Football Association Stadium

Sports City

Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex

Others

Army Sports Institute Police Ground Poona Gymkhana Ground Pune
Pune
Golf Club Pune
Pune
Race course Golibar Maidan Royal Connaught Boat Club Deccan Gymkhana
Deccan Gymkhana
Ground Fergusson College
Fergusson College
Ground Mahesh Bhupathi Tennis Academy Rajendrasinhji Stadium DSK Shivajians Ground Pune
Pune
Club Ground

Geography

Hills and mountains

Vetal Hill Parvati Hill Baner
Baner
Hill

Water bodies

Mula River Mutha River Mula-Mutha River Pavana River Peacock Bay Katraj
Katraj
Lake Pashan
Pashan
Lake Ramnadi

City areas

Central Pune

Somwar Peth Mangalwar Peth Budhwar Peth Guruwar Peth Shukrawar Peth Shaniwar Peth Raviwar Peth Kasba Peth Ganj Peth (Mahatma Phule Peth) Bhavani Peth Ghorpade Peth Ganesh
Ganesh
Peth Sadashiv Peth Narayan Peth Rasta Peth Nana Peth Navi Peth

Inner Pune

Pune
Pune
Cantonment (Camp) Yerwada Kalyani Nagar Koregaon Park Kothrud Swargate Shivajinagar Aundh Lohegaon Sopan Baug Deccan Gymkhana

Outer Pune

Khadki Dhankawadi Fatimanagar Vishrantwadi Kharadi Wadgaon Sheri

Pune
Pune
city suburbs

Katraj Balewadi Warje Baner Pashan Bavdhan Hadapsar Manjri Dhayari

Coordinates: 18°31′48″N 73°50′24″E / 18.53000°N 73.84000°E /

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